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1 A bout your CE Why am I receiving this course? You are able to complete all 24 hours through correspondence or online. How do I complete this course? Carefully read the instructions below. The North Carolina Board of Cosmetic Art Examiners records indicate that your license will expire September 30, Therefore, you are required to complete 24 hours of continuing education prior to renewing your license. After reviewing the material, you must complete the final exam questions on page 67 and 68 and mark your answers on the answer sheet found on page 69. Fill out all information on the answer sheet (be sure to fill in your license number) and include payment of $45.00 made payable to Elite. As long as you receive a 75 percent or better on your exam, you will be issued a certificate of completion. How do I get my test graded? MAIL: You can complete the final exam and mail it to us in the envelope provided. If you have misplaced your envelope, you can mail it to us at: Elite PO Box 37 Ormond Beach, FL FAX: For faster service, you can fill in your credit card number and expiration date and fax your test to us at ONLINE: For an even more convenient way of completing your CEUs, you can take the test online at Upon passing, you will then be asked to fill in your information and will be able to print out a certificate of completion for your records. Our website is secured by Thawte. We are rated A+ by the National Better Business Bureau. What if I still have questions? No problem, we are here to help you. Call us toll-free at , Monday-Friday, 8:00 a.m.- 8:00 p.m. and Saturday, 9:00 a.m.-1:00 p.m. EST or us at Elite Page I

2 Elite Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Five-Star Hair Colorist (3 CE Hours)...Page 1 Sharpening Your Cutting Skills (3 CE Hours)...Page 12 Sanitation, Sterilization and Infection Control (3 CE Hours)...Page 20 Stress and Your Client (3 CE Hours)...Page 29 Make-up Classics (5 CE Hours)...Page 37 You... a Salon Owner (5 CE Hours)...Page 49 Reporting Your Income to the Internal Revenue Service (2 CE Hours)...Page 60 Final Examination Questions...Page 67 Final Examination Answer Sheet...Page 69 Course Evaluation...Page 70 All Rights Reserved. Materials may not be reproduced without the expressed written permission or consent of Elite Professional Education LLC. The materials presented in this course are meant to provide the consumer with general information on the topics covered. The information provided was prepared by professionals with practical knowledge in the areas covered. It is not meant to provide medical, legal or professional services advice. If necessary, it is recommended that you consult a medical, legal or professional services expert licensed in your state. Elite Professional Education LLC has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that all content provided in this course is accurate and up to date at the time of printing. Page II Elite

3 CHAPTER 1 FIVE-STAR HAIR COLORIST (3 CE Hours) Learning objectives Explain the significance of primary, secondary and tertiary colors on a color wheel and in the process of coloring. Define what is meant by warm and cool colors, complementary colors, and neutralizing colors. Explain the difference between hair levels and tones. Explain what the ph scale measures and how this is important to hair color. Describe the process of oxidation and its function in permanent hair coloring. Explain the objectives of the consultation/ assessment. List the main points and relevance of assessing hair texture and porosity. Define natural base level; explain how to find it and its significance in hair coloring. Explain how percentage and distribution of gray affect hair coloring. Describe how the target color is formulated. Distinguish between predisposition (patch) testing and strand testing. Identify the major categories of hair color services and describe the complications associated with each. Introduction How many of us would like a raise? How much? 5? 10 percent? 20 percent? Even 60 percent? How many want to be a genius to our clients? How much hair color are you currently doing? 10 percent? 20 percent? 50 percent? We know that in the rest of the world, 98 percent of clients receive color services on a regular basis, both women and men (the 2 percent are children). This tells us there is the potential to claim up to 60 percent new color business! But why is there such a big difference between the U.S. and the rest of the world? The rest of the world considers the hair color to be the most important cosmetic to the skin. In addition, stylists will study years longer to become licensed, and they take chemistry very seriously. Hair color services can be the most lucrative and rewarding service offered at a salon. We can take a haircut-only client to a haircut AND color client in a very short period, with very little effort. Today s client flow demands four times the number of clients as in previous years. We simply must make each client more valuable to the salon! Yet many stylists remain apprehensive about color long after they leave cosmetology school. This is probably because hair coloring is about chemistry, which can present problems and mistakes that can drastically affect real people. This course will remind you about the basics of the process and discuss the products and techniques to help boost your confidence as you boost your knowledge. For those who have been using hair-coloring products comfortably for years, this course will refresh and reinforce the important points and perhaps introduce a few new concepts or products. Hair care services are constantly evolving, and there continues to be an increasing demand for color services. From covering gray, restoring or tweaking the original color, highlighting or truly transformative color, color can improve hair texture and strength and increase confidence as much as a good make-up application. Clients receiving color services tend to visit the salon more frequently than other types of clients and spend more money each time, using both services and products. Because application time is typically brief, there is a potential for substantial profits. Additionally, to maintain their look and address new growth, clients have a strong incentive to stay timely about services. While the demand for skilled colorists grows, most come out of school rank amateurs in the art of science and color, and many are rightfully fearful of making mistakes. Above all, hair coloring requires technical precision, and the only way to become an expert is by doing it many times. Stylists should find a good resource for hair samples and testing materials and practice, practice, practice. The best hair colorists have done it thousands of times and have learned from failures as well as successes. Running your own experiments will increase your skills as well as your confidence in the results. The function and ingredients in home hair color products and those found in the salon are essentially the same. The major difference in home hair color versus salon color is the expertise of a professional colorist who is able to custom blend a specific color and control the amount of hydrogen peroxide or other products used. Through experience, the stylist learns how the process will affect hair color and quality, and how long or short a time to process the color. New do-it-yourself products are both a boon and a burden. Many clients may try to color their own hair with varying results. You may have to correct a client s mistake. Your knowledge and abilities will ensure that the client s money is well-spent, and you ll find your confidence stretched with each success. Coloring accidents can be a nightmare, but great color correction can make you invaluable to that client. Remember, the product is only one part of the equation (and not the most important part). While a client can produce satisfactory results with the first application, re-touches will become problematic simply because different bases are involved and the hair s condition is compromised. Careful reading is essential to successful hair coloring, starting with the critical information in product directions and manufacturer s information. One can also read up on new hair color developments and the latest technologies in magazines and on the Internet. Artful hair coloring is enhanced by reading and doing. Not only can you find information about getting the best results with specific products, such as details on how to mix and apply hair color, you also can see photos of the results. The more you learn about hair color, the more valuable your services and the more your clients will appreciate you. Let your clients know the magic is not just in the materials, but also in the expert choice of product and application. Clients know little about their options in hair color products and services. You provide that knowledge. And as an experienced professional, you are able to maximize a good product. This course will help you increase your value in the color equation. Instead of living in fear of hair coloring disasters, you might even get a reputation for correcting them. To really understand how color works, you need to have a basic understanding of a number of topics. So that we are all speaking the same language, we will begin with a glossary of terms that will be used. Glossary Accelerator/ activator: An additive used to quicken the action or progress of a chemical. Another word for booster, protenator or catalyst. Accent color: A concentrated color product that can be added to permanent, semi-permanent or temporary hair color to intensify or tone down the color. Another word for concentrates and color additive. Acid: An aqueous (water-based) solution having a ph less than 7.0 on the ph scale. Alkaline: An aqueous (water-based) solution having a ph greater than 7.0 on the ph scale. The opposite of acid. Another word for base/alkali. Allergy: A physical reaction resulting from extreme sensitivity to exposure, contact or ingestion of certain foods or chemicals. Allergy test: A test to determine the possibility or degree of sensitivity; also known as a patch test, predisposition test or skin test. Amino acids: The group of molecules that the body uses to synthesize protein. There are 22 different amino acids found in living protein that serve as units of hair structure. Ammonia: A colorless, pungent gas composed of hydrogen and nitrogen; in water solution it is called ammonia water. Used in hair color to swell the cuticle. When mixed with hydrogen peroxide, it activates the oxidation process on melanin and allows the melanin to decolorize. Ammonium hydroxide: An alkali solution of ammonia in water; commonly used in the manufacturing of permanent hair color, lightener preparations and hair relaxers. Analysis (hair): An examination of the hair to determine its condition and natural color. Aqueous: Descriptive term for water solution or any medium that is largely composed of water. Ash: A tone or shade dominated by greens, blues, violets or grays. May be used to counteract unwanted warm tones. Base color: The combination of dyes that make up the tonal foundation of a specific hair color. Bleach/lightener: The chemical compound that lightens the hair by dispersing, dissolving and decolorizing the natural hair pigment. Elite Page 1

4 Bleeding: Seepage of tint/lightener from the packet containing the hair to be colored or frosting cap caused by improper application. Blending: A merging of one tint or tone with another. Blonding: A term applied to lightening the hair. Bonds: The means by which atoms are joined together to make molecules. Brassy tone: Undesirable red, orange or gold tones in the hair. Breakage: A condition in which hair splits and breaks off. Buffer zone: Applying color away from the scalp to avoid chemical overlapping. Build-up: Repeated coatings on the hair shaft. Bumping the base: A term used to describe a gentle degree of lift of the natural color. Cap method: A disposable rubber or plastic cap used to highlight or lowlight; hair is pulled through and selectively colored or bleached. Catalyst: A substance used to alter the speed of a chemical reaction. Category: A method of defining natural hair to help determine the undertones. Caustic: Strongly alkaline materials. At very high ph levels, can burn or destroy protein or tissue by chemical action. Certified color: A color that meets certain standards for purity and is certified by the FDA. Cetyl alcohol: Fatty alcohol used as an emollient. It is also used as a stabilizer for emulsion systems, and in hair color and cream developer as a thickener. Chemical change: Alteration in the chemical composition of a substance. Citric acid: Organic acid derived from citrus fruits and used for ph adjustment. Primarily used to adjust the acid-alkali balance. Has some antioxidant and preservative qualities. Used medicinally as a mild astringent. Coating: Residue left on the outside of the hair shaft. Color: Visual sensation caused by light. Color base: The combination of dyes that make up the tonal foundation of a specific hair color. Also dye stock. Color lift: The amount of change natural or artificial pigment undergoes when lightened by a substance. Color mixing: Combining two or more shades together for a custom color. Color refresher: (1) Color applied to mid-shaft and ends to give a more uniform color appearance to the hair. (2) Color applied by a shampoo-in method to enhance the natural color. Also called color wash, color enhancer, color glaze. Color remover: A product designed to remove artificial pigment from the hair. Also dye remover/dye solvent. Color test: The process of removing product from the hair strand to monitor the progress of Page 2 color development during tinting or lightening. Also called strand test. Color wheel: The arrangement of primary, secondary and tertiary colors in the order of their relationships to each other. A tool for formulating. Complementary colors: A primary and secondary color positioned opposite each other on the color wheel. When these two colors are combined, they create a neutral color. Combinations are blue/ orange, red/green, and yellow/violet. Condition: The existing state of the hair its elasticity, strength, texture, porosity and evidence of previous treatments. Consultation; Verbal communication with a client to determine desired result. Contributing pigment: The current level and tone of the hair. Refers to both natural contributing pigment and decolorized (lightened) contributing pigment. Corrective coloring: The process of correcting an undesirable color. Cortex: The second layer of the hair. A fibrous protein core of the hair fiber containing melanin pigment. Coverage: Reference to the ability of a color product to color gray, white or other colors of the hair. Cuticle: The translucent, protein outer layer of the hair fiber. Cysteic acid: A chemical substance in the hair fiber, produced by the interaction of hydrogen peroxide on the disulfide bond (cystine). Cystine: The disulfide amino acid that joins protein chains together. D and C colors: Colors selected from a certified list approved by the FDA for use in drug and cosmetic products. Decolorize: A chemical process involving the lightening of the natural color pigment or artificial color from the hair. Degree: Term used to describe various units of measurement. Demi-color/deposit-only color: A category of color products between permanent and semipermanent colors. Formulated to only deposit color, not lift. They contain oxidative dyes and utilize a low volume developer. Dense: Thick, compact or crowded. Deposit: Describes the color product in terms of its ability to add color pigment to the hair. Color added equals deposit. Depth: The lightness or darkness of a specific hair color. Developer: An oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide that reacts chemically with coloring material to develop color molecules and create a change in natural hair color. Development time/oxidation period: The time required for a permanent color or lightener to completely develop. Diffused: Broken down, scattered; not limited to one spot. Direct dye: A preformed color that dyes the fiber directly without the need for oxidation. Also referred to as a stain. Discoloration: The development of undesired shades through chemical reaction. Double process: A technique requiring two separate procedures in which the hair is decolorized or pre-lightened with a lightener before the depositing color is applied. Drab: Term used to describe hair color shades containing no red or gold. Also ash. Drabber: Concentrated color used to reduce red or gold highlights. Dull: A word used to describe hair or hair color without sheen. Dye: Artificial pigment. Elasticity: The ability of the hair to stretch and return to normal. Enzyme: A protein molecule found in living cells that initiates a chemical process. Fade: To lose color through exposure to the elements or other factors. Fillers: (1) Color product used as a color refresher or to replace undertones in damaged hair in preparation for hair coloring. (2) Any liquid-like substance to help fill the need for natural undertones. Formulas: Mixture of two or more ingredients. Formulate: The art of mixing to create a blend or balance of two or more ingredients. Frosting: The introduction of lighter strands to the hair; generally executed with a frosting cap. Glazing: A term used to describe a translucent color used on the hair after a previous hair color; a blending color. Gray hair: Hair with decreasing amounts of natural pigment. Hair with no natural pigment is actually white. White hairs look gray when mingled with pigmented hair. Also referred to as unpigmented hair. Hair: A slender threadlike outgrowth on the skin of the head and body. Hair root: That part of the hair contained within the follicle, below the surface of the skin. Hair shaft: Visible part of each strand of hair. It is made up of an outer layer called the cuticle, an innermost layer called medulla and an in-between layer called the cortex. The cortex layer is where color changes are made. Hard water: Water that contains minerals and metallic salts as impurities. Henna: A plant-extracted coloring that produces bright shades of red. The active ingredient is lawsone. Henna permanently colors the hair by coating and penetrating the hair shaft. Elite

5 High-lift tinting: A single process color with a higher degree of lightening action and a minimal amount of color deposit. Highlighting: The introduction of a lighter color in small sections to increase lightness of the hair. Hydrogen peroxide: An oxidizing chemical made up of 2 parts hydrogen, 2 parts oxygen (H 2 O 2 ) used to aid the processing of permanent hair color and lighteners. Also referred to as a developer; available in liquid or cream. Level: A unit of measurement used to evaluate the lightness or darkness of a color, excluding tone. Level system: In hair coloring, a system colorists use to analyze the lightness or darkness of a hair color. Lift: The lightening action of a hair color or lightening product on the hair s natural pigment. Line of demarcation: An obvious difference between two colors on the hair shaft. Litmus paper: A chemically treated paper used to test the acidity or alkalinity of products. Medulla: The center structure of the hair shaft. Very little is known about its actual function. Very fine hair many times does not have it. Melanin: The tiny grains of pigment in the hair cortex that create natural color. Melanocytes: Cells in the hair bulb that manufacture melanin. Melanoprotein: The protein coating of melanosome. Metallic dyes: Soluble metal salts such as lead, silver and bismuth produce colors on the hair fiber, by progressive build-up and exposure to air. Modifier: A chemical found as an ingredient in permanent hair colors. Its function is to alter the dye intermediates. Molecule: Two or more atoms chemically joined together; the smallest part of a compound. Neutral: (1) A color balanced between warm and cool that does not reflect a highlight of any primary or secondary color. (2) Also refers to a ph of 7.0. Neutralization: The process that counter-balances or cancels the action of an agent or color. Neutralize: Render neutral; counter-balance of action or influence. New growth: The part of the hair shaft that is between previously chemically treated hair and the scalp. Also regrowth. Nonalkaline: Same as acid. Off-the-scalp lightener: Generally a stronger lightener (usually in powder form), not to be used directly on the scalp. On-the-scalp lightener: A liquid, cream or gel form of lightener that can be used directly on the scalp. Opaque: Allowing no light to shine through; flat; lack of translucency. Outgrowth: Same as new growth. Overlap: Occurs when the application of color or lightener goes beyond the line of demarcation. Overporous; The condition where hair reaches an undesirable stage of porosity requiring correction. Also sensitized. Oxidation: (1) The reaction of dye intermediates with hydrogen peroxide found in hair coloring developers. (2) The interaction of hydrogen peroxide on the natural pigment. Oxidative hair color: A product containing oxidation dyes that require hydrogen peroxide to develop the permanent color. Para tint: A tin made from oxidation dyes. Para-phenylenediamine: An oxidative dye used in most permanent hair colors, often abbreviated as PPD. Patch test: A test required by the FDA. Performed by applying a small amount of the hair coloring preparation to the skin of the arm, or behind the ear to determine possible allergies (hypersensitivity). Also called pre-disposition or skin test. Penetrating color: Color that penetrates the cortex or second layer of the hair shaft. Permanent color: (1) Hair color products that do not wash out by shampooing. (2) A category of hair color products mixed with developer that creates a lasting color change. Peroxide residue: Traces of peroxide left in the hair after treatment with lightener or tint. Persulfate: In hair coloring, a chemical ingredient commonly used in activators that increases the speed of the decolorization process. PH: The quantity that expresses the acid /alkali balance. A ph of 7 is the neutral value for pure water. Any ph below 7 is acidic; any ph above 7 is alkaline. The skin is mildly acidic, and generally in the ph 4.5 to 5.5 range. PH scale: A numerical scale from 0 (very acid) to 14 (very alkaline), used to describe the degree of acidity or alkalinity. Pigment: Any substance or matter used as coloring; natural or artificial hair color. Porosity: Ability of the hair to absorb water or other liquids. Powder lightener: Same as off-the-scalp lightener. Prebleaching/prelighten: Generally the first step of double-process hair coloring. To lift or lighten the natural pigment. Presoften: The process of treating gray or very resistant hair to allow for better penetration of color. Primary colors: Pigments or colors that are fundamental and cannot be made by mixing colors together. Red, yellow and blue are the primary colors. Prism: A transparent glass or crystal that breaks up white light into its component colors; the spectrum. Processing time: the time required for the chemical treatment to react on the hair. Progressive dyes/progressive dye system: (1) A coloring system that produces increased absorption with each application. (2) Color products that deepen or increase absorption over a period of time during processing. Resistant hair: Hair that is difficult to penetrate with moisture or chemical solutions. Retouch: Application of color or lightener mixture to new growth of hair. Salt and pepper: The descriptive term for a mixture of dark and gray or white hair. Secondary color: Colors made by combining two primary colors in equal proportions; green, orange and violet are secondary colors. Semi-permanent hair coloring: A pre-oxidized hair color requiring no catalyst that lasts through several shampoos. It stains the cuticle layer, slowly fading with each shampoo. Sensitized: Referring to the condition of the hair. May be slight (dry) to extreme (over-porous). Sensitivity: Skin that is highly reactive to the presence of a specific chemical. Skin reddens or becomes irritated shortly after application of the chemical. The reaction subsides when the chemical has been removed. Shade: (1) A term used to describe a specific color. (2) The visible difference between two colors. Sheen: The ability of the hair to shine, gleam or reflect light. Single process color: Refers to an oxidative tint solution that lifts or lightens, while depositing color in one application. Also oxidative hair color. Softening agent: A mild alkaline product applied prior to the color treatment to increase porosity, swell the cuticle layer of the hair and increase color absorption. Solution: A blended mixture of solid, liquid or gaseous substances in a liquid medium. Solvent: Carrier liquid in which other components may be dissolved. Specialist: One who concentrates on only one part or branch of a subject or profession. Spectrum: The series of colored bands diffracted and arranged in the order of their wavelengths by the passage of a white light through a prism. Shading continuously from red (produced by the longest wave visible) to violet (produced by the shortest): red, orange, green, blue, indigo and violet. Spot lightening: Color correcting using a lightening mixture to lighten darker areas. Stabilizer: General name for ingredient that prolongs life, appearance and performance of a product. Stage: A term used to describe a visible color change that natural hair color goes through while being lightened. Stain remover: Chemical used to remove tint stains from the skin. Strand test: Test given before treatment to determine development time, color results and the ability of the hair to withstand the effects of chemicals. Elite Page 3

6 Stripping: Also referred to as color remover. Surfactant: An abbreviation for surface-active agent. A molecule that is composed of an oilloving (oleophillic) part and a water-loving (hydrophilic) part. They act as a bridge to allow oil and water to mix. Wetting agents, emulsifiers, cleansers, solubilizers, dispersing aids and thickeners are usually surfactants. Tablespoon: one-half ounce; 3 teaspoons. Teaspoon: one-sixth ounce; one-third of a tablespoon. Temporary color/rinses: Color made from preformed dyes that are applied to the hair for a short-term effect. This type of product is readily removed with shampoo. Terminology: The special words or terms used in science, art or business. Tertiary colors: The mixture of a primary and an adjacent secondary color on the color wheel. Red-orange, yellow-orange, yellow-green, bluegreen, blue-violet, red-violet. Also referred to as intermediary colors. Texture, hair: The diameter of an individual hair strand. Termed: coarse, medium or fine. Tint: Permanent oxidizing hair color product, having the ability to lift and deposit color in the same process. Requires a developer. Tint back: To return hair back to its original or natural colors. Also referred to as repigment. Tone: A term used to describe the warmth or coolness in color. Toner: A pastel color to be used after pre-lightening. Toning: Adding color to modify the end result. Touch-up: Also retouch. Translucent: The property of letting diffused light pass through. Tyrosine: The amino acid (tyrosine) that reacts with the enzyme (tyrosinase) to form the hair s natural melanin. Tyrosinase: The enzyme (tyrosinase) that reacts together with the amino acid (tyrosine) to form the hair s natural melanin. Undertone: The underlying color in melanin that emerges during the lifting process and contributes to the end result. When lightening hair, residual warmth in tone always occurs. Value: Also referred to as level and depth. Vegetable color: A color derived from plant sources. Virgin hair: Natural hair that has not undergone any chemical or physical abuse. Viscosity: A term referring to the thickness of a solution. Volume: The concentration of hydrogen peroxide in water solution. Expressed as volumes of oxygen liberated per volume of solution; 20- volume peroxide would thus liberate 20 pints of oxygen gas for each pint of solution. Page 4 Warm: A term used to describe hair color containing red, orange, gold or yellow tones. Psychology of hair color As professional hair colorists, we should never lose sight of our role in society. We have the opportunity to make dramatic changes in the lives of people seeking to improve their appearance. A change of hair color often can be the catalyst to turn the individual in a positive direction. Because a change of hair color is so immediate and relatively inexpensive (compared to cosmetic surgery), it s often the choice for many clients. Just as we must first acquire the skills to perform the necessary techniques, it is equally important we never lose sight of the fact that we are working on a living, breathing human being. Our pallet is never a canvas or a piece of clay. We ve all been exposed to apathy by someone who just didn t care or who was just having a bad day. Bad service or apathy is something a client should not have to tolerate. We must fight apathy toward someone because of his or her appearance. As hair colorists, we are similar to the artists who restore paintings. Through the years, paintings become veiled with a cover of soot and lose their vibrant color; artists can remove that veil of soot and restore the painting to its original vivid colors. As hair colorists, we have the ability to perform the same service on our clients. We can take a client who through the years has lost the vibrancy in his or her hair and restore it to its original youthful appearance. For others, we can transform dull, drab natural hair to spectacular color with glints of beautiful highlights. Client consultation, communication and negotiating are key skills. As we gain confidence and become more proficient in our technical skills, consultation becomes much easier. The more tools we have at our disposal, the easier it is to solve a greater variety of hair-color challenges and in turn, the more we grow our business. During the consultation, recognize that most people have a subjective opinion of their appearance. Understanding this can induce a sense of empathy toward the client. Empathy is having the ability to put yourself into clients shoes and viewing the world as they see it. This helps you recognize that clients have their own points of view. Direct eye contact is important. Position yourself at eye level with the client and look directly at her when consulting; avoid looking at the client in the mirror. One of the biggest challenges we face as hair colorists is negotiating with our clients. Compromise is the key. Terminology and presentation must be professional, but the colorist must avoid sounding too professional and not down to earth. Making a photo album with a variety of hair colors is a great aid for helping clients find the colors they are attempting to describe. They often will describe or refer to a celebrity who has a hair color they are attracted to. It is a good practice to have them find the same hair color in your photo album. Taking the hair color off the celebrity s face and placing it on a regular person could make your client view the hair color differently. Showing a client a book of various hair colors on finished styles is insurance that both of you are talking about the same color. It can also be used to give direction and make recommendations. Without common ground to start from, formulating for the client becomes a gamble. Some clients come to the salon knowing exactly what they want. The hair colorist should verify the color with a photograph and accept the client s choice or make suggestions of his or her own. This is when professionalism becomes important. An important point to remember when consulting with clients is their natural hair color category. If they have worn a color at one point in their life, they can wear it again. People in the warm brown category can wear the greatest variety of hair color. Review the natural hair color category and remember, when a client is placed into a natural hair color category, he or she stays in that category for life. It is not recommended that the client be shown a manufacturer s hair color chart, regardless of how beautiful it looks. The hair color chart is a tool used by the hair colorist to help formulate. It will not help the client select a hair color; rather it can create apprehension or confusion for the client or it may put the client in charge of the consultation. In effect, your client will select her own hair color without your input, and at her next appointment will again want to see the color chart to adjust that formula. The hair colorist will find that she, the expert, is taking direction from the client. We should always remember the salon on the next block or in the next city is not our only competition. Our major competition is the drug store and the supermarket. We must always strive to use professional techniques and methods of application to create hair colors that cannot be duplicated at home. Our goal should be to keep hair coloring a professional service and draw a distinct line between professional hair color and home hair color. What often matters most is not the product you use. It is the application method. If this is a client s first hair coloring, there probably will be some apprehension. And her fears are real. If you can erase those fears, you will have a comfortable, relaxed client when performing the service. The most common fears of clients are: How will my new hair color look on me? Will I like it? What will the investment be in time and money? If I don t like it, what will it look like when it is growing out? The consultation period is one in which all aspects of the above concerns should be addressed. The ability to put the client at ease during her first visit to your salon is paramount. It does no harm to embellish the hair color service by using descriptive terms such as growing out gracefully or give your hair a youthful appearance or soften your appearance. Using your own terminology will make the client feel good about the upcoming service. Elite

