Floristry in the past

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1 Floristry in the past Flower arranging is often thought of as a comparatively new interest, but its origins lie far back in man's history. It is even known, from the quantity of pollen grains found in excavations, that Neanderthal man decked his graves with flowers more than 46,000 years ago. The ancient Greeks, and later the Romans, used garlands of flowers for their festive occasions. From the time of the Renaissance, floral arrangements in churches became the vogue. In Tudor England, men and women carried tussie mussies (small bunches of scented flowers and herbs) as protection against the plague. People all over the world have used flowers for many years to enhance their quality of life. Flowers are used for the sick and the bereaved. They give comfort and can express many emotions that often cannot be expressed with words. Flowers create memories and their vitality is symbolic of life. Let us find the answers tb some questions: Why do we need to learn about the history of floral art? What are some factors that contribute to change in styles throughout periods of time? What are some ancient traditions using flowers? How are Australian designs influenced by European style? Clear records tell us how flowers were used by Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Byzantine periods, each significantly different. Distinct floral styles also existed during the European (Renaissance), French, English and Art Nouveau periods. The art of flower arranging has also been of cultural significance in Asian countries. Egyptian period (2500 BC) Wall paintings show decorations of flowers and foliage. Foliage blossoms and fruit were arranged in a variety of vases. They were used as part of important life events and religious ceremonies, and for decorative use in the home and personal adornment. Egyptian containers were usually basins with a wide mouthed bowl. Many containers were also made of moulded glass, pottery, metals and stone. 8

2 J lr ~--, I \ Greek period Petals were scattered on the ground at festivals and used to make wreaths and garlands. It was common to wear chaplets and garlands around the head and neck. The wreath was a symbol of allegiance and dedication and was awarded in honour to athletes and other heroes. Books were written about the proper etiquette to use when wearing them. The cornucopia was a popular container of this period and is still used today to symbolise abundance. Roman period During the Roman period a basket of mixed flowers appeared for the first time. Examples of flowers used during this time include: rose, hyacinth, honeysuckle, violets, fragrant herbs, myrtle, laurel, ivy grapes, berries, pomegranates. 9

3 Byzantine period The traditional Greek and Roman styles continued. The garland became spiralled and made with narrow bands of flowers or fruit. Early Byzantine mosaics reveal that the floral styles of the time were symmetrical and conical, distinguished by height and symmetry, as shown in this conical foliage design. European periods Renaissance (period after the middle ages) Flowers represented religious history and they were used in symbolism. For example, the white lily was a symbol of chastity and fertility. Flowers in vases can be seen in paintings. The vases were made of metal, pottery and glass and were often ornate, formal and designed for the arrangement of flowers. Some containers had removable lids with holes in them, as shown below. These lids made it easier to insert flowers and create floral bouquets. 10

4 French Period 17th and 18th Centuries In the Dutch Flemish period floral arrangements were fan shaped and massed. They were large triangular designs with radiating stems. French floral vases were classical and elegant. English Period Queen Victoria reigned in England from 1837 to Victorian interiors were lavishly decorated in heavy colours and patterns. Victorian style arrangements were large masses of flowers, foliage and grasses in compact round or oval shapes. Many stems spilled from the containers. History of the posy (or tussie mussie) The tradition of tussie mussies began in Olde England. They were carried at coronations and, indeed, no less a lady than Queen Elizabeth II was actually handed a tussie mussie as she entered Westminster Abbey for her coronation. It would appear that all posies do originate from the tussie mussie which dates back as far as the 15th century. The nosegay and Victorian posy are all the same formal posy as the tussie mussie and it appears that the name changed from tussie mussie to nosegay or Victorian posy at the turn of the 19th century. 11

5 I I Long ago when plagues and fever were prevalent these posies were held to ward off noxious smells and ill-bearing aromas. As time progressed corsages came into vogue and by the 20th century ladies wore corsages or small posies as ornaments at the waist, shoulder or on the wrist, or attached to a handbag and carried. A flower in the ladies' hair was also very popular. Making a tussie mussie was once a miniature work of art as flowers such as small roses, forget-me-nots, clove pinks and violets were perfect for these posies. To prolong the perfume of the posy, herbs such as cologne mint, southern wood sage, rue, thyme and lemon balm were used as foliage. To make a traditional tussie mussie, you must firstly choose small, delicate flowers as every leaf, flower and sprig counts. Use a small rose bud or something similar for centre. If nothing is available you can use some small pieces of lavender bound together. Repeat this process with a circle of contrasting flowers, building up your posy in this manner. To complete the posy you can place scented leaves around the outer circle. You may use a doily or tulle around the base. Bind the stems and neatly trim. If desired, you can alternate herbs and flowers. This can give the posy more perfume. Reference: Whitehorse Technical College, Victoria 12

6 Oriental Influence Both China and Japan emphasise space and line and are easily distinguished in world floristry styles. Japanese arrangements emphasise simplicity and style. Art Nouveau period ( ) This is a term used in defining art that used many curved lines. Containers were also curved and often depicted human forms. Very graceful, showing great rhythm and natural grace. Today, floral bouquets inspired by the Art Nouveau period are often arranged asymmetrically with curving flower stems and branches spilling abundantly. The asymmetrical, cascading, waterfall style seen below was typical of this period. -~ 13

7 Summary To recreate the past in floristry is to use the principles and elements that were established before our time, and to create a new interpretation. There is an art to taking what you want from previous eras, and developing arrangements which will be symbolic of the present time, in their own_special way. Today's styles will influence the future in the same way that we use old styles. Colour, interior design, and fashion (past and present) reflect the way we live and think at this particular time. Therefore the reason we need to learn about the history of floral art is to understand the influences in modem floristry, and then we can tell where they came from. Some factors that influence changes in styles throughout periods of time are colour trends, interior design and fashion. Each generation sets new ideas reflecting the way we think at this particular time. Bibliography Hunter, Norah T (1994) The Art of Floral Design, Delmar Publishers Inc. 14

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