7 A word about words: Words can cement or destroy a relationship, bring color to your presentations and make a connection with another person. Above all else, be careful not to insult the client, especially if she has been applying color at home. That means not saying what one colorist was overheard saying to the client: Wow! Your hair is fried! Keep your descriptions positive and avoid emotional outbursts. A better way to address the client would be: Yes, your hair has lost moisture and needs to have the color replaced; here is my plan The client consultation We suggest draping the client in white and have a white light above the head (or be in natural daylight or have a natural-daylight fluorescent lighting system). Seat yourself next to the client with a clear view of the mirror. It is important to have finished color examples available for the client to view and discuss. Again, this is preferred to showing the client a color chart. Fill out the client analysis sheet. This should also contain all relative information including health, medicines and history of any problems that the client may have had in the past. 1. Come to an agreement on the target shade. Analyze the natural level of color and find out what the client has in mind. Is a subtle or radical change desired? 2. Discuss the time and frequency of the treatment. How often must this be done to assure great results? 3. Be honest with the costs of the services. The client should not be surprised by charges either for the initial or retouch services. 4. The appointment time should be discussed. Do not attempt to give complicated services on the lunch hour or with a screaming child in tow. 5. Prescribe maintenance products. This is your insurance policy that the hair s integrity is being properly protected. Write everything down. Now, begin to make suggestions within the parameters set down. Keep the conversation open, friendly and professional. Above all, listen to what the client is saying! More mistakes have been made from a lack of understanding than any other situation. Remember also that as we develop unpigmented (gray) hair, we lose pigments in the skin. A safe rule for the conservative client or the gentleman client is to stay within 1-2 levels (either lighter or darker) from the natural color. Inspiration: Pigment study Volumes have been written about which colors go with which skin tones and eye colors. But some of us have found these both confusing and difficult to use when consulting with a client. Fashion color is a hot topic, and trends usually appeal to the young client. However, the mature woman and most men will accept natural-looking hair color, done in good taste. Easy color analysis can be accomplished by using a lighted magnifying glass. Look into the eye, either from the front or the side, and observe the ring around the iris (the pigmented area of the eye). If the outer ring of the iris is blue (it could be blue-grey to as dark as navy blue), the person is cool-toned. Note: Even brown eyes can have a blue ring. Observe the skin. Most cools will have a yellow base or somewhat sallow complexion. If the outer ring of the iris is green (it could be aqua to as dark as forest green) the person is warm-toned. Note: Even blue eyes can have a green ring. Most warms will have a peach or copper undertone to the skin. We can also observe pigment bundles (freckles) on the face, arms, chest or upper back. Look for points of inspiration in the iris, that is, flecks of gold, copper or bronze. Any of these tones will be enhancing to that person. Because these pigments are part of the persons natural genetic make-up, the principle of the two color families will apply regardless of race or nationality. Only the concentration of pigments will be different. This applies to the level of color; that is, variations from pastel (fair), medium, to intense (deep). Who can wear what? The cools can wear: Naturals/neutrals. All cool tones. Burgundy/blue-reds. Violet reds. Iridescent tones. Beige tones. Soft gold tones. The warms can wear: Naturals/neutrals. Strong golds. Copper tones. Bronze tones. Scarlet reds. Honey blonds. Clear reds. If you wish to equate this information to seasonal color, we can do that, too. A person who is cool-toned with a fair complexion is a summer. A person who is cool-toned with a medium to deep complexion is a winter. A person who is warm-toned with a fair complexion is a spring. A person who is warm-toned with a medium to deep complexion is an autumn. (The above information can be used to advise clients in make-up and wardrobe selection. This makes you a savvy fashion consultant.) Note the color family and the points of inspiration on the client analysis sheet. The categories of hair color Internationally, all of the color manufacturers use a numbering system instead of referring to shades. The reason for this is that numbers translate into an accurate relationship of the pigments present. (See Figure 1 on inside back cover.) Basically, there are only three color categories: blonds: No. 10, No. 9, No. 8 and No. 7; browns: No. 6, No. 5 and No. 4; and blacks: No. 3, No. 2 and No. 1. You may be thinking: What happened to reds? Reds get into tones. A red can be light, and therefore fall into the blond category, or it can be dark and fall into the brown category. (See Figure 2 on back cover.) All hair color, both natural and artificial, is comprised of yellow, red and blue pigments. Starting with No. 10 on the International scale, yellow is the evident pigment. Progressing down, we see the introduction of red. The darker the hair or hair color, the greater the concentration of these pigments. At No. 8, we start to see the introduction of red; represented by the appearance of some orange. At No. 6, we see the evidence of red. This increase of concentration provides us with the progression of depth down to No. 1, which is commonly referred to as blue-black. The blue pigment is most responsible for buffering the red. We experience this when lightening natural hair color. The blue is the first to be neutralized, thereby exposing the red, orange or yellow. As a review of the basic color wheel (See Figure 3 on back cover): The three primary colors are yellow, red and blue. Mixed together, they produce brown. The naturals/neutrals are usually represented by the number or level by itself, such as No. 8, medium blonde. The secondary colors are orange (yellow and red), green (yellow and blue) and violet (red and blue). The resulting tones are produced using the secondary and tertiary colors. These are also represented by numbers and in some color lines, letters. The most common usage of these numbers represents the following tones and colors: Ash x.1, blue or green. Iridescent x.2, violet. Gold x.3, yellow. Copper x.4, orange. Burgundy x.5, red-violet. Auburn x.6, red. For example, a No. 8.3 produces a medium golden blond. Many exciting combinations are produced by mixing tones in unequal parts to produce a primary and secondary tone insertion. An example of this would be No. 8.43, known as medium coppery golden blond. The copper is the first, or dominant, tone, and gold is the secondary tone. This can be accomplished by using a twothirds to one-third ratio. A variety of terms are used to describe the tone of a hair color, neutral, natural, drab, gold, ash, smoky, Elite Page 5

8 red and auburn red, to mention a few. It is important to know the degree of concentration of the tone. For example, the color identified as gold could be a very intense yellow gold or have slightly more gold than a neutral. Working with the color and making swatches will help you recognize the actual color. Remember: A cool tone will appear darker than the indicated level, while a warm tone will appear lighter because of the reflection of light. Note: A tertiary color, such as burgundy brown, is produced from both direct and indirect dyes. These fade rather quickly and can produce runoff with each shampoo. Many fashion shades are produced this way. Don t forget the color wheel rule: Opposite colors on the color wheel will neutralize one another. Types of color There are many different types of hair coloring products available. They include pigmented shampoos, weekly rinses, semi-permanent, permanent lift-deposit hair color and deposit-only hair color. Temporary colors (deposits on the cuticle layer of the hair) are: Shampoos. Rinses. Page 6 Mascara. Generally produced from vegetable dyes or stains. A weekly rinse or temporary hair color is primarily used to add color to gray hair, faded blonds or brassy hair. This hair color is not generally used to cover gray, but instead to give a blend to the all-over appearance. It does not have the ability to lighten hair. The color will rub off if applied excessively. Semi-permanent colors: (deposits in the cuticle layer; may penetrate slightly deeper if heat is used) are: Non-ammonia with no peroxide (may use heat). Produced from vegetable dyes and sometimes metallic dyestuff. Semi-permanent hair color is not mixed with a catalyst, although a heat application may be used to make the color more durable. It is simple to use because the color you see is the color you get. It is a direct dye and does not require oxidation for the color to stain the hair. In areas where the hair is more porous, this type of color will show greater intensity. Caution must be exercised when using a semi-permanent hair color on porous hair; it can stain the hair permanently. Deep color/non-ammonia colors (deposits in the cortex layer): Are more durable. Have a low-volume developer (2½- to 12-volume peroxide). May be natural or metallic in origin. Deposit-only hair color uses oxidative and direct dyes and requires a developer. The catalyst is generally a low volume oxidative solution. Deposit-only, demi-permanent hair colors are longer lasting than semi-permanent hair color. The major distinction between semi-permanent and deposit-only, demi-permanent hair colors is that a catalyst is required with deposit-only and demi-permanent color. These are also referred to as deep colors. NOTE: Some deposit-only hair colors may create a small amount of lift, depending on the volumes of the developer. Permanent hair colors: (deposits in the cortex layer): Will lift natural hair color and deposit new color. Work with natural pigments. Are generally produced from paraphenyene-diamine, para-toluene-diamine and meta-toluene-diamine. Are produced from indirect dyes. They are clear until processing with the natural pigments. Permanent (lift/deposit) hair colors are available in a variety of forms: gels, liquids and creams. They are packaged in tubes as well as bottles. The majority use equal parts of peroxide, although some use a one-to-two ratio of hair color to peroxide. Permanent hair color works in basically the same manner; it creates a certain degree of lift and deposit. Permanent hair colors are the only hair colors that are formulated to lighten hair. The international system of defining the lift/ deposit ratio of hair color is called the level system, which gives the colorist an indication of the lift/deposit ratio in a bottle or tube of hair color. Although most manufacturers of hair color products use the level system, not all manufacturers use the same system. When comparing products from two different manufacturers with the same level number, the hair colorist must be aware that the products could vary as much as two levels and may not produce the same results. How much lightening can we expect? The lightening action is caused by a combination of the amount of ammonia in the color and the volumes of the developer, such as 20V H 2 O = 2 levels of lift; 30V H 2 O 2 = 3 levels of lift; and so on. Another tip for formulation is to count the natural level along with the target level, such as natural level No. 6 to target No. 8 = 3 levels. This is true because we must lift through the sixth level to reach the seventh level and then up to the desired eighth level. A rule to remember when choosing a color: The darker the color, the smaller the number. This may vary, depending on the manufacturer. Some start with No. 0, others with No. 1. The same variance can be found on the other end of the scale. Some manufacturers choose to use No. 10 as the lightest hair color, while others choose to use No. 12. Permanent hair color contains ingredients that create lift and deposit color. The lifting action is provided by the ammonium sulphate. Generally, the higher the number or level, the more lightening provided. Also note, with the higher lightening comes less deposit of color. The lower levels provide less lifting action and greater concentration of color deposit and thereby contain less ammonium sulphate. Permanent (lift/deposit) hair color contains dye, alkaline substances, conditioners, stabilizers, fragrance detergents and emulsifiers. These are all used in various proportions to create the vast numbers of hair colors that are available to the hair colorist. The advantage of professional hair coloring is greater selection, professional formulation and professional application techniques. The level system only indicates lift/deposit ratio. The tone or shade defines the actual color and is generally listed on the product. Manufacturers often add a letter or series of numbers to identify level and indicate tone. While this information is provided to help the hair colorist determine formulation, the final color is determined by a number of factors that the colorist must consider. Category of natural hair color, presence and amount of gray hair and the condition of the hair all will apply. The colorist cannot rely on level and tone indicators from a manufacturer alone to accurately predict a final color. Note: Ask your manufacturer for the MSDS on each product. Another important consideration is to ask whether the colors are developed on a pigmented or white base. This will adjust the depth of final results by as much as one full number. For example, a No. 6 that is formulated on a white base will appear as deep as a No. 5 in the final results. For this reason, a color chart or swatch book can be deceiving. Chemistry color mixing Here are some examples of how to custom mix colors. Example: Decreasing the intensity of a tone: A red tone is too bright for the client s taste: Mix ½ of the formula in a Natural color of the same number/level. Example: No. 5 (medium brown) is too dark and No. 6 (light brown) is too light: Customize the formula by mixing half of each to produce a No. 5½ level. Example: A natural level No. 7 (dark blond) has difficulty maintaining a strong red tone. Consider mixing at least one-fourth of the formula in a deeper warm color, or work with a lower volume of developer, or use both adjustments. Always strand test to predict results. Caution: Mixing more than two colors may give unsatisfactory results, because mixing the three primary colors or mixing a primary color with a secondary color will produce brown. Elite

9 A tip for formulating browns A client wishing to match her natural color says that her hair is light brown and doesn t have any red in it. Should we use No. 6 light brown? The gentleman client with natural dark brown hair wants to cover his gray hair. He does not wish to see any warmth in the color. Should we use No. 4 dark brown? The answer to both scenarios is: NO. Using a brown in either case will produce warm results. In the first case, the choice would be No. 7 dark blonde. For the gentleman, the solution would be to use No. 3 natural black. When we use a brown, we automatically deposit red into the hair. While we can mix in a drabbing agent, this toning will wash away, revealing the warmth underneath. The better choice is to avoid this pitfall. Formulating for unpigmented (gray) hair People who are turning gray have always attempted to disguise it. Many concoctions have been used in an attempt to retain a youthful appearance. Although gray hair has been a curse to those whose demeanor is youthful, it s been a mixed blessing to the hair colorist. The introduction of gray hair is often the catalyst to prompt individuals to color their hair. At the same time, gray hair presents a special challenge to the hair colorist. No one has really determined why hair turns gray. Hair turns gray (or more accurately white) because at some point melanin stops being produced but why it stops is still unknown. It s believed by most scientific communities that graying hair is a result of genetics. When a person is born, each follicle on the head is genetically coded to stop producing melanin. The perception of the general public is that gray hair is associated with aging. Individuals in today s society are constantly being bombarded with advertising to persuade them to retain their youthful appearance. This is a benefit to the hair colorist. After identifying the client s natural hair color category, it is necessary to identify the percentage of gray hair. It is also important to identify the placement and distribution of gray hair. A person who is 50 percent gray with the gray hair sprinkled equally throughout the pigmented hair would require a different approach than a person who is 80 percent gray in the front and 20 percent gray in the back. In each case, half of the hair is white and half is pigmented. See the Glossary at the beginning of this course and the Marketing ideas section, below, for techniques to present to the client. For an appreciable amount of gray hair: White hair is missing oxymelanine (yellow base), which is the reason it is so difficult to cover. Mix up to half of the formula with a golden tone in the same number. This will provide a base on which the colors will develop. Another trick is to use the pre-softening technique: Dab 30V developer onto areas of resistance (the most white concentration). Allow 5 to 10 minutes. Mix your formula while waiting. Blot areas well with a towel. Proceed with application. In addition to the above solutions, we can add these: Dial the clock back by simply combing on the natural level (stay back from the hairline) mixed with 10V developer. The balayage technique works great for this, and the 10V mixture controls the warmth we see so many times in level No. 5 and deeper. This is also referred to as lowlighting. Avoid using blue- and green-based colors on white hair. This will finish as silver on the hair and is aging to the skin. Use the iridescent tone (x.2). This has some yellow in the formula to keep the hair from going ash. If the target is No. 7 warm, add in up to half of the mixture in No. 7 gold. This will prevent hot roots. And don t forget the pre-softening trick. Through study on the scanning electron microscope, we know that white hair can have as many as 10 cuticle layers. This is what gives us the challenge in covering gray and white hair. When formulating for the first time color on hair that is more than 50 percent white, label the white hair No. 10 and analyze the natural level (let s say No. 6, light brown). Add the two numbers together: 10 plus 6 equals 16, and divide in half, which equals level No. 8. Because the client has lost pigments in the skin along with the lack of pigments in the hair, this level will blend beautifully. Add the suitable tone, and you have given the client a natural-looking result. Many times a client wants to return to the natural color that she had 30 years ago. This is not a good idea. The dark color will cast a shadow to the skin and emphasize every line on the face. The Peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) volume reduction client does not realize that she has been accustomed to viewing the lighter, softer reflection. For this reason, we can adjust the formula up by one-fourth to one-half level at least every six to 12 months. Use a deep color in a golden blond on a client with Level No. 6 and 50 percent white hair. This resembles a highlighting. Or we can highlight the hair with a high-lift color to camouflage the gray/white hair. Hydrogen peroxide is the catalyst that causes permanent hair color to work. A qualified hair colorist should be able to use various volumes of peroxides. Twenty-volume peroxide is the typical developer used in most cases. Higher volumes of peroxide are used when a greater degree of lift is desired. As the volume of peroxide increases, the color deposit diminishes. Also, be aware that higher volumes of developer bring up more warmth in the final results. Clients with sensitive scalps may not be able to withstand additional activity from higher volume peroxide. The opposite occurs when the volume of peroxide is lowered; less lifting action and greater deposit is realized. You have probably seen this scenario: The natural level is No. 5 and target is No. 9. The client insists that you perform this in a single process (not use a bleach). First, this is a chemical impossibility. A high-lift color mixed with 40V H 2 O 2 will still give only three to four levels of lift (from No. 5 to No. 9 is five levels). Why? Because the product will stop working before the desired lift is achieved. Have you tried accelerating with heat and added activators and covered with a plastic bag? If so, the result was a very warm level No. 7, (orange) no matter what you did. Do not expect a color to accomplish what a bleach was designed to do. You cannot break the laws of chemistry and expect perfect results. Two suggestions for this: Pre-lighten the hair to level 7, then apply the high-lift No. 9 with the suitable tone. Formula mix Results in Color mixture use 1 ounce 20V H 2 O ounce H 2 O 1 ounce 20V H 2 O ounces H ounces 10V H 2 O ounces H 2 O 1 ounce 20V H 2 O ounces H 2 O OR 4 ounces 5V H 2 O ounces H 2 O 2 ounces 10V H 2 O 2 Color for hair that is permed. Color for hair that fades quickly. Correction on over lightened hair White hair (areas of resistance). Color for the same level or darker than the natural. 4 ounces 5V H 2 O 2 Toner on pre-lightened deposit-only color 4 ounces 5V H 2 O 2 A tone corrector 8 ounces 2½V H 2 O 2 Semi-permanent color Notes: Cream developer is preferred over clear peroxide because of stability. Distilled water is recommended for these adjustments to the developer. Check your volumes with a peroxide hydrometer and keep containers tightly closed and clearly marked. Elite Page 7

10 Use the No. 9 color with 30V peroxide to bring the hair to level 8, then highlight the hair in a weave with powdered lightener. This will give the illusion of an all-over Level No. 9. The base color must be re-touched in three weeks and the highlights redone in eight weeks. When a client requests highlights, usually she visualizes the No. 7 or No. 8 natural level with a No. 9 or No. 10 strands throughout. But what if she is a natural No. 6? Easy! Bring the base to a No. 8 (medium blond); and then highlight that. We always need to work within the parameters of the product that we are using. When preparing the mixture, place the peroxide in the container first; then add the cream color or colors. Peroxide acts as a gas, and gases release upwards. If you are using a liquid, mix the colors together first; then add this to the peroxide. This will produce a more accurate lifting action. Market your skills They won t know if you don t tell them! Here are some descriptions of your skills and services that will speak to your clients. Marketing terms Ban de soleil/balayage: Touched by the sun. Lightness the way the sun would do it. This process is generally used on lighter hair and is accomplished with a form of hair painting. Blond on blond: A technique utilized to create a blend of blond shades on the same head of hair. May be used on a natural blond or on someone who is coloring her hair blond; gives the hair a dimensional effect. Brown on brown: A technique to add dimension to a solid brown by adding additional lightness with a mild contrast. Frosting: A method of lightening individual strands of hair. This term is generally associated with a cap on the head through which the hair is pulled. Carmelizing/tortoise shelling: Different amounts of tortoise colors added to a brown head of hair. Collage: A mixture of colors weaving through the hair, generally achieved by various stages of lightening. Color on color: The use of no lift color on the hair, making the hair darker. Framing: Lightness around the face, generally achieved by using a dimensional color effect. Fur light: Achieved on short hair that is standing out from the head like a porcupine. The hair is bleached, and then a dark color added to the ends. Use shoe shine technique with product on the foil. Foiling: Refers to applying foils to the hair to create a dimensional effect. Glazing: A deposit-only color applied over a highlight. Can also be a lifting toner or change the natural color slightly. Grabbing: Paint bleach or tint on your gloved hands, then grab the hair, depositing the tint or bleach in an irregular pattern. Page 8 Gray reduction: Adding additional natural color to gray hair to reduce the amount of gray. Haloing: Lightening only the hair around the face on short hair, creating a halo effect. High-lowlighting: Lightening isolated strands and darkening strands on the same head at the same time. Icicling: Color or lightener added to the ends of highly teased hair. Icing: Adding light strands to resemble gray hair. Inner glow: Bleaching only the hair close to the scalp on dark hair. Lowlighting: A corrective technique used to tone down overly lightened hair by adding a darker color to selected strands. The opposite of highlighting. Marbleizing: Thin ribbons of lighter hair weaving through darker natural hair. Minking: Darker hair on lighter hair. Generally done on short hair. Naturalizing: A technique using several colors within the same natural range. Nuances: A technique adding delicate shadings, reflections in a dimensional effect. Painting: Painting color or bleach on the hair with an artist s brush. Also known as hair painting. Reverse highlighting: The addition of a darker color to previously lightened hair. First isolate some of the blond strands, then color all of the remaining hair, creating a highlighting effect. Scrunching: Painting color or bleach on gloved hands and scrunching the hair. This technique is done on dry, backcombed hair, allowed to process and then shampooed off. Shading: The subtle blending of lighter to darker colors. Always blur adjoining areas together. Slicing: A foil technique placing 1/16-inch of hair sections in the foil. A faster method than weaving. Shoe shining: Painting a layer of bleach or color on a long strip of foil and transferring it to the hair as if using a shoeshine rag. Streaking: Larger, more well defined strands of hair. Three, two, one: Slices (1/16-inch) back to back; avoid 1 inch of hair and repeat. Tipping: A form of lightening at the ends of the hair instead of the entire shaft. Tone on tone: Changing the natural hair color, than adding lighter strands. Weaving: A term used to define a method of selecting strands for dimensional hair coloring. Blonds that steal the show! Palomino gold: A soft gold that is a combination of fine weaves in three different shades of warm blond. Gold of the moon: An all-over dark blonde with fine slices lighter, especially in the top and sides. Sunset: A slightly warmer blond that shows off sparks of gold and red. Tupelo honey: A medium warm blond with slices of pale gold accentuating the lines of the style. White lightening and platinum plus: Not for the faint of heart. Blonds are more natural-looking, meaning they re wearable by lots more clients. In fact, guys are getting into the blonding scene, asking for highlights that extend that summer-sun look well into the fall. If already a blonde, the hottest shades to switch to are strawberry or spun gold. These are so delicate because fine strands are integrated into the hair for a multi-dimensional effect. Even brunettes are joining the blonde scene with highlights strategically placed to bring light to the face and add tonal sparkle. Buzz words to get them buzzing Sun-kisssed. Upscale (14-carat gold). Wheat (cool). Funky (violet or pink). Pale chiffon. Sassy (warm). Golden copper. Honey-gold. Radical reds The latest red hues to have are red hot and super cool: High glossed. Super-streaked. Marbleized beauty. Brightly burnished. Shimmering scarlet. Copper top. Crimson queen. Pure flame. Fire and spice. Red alert While both warms and cools can wear reds, care must be taken to choose the correct tone for each. The warms can wear the golden-red, copper-red and scarlet or clear-red. The cools should choose the lavender-red, burgundy and blue-red. And don t forget to fire up your reds with blond lights. A few slices or balayage strands in the front and top completes the look. Also important on the scene are the combination reds. Choose two or three colors of red at least one level (number) apart from each other and block the head in three zones (darker at the bottom, medium in the middle and light at the top.) Spark the whole thing with blond lights and you have a show-stopping effect. Chocolate kisses Whatever the shade of brunette, a touch of chocolate sweetens it up! Mocha treat. Chocolate cherry. Caramelized candy. Hints of hazel. Neutral (natural) browns n spice. Honey brunettes. Crystal pecan. Elite

11 At any level, there s nothing boring about the brunettes! Customize the formula using one-half natural brown with one-half gold, copper, auburn or burgundy shade and voila! The finished results are dynamite. We suggest that you sprinkle the finished confection with gold or honey lights. Tools of the trade Color sleeves: A tool that resembles a perm rod used for reverse highlighting. Foil technique: The use of aluminum foil for isolating segments of hair for bleaching or coloring. Note: Keep foils flat or rolled; do not fold or crimp! Doing the latter can cause a heat point that will weaken that section of the hair strand. Super streak cups: A cup-shaped device used to isolate and contain strands for coloring or lightening. Paper wraps: Paper wraps used in conjunction with color sleeves or for isolating hair strands for bleaching or coloring. Also, one-side waxed paper can be used instead of foil (wax side against product). Tail comb/pin comb: A comb with a pointed end used to weave out and section hair. Crochet hook: A small device with a hook on the end used for pulling hair through a frosting cap. Note: Remember to approach the hair from the front of the head toward the back. This will prevent tangling or knotting. Frosting cap: A plastic, rubber or foam cap that fits snugly over the head. Once in place, hair is pulled through and lightener or color is applied to the hair outside the cap. Note: Remember to lift the hair away from the cap during application. Color slips: Coated paper used to isolate selected sections of hair. Litho pads/transfer pads: Pressed cotton pads used to isolate selected strands of hair to be lightened or colored. Cotton coil/flat pressed cotton coil: Used with balayage technique to segregate layers of hair. Color spatula: A specialized color tool used to distribute powder bleach through the hair. Color easel: A plastic or Masonite board used to support the section of hair to be lightened or colored with foil or paper wraps. Plastic applicator: A pliable squeeze bottle used to apply color or lightener. Generally works well with liquid or gel products. Plastic wrap: Transparent, reusable or disposal plastic sheets used to isolate sections of hair. Shaker: A non-metallic container used to measure and mix color or lightener. Tint bowl: A non-metallic container use to mix color or lightener. Tint brush: A tool used to apply color or lightener to the hair. Available in many sizes for convenience. Techniques, techniques, techniques You have many techniques already in your repertoire. The most popular and probably best practiced are foils, using either slices or weaves. But let s be honest, these are time-consuming and labor-intensive. To increase the color services, we must look at easier and faster methods to accomplish the multi-dimensional effect. Here are a few ideas for your consideration. Touch-color: Backcomb small squares of hair (down to the base) and apply lightener/color formula to the hair above the backcombing. Use your fingers with the aid of a color brush. This works great for partial highlights/lowlights. A 40V developer in the mixture produces maximum lift and works on short to midlength hair. (By the way, the backcombing falls out when the products are removed and the hair is conditioned.) Sun-dusting: Either use the touch-color preparation or simply comb the finished direction of the design. Protect the client s face with a plastic tennis visor. Spray 15V developer on the areas desired (usually the top and around the face); then sprinkle powdered lightener from a saltshaker with large holes onto the beads of developer. Allow to develop from 5 to 15 minutes. This will give an allover glow to your design with glints of lighter tones and sparkle throughout. Gentleman clients love this one, because it is undetectable. It resembles what the sun does to the hair. You may wish to combine these two techniques for more dramatic results. Balayage: (The French word for sweeping ) lights into the hair: Use a styling comb as a palette to brace small sections of hair. Apply lightener-color formula with a small brush to the strands, then use cotton coil or a small wad of cotton to segregate those strands. Work in any area or pattern you wish. Another method is to use your choice of comb (small tooth for fine strands and larger for heavier strands) to apply the formula to the strands. Then, use the cotton coil as a band to segregate from the next layer. You need to use the front edge of the comb (first three teeth) parallel to the strands and tip the comb down to release the strand. Accomplish as many layers as desired working from the hairline toward the top of the head in ½- to 1-inch horizontal sections. This can accomplish a multi-dimensional effect by using 1 to 3 different formulas. Color formulas will cease to work within their time; but lighteners will continue to work while still wet. This also is a time-efficient method for re-touching existing highlights, because you can work with as little as 2 inches of re-growth and not overlighten the remaining hair. With a little practice, you will be able to do the application in 15 minutes. Note: To stop the action from an area, simply dry the product from the hair with a towel. Do not spray the hair with water! This will re-activate the developer, especially with powdered lightener. See Figures 5-9 for graphic presentations of techniques. Figure 5 Color maintenance four guidelines All retouch applications should be considered a corrective procedure. The hair is not stagnant. Color, even natural color, fades with daily wear. Now that clients are shampooing, blow-drying and using heat appliances daily, all of this mechanical abuse increases fading. Remember, a suggestion for client consultations is to book scientifically; i.e. book the re-touch appointment after you finish the initial service. If the new color is one to two numbers lighter than the natural, allow three to four weeks between services. However, if the lightening is greater, such as an allover blond, retouching should be done in two weeks to prevent gold banding. Highlights should be retouched after the haircut if you are using one of the fast methods. Otherwise, retouch the highlights within 12 weeks. A client who walks around with 2-3 inches of regrowth is not doing your business justice! Color maintenance guidelines will answer the following color mysteries: How does the colorist maintain the hair from retouch to retouch? When should I pull color through the midlengths and ends? How long should I leave it on? When do I need to make a color adjustment and add more color to the mixture? The only way to answer these questions with predictability is to take a strand test. There must be some degree of color loss in order to apply product to midlengths and ends. We should not guess or do it out of habit. The test strand will determine the formula and the amount of time necessary for the color to be on the midlengths and ends. This allows the colorist the ability to predict the end results and make changes in the formula if necessary. First, apply the full-strength formula to the new growth. Then, in the crown, take a small section and bring the formula down over the midlengths and ends. Wait 10 minutes. Then dry that section with a towel and observe the results. Elite Page 9

12 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Guideline 1: Retouch or maintain color When lengths and ends are not faded and only need reviving: Apply formula to new growth (take test strand). Develop minutes (or total time). Add a small amount of warm water to the hair and emulsify (mix until creamy) at the basin, working the product through the lengths and ends for 2-3 minutes. All color mixtures contain phenol (a soap). This mixture will remove color stains from the skin and set the color. Rinse thoroughly and shampoo once. Condition if necessary. Guideline 2: Replace tone When only the tone needs to be restored: Apply to new growth (take test strand). Allow to develop 15 minutes (or half of total time). Page 10 Add equal water to remaining mixture. Apply to mid-lengths and ends. Allow to develop another minutes (or total time). Add warm water; emulsify, rinse and shampoo. Guideline 3: Replace depth and tone When lengths and ends have lost both depth and tone and are very faded: Apply to new growth (take test strand). Allow to develop 15 minutes (or half of total time). Add equal water to remaining mixture. Just prior to running the leftover mixture through the lengths and ends, add in a warm or red color of a darker level than the target color applied to the new growth. It is recommended to add in 1 or 2 capfuls of any of these shades: Dark auburn. Light auburn. Dark copper-gold. Medium copper-gold. Light copper. Light golden-copper. Gold. Develop 15 minutes or remainder of time. Emulsify, rinse and shampoo. Guideline 4: Pre-pigmentation/ filling When color has lightened more than two numbers/levels and is sensitized, or the client wishes to have a deeper color Apply target to new growth. Pre-pigment with desired shade (one to two levels deeper and warmer than target). Use only liquid color mixed with a small amount of hot water; apply to midlengths and ends. Elite

13 Make sure that the hair is saturated, but not dripping. Blot with paper towel, if necessary. Re-mix target shade with 10V H 2 O 2 and apply over pigment replacement. Begin full processing time upon completion of application. Emulsify. Rinse until water runs clear and shampoo. It is always imperative to analyze the condition of the hair. This brings us to the Golden Rule of color correction: The sensitivity and condition of the hair determines the degree and method of corrective coloring. The hair did not get to this state overnight. It may be the product of repeated failures on the part of the client to do it yourself. Sometimes the hairdresser must become a detective to determine what has been used previously. Some color products are not compatible with permanent color or color removers. Ask questions such as: Were two bottles mixed together? Did you also have a perm? Is this from the sun? Was it a natural color (henna)? How many times was the formula applied? All of this will help you determine your course of action. If the condition of the hair is very poor, do not attempt to correct. Suggest conditioning treatments and frequent haircuts. The client will appreciate your honesty and professionalism. The client consultation should begin by establishing a realistic target shade. Never make promises. It may have taken many applications before her trip to the color expert. So she must understand that it may take three to four visits before she is completely satisfied. This way the expectations are out in the open from the start. Money is very important. You should give her an idea of the range (such as, My corrective prices are $60 an hour ). Give some indication of what this is going to cost. Time is of the essence, both hers and yours. She should not have any prior commitments on the day of correction; no colorist needs the additional pressure of time constraints. As we know, correction can range from 45 minutes to eight hours. Your schedule should allow you the proper amount of time to allocate to that client and her specific needs. Color correction 3 basic problems 1. Results too dark or removing artificial color The fact is, no color can remove another color. Chemically, there are only two ways to remove permanent color that is too dark or when the client wishes to go to a lighter shade: Bleaching and color remover. Color remover is the preferred procedure because it unlocks the bond of the artificial color and is less caustic to the hair. It is an ammonium solution designed to neutralize indirect dyes (permanent hair color). This is the answer for clients who come in with home color build-up, muddy-looking color that lacks clear tone from too many color changes, or an uneven deposit of color. Remember the term chemical backlog. The hair remembers what was used on it, and it shows through in the final results. Many products also are cationic (sticks to itself) and darken with repeated applications. The application of a color remover is related to your end result. Remember, your goal is to create a suitable and even base for a new color. Mix color remover with the developer from that manufacturer or a suitable 20V. Apply to dry hair, starting in the darkest areas usually the ends. A tint brush allows for better control. You can place the product where it is needed and avoid contact with natural pigment. Make sure that the hair is saturated evenly. Process from 10 to 45 minutes or according to manufacturers directions. It may be necessary to re-apply to darker areas using a 30V mixture. In this event, do not wash the first application; simply blot with a towel and proceed with the stronger mixture and continue processing. When a suitable base is achieved (slightly lighter than target level), rinse, shampoo gently and dry the hair. Proceed with the application of the target shade. Note: Even dark colors lighten natural pigments due to the developer. When dealing with direct dyes, removal is totally different. Some manufacturers (gratefully) provide a removal system for these rinses, semipermanent, deep and non-ammonia colors, but many do not. And most nonprofessional products are formulated with metallic salts. This formula has worked on many of these color products: 4 ounces mineral oil mixed with 4 ounces alcohol. Apply to dry hair and saturate well. Place cotton coils around the hairline to prevent run-off. Cover the head with a processing cap. Seat client under a hot dryer for 20 minutes. Take the client to the shampoo bowl. Do not wet the hair with water! Saturate the hair with shampoo and work into a lather. Rinse and shampoo and condition as needed. Dry the hair. Continue with other services. 2. Changing the tone/cleansing If a cool tone (blue, green or violet) has been used on the hair, it will dominate the finished results. That is to say, applying natural/neutral, red, copper or gold will result in a flat or muddy shade. This cool tone must be removed to achieve the clarity of the target shade. Prepare this mixture in an applicator bottle: 4 ounces hot water. 1 package color remover. 2 squirts of shampoo. Shake to mix thoroughly. At the shampoo bowl, saturate the hair with this mixture. Check results at 10 minutes by drying a section. Usually, this is enough. Rinse well. Shampoo gently and condition if necessary. Dry the hair. Proceed with target shade application. 3. Re-establishing depth and tone/prepigmentation This is necessary when the client s hair is two or more levels lighter than the target. It is critical to replace the missing pigments for color durability. The product of choice is a liquid permanent hair color followed by an application of a cream permanent hair color mixed with 10V developer. It is recommended that the shade be one to two levels deeper and warmer than the target. The more sensitized the hair, the greater the need for depth and tone. The pre-pigmentation shades must contain gold, copper or auburn or a combination of these. While this sounds extreme, we know that it is possible to lose up to 20 percent from daily wear. Existing level 9-10 No. 8 natural 8 No. 6 copper 8 No. 6 auburn A few examples Target Prepigmentation level No 8 or No. 7 gold No. 5 auburn No. 4 dark auburn Mix the liquid color with a small amount of hot water and apply to the hair. Make sure that the hair is saturated but NOT dripping. Results will be too warm if too much fill color is used. Comb through the hair to assure even distribution. Blot with paper towel if there is an excess on the comb. Note: Never apply raw color to the hair. To do so could cause chemical burns. Return with the target mixed with 10V developer; apply and process for the full time. Finish service as usual. A helpful practice for all corrective color work is to draw the strand out in a line, placing the representative levels and tones along the strand. This makes it possible for you to see what actions are needed to be taken. Write these down to help with your decisions. And, as with the basic analysis and consultation, work with the best lighting available. Bibliography Standard Manual of Cosmetology, Milady Publications Hair Structure and Chemistry Simplified, Milady Publishing Co. Pivot Point International, Salon Fundamentals The American Board of Certified Hair Colorists Study Portfolio Jo Ann M. Stills, Americas Educator, 1975 to Present; L Oreal Professional Technician, 1984 to 2005 Elite Page 11

14 Page 12 CHAPTER 2 SHARPENING YOUR CUTTING SKILLS (3 CE Hours) Learning objectives List the factors you should consider when purchasing scissors and other hair-cutting equipment. Describe proper care routines for your scissors. Consider questions you want a client to answer during a client consultation or in a questionnaire. Describe the bone structure of the head and how this affects the finished hair design. Gain an understanding of how growth patterns affect the finished design. List ways to control naturally wavy and curly hair. Describe directional designing. Define weight distribution of hair. List ways to correct the hair s lack of density Describe texturizing techniques. Introduction Learning a haircut is just part of the procedure for a hair-care professional, and this course is not about a haircut style. It is about designing the fabric, which is hair. Just as a clothing designer shapes the fabric for a straight skirt or a flared skirt, we can shape a client s hair to either hang straight or flare away from the face. This course will explore how to achieve the final results. Although the course is limited to designs for three lengths (long, mid-length and short), the techniques will lend themselves to any length and every design. Remember: The flow of the design must be there wet in order to be there dry. Reflect before you buy scissors A wise stylist always reflects before buying scissors. Below are some factors to consider to reflect upon when selecting one. R: Requirements: Determine how you plan to use the scissors. Will they be used for wet or dry hair? Precision cutting or scissors over comb, weight lines or bobs? Will they be for primary use or as a backup? E: Edge: Consider a honed edge vs. a machined/ serrated edge. The machine/serrated edge is more durable and ideal for beard trims, mannequins, dry cuts and so on, On the other hand, the honed edge is less durable, but gives superior results on clean, shampooed, wet hair. Honed-edge scissors are generally more expensive, cut better, have a longer useful life and require greater care. However, they can be permanently damaged if sharpened improperly. We suggest that you purchase both a good honed-edge scissors for wet cuts and a machined/ serrated-edge scissors for dry cuts and scissorsover-comb work. F: Finger rest: Using a finger rest is a personal choice. Some advocates suggest that it helps prevent dropping and reduces fatigue. Opponents say it gets in the way. Some scissors are available with screw-in rests so you can have your scissors with or without a rest as you prefer. Note: Without the finger rest, the shears are held with the thumb and middle finger. With the rest, the shears are held with the thumb and third finger, with the little finger on the rest. L: Length and loops: Correct blade length varies with the intended use of the scissors. Precision cutting calls for shorter (4.5- to 5.5-inch) blades, while scissors over comb work, cutting weight lines and bobs generally require a longer (6- to 7.5-inch) blade. Buying the right size for your finger length also is very important. The precision cutting shears blade should be no longer than the length of the middle finger. Both finger loops must be fitted to the chosen fingers and rest below the first knuckle. The thumb and finger should not slip through to the finger base. The loop size is a major factor in comfort and control. Your scissors should feel comfortable in your hand while giving control and dexterity. Finger loop inserts should be used to adjust the size if necessary. For client safety, the thumb should always be removed and the blades closed before combing and parting the hair. You also may wish to turn the blades back in the hand while combing and parting the hair. This requires practice, but is safer. E: Evenness: How a blade feels can tell you a lot about the scissors quality. As you open and close the scissors, notice the evenness of the pressure of the blades on each other. Loose or tight spots can indicate poor quality, while even, moderate pressure from the fulcrum to the tips is generally an indication of superior quality. Be aware of the smoothness of the blades. Rough spots or a gritty feel on hand-honed scissors indicates poor quality or damaged edges. You will, however, be able to feel the texture of a serrated edge. C: Configuration: Configuration means how the loops are aligned in relation to each other. Scissors are available in even-loop, offset and cranedesigned loops. Which is more appropriate for you depends on your personal preference, which fingers you use to hold the scissors (middle or ring finger), and your individual cutting style. In any event, buy whatever style feels most comfortable. T: Tips: When cutting outlines against a client s neck, smooth, slightly pointed tips can be more comfortable to the client and allow you to get under the hair. With other types of cuts, some stylists prefer blunt tips, which can help minimize cutting your fingers. S: Service: Quality scissors are an expensive, long-term investment. Make sure that your investment is backed up by a qualified source of service that will provide superb sharpening, fast service and factory parts, all at a reasonable cost. Wet hand-honing, which is the proper method to sharpen fine scissors, preserves the temper (hardness) of the blades by keeping them cool during the honing process. Grinding creates heat, which can destroy the temper or hardness of the blades. Hand honing also extends the useful lifetime of the scissors by removing only a minimal amount of metal from the blades. When purchasing scissors, factor in the cost and quality of service and the time the scissors will be unavailable for use while the service is being performed to get a true amortized total cost of ownership. Ask questions and check references; it s your money that you ll save. Caring for your investment 1. Wipe off the blades after each use, using a slightly damp (but clean) towel. 2. After each day s use, clean the scissors carefully. Wipe off the blades and the ride area before putting the scissors in a safe place for the night. 3. Once every week, following the cleaning, put a drop of scissors oil (clipper oil will do fine) around the pivot screw while the blades are fully open. Wiggle the blades for a few seconds so the oil will soak into the bearing, then wipe off the excess. Put a small drop on the ride areas (behind the screw) and wipe off the excess. 4. If the scissors become nicked, don t force the blades closed. Separate them slightly, close them and send them to a qualified repair source. Nicked scissors cut poorly and can become even more damaged with use. 5. Be especially selective about sharpening services. Remember, a bad haircut will grow out, but a bad sharpening is forever. It can permanently ruin your scissors. Scissors myths debunked ICE scissors sharpen themselves when put in the freezer overnight. ICE is a generic term for a tempering process and has nothing to do with sharpening. Scissors will never wear out if sharpened properly. All sharpening involves the removal of some amount of metal. While excellent sharpening removes only a small amount of metal, eventually all scissors will wear out. The best sharpening is done by computer (or by laser). A computer can control some elements of manufacture; but the finest sharpening is still done by skilled hands. Really good scissors never need sharpening, or They sharpen themselves while you use them. Some enthusiastic salesman must have coined this one. Wet honing will cause scissors to rust. If this were the case, you would have a problem cutting wet hair. (This excuse was offered by a door-todoor scissors sharpener pushing dry grinding.) Once sharpened, scissors will never be as sharp as they were when new. With inferior sharpening, this may be true but with superior sharpening, the scissors may be sharper than new. The edge was originally put on by hand, and hands of the same skill level can restore the edge many times. Scissors are only as good as their last sharpening. Elite

15 Once you drop your scissors, they are ruined forever. The most frequent problem with dropping scissors is getting a nick in the blades. This is easily corrected by competent sharpening. Some scissors can only be sharpened by the factory. Often factory refers to the sharpening service that wholesales the service to the salesperson or his company. What the speaker may be saying is that he won t get a commission on the sharpening if you have it done by someone else. In other cases, the speaker may be encouraging you to avoid having just anyone sharpen your scissors, knowing there are few truly qualified sharpening sources. Sharpening scissors too often will prematurely wear them out. Actually, forcing your scissors to cut when dull or nicked creates more edge damage and pivot wear than having them properly sharpened. Cleaning and lubrication of the pivot, ride and bearing areas are part of the sharpening procedure. By extending the time between sharpenings, greater wear is occurring in these areas. Using fine scissors when dull is cheating yourself out of the performance you paid for. ICE machine/serrated scissors should be serviced about every 1,000 haircuts. Hand-honed scissors will perform at their best if serviced every 400 to 700 (shampooed-wet) haircuts. If you get your scissors sharpened, you ll cut yourself more often. When scissors become dull, stylists cut closer to their fingers to keep the scissors from pushing hair. Once this habit is established, you will cut yourself more often, dull or sharp. Even dull scissors can cut skin. Sharp scissors can cut well even when held away from the fingers, which minimizes the likelihood of cuts. Using the scissors When we started kindergarten, we learned to cut paper for crafts. This was accomplished by using scissors with the thumb UP. Hopefully, you were trained to use the haircutting shears with the thumb DOWN or as it s known, cutting palm to palm. The importance of this is that the thumb blade is the moving blade in haircutting. It is responsible for scooping the hair up to be cut. The finger blade remains stationary for control. Practice holding your hand still and moving just the thumb. This is the action will give you clean, accurate designs from all of your cutting shears. Other cutting tools So far, we have addressed your primary scissors. Now let s consider the other cutting tools that we use. Techniques for these tools will be included later on in the course. Thinning/blending shears: These are produced with either one or both of the blades notched. They also may be curved or straight and different lengths. You may wish to purchase more than one of these for different effects. Note: the more notches, the more hair that will be removed. You have probably seen shears with just a few notches and large spaces in-between. These remove the least amount of hair while maintaining a desired pattern. If you wish to purchase just one, let it be a good 44/20 blending shears (a barber s tool) because of versatility. Razors: The most aggressive razor is the one with a guard, and the take-off from this is the feather razor or so-called precision razor. These will remove bulk and give texture to the areas desired. The least aggressive would be the unguarded shaving razor. A Tondeo razor is just one of many. With only 1/16-inch blade exposure, this is suitable for cleaning necklines and texturizing in the least obvious way. Whichever you choose, be aware that a razor cut slices the hair ends on an angle. For this reason, using a razor encourages wave and curl pattern. The hair must always be wet. Clippers: From the investment point of view, the motor drive clipper is the most versatile and durable. It will give many years of great service and will not be challenged by thick, coarse hair. The less expensive belt drive clipper is suitable for cleaning necklines and trimming sideburns. It will, however, get very hot and lose power on a clipper cut. Combs: The choices here are endless, beginning with the tapered barber comb all the way to the clipper comb. The spacing of the teeth of the comb dictates its use. Still, the hand-finished nylon comb will give the cleanest and smoothest results. Which prompts the question: Which tool do you consider more important, the cutting implement or the comb? If you said the comb, you are correct! The Italians cut hair with lighted newspaper; the Greeks cut hair with shards of glass. It is the combing, sectioning and holding that produces the design. Client consultations Consider this scenario: A client once challenged a professional on the price of the haircut with this statement: It was only a trim. There s not even a half-inch of hair on the floor! The stylist replied: You are paying for what I leave on the head; that is the balance and proportion of the design. There was no further discussion, and she is still a client to this day. So let s talk about the client. Whatever or whoever brought this client to you is not important. But a comprehensive client consultation is of utmost importance. Ask a firsttime client to arrive at least 30 minutes before the scheduled appointment to fill out all of the pertinent information and look at the style books you have available for discussion. Have him or her fill out the form below (or your choice of analysis sheet) and answer the questionnaire. See charts on next page. In anticipation that this client will also become a color client, you may wish to complete this analysis with the information for chemical services. Now, you can discuss with the client the desired design with all of the possibilities. Visualize: Body makeup. Occupation, lifestyle and care. Facial features. Hair density. Growth pattern, cowlicks, hairline. Type of part. Note: The lower the part is placed on the head, the more width is created to the face. The higher the part is placed on the head, the more length is created to the face. Balance. Note: Most faces are not symmetrical. One side will dominate, just as the ring finger on the hands require a different size. One eyebrow will be higher, one side of the nose will flare more, and one eye will be slightly smaller than the other. If we design the hair towards the low side of the face, we will accentuate it. Comb through and move the hair left, then right. Move the part up and down and observe what these balancing techniques will accomplish. Remember that the hairline creates the strongest influence on the features. Be very careful about the hair that touches the face. Will it point to an unflattering feature, such as a pointed nose? We have also found that working with two mirrors is of tremendous benefit, one for the frontal view and one for the profile. Watch that you do not accentuate a poor profile with an extension in that area. The mirrors will tell you things that the eye cannot see directly. In addition, using a haircutting chair gives the best view of the back and sides of the head because you are looking directly into them. If you are looking down at the hairline, your vision is altered. Take a moment to feel the structure of the head. Pay particular attention to the bone protrusions. Is the frontal bone prominent? This will lift the fringe area more. Are the parietals full? This will lift the length on the sides. Is the occipital flat or protruded? Make any notations on the analysis sheet. Do not trust your memory! The actions here are: consult, diagnose and prescribe and importantly, listen to what the client is expressing. Design principles of art in hair definitions Form: Silhouette, external structure. Space: Occupied area. Design: Intelligent, purposeful or discoverable pattern. Texture: Surface design. Emphasis: Visual attraction. Speed: Change of direction or movement. Rhythm: Repetition of any element (with equal or unequal speeds). Harmony: Agreeable organization of elements. Ornamentation: Separate design factors (used in addition to the form and space). Proportion: The relationship between elements. Color: Reflection of a light source. Elite Page 13

16 Client Information Sheet Name: Date: Address: Phone: Cell: Birthday: Medications: Personal Preference Questionnaire Circle your choices: Which of the following clothing styles best represents your personality? a. Latest fashion, unique, makes a statement. b. Casual sportswear, jeans and sweaters. c. Suits, separates, clean and crisp with pleats; men Suits, business attire, distinctive sportswear. d. Dresses, lace, soft, light and airy fabrics; men fitted, athletic cut, dressy. Select the fabric design or pattern you like best: a. Bold, bright, contrasting print. b. Safari prints, faded denim, simple pattern, plaid c. Subtle print, pinstripe, woven-in or embossed, conservative. d. Pastel floral, candy-colored print. How do you like your makeup, or for men, what type of makeup do you like on a woman? a. Bold, intense, makes a statement. b. Little if any, simple. c. Conservative, moderate, subtle elegance. d. Accented eyes and lips; soft, floral colors. Considering your unique individuality. Which describes you best? a. Self-assured, confident, determined. b. Energetic, active, loves outdoors. c. Organized, precise, predictable, consistent. d. Sensitive, imaginative, tenderhearted. With your favorite person, which of the events listed below would you most enjoy? a. Disco, thriller movie, rock concert. b. Beach, mountains, picnic, athletics, adventure movies. c. A pre-planned, organized event; live theater, symphony, mystery movies. d. Intimate candlelight dinner, sentimental movies, slow dancing. Which environment would you rather work in? a. Fast paced, lots of people, upbeat. b. Not confined, relaxed, changing. c. Clean, organized, predictable. d. Creative, spontaneous, harmonious. How would a person meeting you for the first time describe you? a. Mysterious, unique, strong-willed. b. Fun, energetic, free-spirited. c. Controlled, poised, punctual, steady. d. Understanding, sympathetic, tenderhearted. What motivates you? a. Visible position, leadership role. b. Self-employed, constant challenge. c. Secure consistent income. d. Important cause; money not the issue. Which of these characteristics best describes you? a. Bold, adventurous, daring, focused. b. Independent, unconfined, self-governing. c. Precise, neat, particular. d. Sensitive, imaginative, strong feelings. Which of the following best describes the hairstyle you prefer? a. Trend setting, vogue, latest style, fashion statement. b. Casual, easy care, simple. c. Tailored, controlled, perfect, in-place. d. Soft, wispy, loose curls; men styled, touchable, luxurious, alluring. What length do you like your hair? a. Short. b. Medium. c. Long. d. Very long. Is your hair: a. Bleached. b. Colored. c. Highlighted. d. Permed. e. Natural How much time will you spend styling your hair? a. 5 minutes. b. 10 minutes. c. 15 minutes. d. 20 minutes and longer. Which styling methods do you use? a. None. b. Blow-dried. c. Curling/flat iron. d. Rollers or hot curlers. What would you like your hair designed for? a. Social function. b. Career. c. Casual/easy care. The next sheet should be used for salon information only. The stylist will fill out this portion of the client information: Hair Form: Straight Wavy Curly Very Curly Condition: Very Dry Dry Normal Oily Very Oily Uneven/Patchy Scalp: Tight Flexible Surface: Clear Flaky Density: Sparse Medium Thick Texture: Extra Fine Fine Medium Coarse Very Coarse Porosity: Very Porous Porous Normal Resistant Very Resistant In anticipation that this client will also become a color client, you may wish to complete this analysis with the information for chemical services. Natural Hair Color: Level Color Family/Tone: Warm Cool Note: Intensity: Low Medium High (Notes) Fading: Amount of Gray: ( %) Distribution: Previously Lightened: Yes No When: Product: Previously Tinted: Yes No When: Product: Desired (Target) Color: Level Desired Tone: Warm Cool Notes: Intensity: Low Medium High (Notes) Corrective Service: Color filler used, When Product Conditioning: When What treatment Tinting: (whole head/retouch/target shade) Formula: (color/lightener details) Application Details: Results: Poor Fair Good Too Light Too Dark Streaked/Patchy (Describe) Price: Products prescribed: Next Appointment: Patch Test Results: Page 14

17 Contrast: Opposing elements. Adaptability: Total concept of visual imagery. (Does everything fit the person?) The importance of understanding all of these principals cannot be stressed enough. And application of these principals will take you, the stylist, from hair cutter to hair designer. Terminology These are the terms most commonly used in designing descriptions. Distribution: The direction the hair is combed in relation to its base parting. There are four main types of distribution: natural, perpendicular, shifted and directional. Natural: The direction the hair assumes in relation to its natural growth patterns. Perpendicular: The direction the hair assumes when it is combed at a 90-degree angle to its base parting. Shifted: The direction the hair assumes when it is combed out of natural distribution in any direction other than perpendicular to its base parting. Directional: The direction the hair assumes when it is distributed vertically, meaning straight up from the head; and horizontally, meaning straight out from the head. Projection: The angle at which the hair is held in relation to the natural fall or the curve of the head while cutting (sculpting). We will deal with five of the most used. Natural fall: Position the hair assumes due to growth patterns and gravitational pull. Low projection: 0 to 29 degrees. Medium projection: 30 to 59 degrees. High projection: 60 to 89 degrees. 90-degree projection: When the hair is lifted 90 degrees from the curve of the head. 180-degree projection: When the hair is combed 180 degrees from its point of origin. Usually used to produce highelevation layering. Design line: Mobile: The length guide that moves throughout a given area. Stationary: Constant, stable length guide to which lengths are converged in order to create a length increase in the opposite direction. Parallel cutting (sculpting): A technique in which a section of hair is cut parallel to its base parting. Nonparallel cutting (sculpting): A technique in which the fingers are positioned in any direction other than the base parting while cutting. Partings: The sections used to divide the hair into manageable parts in preparation for designing. Horizontal: Around the head. Vertical: Traveling up and down. Pivotal: Pie-shaped from a central point. Diagonal: Either forward or back from the frontal hairline. Angled: Either left to right or right to left from a center part. Curved: Following the natural curve of the hairline. Rules of designing A trained designer will look at a picture and know instinctively how much hair to remove, which areas to strengthen, and be aware of the hair s own texture. A design must be complimentary to the natural fabric (hair) and the client s features. Do not expose an undesirable feature or strong growth pattern such as cutting the hair around ears that stick out or cutting short around a whorl. Leave additional length or bulk to camouflage these problems. Design form The form of the design is the most important consideration. It is also the strongest influence toward the total adaptability of the design to the client. Let s talk about how hair grows for greater understanding. The growth pattern, density and whether the hair is wavy or straight are in place from four months pre-natal, the same time as an infant s fingerprints. This is an amazing fact. So, unless we chemically change the structure of the hair, we must deal with these unique qualities. Hair grows longer at the center back of the head. And especially when cut wet, the two sides behind the ears will lift when dry. How many times have you cut an absolute straight line across the back only to have it dry not straight? It was not you it was the hair growth. In the back of the head, the center will drop and the two sides will lift. The correction for this is to cut a gentle, inverted U. In the front, the center of the fringe area will lift and the two sides will drop. The correction for this is to cut a slight U in the fringe (bang) area. Mostly, the form is developed in the outer perimeter of the head. This is also the weakest area and more sparse area of the head. We will discuss density build-up to correct this problem. Maintain consistent: Sections. Dampness. Combing. Tension. Elevation. Direction/over-direction. Pressure. Cutting angles. Client head position. Body position yourself. Hair will move in the direction of the point of the cutting instrument. The hair is cut with the point of the shears toward the face on the left side of the head, as in a chin-length bob. The designer will make sure that the shears are pointed toward the face on the right side also. Point-cutting is a valuable technique when flexibility and neutrality are important to the finished design. Hair can then move in any direction desired without resistance. Texturizing In today s designs, texturizing becomes the second most important study. Basically, texturizing is removing hair in a pattern. It can produce the surface design desired and provide the movement or action to the hair. As discussed above, giving texture to your design can be accomplished with any of the tools that we have. No matter which tool is used, keep these facts in mind: Texturizing should be done only in the middle and inner perimeters of the head and never on the hairline or outer perimeter, with the exception of the ends of the hair) On fine hair, begin ¾ inch from the scalp. On medium texture, begin 1 inch from the scalp. On coarse texture, begin 1½ to 2 inches from the scalp. Notching and chunking blades will not affect the ends texture; blenders will cause texture to be appreciated down through the ends. (Remember: short hair pushes long hair.) It is advisable to close the blades only halfway and insert the tool two or three times down the section of hair. To add motion to the ends of the hair, use the blender-over-comb technique. Top cutting is another technique: Simply point the shears down and slide-cut into the surface of the hair. Finish with a dab of pomade combed in with the fingers for the chunky effect. The French effile or slithering uses the shears in a backward motion (like backcombing the hair). Take up a section, and with blades open, approach the section and begin to close the blade halfway. Continue with this action (open and close) until you reach the end of the section. Perform this on either wet or dry hair. This gives an internal texture that supports fullness. The original Antoine design was accomplished (on dry hair) by using this technique. The hair was backcombed in 1-inch squares all over the head. Then the remaining strands were slithered out through the ends. The stylist would work through the entire head three times. The outer perimeter guide was established after the interior work was completed. The backup razor technique is another way to give texture in a graceful way. Take up a section, and with the blade toward the scalp, perform a backcombing action on the section. It looks as though you will be taking many strands, but the effect is an internal removal of very few. This works great for the fringe areas around the face. It also helps to control wavy hair. Make sure that the hair is wet. When accomplished vertically, this gives support for fullness. In any direction, it will give tapered ends. The large blade on your clippers can also notch the hair and give the spiky look if desired. (The guys love this.) Twist up 1-inch sections of the hair, usually at the top and crown. Invert the clipper and notch into the hair quickly two or three times. Elite Page 15

18 With so many choices, you should find the one that will give you the texture you desire. Make it a practice to pick up more than one implement while designing. You can achieve different textures in different areas throughout the design. This will make your designs unique. We also suggest that you practice these techniques on a mannequin until you are aware of the effects and are comfortable with the actions. Make notations on the client sheet; do not trust your memory. The long design Some designers, including the author, like to design long hair in the dry state with serrated shears. Start by shampooing, conditioning, blowing-dry and flat ironing the hair smooth. The longer the design, the more important it is to maintain control of the hair. A long design with variations is more difficult because we can get lost in the lengths. More mistakes are made on long designs because of this. Use both the head and the upper body as a guide. Begin with sectioning. One good basic sectioning routine is: Divide the head in half, from the forehead to the nape of the neck. Divide the sides from the top of the head to behind the ears. Take a 1-inch parting all the way around the hairline. This is the outer perimeter. Sub-divide the remaining four sections in half horizontally and pin up. This will give you the middle and inner perimeters. You will have eight sections plus the outer perimeter. Beginning at the back of the head in the outer perimeter (1-inch section), determine the length desired, with the client standing straight and hands on the back of the chair. Then have the client be seated, legs uncrossed and straight in the chair. Take a 1-inch section from the outer perimeter behind the ear and bring it to the center guide (cut even). Remember to comb in the natural fall and use your point cutting technique for a neutral cut. Repeat this on the other side. In natural fall, cut the remaining hair in the gentle, inverted U. For a design that just touches the curve of the shoulder at the sides, it is easier to begin in the sections behind the ear. Determine the guide from the length at the shoulder (with client seated). Then bring the two sides to the center and cut even. Remember, the farther away from the point of origin the hair has to travel before it is cut, the longer the hair will be. This is cut at 0 degrees or low projection. Complete your guide area. Subdivide a 1-inch section horizontally from the middle perimeter. Bring down, in natural fall, this section across the back and cut even. Do this as many times as necessary to not see through the hair. This is the density build-up area. It is especially important for long designs to increase the bulk at the bottom. If an all-one-length design is desired, switch to low projection combing at 0 degrees above the density build-up area and Page 16 cut even with the guide. Continue working up through the middle and inner perimeters in 1-inch partings. If the hair is very thick, use less than 1 inch. You must have a clear view of your guide. This is a good time to talk about double comb cutting. This technique gives the stylist the ability to accurately design larger sections of hair with more control than fingers alone can give. Purchase two identical combs with the teeth 1/8- inch apart throughout. With both combs together, take up the section to be cut. Now, lock the two combs together (teeth to teeth), bring down to the guide and point cut the length. Again, we recommend that you practice this on a mannequin until you are comfortable with the mechanics of this. This can be used for any projection, either vertically or horizontally, once mastered. How many times have you heard the client say: Why won t my hair grow long? Actually, the hair is growing; but it is breaking off. This is the time that you need to educate the client on the care of long hair. Hair should never be brushed while it is wet! Have her purchase either a large detangling comb or a flexible based paddle brush with flexible bristles and instruct her to gently comb from the ends toward the scalp to remove tangles. (Of course, these items, along with the correct shampoo and conditioner, are available in the salon retail area.) The use of medium heat with high air on the blow dryer is also better for the hair, but natural dry is the best, if possible. On dry hair, the natural, boar-bristle brush causes less mechanical damage. Scrunchies and rubber bands are huge violators. She should use one of the large clamp-type clips to put the hair up. Long hair should be trimmed every six to eight weeks. Just removing the ends will strengthen the hair, and she will appreciate greater length. The other technique that is suggested (on dry hair) is the removal of the split ends and fuzziness throughout the interior of the head. From the top layers, take a 1-inch section and twist the hair. The broken strands and the stretched hair will pop up away from the section. Then snip those white tips and stretched hairs. Work the surface of the entire back. Yes, this is labor intensive, but the results can be seen and felt immediately. With proper care, she will realize the longest, smoothest and best hair she has ever had. Professional models love this service. If the design requires more motion at the back, begin in the middle perimeter to give some elevation. Low projection accomplishes this, but remember to begin above the density build-up area. Section by section, complete the middle and inner perimeters at the back, ending with about 30 degrees projection at the top of the inner perimeter. This design will give the hair the ability to maintain a fluffy curl pattern. (If hair is all one length, it will only bend when curled.) Another design that is making a comeback is the flip. Basically, shortening the middle perimeter to allow the outer perimeter of the head to flip up over the middle perimeter produces it. The procedure is the same with the exception of the projection. Take down sections from the middle perimeter and comb and cut at 45 degrees. Then bring down the inner perimeter to match. The design will automatically give the desired action. Move to the outer perimeter in one of the side sections. If you are on the right side of the head, turn the client s head toward the left. This allows you to view the side section unrestricted by the shoulder. Match the guide and density build-up from the back to the side sections. Stop when you reach the natural recession of the head or the crest line (where the top and sides come together). Repeat on the left side, turning the client s head toward the right. Many clients with long hair prefer to hook the frontal hair behind the ears. In this case, use the chin as the guide for the fringe (bang) area. Take sections horizontally, from the top of the head and bring forward with 0 degrees projection and cut to guide. If a slight fringe is desired, begin with a halfinch of hair in the center of the outer perimeter of the front. Take this section down to the tip of the nose and sculpt. Then take that section over to the side sections and sculpt even. This produces the straight line in the front. To produce a deeper fringe, continue to take down half-inch partings and point cut even with the guide. Work your way back 2-3 inches, but do not section back any further than the natural recession. To do so will remove bulk from the sides of the head. Watch the amount of lift provided by the hair s personality, and shorten the fringe area if necessary. Here you can use the slithering technique or the blenders to add lightness and bounce to the fringe area. Comb the hair back into its natural fall and observe the results. You may wish to clean up any stray areas. Accomplish this by repeating the procedure from the inner perimeter of the back. Take the adjoining sections up together and match with vertical point cutting. You should also repeat the twist and snip technique for the removal of split ends and stretched hair as performed at the back. At this point, we have explored two distinct designs for long hair. The third deals with the high elevation, full-layered design that many women want. After determining the length and density build-up areas, take a small section from the top of the inner perimeter. Bring this section down to where you want the layers to begin and sculpt. Take vertical partings from the center part; comb and cut at 90 degrees. As you move over to the sides of the back, take the hair toward the center. (So you are using a stationary guide to increase the length behind the ears.) Decrease the angle of projection to 60 degrees, then 45 degrees in the middle perimeter. While point cutting is recommended, you may also slide cut. This is a good place to use the double comb cutting technique that you have mastered. Note: Be careful to avoid the density build-up area. To sculpt the inner perimeter at the top, bring the guide to the front section and point cut vertically. Elite

19 Bring the hair forward toward the front in this traveling guide, and point cut even. If the fringe is longer, bring the fringe back to the guide at the dividing line. After determining the length of the fringe area, take the section of hair in front of the ear. Comb this hair at 180 degrees and cut even with the fringe guide. This produces the perfect faceframing results. Now, match the sides with the face-frame and blend with the hair behind the ears. If you are visualizing that behind the ears is the fullest point, you are correct. So many times we see that other methods leave the hair too depleted in this area. And the natural tendency of the hair is to split at the ear. These guides will prevent this. Note: It is never advisable to allow a client to leave the salon with the hair in the wet state. No matter what, you need to check your work when dried. You will save yourself a lot of grief with this rule. As seen on the hot scene, using these same partings but sculpting with your razor and the hair wet gives a spiky, feathery finish to the form. Using these forms and various finishes will have you become the go-to stylist for long hair clients. Women who prefer to wear their hair long tend to shy away from salons because they fear having the hair cut too short. Showing that you understand and have the knowledge to give them what they want will get them to trust you and your ability. The mid-length design Probably the most versatile length is the midlength design. This section will give the basic form and many adaptations and finishes. Shampoo and condition the hair as usual. You will be using your honed-edge shears for a wet cut. Remember to continue to dampen the hair as you work through a wet cut for consistency. It bears repeating to have the client sit straight up, with knees uncrossed, before you begin. Begin with the basic sectioning as in the long hair design. For the longer bob, take the guide from the center back to just below the bend of the neck. Take the two sides behind the ears to the center back and sculpt even. Again, work with the density build-up area. This is especially important when there is an up-growth behind the ears. Perform the gentle, inverted U as in the long design, but skin cut the guide. Holding the back of the comb against the outer perimeter will aid in producing this design line. Either direct the shears to always address the hair from center toward behind the ear on both sides, or point cut for neutrality. Build density as necessary. You will see this compensation overcome even the strongest upgrowth by shifting the weight of the hair from the center to behind the ears. Another technique is to lift with the comb the up-growth area and remove the hair in one thin line right down to the scalp. This will break the growth pattern in extreme cases, and the created weight will give control. Continue into the middle perimeter in horizontal sections to comb and sculpt at low projection. Finish the middle and inner perimeters in the same way, of course, with your neutral cut. Move to the front of the head and design the fringe (bang) area. Take the sides over and behind the ear and sculpt even with the side back sections. The sides are also cut at 0 degrees, or low projection. So far, you have just established the form. At this point, the hair should be blown dry to examine its personality. Notice, you will have purposefully left additional length at the sides, which allows for shrinkage. You can always go back and trim shorter, if necessary. Once the hair is dried, you will see that there is one smooth line from the center back to the sides. Any trimming can be done now. The reason for this care is that the mastoid bones cause the hair to split behind the ear, and the parietal bones can cause a lift in the same area. By creating more weight in this area, you can successfully offset these natural tendencies. You no doubt have seen poorly performed bobs walking around. Next, work on the internal variations. If the design demands an all-one-length middle and inner perimeters, you will still need to give some texture internally to these areas. Part off the top layer of the head. Vertically section 1-inch panels and use the blenders at least two times on each section. For a stronger texture of hair, you may wish to use your feather razor to remove some bulk from these areas while the hair is still wet. Again, because short hair pushes long hair, the design will have bounce and action when dried but still maintain a smooth finish on the surface. One variation that is popular is termed the layered bob. To produce this, return to your inner and middle perimeter sections. Take a small section from the top of the inner perimeter in the back of the head. Determine the desired length, usually 3 to 4 inches. Watch out for growth patterns, and increase the guide length accordingly. Then remove the length from this section where you want the layering to begin. Continue down through the inner and middle perimeters. (Do not layer into the density build-up area.) Complete the back area and move on to the top and side sections. Detailing here is entirely up to the finish desired. You can use the face frame on one or both sides or give a strong asymmetric line. Work with the personality of the hair and take your inspiration from this. This medium-long design can easily be converted to the newly popular flip by performing the projections described in the longhair flip design, only shorter. The truest bob form is the design with a more fitted neckline. Section the head with your basic partings described previously. Subdivide the outer perimeter in the back of the head. Have the client sit straight, knees uncrossed, with her head down to the chin. Flatten the wet hair smoothly against the back of the neck with the back of the comb. Then lift the head to the upright position. You will see the hair buckle in the center back. This is your guide for the back length. Why? Because this is the natural bend on this particular head. When you need to create a hairline (if it is too sparse), this is the way to do it. Proceed to create a strong, inverted U. The remainder of this design is produced in the same manner as the longer bob. By taking the hair from the front of the ear at the sides, you can create the soft tendrils in front of the ear. The bob is usually created with your wet shears, especially on fine and thin hair. On medium and thick textures of hair, you should consider using the feather razor in a blunt cut. We can also decrease bulk and produce the form with this method. Using the blenders or chunking shears accomplishes the hottest form of this design. Finish the hair with root lifter and finger comb. If a feathery appearance is desired, use the backup razor technique throughout. Here again, use your source of inspiration from the picture that the client has chosen and the personality of the hair itself. Don t forget to educate the client on these design principals. She will look great every day, which is a testament to your talent. A beautiful take-off from the conventional bob is the Euro-bob (also called the two-step bob.) From the same beginning, sculpt a deep, inverted V for a more extreme form. (The inverted U can also be used.) Subdivide the middle perimeter at the back to just below the occipital bone. With the scissors-over-comb technique, produce a fitted neckline across the back. Holding the comb at a 45-degree angle to the head, taper the hair. Use the blenders to refine the neckline. The neckline hair should be sculpted between ¼- to ½-inch long. (This is where the haircutting chair really comes in handy.) Then, from the top of the middle perimeter (at the occipital bone) sculpt a second inverted V or U at 0 degrees elevation. There is no relationship between the fitted neckline and the beginning of the bob. It is an overlay. Bring down the remaining hair in the middle and inner perimeters and sculpt at 0 degrees. Take the sides in toward the center to develop more length behind the ears. The bob actually begins at the occipital bone. Bring the side sections back behind the ear and cut even. Design the fringe area according to the client s wishes. You may use a side part for a drape fringe or whatever the hair s growth dictates. Internally texturize as discussed above, or incorporate some low projection layering as desired. Much of your finish work and detailing should be done after the hair is dried, when you can see the rotation of the hair s growth pattern. It bears repeating that these are truly washand-go designs with minimum time spent. Your clients will appreciate this. The short design Of all of the designs for women, the most popular for the mature and conservative woman is the Elite Page 17

20 short design. Today s shorter designs follow the trend of easy and ready-to-wear hair. However, they are edgier and newer looking than what we were sculpting just a few years ago. Necessarily, the forms have not changed very much. It is the surface texture where much of the differences are realized. Begin with the outer perimeter sectioning. However, instead of the curved parting at the back between the ears, take a deep V parting to produce the middle and inner perimeters. This will give you a better vision around the critical area behind the ears and the lift of the mastoid bone. Design and sculpt the neckline using diagonal-back partings, parallel to the V. Scoop the hair up and between the fingers (or use the comb) to hold at the perpendicular distribution and medium projection. Note: There is a difference between cutting the hair inside the fingers and outside the fingers. When the hair is cut inside of the fingers, you will produce a strong, straight line. However, if the hair is rolled over the outside of the fingers, microscopically, you will produce an irregular line or beveled edges. In both situations, the hair is point cut. This bears remembering when concentrating on the surface textures. The beveled edge will give more motion. Continue to work into the middle perimeter with diagonal-back partings, perpendicular distribution and medium projection. Lower the projection as you reach the top of the middle perimeter. Remove any unnecessary weight with either the blenders or top-cut in the slide motion to taper the hair in a downward motion. This is a natural head-form design. Be careful not to expose a sparse hairline. You may also need to use the hairline creation technique on some heads, as previously discussed. Adaptability is the key in the neckline creation. You may wish to leave some fringe behind the ears for softness. This will also add length to the form and fill in a slender neck. On a shorter neck, the V neckline is very flattering. When you see a natural W, you may wish to sculpt this unique line. Whatever you choose, check your two mirrors for the balance and proportion to the head and neck. We do not advise shaving the neckline into a shape. Within a few days, this hair re-appears and simply looks messy. So design to your heart s content, but follow the hair. When you reach the inner perimeter of the back sections, continue with the diagonal-back partings and perpendicular distribution; but switch to low projection. This will rapidly increase the length in the upper crown. Internally texturize this area for lightness and bounce. Move to the front of the head and design the fringe area. While this area is entirely flexible and can reflect the client s customary design, the newer looking design is a combination of a very structured short fringe (about 1 inch back) with a longer overlay. This is the fashion statement today. For this, notch into the outer perimeter with either point cutting or using the feather razor. Keep the fringe very brief with a length of 2 inches or less, depending on the height of the Page 18 forehead. Moving back, create a new guideline to the tip of the nose or what is adaptable to the client. In the middle and inner perimeters of just the top section, bring the hair down and forward to match with the overlay guide. You are left with the two side sections. This again is totally adaptable, depending on the client s taste. One design asks for a strong asymmetric line. On the short side, continue the notch line around the eye and in front of the ear. Finish with a match to the side front and just behind the ear. The length should be just over the tip of the ear. On the long side, notch around the eye and in front of the ear. Then bring the back section of the inner perimeter from the front to the last section of the inner perimeter of the back. Comb the front sections back to this stationary guide. The length will increase as you move forward. This will complete the overlay and blend with the crown. If desired, trim this section to midear. Internally texturize this area while still maintaining the heavy appearance in the ends of the hair. On the short side, take the last section of the inner perimeter from the front to the top section of the back inner perimeter and blend. Comb the hair in its natural fall and clean the surface. A good supportive gel will give you lift and definition in the finish. If a symmetrical design is desired, notch in (about 1-inch deep) the entire outer perimeter of the front. Re-section the top at the natural recession or crest line. From a diagonal-back parting, comb the hair inside of the fingers at medium projection from perpendicular distribution. Sculpt parallel with point cutting technique. Continue to notch until you reach the back of the ear, using the same procedures with a traveling guide. Complete the other side in the same manner. Design the overlay fringe to eyebrow length (longer if necessary). Remember to incorporate your U form. Divide the top section into three equal sections. Take this guide up to the center section of the top remaining hair. Vertically pointcut each section while moving back through the top with this traveling guide. You will meet the top section of the inner perimeter of the back and blend. Stand behind the client if you are cutting with your right hand; move to the right section of the top. Pick up a small amount of hair from the side and the center top and sculpt in the same manner. Note: Work from front to back and cut from short to long. Then, standing in front of the client on her left side, repeat this procedure. Note: Again, work from the front toward the back and cut from short to long. As a final procedure to give lift, twist down small sections of hair through the top and crown and chip the section with the blenders (for finer hair) or the notching shears (for stronger hair). Use your choice about halfway down the length of the twisted section. A dab of gel will make it possible to finger-finish this design. We recommend that you teach the client this finishing technique. One more finishing technique is perming. Introducing the new texture perms to your clients is another way to increase your business. A partial perm on the top and crown of the head will make this a wash-and-wear design on hair that normally would require more assistance. As few as 12 very large rods will make all the difference. Sculpt the basic form first, perm and then finish the texturizing with curl consideration. This length and its many variations will make it possible for you to satisfy your clients who prefer to wear their hair short. Masculine design The primary difference in designing men s and women s hair is in the physiology of the bone frame of the client s body. Men s bones are square, and women s bones are rounded. For the designer, this translates to a difference in body position while working. The stylist must address a male client with his or her arms, hands and tools in straight, squared lines. This is accomplished immediately by lifting your elbows to almost parallel with the shoulders. As soon as you drop your elbows, you will produce a curve to your hands and the approach to the client s head. No matter what length the client desires, this is an important distinction. So, for the gentleman client: Elbows up! Check yourself in your mirrors. Each time that you take up a section, check the mirror to see that everything on you is straight. After a short time, this will become the correct habit. The gentleman s classic design is a series of six squares: 1. Across the front. 2. One ear. 3. The other ear. 4. Across the back. 5. Internally at the top of the head. 6. Internally at the center of the occipital bone. Begin by sectioning the hair along the crest line of the head on one side (around the back of the head) to the same on the other side. This is the top section. Section from this parting to just behind the ear on both sides. Unless absolutely necessary, avoid using clips when sectioning. For most of the designs, you will be using the serrated (dry) shears and the blenders. Although you may wish to use your wet tools in some areas, the serrated-edge shears will still give you the best control for the scissors-over-comb technique. Determine the length of the form by how much of the ear is to be covered or not covered. If the ears are prominent, take your guide from the middle of the ear (without stretching the hair). The client may wish to have the ears covered. In this case, drop the guide to below the ear. The side guide is the guide for the entire design, because every other section of the design relates to it. For cutting with the right hand, stand at the right side of the head. Take the entire right side section down and sculpt at the desired length (cutting from front to back). Remember to hold the hair at low projection, inside the fingers and with natural distribution. Then take a half-inch vertical parting forward and skin cut a straight line from in front of the ear to the crest line. Standing behind the Elite

21 client, take that first section out at 90 degrees from the head. Part the next half-inch section. Bring the guide section to the next section and sculpt even, cutting on the outside of the fingers. Continue with this procedure until the entire side section is completed. You are using a traveling guide. Clean around the ear to 0 and taper slightly to refine the line. Determine the length of the sideburn according to the client s wishes, but watch that you do not accentuate a poor feature, such as a pointed nose. Most often, it will be at the top of the cheekbone. To match the left side of the head, you must stand in front of the client and turn your shears. Repeat the above actions on the left side of the head. If cutting with the left hand, reverse the above procedure. That is, begin on the left side of the head. Make sure that you address the hair from front to back and short to long as above. Move to the top front of the head and design in a straight line. It is recommended to use point cutting in this area for softness. While standing on the left side of the head, section a 1-inch panel down the center to top of the head. Comb the hair straight up and vertically point cut. Bring the next 1-inch section from the right side toward the center and sculpt even. Repeat this until you run out of hair on the right side. You are working with a stationary guide. Next, take a 1-inch parting from the left side of the center top and bring this section up to the center guide. Continue to take 1-inch partings until you have completed the area. Standing behind the client, take up a section from the right side of the top in the front, at the place where the side and top come together (the crest line). Square off this point. Work your way back until reaching the dividing line behind the ear. To complete the left side of the front, you must change positions to in front of the client and repeat the procedure. If you visualize that the hair will be longer at the crest line, you are correct. This next area of the head is where you may encounter strong growth patterns. Be very careful to leave extra length around a whorl. You may also use the technique discussed previously for breaking the up-growth at the back of the neck at the whorl. At the center top of the back section, take a horizontal section, hold at 90 degrees with perpendicular projection and notch-cut across your fingers. (Hold at a higher degree for more length.) Continue to take small sections up and out at 90 degrees and sculpt in the same manner. Stop when you reach the curve of the occipital bone. At the center back, switch to vertical partings to work with the lower section of the back. Comb and hold the hair at 90 degrees and cut with shears pointed upward. You may wish to use the comb instead of your fingers to accomplish this if the hair is short. Continue working this way until the entire back is completed. When you reach the section just behind the ear, match the side and back sections horizontally. Then, holding the ear down, cut a straight line down to the bottom behind the ear with the shears pointed downward. Discover the natural bend of the neck. As described above, flatten the hair against the back of the neck with the client s head down to the chin. Then slowly lift the head until you see the hair buckle. This is the natural bend and your guide for the edge of the design. Sculpt from center to outsides, following the curve of the neck. With the shears-over-comb technique, taper this area from 0 degrees to the area that was held at 90 degrees. Remember to tip the comb toward you to increase the length as you work your way up. Follow this procedure with the blending shears over the comb to refine the line. On very strong, coarse hair, you may wish to use the razor over comb or the rotation technique (Roffler). The two remaining sections between the center back and the sides are sculpted in vertical partings held at 90 degrees to match both the sides and the upper back. Use the blenders over the comb on the ends of the hair for a textured finish throughout. One other distinction of the gentleman s designer is tailoring. Take particular note to remove the hair in and around the ears and tailor the eyebrows. Using the clippers-over-comb is the easiest and safest way to trim the eyebrows. Also use the clippers with the blades down to refine the sideburns and clean around the ears. Shampoo and condition the hair as necessary. This will remove the blended hair from the head and add to the client s comfort. Finish with a dab of gel and comb in place. Conclusion A hair designer is more than a stylist; he or she is an artist. If you aspire to be one, consider these techniques and remember: The salon artist s fabric is hair our own medium! The author gratefully acknowledges the many artists and systems studied that formed the foundation for this course. Bibliography David Riddle, Scissorsmith Personality Identification System Pivot Point International, Salon Fundamentals Pivot Point International, Design Forum Jo Ann M. Stills, Americas educator; 1975 to present Notes Elite Page 19

22 CHAPTER 3 Sanitation, Sterilization and Infection Control (3 CE hours) Learning objectives Describe recent events that require your knowledge of sanitation techniques. Explain the difference between pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Contrast disinfectants and antiseptics and explain the significance of those differences. List the steps necessary to properly sanitize your hands and to disinfect, handle and store tools appropriately. List infection-control responsibilities in the practice of cosmetology in North Carolina. List infection-control responsibilities according to universal sanitation precautions. Contrast sanitation and sterilization and explain the significance of those differences. Introduction Why do I have to complete sanitation continuing education? Salon professionals need to be aware that we have reached a time where, quite simply, antibiotic-resistant organisms can kill, and the frequency of infections from them is increasing. Due to the sheer nature of people touching people in a salon atmosphere, the killer organisms can occur in your facility if you aren t informed and following the proper procedures. The following information emphasizes how important sanitation is in your salon. Your responsibilities As a salon professional, you have responsibilities to the state and your profession to learn and use appropriate precautionary measures and cleaning procedures, to protect both yourself and your clients; reduce the incidence of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections; and prevent the spread of disease. You, your instruments and workstation must be kept as clean as possible, meaning no shortcuts or omissions of any precautionary measures discussed in this chapter. Violations can result in penalization by the state of North Carolina as well as infection. The remainder of this chapter will review these subjects: The biology of pathogens, how they function, reproduce and infect. Universal sanitation and sterilization precautions. State of North Carolina regulations that apply to cosmetology. The difference between decontamination, sanitation, sterilization and disinfection. How to effectively disinfect tools and surfaces in your environment, and to sanitize hands. Microorganisms and infectious agents Microorganisms are tiny living particles (organisms) with many different characteristics. They live in our air, water and earth, and are found everywhere on the planet. Some microorganisms are associated with infection Page 20 or disease; others are harmless or even helpful. Bacteria, viruses and parasites are three major categories of microorganisms that you encounter every day. Bacteria Bacteria are tiny, one-celled vegetable microorganisms (plants) that can be seen only with a microscope. The most plentiful organisms on the earth, bacteria are found virtually everywhere around us, existing in dust, dirt and decay; our skin and body tissues; and the air we breathe and the water we drink. Bacteria produce slimy fluids or waxy coatings that moisten them and help them survive in inhospitable environments. Fimbri, hairlike tendrils that anchor the bacteria to an object, make bacteria sticky, requiring one to use some degree of pressure when scrubbing to break the hold of these tenacious fibers. Bacteria exist in one of two modes: an active, vegetative mode, and an inactive, sporeforming mode. In the active stage, bacteria grow and multiply at an astonishing speed. Reproducing through binary fission (a process in which one bacteria splits into two), bacteria produce millions of copies within hours. Bacteria are only able to reproduce when the environment meets their specific needs in temperature and degree of moisture. They require a warm, damp, usually dark and often dirty environment that provides a supply of food adequate to sustain the bacteria and provide fuel for reproduction. If conditions are not favorable for reproduction, the bacteria will move into a spore-forming stage, producing spores with tough outer surfaces that are almost impervious to wind, heat, cold, harsh cleaners or disinfectants. These characteristics help spores survive for long periods between reproductive phases. While there are hundreds of different kinds of bacteria, they are primarily sorted into one of two types, according to the danger they pose to us. Potentially harmful bacteria are called pathogenic; harmless or beneficial bacteria are called nonpathogenic. The great majority (about 70 percent) of bacteria are nonpathogenic. Called saprophytes, these organisms do not produce disease and carry out necessary functions, such as decomposing dead matter, for example. Nonpathogenic bacteria also exist in the human digestive tract and in the mouth and intestines, where they facilitate digestion by breaking down food. A much smaller minority (about 30 percent) of organisms are pathogenic organisms, also called microbes or germs. These are harmful and produce disease when they invade animal or plant life. Pathogenic bacteria commonly exist in the salon environment. Bacterial infection occurs when a body is exposed to and cannot successfully fight off bacterial invasion. General infections typically begin as local infections, which may start as a boil or pimple accompanied by pus (a compilation of bacteria, decayed tissue, waste and blood cells) that is often associated with infection. Bacterial toxins from local infections can spread to different parts of the body through the bloodstream, increasing the likelihood of general infection. Pathogenic bacteria are distinguished by their characteristic shapes: Bacilli are rod-shaped, and the most common bacteria, causing diseases such as influenza, tetanus and diphtheria. Spirilla are spiral-shaped bacteria, and cocci are round bacteria that produce pus. Cocci rarely move on their own, but are usually transported through the air in dust particles or other substances. Bacilli and spirilla are both capable of self-movement (motility), using hairlike projections (flagella or cilia) to propel themselves. Methicillin-resistant Staph aureas (MRSA) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is caused by bacteria known as staphylococcal aureus. Staph aureus is a common bacteria found on skin and mucous membranes. In MRSA, a type or strain of Staph aureus has become resistant to antibiotics in the penicillin family, which includes methicillin. People can become either colonized or infected with MRSA. In colonization, people have MRSA on their skin or mucous membranes without signs of infection. With infection, the bacteria have entered the body and have begun to multiply and cause damage to the organ or body tissue involved. Signs of infection include fever, warmth, redness of the area, pain and an elevated white blood cell count. MRSA is spread by direct contact with affected areas and is normally not spread by casual contact. Good hand washing and the use of gloves for contact with mucous membranes will avoid transferring the bacteria from one person to another. How common are Staph and MRSA infections? Staph bacteria are one of the most common causes of skin infection in the United States and are a common cause of pneumonia, surgical wound infections and bloodstream infections. The majority of MRSA infections occur among patients in hospitals or other health care settings. But they are becoming more common in the community setting. What does a staph or MRSA infection look like? Staph bacteria, including MRSA, can cause skin infections that may look like a pimple or boil and can be red, swollen, painful or have pus or other drainage. Infections that are more serious may cause pneumonia, bloodstream infections or surgical wound infections. Are certain people at increased risk for community-associated staph or MRSA infections? Factors that have been associated with the spread of MRSA skin infections include close skin-toskin contact, openings in the skin such as cuts or abrasions, contaminated items and surfaces, crowded living conditions and poor hygiene. Elite

23 How can I prevent staph or MRSA skin infections? Practice good hygiene: Keep your hands clean by washing thoroughly with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Keep cuts and scrapes clean and covered with a bandage until healed. Avoid contact with other people s wounds or bandages. Avoid sharing personal items such as towels or razors. Practice good disinfection techniques. If I have a staph or MRSA skin infection, what can I do to prevent others from being infected? You can prevent spreading staph or MRSA skin infections to others by following these steps: Cover your wound. Keep wounds that are draining or have pus covered with clean, dry bandages. Follow your health care provider s instructions on proper care of the wound. Pus from infected wounds can contain staph and MRSA, so keeping the infection covered will help prevent the spread to others. Bandages or tape can be discarded with the regular trash. Clean your hands. You, your family and others in close contact should wash their hands frequently with soap and warm water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, especially after changing the bandage or touching the infected wound. Do not share personal items. Avoid sharing personal items such as towels, washcloths, razors, clothing or uniforms that may have had contact with the infected wound or bandage. Wash sheets, towels and clothes that become soiled with water and laundry detergent. Drying clothes in a hot dryer instead of airdrying also helps kill bacteria in clothes. Talk to your doctor. Tell any health care providers who treat you that you have or had a staph or MRSA skin infection. Viruses Viruses are infectious biological entities that are very small much smaller than bacteria and cause disease by entering a healthy cell, maturing and reproducing. Unlike bacteria, viruses do not survive for any length of time without the protection of a living cell. Viruses are dangerous because their replication inside the cell eventually causes the death of that cell. They are parasites, taking the cell s nutrients and destroying the cell in the process. The cell is then used to breed hundreds, thousands and even millions of new mature infectious viruses that leave to infect other cells. Viruses cause diseases like hepatitis, influenza and measles, and are the source of colds, chicken pox, cold sores and genital herpes, mononucleosis, hepatitis and HIV/AIDS. Viruses are a particular concern in salons because of their potential severity and the way they spread. Viruses occupy the surfaces of objects you touch, including door handles, coffee mugs and scissors; they can be inhaled on tiny dust particles or travel on the minute amount of saliva expelled in a cough. Viral infections can be transmitted from one person to another through casual contact with an infected individual or contact with what he or she touched. Both handto-surface and hand-to-hand contacts are highly effective methods for transferring virus particles from one individual to another. Viruses are hardy organisms. They can live for up to 48 hours on the surfaces of toys, coffeemakers, doorknobs, computer keyboards and other hard surfaces in a salon. It can take up to a week for that virus that infected you to produce symptoms. Plant parasites Plant parasites, such as fungus or mold, mildew and yeasts are multicellular organisms that are as prevalent as bacteria and consume both live and dead tissue to survive. Fungi usually prefer a damp environment, but can also survive in a warm, dry climate. They reproduce and spread a number of different ways, and can invade the human body easily, requiring no break in the skin. Ringworm and athlete s foot are two common contagious diseases that are spread by fungi. Another is favus, which affects the scalp. Cosmetologists should not serve any individual with signs of any fungal infection. If you have a fungal infection, do not work and seek treatment immediately. If you think a client has ringworm, identified by a ring-shaped, circular pattern on the skin, or athlete s foot, do not provide service to the individual, because they are highly contagious. Tell the individual to consult a physician for treatment. Precautions with plant parasites Fungal infections can be stubborn. Many affect the skin, but fungal infections can also cause severe respiratory infections. More common versions of fungal infections are those caused by yeast, including nail fungus, athletes foot, jock itch and ringworm. Both over-the-counter and prescription treatments are available for relief from the unpleasant, itchy symptoms of many yeast infections. Plant parasites, like fungus and mold, are contagious, with nail fungus a significant risk to clients receiving nail services because fungi can spread, not only from one nail to another but also from a client to a technician or the reverse, given improper sanitation techniques at a salon. Nail fungus appears as discoloration of the nail plate (on either the fingernails or toenails), initially appearing white, but growing darker over time. Clients with nail fungus should be referred to a physician for treatment. Molds and mildews do not infect fingernails, and rarely, if ever, appear under the nail. Greenish bacterial infections, which may appear yellowish or yellow-green initially, can continue to stain the nail plate long after an infection has subsided, and are sometimes mistakenly attributed to mold. Nails can harbor dangerous bacteria, which can thrive on the oils and moisture that exist between an improperly prepared or unsanitized nail plate and an applied enhancement. Clients with nail fungus or other infections should not receive nail services, but can be assisted in removing an artificial nail from the infected natural nail. If you are asked to expose the natural nail, follow these precautionary steps: Wear gloves during the removal of artificial nails. Follow the manufacturer s instructions for removal. Discard any implements, including orangewood sticks, items with porous surfaces and any abrasives used. Disinfect all implements and work surfaces. Refer the client to a physician for treatment once the natural nail is exposed. Animal parasites Animal parasites may be single-cell (protozoans) like amoebas or malaria, or multicell, like mites or lice. Protozoans consume both plant and animal tissue and are found in blood and body fluids, water and food. Multicell animals such as lice and mites can hide in the hair and burrow under the skin. Be aware of the signs of scabies, identified by bite marks on a client; Rocky Mountain spotted fever, or typhus, caused by rickettsia; and animal parasites carried by fleas, lice and ticks that are even smaller than bacteria. For any individual with a visible communicable disease, like pediculosis (head lice), open sores or marks suggesting scabies, it is recommended that the person furnish a statement signed by a physician that the disease or condition is not in an infectious, contagious or communicable stage. The same is true if the cosmetologist has symptoms or indications of a visible disease, lice or open sores; he or she should not practice cosmetology until obtaining a statement signed by a physician stating that the disease or condition is not in an infectious, contagious or communicable stage. Modes of contamination Diseases are communicable or contagious when they move from one individual to another. Working with the public means encountering potentially dangerous pathogens and opportunistic organisms every day. Always assume your clients, co-workers and environment could be carrying illness, and use proper infection control procedures every day. Humans have some level of immunity against infection, but our level of protection varies with age, health and a range of other factors. Skin is our first line of defense. When there are no cuts or scrapes, skin is excellent protection against pathogens. In the vast majority of cases, bacteria, fungi and viruses enter the body through the portals of the nose and mouth, small tears or openings in the skin, and to a lesser extent, the eyes and ears. Once inside the body, the pathogen reproduces rapidly at a rate that can overwhelm the immune system, resulting in disease. Transmission may occur through direct or indirect contact. For example, indirectly inhaling contaminated droplets in the air (airborne transmission), or touching a contaminated surface and then touching one s nose, eyes or a mucous Elite Page 21

24 membrane is an easy way to transmit germs. Try to avoid touching your face during the day, and always wash your hands between clients. Yeast, scabies, lice and many other skin infections do not require an open sore or mucosal surface to infect. Athlete s foot contaminates through indirect transmission. When someone with athlete s foot walks barefoot on a wet bathroom floor, for example, the person leaves behind spores that will stick to the foot of anyone else walking barefoot on that floor, infecting the individual even if he or she has no cuts or openings on the feet. Fungi, like athlete s foot, will survive for some time on a damp or wet floor. Spa shower stalls and soaking baths that retain small amounts of water must be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected with the appropriate disinfectant. The primary modes of travel for common contagions are: Unclean hands. Unclean implements. Open sores. Pus. Mouth and nose discharge. Shared cups or towels. Coughing or sneezing. Spitting. Pathogenic bacteria can also enter the body through: A break in the skin, including pimples, scratches or cuts. The nose and the mouth during breathing. The mouth during eating and drinking. Humans are excellent sources of contamination because we are constantly leaving organic particles behind wherever we go, a mixture of dead skin cells with viral, bacterial and fungal particles and other microorganisms that consume skin cells or use us to travel to an appropriate host. Every time you touch something, you deposit some of this organic matter on another surface. Simple actions, such as touching a client s hair, brushing some of your hair out of your eyes with your hand or touching a spray bottle can move microorganisms from one item to another, from you to your client or your client to you. Individuals who are susceptible to infection because of a compromised protection system or some failure in their ability to resist invasion are also the targets of opportunistic microorganisms. In contrast to pathogens, opportunistic organisms do not cause initial illness but will infect an individual once pathogenic organisms have already weakened its immune system. Opportunistic organisms cling to the skin and the hair and exist in the bodies of healthy people. Microbes also contaminate ventilation systems; to discourage their growth, vents, filters, humidifiers and dehumidifiers should be cleaned and maintained regularly. Investigate any mildew or musty odors, which are a good indication of microbe growth. Germs in a ventilation system easily spread throughout a salon, landing on people, surfaces and implements, whenever the blower or fan turns on. Page 22 Germs not only float through the air, settling constantly on salon surfaces such as sinks and countertops, and they can also hitchhike on human skin, hair and clothing, contaminating anything with which they come into contact. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms are able to thrive in a salon s warm, moist places, like the drain of the shampoo sink, the footbaths, hotand cold-water handles and taps. Implements such as scissors, files, brushes or nippers can be major sources of contamination because they often contain organic matter, an optimum growth environment for pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. Some of the most dangerous areas in your salon are the places you keep contaminated manicuring tools or equipment, including the manicure table and the trashcans in which you deposit dirty implements. Microbes can also exist on seemingly unlikely products, like bars of soap, for example. Because germs and other microorganisms have been shown to thrive on bar soap, many salons prefer to use liquid soap that can be dispensed from a container for each customer. In addition, soaking solutions, lotions and creams that initially are uncontaminated may lose preservatives that keep them safe from pathogenic or opportunistic microbes from growing in them. Changes in color, texture, appearance or odor can be signs of contamination. Fighting infection may be a matter of staying home when you are sick. Just as you should avoid working with contagious clients, you should not go to work if you have an infection, such as a bad cold or flu. Cover your mouth and nose to control pathogens escaping through sneezes and coughs. Avoid causing wounds if your client s skin is dry or fragile; tears and breaks can occur easily, even when filing nails. Use abrasive instruments with care and a gentle touch, especially around the nail bed. The problem of antibiotic resistance Viruses cause: All colds and flu. Most coughs. Most sore throats. Antibiotics cannot kill viruses. This is a common misconception. Many of us demand antibiotics from our doctor when we have a severe cold, but antibiotics in that situation can actually do you more harm than good. Bacteria cause: Most ear infections. Some sinus infections. Urinary tract infections. Antibiotics do kill specific bacteria. Drug-resistant bacteria Each time you take an antibiotic, bacteria are killed. Sometimes bacteria may be resistant or become resistant. Drug-resistant bacteria do not respond to the antibiotics and continue to cause infection. Each time you take an antibiotic unnecessarily or improperly, you increase your chance of developing drug-resistant bacteria. So it is really important to take antibiotics only when necessary. Because of these resistant bacteria, some diseases that used to be easy to treat are now becoming nearly impossible to treat. What do you need to know about antibiotics? Remember that antibiotics don t work against colds and flu, and that unnecessary antibiotics can be harmful. Talk to your health care provider about antibiotics and find out about the differences between viruses and bacteria and when antibiotics should and shouldn t be used. If you do get an antibiotic, be sure to take it exactly as prescribed; that may help decrease the development of resistant bacteria. Antibiotic resistance is particularly dangerous for children, but it can occur in adults as well. Taking antibiotics appropriately and getting immunized will help prevent having to take more dangerous and more costly medications. If we use antibiotics appropriately, we can avoid developing drug resistance. We just need to take our medicine exactly as it is prescribed and not expect to take antibiotics every time we re sick. The troubling result The triumph of antibiotics over diseasecausing bacteria is one of modern medicine s greatest success stories. Since these drugs first became widely used in the World War II era, they have saved countless lives and blunted serious complications of many feared diseases and infections. After more than 50 years of widespread use, however, many antibiotics don t pack the same punch they once did. Over time, some bacteria have developed ways to outwit the effects of antibiotics. Widespread use of antibiotics is thought to have spurred evolutionary changes in bacteria that allow them to survive these powerful drugs. While antibiotic resistance benefits the microbes, it presents humans with two big problems: It makes it more difficult to purge infections from the body, and it heightens the risk of acquiring infections in a hospital. Diseases such as tuberculosis, gonorrhea, malaria and childhood ear infections are now more difficult to treat than they were decades ago. Drug resistance is an especially difficult problem for hospitals because they harbor critically ill patients who are more vulnerable to infections than the general population and therefore require more antibiotics. Heavy use of antibiotics in these patients hastens the mutations in bacteria that bring about drug resistance. Unfortunately, this worsens the problem by producing bacteria with greater ability to survive even our strongest antibiotics. These even stronger drug-resistant bacteria continue to prey on vulnerable hospital patients. To help curb this problem, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides hospitals with prevention strategies and educational materials to reduce antimicrobial resistance in health care settings. Elite

25 According to CDC statistics: Nearly 2 million patients in the United States get an infection in the hospital each year. Of those patients, about 90,000 die each year as a result of their infection up from 13,300 patient deaths in More than 70 percent of the bacteria that cause hospital-acquired infections are resistant to at least one of the drugs most commonly used to treat them. Persons infected with drug-resistant organisms are more likely to have longer hospital stays and require treatment with second- or third-choice drugs that may be less effective, more toxic and more expensive. In short, antimicrobial resistance is driving up health care costs, increasing the severity of disease and increasing the death rates from certain infections. Environment forces evolutionary change A key factor in the development of antibiotic resistance is the ability of infectious organisms to adapt quickly to new environmental conditions. Bacteria are single-celled creatures that, compared with higher life forms, have small numbers of genes. Therefore, even a single random gene mutation can greatly affect their ability to cause disease. And because most microbes reproduce by dividing every few hours, bacteria can evolve rapidly. A mutation that helps a microbe survive exposure to an antibiotic drug will quickly become dominant throughout the microbial population. Microbes also often acquire genes, including those that code for resistance, from each other. The advantage microbes gain from their innate adaptability is augmented by the widespread, and sometimes inappropriate, use of antibiotics. A physician wishing to placate an insistent patient ill with a cold or other viral condition sometimes inappropriately prescribes antibiotics. And when a patient does not finish taking a prescription for antibiotics, drug-resistant microbes not killed in the first days of treatment can proliferate. Hospitals also provide a fertile environment for drug-resistant germs as close contact among sick patients and extensive use of antibiotics force bacteria to develop resistance. Another controversial practice that some believe promotes drug resistance is adding antibiotics to agricultural feed. A growing problem For all these reasons, antibiotic resistance has been a problem for nearly as long as we ve been using antibiotics. Not long after the introduction of penicillin, a bacterium known as Staphylococcus aureus began developing penicillin-resistant strains. Today, antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria as well as various enterococci bacteria that colonize the intestines are common and pose a global health problem in hospitals. More and more hospitalacquired infections are resistant to the most powerful antibiotics available, methicillin and vancomycin. These drugs are reserved to treat only the most intractable infections in order to slow development of resistance to them. There are several signs that the problem is increasing: In 2003, epidemiologists reported in The New England Journal of Medicine that 5-10 percent of patients admitted to hospitals acquire an infection during their stay, and that the risk for a hospital-acquired infection has risen steadily in recent decades. Strains of S. aureus resistant to methicillin are endemic in hospitals and are increasing in non-hospital settings such as locker rooms. Since September 2000, outbreaks of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections have been reported among high school football players and wrestlers in California, Indiana and Pennsylvania, according to the CDC. The first S. aureus infections resistant to vancomycin emerged in the United States in 2002, presenting physicians and patients with a serious problem. In July 2002, the CDC reported that a Michigan patient with diabetes, vascular disease and chronic kidney failure had developed the first S. aureus infection completely resistant to vancomycin. A similar case was reported in Pennsylvania in September Increasing reliance on vancomycin has led to the emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci infections. Prior to 1989, no U.S. hospital had reported any vancomycin resistant enterococci, but over the next decade, such microbes have become common in U.S. hospitals, according to CDC. A 2003 study in The New England Journal of Medicine found that the incidence of blood and tissue infections known as sepsis almost tripled from 1979 to Other federal agencies are involved in combating the problem of drug-resistant microbes. See the links below for more information. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Food and Drug Administration antiresist.html National Library of Medicine Medline Database antibiotics.html Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance actionplan/index.htm Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics (APUA) Antibacterial Agent Information Sheet What is an antibacterial and how are antibacterials classified? In its broadest definition, an antibacterial is an agent that interferes with the growth and reproduction of bacteria. While antibiotics and antibacterials both attack bacteria, these terms have evolved over the years to mean two different things. Antibacterials are now most commonly described as agents used to disinfect surfaces and eliminate potentially harmful bacteria. Unlike antibiotics, they are not used as medicines for humans or animals, but are found in products such as soaps, detergents, health and skincare products and household cleaners. What are some common antibacterials? Antibacterials may be divided into two groups according to their speed of action and residue production. The first group contains those that act rapidly to destroy bacteria, but quickly disappear (by evaporation or breakdown) and leave no active residue behind (referred to as non-residueproducing). Examples of this type are the alcohols, chlorine, peroxides and aldehydes. The second group consists mostly of newer compounds that leave long-acting residues on the surface to be disinfected and thus have a prolonged action (referred to as residue producing). Common examples of this group are triclosan, triclocarban and benzalkonium chloride. How common are antibacterials in consumer products? All products that claim to kill bacteria or viruses have some kind of antibacterial agent. Alcohols, chlorine and peroxides have been used for many decades in health care and cleaning products. Within the past two decades, the residue-producing antibacterials once used almost exclusively in health care institutions have been added to increasing numbers of household products, particularly soaps and cleaning agents. A recent survey reported that 76 percent of liquid soaps from 10 states in the U.S. contained triclosan, and approximately 30 percent of bar soaps contained triclocarban. Many cleaning compounds contain quaternary ammonium compounds. Because these compounds have very long chemical names, they often are not easily recognized as antibacterial agents on packaging labels. More recently, triclosan has been bonded into the surface of many different products with which humans come into contact, such as plastic kitchen tools, cutting boards, highchairs, toys, bedding and other fabrics. Is the use of antibacterial agents regulated in the U.S.? Whether an antibacterial agent is regulated depends upon its intended use and its effectiveness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates antibacterial soaps and antibacterial substances that will either be used on the body or in processed food, including food wrappers and agents added to water involved in food processing. If a substance is not intended for use on or in the body, it is registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. Substances are registered either as public health or as non-public health antimicrobial agents. What is the difference between bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants and sterilizers? The EPA classifies public health antimicrobials as bacteriostats, sanitizers, disinfectants and Elite Page 23

26 sterilizers based on how effective they are in destroying microorganisms. Bacteriostats inhibit bacterial growth in inanimate environments. Sanitizers are substances that kill a certain percentage of test microorganisms in a given time span. Disinfectants destroy or irreversibly inactivate all test microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. Sterilizers destroy all forms of bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms and their spores. Disinfectants can be further categorized as broador limited-spectrum agents. A broad-spectrum disinfectant destroys both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. A limited-spectrum disinfectant must clearly specify the specific microorganisms against which it works. How beneficial are antibacterials? Antibacterials are definitely effective in killing bacteria, but there is considerable controversy surrounding their health benefits. The nonresidue-producing agents have been used for many years and continue to be effective agents for controlling disease organisms in a wide variety of health care and domestic settings. When used under strict guidelines of application, the residue-producing agents have proven effective at controlling bacterial and fungal infection in clinical settings such as hospitals, nursing homes, neonatal nurseries and other health care facilities where there may be a high risk of infection. A certain few consumer products have demonstrated effectiveness for specific conditions: antibacterial toothpaste helps control periodontal (gum) disease; antibacterial deodorants suppress odor-causing bacteria; and antidandruff shampoos help control dandruff. However, to date, there is no evidence to support claims that antibacterials provide additional health benefits when used by the general consumer. Are antibacterial agents safe? When used as directed for external surfaces, antibacterial agents are considered to be relatively non-toxic. However, some may cause skin and eye irritation, and all have the potential for doing harm if not stored or used properly. Furthermore, evaluations of risk are based on single agents and do not consider the effects of multiple uses or multiple compounds. Recently, triclosan has been reported in surface waters, sewage treatment plants, the bile of fish and breast milk, but the significance of these findings is presently unknown. Do antibacterials create resistant bacteria? Because of their rapid killing effect, the nonresidue-producing antibacterial agents are not believed to create resistant bacteria. Resistance results from long-term use at low-level concentrations, a condition that occurs when consumers use residue-producing agents such as triclosan and triclocarban. Until recently, it was accepted that these agents did not affect a specific process in bacteria, and because of this, it was unlikely that resistant bacteria could emerge. However, recent laboratory evidence indicates that triclosan inhibits a specific step in Page 24 the formation of bacterial lipids involved in the cell wall structure. Additional experiments found that some bacteria can combat triclosan and other biocides with export systems that could also pump out antibiotics. It was demonstrated that these triclosan-resistant mutants were also resistant to several antibiotics, specifically chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Resistance to antibacterials has been found where these agents are used continuously (as in the hospital and food industry); however, at the present time, this modest increase in resistance has not yet created a clinical problem. Can the widespread use of antibacterial agents lead to bacteria that are more resistant? Many scientists feel that this is a potential danger, but others argue that the laboratory conditions used in the research studies do not represent the real world. So far, studies of antibacterial use in home products such as soap, deodorant and toothpaste have not shown any detectable development of resistance. However, such products have only been in use for a relatively short time, and studies of their effects are still extremely limited. Are there other concerns about the use of antibacterial agents? Yes, experts believe that the use of these agents creates a false sense of security that may cause individuals to become lax in their hygiene habits. Antibacterial use should not be considered an alternative to normal hygiene, except where normal hygiene practices are impossible. It should always be remembered that most bacteria are harmless and in many cases, even beneficial. Very few bacteria actually cause disease. Antibacterials are not discriminating, and an all-out attack on bacteria in general is unjustified. Constant use of disinfecting agents tends to disrupt the normal bacteria that act as barriers against invading pathogens. This may cause shifts in bacterial populations and create a space for disease-causing bacteria to enter and establish infection. In addition, some scientists have gathered evidence showing that overly hygienic homes during early childhood may be linked to the appearance of allergies later in life. In this hygiene hypothesis, allergies develop because the childhood immune system fails to mature properly due to lack of contact with immune-stimulating bacteria. This hypothesis remains controversial and requires further research for validation. When are antibacterials useful? While there is no evidence that the routine use of antibacterials confer a health benefit, they are useful where the level of sanitation is critical and additional precautions need to be taken to prevent spread of disease. Thus, they are important in hospitals, day care centers, salons and health care facilities and other environments with high concentrations of infectious bacteria. In the home environment, they may be needed for the nursing care of sick individuals with specific infections, or for those whose immune systems have been weakened by chronic disease, chemotherapy or transplants. Under these circumstances, antibacterials should be used according to protocol, preferably under the guidance of a health care professional. Please visit the following link to learn more about antibiotics: htm. Addressing the problem You have a responsibility to control exposure to pathogens by decontaminating your environment and tools using what are known as universal precautions, standards used in health care and other environments. Remember that pathogens collect any time an object or surface is exposed to air. Doorknobs, handles, the telephone, money, cabinets, and the cash register all are surfaces touched by co-workers and clients that may harbor harmful pathogens, so all must be decontaminated to some degree. Cleaning is only the first step of the process. The following sections review the meaning of sanitation, sterilization, and disinfection, terms that are commonly used interchangeably, but have very different meanings and require different procedures. Sanitation Sanitation is the lowest level of decontamination. Sanitation will reduce germs on a surface, but will not kill all organisms. Sanitation provides a minimum level of cleanliness, protecting public health by preventing the spread of some, but not all, bacteria and fungi. Instruments that are sanitized are not sterile. Countertops and workstations should also be sanitized, wiped down with soap and water; this process should not be confused with, and does not replace, disinfection, which requires an appropriate disinfectant. Remember that soap and water will kill most of the bacteria on your hands, workstation or chair, but will not kill all the bacteria or fungal spores. The term sanitation is most often used in reference to cleaning the hands. Hand washing is absolutely essential to controlling bacteria and the most effective way to prevent the spread of infectious agents from one person to another. Hands cannot be sterilized because it is impossible to remove all microorganisms from the surface of the skin. Water and soap, in fact, are not sterile, and can introduce new bacteria and infectious agents. Both resident and transient organisms populate your hands. Resident organisms are a normal part of your skin s environment, their natural habitat. They grow and multiply in an oxygen environment, and rarely cause infection or harm the individual who is their host. These organisms cannot be removed easily by hand washing. Sanitation controls minimize exposure to transient organisms. These organisms, like E. coli and salmonella, cause Elite

27 dangerous infections in humans. In contrast to resident organisms, transient organisms cannot live long on the surface of our skin. They function poorly in an oxygen environment, usually surviving less than 24 hours. These organisms can be removed easily through the process of hand washing, using friction, soap and water. Wash your hands ( washing/) Hand washing is a simple thing, and it s the best way to prevent infection and illness. Clean hands prevent infections. Keeping hands clean prevents illness at home, at school, and at work. Hand hygiene practices are key prevention tools in healthcare settings, in daycare facilities, in schools and public institutions, and for the safety of our food. In health care settings, hand washing can prevent potentially fatal infections from spreading from patient to patient and from patient to health care worker and vice-versa. The basic rule in the hospital is to cleanse hands before and after each patient contact by either washing hands or using an alcohol-based hand rub. At home, hand washing can prevent infection and illness from spreading from family member to family member and sometimes throughout a community. In the home, the basic rule is to wash hands before preparing food and after handling uncooked meat and poultry; before eating; after changing diapers; after coughing, sneezing, or blowing one s nose into a tissue; and after using the bathroom. Wash your hands: The right way When washing hands with soap and water: Wet your hands with clean running water and apply soap. Use warm water if it is available. Rub hands together to make a lather and scrub all surfaces. Continue rubbing hands for seconds. Need a timer? Imagine singing Happy Birthday twice through to a friend. Rinse hands well under running water. Dry your hands using a paper towel or air dryer. If possible, use your paper towel to turn off the faucet. Always use soap and water if your hands are visibly dirty. If soap and clean water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand rub to clean your hands. Alcohol-based hand rubs significantly reduce the number of germs on skin and are fast-acting. When using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer: Apply product to the palm of one hand. Rub hands together. Rub the product over all surfaces of hands and fingers until hands are dry. ( wash/fsgermbuster.html) Hand washing: The beginning of infection control Ignaz Semmelweis, an Austrian-Hungarian physician, first demonstrated more than 150 years ago that hand hygiene can prevent the spread of disease. Hand hygiene as a practice includes performing hand washing, or using antiseptic hand wash, alcohol-based hand rub or surgical hand hygiene/antisepsis. Dr. Semmelweis worked in a hospital in Vienna whose maternity patients were dying at such an alarming rate that they begged to be sent home. Most of those dying had been treated by student physicians who worked on corpses during an anatomy class before beginning their rounds in the maternity ward. Because the students did not wash their hands effectively between touching the dead and the living hand washing was an unrecognized hygienic practice at the time pathogenic bacteria from the corpses regularly were transmitted to the mothers via the students hands. The result was a death rate five times higher for mothers who delivered in one clinic of the hospital than for mothers who delivered at another clinic not attended by the student physicians. In an experiment considered quaint at best by his colleagues, Dr. Semmelweis insisted that his students wash their hands before treating the mothers and deaths on the maternity ward fell fivefold. Unquestioned today as the most important tool in the health care worker s arsenal for preventing infection, hand washing was not readily accepted in Dr. Semmelweis s era. Indeed, his pleas to make hand washing a routine practice throughout the hospital were largely met with derision. Another 50 years would pass before the importance of hand washing as a preventive measure would be widely accepted by the medical profession. Sanitation is now a standard and thousands of lives have been saved because of Dr. Semmelweis s discovery. Cleaning agents for hands Cleaning agents assist in the process of removing substances from surfaces. Soaps and detergents are two common cleaning agents that are often confused for one another, but are composed of very different ingredients, with different cleaning properties. Soaps are the product of a chemical reaction, formed by vegetable oil reacting with lye, for example, and chemicals that add a desirable smell or quality to the soap, such as glycerine, to make it milder. While soap does not kill microorganisms, soap and water will help remove them from surfaces. Detergents are manufactured for the express purpose of cleaning specific substances off specific items, and are created using chemicals that can be very harsh to skin. In contrast to detergents that do not leave a residue or require rinsing, soaps leave a coating or residue on the body, typically one designed to make skin smoother or more attractive. Soaps also remove less fat from the skin than detergents, which have a drying quality and may strip the skin. Be sure to use the appropriate cleaning agent for the job. Different cleaning and disinfecting agents have many different properties. Always read the ingredients, instructions and recommendations for use on the item s label. Sterilization and disinfection Sterile means free from all germs; sterilization is the most effective level of decontamination, involving the removal of all bacterial life from a surface. This is the level of decontamination required for tools and surfaces in hospital surgeries. Hospitals use steam autoclaves to heat instruments to a very high temperature and many salons are investing in autoclaves to reinsure clients that their safety is the number one priority. Disinfection is the process of killing specific microorganisms, bacteria or germs using physical or chemical processes. Disinfectants are chemical agents that destroy organisms on contaminated instruments or surfaces. Disinfectants can be dangerous and must be used with caution. Disinfectants are used to destroy bacteria on equipment and implements, but they should not be used on the skin. In a salon atmosphere, disinfectants must be able to kill viruses, fungus and dangerous bacteria. Disinfectants Controlling bacteria in a salon requires some degree of effort, vigilance and good sense. In choosing a disinfectant, always look for the EPA registration number (awarded by the Environmental Protection Agency) to ensure you are using an approved disinfectant. This number indicates a level of safety for specific kinds of disinfection. To be registered by the EPA, it must be effective in killing bacteria, including Staphylococcus, aureus, salmonella and pseudomonas. Cosmetology salons must use not only EPA-approved disinfectants, but also those with an EPA rating of hospital-level (tuberculocidal) quality. These disinfectants are especially effective for salon use and are capable of killing viruses, dangerous bacteria and fungus. Disinfectants can be hazardous if prepared incorrectly. Consult the manufacturer s material safety data sheets (MSDS) for information on preparing the solution; check the listing of chemicals in the disinfectant and how they can pose safety hazards, if any. Be certain to follow manufacturers instructions and all written directions for the preparation and use of a specific disinfectant. Remember to follow all directions when using this type of disinfectant or any other disinfectant. To ensure safety, use an appropriate ratio of concentration in the solution, and clean only approved items, according to label instructions. Wear gloves and safety glasses, as indicated when mixing and using solutions. Do not confuse disinfectants, which destroy harmful microorganisms, with antiseptics, products designed to slow the growth of microorganisms. Antiseptics do not kill microorganisms and should not be confused with disinfectants or used for salon disinfection. Household disinfectants, commonly used to clean offices and homes, may be used to clean Elite Page 25

28 floors, doorknobs, walls and so on as directed on the container label, but should not be used in place of a hospital-grade salon disinfectant, which is required to sterilize instruments. Bleach can be used as an effective disinfectant, but it is not a cleaning agent and should only be applied to clean surfaces. Bleach must be used with caution because it can release toxic fumes when mixed with certain substances. Bleach is far too harsh for day-to-day disinfection and will damage instruments. It may be used for washing towels and other salon laundry. What are efficacy tests? The tests used to measure the effectiveness of disinfectants on various pathogenic (diseasecausing) organisms are called efficacy tests. The EPA must pre-approve all efficacy test methods used to measure the effectiveness of disinfectants against specific microorganisms. The most common efficacy test prescribed by EPA is the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) test. Currently, for a disinfectant cleaner to be registered by EPA as hospital strength, it must be effective at its recommended dilution in killing target pathogens in the presence of 400 ppm hard water and 5 percent organic serum and must kill 100 percent of the target test organisms. It is a good idea for you to require the manufacturer or distributor of a disinfectant or disinfectant-cleaner to provide efficacy data to you before you select it for use in your salon. What factors affect how well a disinfectant works? There are six main factors: 1. Concentration This is dilution rate. Proper dilution is very important. Read label for complete dilution directions. 2. Contact time For most all disinfectants, such as bleach, contact time is not very critical. 3. PH Certain disinfectants work best under acidic conditions, and others work best under alkaline conditions. 4. Temperature Certain disinfectants work best in cold water (bleach). Most work best in warm water. 5. Soil load Disinfectants do not know the difference between soil and bacteria. That is why heavy soil should be removed before disinfecting. See explanation above for more details. 6. Organism type Not all disinfectants work on all types of organisms. When in doubt, read the product label for a complete list. How can you calculate active parts per million (ppm) of the disinfectant you are using? To calculate active ppm, you ll need three things the active ingredient list from the disinfectant label, dilution rate of the product and a calculator. The following is an example of how this would be done using a neutral germicidal cleaner: Step 1: Add together active ingredient percentages from the label: For example, 5.07 Page 26 percent percent = 8.45 percent total active ingredients. Step 2: Multiply by 10,000: 8.45 X 10,000 = 84,500 Step 3: Divide the result of Step 2 by the dilution rate (128 in this example): 84,500 / 128 = 660 ppm. Parts per million (ppm) is a ratio figure that represents the amount of one substance that is in one million parts of another substance. North Carolina sanitation rules You will learn more regarding the laws rules governing the state of North Carolina later in our course, but below is a major section regarding sanitation rules in your salon. Failure to follow these rules can result in substantial fines. Copy of rules to cosmetology students Cosmetic art schools shall give a copy of the sanitation rules governing the practice of the cosmetic arts to each student for study. Copy of rules to beauty establishments The board shall give copies of the rules of sanitation governing the practice of cosmetic art to all beauty establishments. Sanitary ratings and posting of ratings a. The sanitary rating of a beauty establishment shall be based on a system of grading outlined in this subchapter. Based on the grading, all establishments shall be rated in the following manner: 1. All establishments receiving a rating of at least 90 percent or more shall be awarded a grade A; 2. All establishments receiving a rating of at least 80 percent and less than 90 percent shall be awarded grade B; 3. All establishments receiving a rating of at least 70 percent or more and less than 80 shall be awarded grade C. b. Every beauty establishment shall be given a sanitary rating. A cosmetic art school shall be graded no less than three times a year, and a cosmetic art shop shall be graded once a year. c. The sanitary rating given to a beauty establishment shall be posted in a conspicuous place at all times. d. All new establishments must receive a rating of at least 90 percent before a license will be issued. e. The willful operation of a beauty establishment which fails to receive a sanitary rating of at least 70 percent (grade C) shall be sufficient cause for revoking or suspending the letter of approval or permit. f. A re-inspection for the purpose of raising the sanitary rating of a beauty establishment shall not be given within 30 days of the last inspection, unless the rating at the last inspection was less than 80 percent. g. A whirlpool and foot spa sanitation record must be kept on each whirlpool and foot spa for inspection on a form provided by the board. Water supply a. A beauty establishment shall have a supply of running hot and cold water in the clinic area, approved by the local health department. b. When a service is provided in a room closed off by a door, the water supply required in this rule must be within 20 feet of the door or 25 feet from the service table or chair. The restroom sink shall not be used to meet this requirement. Floor coverings All floor coverings shall be washable and kept clean and in good repair. Ventilation and light a. All doors and windows shall be kept clean and, if open for ventilation, effectively screened. b. Necessary ventilation shall be provided at all times. In the clinic areas of all cosmetic art schools and in the areas where patrons are serviced in all cosmetic art shops, there must be an adequate, continuous exchange of air. c. Adequate light shall be provided for each operator. Bathroom facilities a. Toilet and hand washing facilities consisting of at least one commode and one lavatory with hot and cold running water, liquid soap and individual towels shall be provided. b. A residential beauty salon shall furnish bathroom facilities separate and apart from the residence. Cleanliness of operators a. All operators and students shall be personally clean and neat. b. Every person employed in a beauty establishment shall wear clean, washable outer garments with sleeves while serving patrons. c. Each licensee and student shall wash his or her hands with soap and water or an equally effective cleansing agent immediately before and after serving each client. Cleanliness of clinic area a. The clinic area shall be kept clean. b. Waste material shall be kept in covered receptacles. The area surrounding the waste receptacles shall be maintained in a neat and sanitary manner. c. Sanitation rules which apply to towels and cloths are as follows: 1. Separate and clean protective drapes, linens and towels shall be used for each patron. 2. After a protective cape, drape, linen or towel has been used once, it shall be placed in a clean, closed container until laundered. Any paper or nonwoven protective drape or covering shall be discarded after one use. 3. There shall be an adequate supply of clean protective drapes, linens and towels at all times. 4. All plastic capes used on patrons shall not be allowed to come in contact with the patron s neck. Elite

29 5. Clean drapes, linens and towels shall be stored in a covered receptacle when not in use. d. At least six combs and brushes shall be provided for each cosmetology operator and cosmetology student. e. All combs, brushes, and implements shall be cleaned and disinfected after each use in the following manner: 1. They shall be soaked in a cleaning solution that will not leave a residue and, if necessary, scrubbed. 2. They shall be disinfected in accordance with the following: A. EPA registered, hospital/ pseudomonacidal (bactericidal, virucidal, and fungicidal) or tuberculocidal, that is mixed and used according to the manufacturer s directions; or B. 1⅓ cup of 5.25 percent household bleach to one gallon of water for 10 minutes. The disinfectant shall not shorten the service life of the comb, brush, esthetics or manicuring instrument. In using a disinfectant, the user shall wear any personal protective equipment, such as gloves, recommended in the material safety data sheet prepared on the disinfectant manufacturer. 3. They shall be rinsed with hot tap water and dried with a clean towel before their next use. They shall be stored in a clean, closed cabinet or container until they are needed. f. Disposable and porous implements must be discarded after use or upon completion of the service. g. Product that comes into contact with the patron must be discarded upon completion of the service. h. Clean items and items needing to be disinfected shall be kept in separate containers. i. A covered receptacle may have an opening so soiled items may be dropped into the receptacle. Cleanliness of scissors, shears, razors and other equipment a. All scissors, shears, razors, and other metal instruments must be cleaned and disinfected after each use in the following manner: 1. If the implement is not immersible, it shall be cleaned by wiping it with a moistened clean cloth and disinfected with a disinfectant used in accordance with the manufacturer s instructions that states the solution will destroy HIV, TB or HBV viruses and approved by the federal Environmental Protection Agency. 2. If it is immersible, it shall be disinfected by immersion and whenever it comes in contact with blood, with: A. Disinfectant, used in accordance with the manufacturer s instructions, that states the solution will destroy HIV, TB or HBV viruses and approved by the federal Environmental Protection Agency. B. EPA-registered, hospital/ pseudomonacidal (bactericidal, virucidal, and fungicidal) or tuberculocidal, that is mixed and used according to the manufacturer s directions; or C. Household bleach in a 10 percent solution for 10 minutes. 3. If the implement is not used immediately after cleaning, it must be stored in a clean, closed cabinet until it is needed. b. Furniture, equipment and fixtures must be of a washable material and kept clean and in good repair. c. Lancets, disposable razors, and other sharp objects shall be disposed in punctureresistant containers. Care of creams, lotions, and cosmetics All creams, lotions, and other cosmetics used for patrons must be kept in clean, closed containers, and must conform in all respects to the requirements of the Pure Food and Drug Law. Lotions or fluids must be poured into a clean glass or other sanitized container and applied to patrons by means of cotton or other sanitized methods. First aid Each beauty establishment must have antiseptics and other necessary supplies available to provide first aid when necessary. Animals Animals or birds shall not be in a beauty establishment. Trained animals accompanying disabled persons are exempt. Systems of grading beauty establishments The system of grading the sanitary rating of cosmetic art schools and shops based on the rules set out in 21 NCAC 14H.0106 to.0117 shall be as follows, setting out areas to be inspected and considered, and the maximum points given for compliance: 1. Clean and repaired entrance and reception room 2; 2. General condition of the entire establishment 8; 3. Water system; hot and cold running water 2; 4. Walls, ceiling and floors: A. Construction and coverings 4; B. Clean 4; C. Good repair 3; 5. Lighting and fresh continuous ventilation (windows included); their adequacy and cleanliness 3; 6. Public toilet: A. Clean and ventilated 5; B. Liquid soap and individual towels furnished 5; C. Hot and cold running water 2; 7. Appearance of operators and students 4; 8. Linens: A. Supply of clean drapes, linens and towels stored in clean closed containers 2; B. Soiled drapes, linens and towels properly stored in closed containers 3; 9. Waste in closed containers and clean area 4; 10. Equipment cleanliness: A. Disinfectants selected from those approved by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency 6; B. Disinfectants used properly 5; C. All implements cleaned, disinfected, and properly stored 12; D. Furniture, fixtures, and equipment clean and in good repair 7; 11. Working area: A. Workstation clean 4; B. Lavatories clean 4; C. Jars and containers closed, clean and disinfected 2; D. No unnecessary articles in work area 2; 12. Antiseptics and first aid supplies on hand 1; 13. Cosmetics: A. Clean and sanitary conditions 2; B. Storage area for supplies clean and in order 3; 14. No animals or birds kept or allowed in the establishment except as provided by Rule.0117 of this subchapter. Whirlpool, foot spa and facial steamer sanitation a. As used in this rule, whirlpool or foot spa means any basin using circulating water. b. After each patron, each whirlpool or foot spa must be cleaned and disinfected as follows: 1. All water must be drained and all debris removed from the basin; 2. The basin must be disinfected by filling the basin with water and circulating: A. Two tablespoons of automatic dishwashing powder and ¼ cup of 5.25 percent household bleach to one gallon of water through the unit for 10 minutes; or B. Surfactant or enzymatic soap with an EPA-registered disinfectant with bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal activity used according to manufacturer s instructions through the unit for 10 minutes; 3. The basin must be drained and rinsed with clean water; and 4. The basin must be wiped dry with a clean towel. c. At the end of the day, each whirlpool or foot spa must be cleaned and disinfected as follows: 1. The screen must be removed and all debris trapped behind the screen removed; 2. The screen and the inlet must be washed with surfactant or enzymatic soap or detergent and rinsed with clean water; 3. Before replacing the screen, one of the following procedures must be performed: A. The screen must be totally immersed in a household bleach solution of ¼ cup of 5.25percent household bleach to one gallon of water for 10 minutes; or B. The screen must be totally immersed in an EPA-registered disinfectant with bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal activity in accordance to Elite Page 27

30 the manufacturer s instructions for 10 minutes; 4. The inlet and area behind the screen must be cleaned with a brush and surfactant soap and water to remove all visible debris and residue; and 5. The spa system must be flushed with lowsudsing surfactant or enzymatic soap and warm water for at least 10 minutes and then rinsed and drained. d. Every week after cleaning and disinfecting pursuant to Paragraphs (a) and (b) of this rule, each whirlpool and foot spa must be cleaned and disinfected in the following manner: 1. The whirlpool or foot spa basin must be filled with water and ¼ cup of 5.25 percent household bleach for each one gallon of water: 2. The whirlpool or foot spa system must be flushed with the bleach and water solution pursuant to Subparagraph (d)(1) of this rule for 10 minutes and allowed to sit for at least six hours; and 3. The whirlpool or foot spa system must be drained and flushed with water before use by a patron. e. A record must be made of the date and time of each cleaning and disinfecting as required by this rule, including the date, time, reason and name of the staff member that performed the cleaning. This record must be kept and made available for at least 90 days upon request by either a patron or inspector. f. The water in a vaporizer machine must be emptied daily and the unit disinfected. Prohibited practices a. Licensees must not use or possess in a shop any of the following products: 1. Methyl methacrylate liquid monomer, a.k.a. MMA; 2. Razor-type callus shavers designed and intended to cut growths of skin such as corns and calluses; 3. Permanent makeup, defined as beautifying the face by inserting or implanting facial cosmetic pigment under the surface of the skin or mucosa; 4. FDA-rated Class III devices; 5. Any adulterated chemical exfoliating substances; 6. Carbolic acid (phenol) over 2 percent strength; 7. Animals including insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds or mammals to perform any service; or 8. Variable speed electrical nail file on the natural nail unless it has been designed for use on the natural nail. b. A licensee must not: 1. Use product in any other manner than the product s intended use; 2. Diagnose any medical condition or treat any medical condition unless referred by a physician; 3. Provide any service unless trained prior to performing the service; Page Perform services on a client if the licensee has reason to believe the client has any of the following: A. A communicable disease; B. A contagious condition; C. An inflamed, infected, broken, raised or swollen skin or nail tissue; or D. An open wound or sore in the area to be worked on that would contraindicate the efficacy of the service; 5. Alter or duplicate a license issued by the board; or 6. Advertise or solicit clients in any form of communication in a manner that is false or misleading. c. Class II devices may be used by licensees while under the supervision of a licensed physician. Other things you can do Cleaning salon computers and reception areas Almost all modern salons now work with computers and computer appointment books. These computer appointment books are generally at the reception desk and are also found in break areas so that salon workers can view their schedules. Few people think about the germ havens these areas have become. Experts say the computer keyboard, phone and desk areas of salons are major germ areas that must be sanitized. Believe it or not, you could put your fingers on a toilet seat and collect fewer germs than the average desk or keyboard. Charles Gerba, a microbiologist at the University of Arizona, counted bacteria on several surfaces. He found the office toilet seat had an average of 49 germs per square inch. When he looked at keyboards, he found 3,295 bacteria per square inch, 60 times higher than the toilet seat. Even worse were tops of desks at 21,000 bacteria per square inch and telephones at 25,000 per square inch. People are constantly coughing and sneezing on them. Germs from unwashed hands can remain alive for days. In other words, if you share computer keyboards in your salon, a phone or a desk, you are sharing germs. To combat the problem, you must assign cleaning duties to staff. First, you should remove the screws on the underside of the keyboard and separate the two parts. Brush the debris away and then wipe with a sanitizing cloth. Once you put it back together, spray the entire keyboard with a disinfectant spray like Lysol. Do this lightly so as not to ruin the electronics. You can also use sanitation wipes commonly found in drug stores. Staff should clean phones daily with a disinfectant spray and more often when someone is known to be sick or feels sick. Also, remember to daily disinfect your workstation. Often stylists forget to perform this important step, yet they routinely place combs, scissors and other items on top of the workstation. Disease and infestation Salons and schools should not knowingly permit a person afflicted with an infection or parasitic infestation capable of being transmitted to a patron to serve patrons or train in the establishment or school. In addition, salons and schools should not knowingly require or permit a licensee or student to work upon a person with an infection or parasitic infestation capable of being transmitted to the licensee or student. Infections or parasitic infestation capable of being transmitted between licensee or student and patron include the following: Cold, influenza or other respiratory illness accompanied by a fever, until 24 hours after resolution of the fever. Streptococcal pharyngitis ( strep throat ), until 24 hours after treatment has been initiated, and 24 hours after resolution of symptoms. Purulent conjunctivitis ( pink eye ), until examined by a physician and approved for return to work. Pertussis ( whooping cough ), until five days of antibiotic therapy has been completed. Varicella ( chicken pox ), until the sixth day after onset of rash or sooner if all lesions have dried and crusted. Mumps, until nine days after onset of parotid gland swelling. Tuberculosis, until a physician or local health department authority states that the individual is noninfectious. Impetigo (bacterial skin infection), until 24 hours after treatment has begun. Pediculosis (head lice), until the morning after first treatment. Scabies, until after treatment has been completed. No person working or training in an establishment or school should massage any person upon a surface of the skin or scalp where such skin is inflamed, broken (e.g., abraded, cut) or where a skin infection or eruption is present. The cosmetology industry is booming, and one of the only factors that has a chance to harm your industry is if clients do not feel safe. Therefore, you must make safe sanitation techniques a part of your daily routine and encourage co-workers to do the same. Conclusion As you can see from the preceding section, sanitation issues have a direct impact on the health and welfare of clients and the livelihood of the salon professional. The importance of maintaining proper sanitation procedures cannot be overstated; it can literally be a matter of life or death! Following proper sanitation guidelines will greatly reduce the potential risks to you, your clients and co-workers. Elite

31 CHAPTER 4 Stress and your client (3 CE hours) Learning objectives: Understand Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs. Describe the physiological reactions that produce the fight or flight response. Explain the relationship between stress and illness. Define and give examples of very aggressive and very passive behavior. List some characteristics of active listening and explain its purpose. Describe the physical effects of stress on hair, nails and skin. Introduction We are bombarded daily with a variety of outward attacks that can cause stress, including work, family, social schedules, and high expectations for ourselves and from others. Beauty professionals often work with clients who are experiencing high levels of stress, but they usually don t know what has caused it for their clients. As you strive to make your service a more relaxing and enjoyable experience for your clients, you will have to look at the needs of people in general and find ways we can help meet these needs. It is important to remember we all have needs, and when those needs are not being met, we get out of balance. When we are out of balance, there are many ways it shows. We can be emotional, have problems with our self-esteem, lash out at people and react negatively to things that are happening around us, and our bodies can show imbalance in many ways. Our energy levels, eating habits and many other factors can come in to play when we are not getting basic needs met. In our profession, when we look at hair, nails and skin, we can see signs that the body needs to be in balance. As beauty professionals, just like everyone else, we also have to been keenly aware of the stress we carry within ourselves. Even though we may not realize it, how we are feeling internally can affect our clients. They can sense our stress and the inward pains and burdens we place on ourselves daily and think we are not happy with them. We must learn to take care of our basic needs so that we may better serve the needs of others. If you can master this, your chair will always be full, and you will not lack for clients. Hierarchy of Needs There is a basic theory developed by Abraham Maslow ( ), a noted American professor of humanistic psychology, called Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs, which helps us to see the basic needs of people. Each of us is motivated by needs; if we take a look, we can see not only our own needs, but also those of our clients and work towards meeting those needs. Our most basic needs, which have evolved over tens of thousands of year, are inborn. Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs helps to explain how these needs motivate us all. Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious basic needs for survival itself. Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-being are satisfied are we concerned with the higher order needs of influence and personal development. Conversely, if the things that satisfy our lower order needs are swept away, we are no longer concerned about the maintenance of our higher order needs. Because we work in a service-driven industry, we must look at these needs and find where we can help serve those needs. Below is Maslow s original Hierarchy of Needs model. It was developed between , and first widely published in Motivation and Personality in At this time, the Hierarchy of Needs model comprised five needs. (See illustration.) This original version remains for most people the Hierarchy of Needs. Prejudice In our business, we deal with different kinds of people everyday. We need to check our prejudice at the door; prejudice can never be a part of a people business. What is prejudice? According to Merriam- Webster.com, it is a. (1): A preconceived judgment or opinion (2): an adverse opinion or leaning formed without just grounds or before sufficient knowledge; b. An instance of such judgment or opinion; c. An irrational attitude of hostility directed against an individual, a group, a race, or their supposed characteristics. Each person you come in contact with is an individual and a potential client. All persons should be treated with respect and without prejudice. The same respect you expect, you should give. Personal presentation is a way of expressing one s identity. The appearance of the stylist/ creative artist in the workplace is part of his or her professional persona. Discomfort and debate can occur when an individual s appearance conflicts with role expectations. Prejudice is part of this conflict; often a client will show prejudice towards a stylist. As professionals, however, we must not let that influence us and instead keep our personal views of others private. Stereotyping is another form of prejudice that should be avoided in the salon. Just because a person has gray hair does not automatically mean he or she should get a color service. We need to always see people as individuals and not make assumptions. Dealing with difficult people and situations You have probably worked with at least one or two difficult individuals in your career. It could be a coworker, manager, or client anyone who makes your life more complicated or stressful by creating and including you in situations you would like to avoid. Difficult people tend to contribute to a negative atmosphere. They may have poor work habits or social skills. Difficult people are likely to complain when their business is too busy and when it is too slow. They may be petty and gossipy, start rumors or repeat unhelpful comments. Difficult people may talk too much, be loud, rude or physically imposing. They may be verbally or physically abusive. They may be sulky or give you the silent treatment. They may be bullies or nags. They may be constant whiners or pathological liars. Difficult people make your life difficult. While spas and salons are supposed to offer a little sanctuary from the daily grind, they may have just the opposite effect on cosmetologists or technicians who are plagued by a difficult personality at work a client who always raises Elite Page 29

32 your blood pressure, perhaps, or a manager who won t stay out of your business. Difficult people encourage burnout in those around them. We may feel manipulated by them. They make us lose our temper, slow down progress and prevent us from getting things done. They may make us feel guilty, anxious or upset. In many cases, working with someone you don t get along with is not only a difficult and stressful experience, but one that also negatively affects productivity. Coworkers who are not happy in their positions can bleed discontent onto their clients or coworkers. Even if you try to hide dissatisfaction or frustration from your superiors, coworkers and clients, this kind of stress can build up, and it is possible to sense the negative energy in your environment as well as be affected by it. We encounter difficulties and negative responses in others everyday. What should we do when confronted by difficult people who are pains to deal or work with? You may try to reason with the person, ignore the behavior or respond in kind: When someone launches into you, you launch back. But this brings you no closer to a solution, and may make the situation worse. Ignoring the person contributes to lowered morale in general, because difficult people tend to make everyone a little more on edge. You also may resent that the individual causes you distress and uses up your time and energy. Irritation and frustration can mount until tempers explode. What if you could respond in a way that effectively diffuses the anger and directly addresses the dilemma? It is possible to change the way you deal with difficult situations and behaviors, to bring out the best in people and effectively address difficult people and situations. This section should help you: Examine the challenging behaviors you encounter. Understand something about why people act as they do. Analyze how you react to them. Learn ways to prevent and address difficult situations. Understanding behavior I Habitual responses; emotion vs. logic Before you can address the problem of difficult people and behaviors, you must be able to observe and identify your own actions and moods realistically and objectively. If these statements describe how you feel about a particular person, assess how strongly that person affects you and to what degree this individual negatively influences your behavior: Talking or working with this individual drains my energy. When I know I have to have contact with this person, my mood takes a turn for the worse. I tense up around this person. I would be very relieved if I knew I did not have to encounter this person anymore. I plan ways to avoid this person. This person seems to bring out the worst in me. I do not like how I act around him or her. Page 30 If you see yourself in these statements, you are having strong emotional reactions to this individual and are likely experiencing a significant amount of stress related to him or her. Tension or stress may manifest itself over time in physical symptoms like stomach aches or headaches and stress-related behavior, including impatience, anger, sadness and overreaction. In some people, long-term reactions to stress may include depression. Stress over long periods can run you down and eventually take its toll on your health. Learning techniques to handle difficult people or address difficult behavior involve a number of steps. The first step is learning to identify your own emotional responses in a difficult interaction and to realize this about human emotions and behavior: Much of how we think and act is a matter of habit or repeated patterns of behavior, including the way we deal with difficult people or situations. If our habits are negative, our results tend to be negative, too. The challenge is to express the negative emotions you feel in useful, positive ways. Most people are unable to behave logically under stress because they react automatically, without thinking. Confronted with difficulty, the body tends to respond with the fight or flight response, when the heart beats more rapidly and perspiration increases. This reaction, called acute stress response, is an evolutionary reaction to threatening situations. It causes us (and other vertebrates) to react in one of two ways, to either address the danger (fight) or run away (flight). During the acute stress response, the sympathetic nervous system triggers the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the medulla and adrenal glands. These speed up the heart rate and breathing and constrict blood vessels in certain parts of the body, while opening blood vessels in the muscles, which tighten, or tense, the muscles as the brain, lungs and heart work harder, preparing the individual for either fight or escape. Adrenalin surges, making the person alert, aware and physically ready for what comes next. Humans commonly respond angrily to difficult situations because of this physiological response. Instead of responding with a thoughtful reaction, from the left side of the brain (the problemsolving, logical part), we react with the right side of the brain emotionally, irrationally and without logic. You can control this reaction by developing your awareness, identifying your physical reaction to stress and the associated emotional response. This insight allows you to begin controlling your responses in a difficult interaction, instead of allowing your automatic responses to control you. Think about how you react when someone drives dangerously near you, cutting you off, for example. Most people respond angrily to a threat like this. How do you react? Does the anger fade quickly? Are you likely to say a few choice words about bad drivers to your passenger? Will you swear at the individual? Even follow him just so you can give him a piece of your mind? Do you find a way to stay irritated for a while, or, does this one moment pass easily, with you realizing that you felt personally threatened and perhaps even fearful for a moment? Some people s attitudes are easily influenced. They may be moody up one day or hour and down the next, with little or no idea why, reacting blindly or emotionally without analyzing their reactions or resulting behavior. Do you react automatically to the people around you? Does someone else s bad mood tend to rub off on you? If you are the kind of person who chooses to remain upset long after a near-collision, you can t continue to blame the other driver. Realize that your responses to difficult people or situations are entirely your own decision and completely under your control. If you choose to replay the incident in your mind and refuel your anger, you are wasting a great deal of energy on events in the past that cannot be changed. Next time you feel emotion and logic at odds with one another, pulling you in opposite directions, focus your attention on your physical and emotional reactions. When you are able to pause instead of blindly reacting, you will begin to gain control over your moods and choose how you react. While it may not be possible to do in all cases, it is a simple, but profound step towards controlling your moods instead of being controlled by them. Like us, other people s difficult behavior may be steeped in habitual patterns. We all develop responses to other people s words and actions that can automatically take over if we let them. By interrupting our own negative repeated strategies, it is possible to break the pattern, allowing the interaction to shift from one of frustration to the beginnings of a solution. Difficult people are seeking particular things in response to their behavior. You may be unable to see the benefits they reap because they are not things you desire. Difficult people, for example, may not only want to get their way, they may get some satisfaction from pushing your buttons or making you lose your temper. Difficult people may feed into or encourage our own difficult nature. Instead of playing into their behavior by contributing to or escalating the conflict, learn to switch off your defense mechanism when confronted with negative actions or words. Practice the following: Recognize your automatic reaction. Take deep, measured breaths and focus on your breathing until you feel the physiological response dissipating. Learn to refrain from pointless arguments or accusations that exacerbate the difficult situation. This gives you an opportunity to respond in a way that is productive and brings about a good or better outcome. By recognizing and not reacting to or adding to conflict, you will no longer be held hostage by your moods and automatic reactions, and difficult people will not seem so difficult. Once you learn some strategies for dealing with problem behaviors, you will be able to take charge of the interaction or situation and promote a more peaceful environment. Elite

33 Learning to deal with difficult behaviors in others requires you to manage your part of the interaction effectively. While events may occur beyond your control, your response is still within your control, and you are entirely responsible for your own reactions. Principles of conflict resolution (getting along with others) Working in harmony with other individuals can be a matter of establishing and implementing a number of principles to help you control your own words and actions and create the foundation for a peaceful, or at least less stressful, work environment. While there are many different philosophies of conflict resolution, many stress the same guiding principles. The following guide, drawn from Zen Buddhist teachings, 1 includes many of these common principles. Notice how many are directed at changes in one s own thinking and behavior: Take responsibility for our vulnerabilities and emotional triggers in relationships with others. Investigate our own responsibility in the conflict before speaking with another. Practice non-stubbornness by holding an open heart, a willingness to understand and a desire to reconcile differences. Have face-to-face resolution of the conflict with the other person or people involved. Use anger in a constructive and respectful way, allowing it to teach and transform us for the better, avoiding the poison of envy and comparing ourselves to others. Separate the behavior from the person, seeing the situation as an opportunity. Perhaps the core principles of conflict resolution or dealing with difficult people are to maintain respectful relationships and try to resolve issues without emotion. The first part of this chapter introduced the importance of observing your emotions and learning to stop yourself from automatically reacting without thinking. The next part discusses some principles of respectful communication. Like the principles above, these ways of thinking revolve around changing you and the way you respond to difficult people. This is because, as much as we try, we cannot change other people. The most effective changes are those we implement internally, changing ourselves. By changing the way you respond to difficult people, you change the type of interaction that results. By shifting the focus to yourself and your own behavior, you have the means by which to change the nature of the interaction from negative to positive. Principle 1: Stop trying to change other people Trying to change the difficult person does not resolve any problems and typically leaves you even more frustrated and angry. So instead of trying to change that person, to make them less difficult, accept that person as he or she is, with faults like you. Simply by choosing to accept people as they are, we create a less stressful environment. People telling others how they should change leads to heightened conflict; accept that you no longer have to try to control or influence other people s thoughts and behavior. Your mission cannot be to persuade everyone that you are right. Leave that burden behind and accept that you are not responsible for changing minds. Principle 2: No blame-game People grow accustomed to blaming others or themselves when things go wrong instead of looking for ways to fix the problem without focusing on who is wrong and who is right. Blame does little to resolve a difficult situation. Learning to address negative energy or attitudes around you without blame is an integral part of dealing with difficult people. This means relaxing your judgment of people and assuming the best of those around you, giving them the benefit of the doubt. Principle 3: It s not about you A necessary aspect of this strategy is learning to depersonalize communication and behavior. It is the realization that, in most cases, the difficulties you encounter are not at all about you. When a person ignores you or speaks unfairly to you, how do you handle it? Do you feel angry with the person, assume their words to you were malicious and intentional? As you go through the day, do negative feelings about the person persist? Do you hate others because you think they hate you? This kind of thinking perpetuates negative behavior on both sides and gets you no closer to a solution. Negative behaviors or responses often come from our own feelings of insecurity. Learn to listen to others without forming these presumptuous attitudes that revolve around your ego. When you are talking to a difficult person, realize that you already have a bias against them, that you may be predisposed to interpreting his or her comments negatively or in a judgmental way. In so many cases, a perceived snub has nothing to do with you. Perhaps the person had a long day, or is preoccupied with some recent bad news. By learning not to interpret the interaction as a personal affront, we give the person the benefit of the doubt. Principle 4: Treat people well Practice treating difficult people with as much kindness and patience as you can. If you are respectful toward them, you may find their behavior loosens up or bothers you less. Remember that anyone can be someone s difficult person at some point, even you, given the right (or wrong) circumstances. Principle 5: Don t waste your time and energy on things you cannot change (like the past) Many people are unable to let go of the anger or frustration associated with a source of negative stress. Practice mentally throwing the problem away by putting an end to rumination or replay of the situation in your head. Do not occupy your time repeating the story, or endlessly complaining to other people. Use this energy for more productive pursuits. Choose to focus your energy on the present and future, rather than waste it on past events that cannot be changed. Many people find the Serenity Prayer by Reinhold Niebuhr a good reminder about wasted emotional energy: God grant me the serenity To accept the things I cannot change, The courage to change the things I can, And the wisdom to know the difference. Understanding behavior II Communicating needs: assertiveness, aggression and passivity Much of a person s ability to deal usefully with emotions like anger and frustration is associated with his or her style of behavior or degree of assertiveness. Assertiveness refers to the spectrum or range of behavior between passivity at one end and aggression at the other. It may be one of the first things you notice about another person s behavior. Individuals respond to difficult situations with different degrees of assertiveness. Stress tends to pull at people emotionally, making them either more or less passive or aggressive than is usual for them. Assertive people differ from passive and aggressive people in their ability to acknowledge and state their own needs and respect the needs of others. Passive or aggressive individuals are typically unable to do so. Here are statements some people with aggressive or passive/aggressive tendencies might make: I often yell back when someone yells at me. When someone tries to boss me around, I frequently do the opposite of what he or she asks. I often take my time just to show someone when he or she tries to boss me around. I often make threats that I really don t intend to carry out. When I m feeling insecure and jealous, I ll often pick a fight with someone rather than tell him or her directly what s on my mind. Starting arguments with someone when he or she disagrees with me is something I often do. Slamming doors is something I often do when I get mad at someone. I ll often do something on purpose to annoy someone, and then apologize when he or she accuses me of it. I will often break a rule someone has made just to spite him or her. When someone makes me do something that I don t like, I often make a point of getting even later. I often won t do what someone asks me to do if he or she asks in a nasty way. Aggression Aggressive, or domineering, thinking focuses on meeting one s own needs at the expense of others. Aggressive individuals often ignore the impact of their behavior on others; it is an I win, you lose, position, incorporating a variety of aggressive methods of control, including Elite Page 31

34 dishonesty. Judging, criticizing, out-talking, or being loud and intimidating can all be used to dominate other individuals. Being aggressive often involves a belief system that puts the aggressor s standards and needs above others. Aggressive people may think they are the only ones who have a corner on the truth of a situation. They may be very stringent about following their rules, but not those of others. Aggressive individuals do not consider other people s wishes and have little respect for others needs and rights. Things may have to go their way or no way at all. Aggressive people may have had backgrounds in which domineering behavior was encouraged or rewarded. While they may appear very confident, they often have poor self-esteem and may be unable to accept blame. Unlike passive manipulators, aggressive individuals tend to be obvious in their attempts to push people around. A bully, for example, is one type of aggressive personality that typically uses some form of obvious mental, physical or monetary coercion to force others to do as they wish. Another type of aggressive or dominating personality is the con man who uses deception or subterfuge, often relying on verbal skills to persuade others to do what they want. Con men differ from other aggressive manipulators in their ease and ability to lie, and lack of concern about speaking falsely. The terms sociopath and psychopath refer to two extreme forms of con-men behavior, individuals who have little regard for others welfare and engage in extreme behavior to get what they want, with few or no signs of guilt. Dominant or aggressive behavior also may manifest itself in judgmental control, a holier than thou or know-it-all attitude that keeps others off-balance. The judgmental person thinks he or she is morally or intellectually right or has the truth on his or her side, thus implying that the person with whom they are in conflict is not as intelligent or as good a person in some way. This kind of manipulation is dishonest in that judgmental people claim they are doing the right thing, while their real motivation is to control the situation and get their way. While aggression allows the difficult individual to get his or her way in one sense, aggression manipulation works against the difficult individual because other people learn to fear or resent and distance themselves from the difficult person. Like passive individuals, aggressive people may have poor social skills and little trust in others. They may feel suspicious, angry and wounded by others reactions to them. Passivity Passive or nonassertive thinking focuses on meeting others peoples needs at your own expense. It is a You win, I lose proposition. Passive people typically allow others to control them, but are also capable of manipulating or controlling others. Individuals who tend toward passive behavior in times of stress are likely to feel angry and Page 32 victimized or taken advantage of. They may feel frustrated, feeling they never get their way, and have little control over their lives. They may be sulky or withdrawn, thinking that no one listens to what they say anyway. They may have little confidence in themselves and be reluctant to accept change. Indirect, passive manipulators may use subtle or devious means to get their way, including sabotage, sarcasm, playing the martyr or the silent treatment. They may be inclined to use passive/aggressive measures, spreading rumors, making fun of others, or talking behind others backs. They may hide their feelings, pretending that everything is fine while they are actually seething inside. Sometimes a person can go from one extreme to the other; a person who is typically nonassertive will become aggressive. This may happen because small amounts of resentment build up until the last straw, when they lose their temper. Passive manipulation may also be subconscious, and include withdrawal, feeling depressed or down, and a disinclination to communicate or cooperate. Passive personalities may be overly dependent on others, hypersensitive to criticism and lacking in social skills. Passive behavior can be frustrating to more motivated, efficient workers, who may feel they re carrying dead weight at their place of employment. Characteristics of assertive behavior and communication Assertive thinking and behavior balances an active concern for one s own welfare and goals with those of others. It comes from a genuine wish and attempt to find win-win, long-term solutions to recurring problems as opposed to superficial or temporary stopgap measures that ignore the underlying cause of the problem. Assertive communicators face difficult situations squarely, while nonassertive people tend to avoid directly addressing the root of the problem. The assertive approach uses the individual s respect for him- or herself, treating the other person in an understanding and kind way while remaining focused and firm enough to accomplish the winwin solution. While the ultimate objective of the assertive approach is finding immediate and lasting solutions to problems, 2 assertive communicators endeavor to de-escalate conflict and improve communication, bringing people closer together. Assertiveness tends to be the most effective response to nonassertive, aggressive or manipulative behavior, but learning to act assertively typically requires some degree of training and skill; nonassertive and aggressive responses, by contrast, are emotional and automatic. Assertive communicators tend to be more emotionally open and honest about their feelings and thoughts. They tend to act kindly and diplomatically throughout the difficult situation, and speak and act in respectful ways. Assertive communicators are more likely to express care or concern for another person, to compliment or commend him or her even in the midst of a difficult situation. The following statements describe characteristics typically found in people who practice assertive behavior and communication: 3 Confronting someone with a problem as it comes up is seldom a problem for me. Telling someone that he or she is taking advantage of me is not difficult for me to do. If someone is annoying me, I do not find it difficult to express my annoyance to him or her. Saying no to someone when I want to say no is easy for me to do. I am able to ask someone to do me a favor without any difficulty. I do not have difficulty telling someone my true feelings. Challenging someone s beliefs is something I can do with little difficulty. In general, I am very direct in expressing my anger to someone. I do not have trouble saying something that might hurt someone s feelings when I feel he or she has injured me. Expressing criticism to someone is not a problem for me. I can express a differing point of view to someone without much difficulty. I often let someone know when I disapprove of his or her behavior. In general, I am not afraid to assert myself with someone. I do not give someone the silent treatment when I m mad at him or her. Instead, I just tell the person what has angered me. Honest, but kind Assertive communicators use words with great care because they know words can hurt people deeply, causing great pain. Choosing to speak kindly and carefully does not mean that you cannot voice your opinions or disagree with the difficult person. It means you do not use words to attack or undermine. During a difficult encounter, speak the truth, but tell it in a way that is supportive, building up selfesteem rather than tearing it down. Always bring attention to a sensitive issue in private to avoid an audience, and try to discuss problem behavior without indicting the person behaving that way. Assertive communicators are honest, diplomatic and diligent about keeping their word. They back up their words with action because they know that if you do not follow up your promises or statements with the specified actions or behaviors, people will begin to doubt what you say. Words can bond people in close relationships or rip them apart. Assertive communicators realize their power and use it carefully. Poorly or angrily chosen words, once spoken, have an impact that can never be taken back. Thoughtless words can get back to the person they re about, wounding him or her deeply, making the person feel surrounded by false friends. When you are speaking about another person, consider the following: Would that person be wounded by your words if they were repeated by someone else out of context without you around to defend yourself? Even after an apology, there is some residue of hurt or anger from wounding words. Elite

35 Positive intention, high expectations and giving the benefit of the doubt Assertive communicators are compassionate and nonjudgmental. They realize they cannot know all the experiences that made the difficult person what he or she is today. Instead of judging or blaming the difficult person, the assertive communicator is sensitive to the needs of the difficult individual and treats him or her compassionately. Assertive communicators know that much of our ability to know and get along with others is dependent on healthy self-esteem. We all travel with an Achilles heel, some weakness or sensitivity that is particularly acute to us. Sometimes what we react to in others is the weaknesses we identify in ourselves. Difficult situations can be emotional and confusing. Unless you specifically state your good intent, there is a possibility that your words and behavior will be misunderstood or misinterpreted. Showing your positive intent through words and actions can be like knowing the magic words to make the situation easier. In this important dimension of assertive communication, the speaker identifies a positive intention behind the difficult behavior and treats the difficult person with a positive, charitable manner. This means acknowledging that the difficult individual does not mean to be difficult, that he or she is operating out of goodwill and toward positive objectives. Difficult people may feel victimized by the world around them, believing that no one is on their side and everyone is against them. Showing your positive intent is showing the caring emotions that are the context for what you are saying. Showing your positive intention lets the difficult person know where you are coming from emotionally. When you state you positive intent toward the person, you give them positive feedback; the individual may expect to hear accusatory language but instead, hears concern and interest. Stating positive intentions can be as simple as learning to say, I m sorry that you re having a problem. How can I help? Expressing concern immediately reduces anxiety and conflict and increases goodwill. The difficult person feels you are not against him or her. Holding these thoughts about the difficult person will influence the way you speak and act to the person, avoiding an accusatory language or tone. In stating or confirming that you understand the difficult person has good intentions, you develop a bond of goodwill and an awareness that you are both on the same team. Giving someone the benefit of the doubt is one of the most powerful tools for bringing out the best in people at their worst. People both rise and fall to the level of others expectations. Have you noticed, once people have a negative opinion of you, you feel it is impossible to redeem yourself in their eyes? When a difficult person behaves in a difficult way, you may be tempted to think, That s why everyone has a problem with you. It is easy to let your preconceived notions about the difficult person allow you to make the assumption that a behavior is rooted in negative intention. But even behavior that appears negative can come from good intent. We tend to associate difficult people with negative feelings and reactions. We can reinforce those notions about them, or we can assume the best which can have a positive effect on difficult people. Instead of criticizing them or telling them why they are wrong (making them defensive), you can minimize their apprehensive, protective defense mechanisms. As they learn to disassociate you with negative words and actions, they will stop seeing you as the enemy and be more receptive to what you say. Difficult people want to be heard and understood Most people want two things from a verbal interaction. They want to know that they have been heard, and they want to know that what has been heard has been understood. Arguments often erupt in a situation where two or more people are trying to be heard and understood at the same time. For effective communication to result, one person must be the listener, open to hearing and understanding what is said. Feelings of anger associated with the difficult situation are commonly the combination of two things: the original reason for unhappiness or distress, and the associated frustration and feelings of helplessness because no one is listening to, understanding or helping the person solve the problem. Listening to what the person has to say has an immediate diffusing effect on hostility by addressing one of the sources of anger. In fact, a kind, understanding word is sometimes all that is needed to cool emotional overreactions and promote good will. Difficult people often feel their good intentions are being misunderstood, that they are not being heard and understood. Learning good listening skills and behavior, asking important questions and providing appropriate feedback ensures that the difficult person feels heard and understood. In fact, by listening attentively, you can even prevent difficult people from becoming difficult, because taking the time to listen increases feelings of cooperation and understanding. Understanding is both an emotional and intellectual process. In a difficult situation, you must persuade the difficult individual that you understand on both levels. We do this by our appearance and behavior, the questions we ask and feedback we give. Most people focus on the way you say things as much or more than what you say. Your intentions are not nearly as relevant as your behavior. Both should have the same message. When people are venting their frustrations or complaining, demonstrate that you are paying attention to their emotions and words. Pay attention to nonverbal signs of communication and seek clarification if you suspect that you and the other person aren t on the same page. Fatigue, disability, language difficulties and cultural issues are some of the many factors that complicate communication between two people. Some people have an initial period of difficulty speaking their mind; they may feel rude, awkward or not want to express disagreement with you. As you grow more familiar with one another, your interactions will likely become more natural and comfortable. Listening skills Assertive communication requires good listening skills. Assertive communicators listen carefully, responding with sympathy and targeted questions that get at the heart of the issue. They pay close attention to what the individual is staying instead of wandering off on their own thoughts, or thinking ahead to how they will respond. Active listeners have an open mind and are able to consider other people s points of view. Being a good listener means that you: Don t tune out. Don t interrupt. Are open-minded and don t already have your mind made up. Maintain good listening behavior (such as eye contact don t look down or around the room). Ask questions to clarify and provide feedback. Do you tune out? Sometimes we don t hear what people say because we are bored or preoccupied; our minds wander off on their own little journeys, thinking their own thoughts. While the person is speaking, we are contemplating many things, including what we will say when it is time to respond. You may have poor listening skills in general or the tendency to tune out the difficult person because you associate him or her with something unpleasant. Do you interrupt? Interrupting individuals before they are finished speaking should be discouraged. Try not to rush the difficult person, read his or her mind, or anticipate what he or she is about to say. Let the person make a statement at his or her own pace. Do not try to hurry the discussion along or solve the problem before you ve heard all the pertinent details. In some cases, listening may not be a useful use of your time. Difficult people who complain constantly sometimes try to draw others into their drama. In this case, keep the interaction as short as possible. For difficult people who talk a great deal and listen too little, you may have to interrupt to be heard at all. If a person raises his or her voice to you, will not let others speak or complains without end, it may be necessary to kindly but firmly interrupt the individual and redirect the conversation. The interruption must be unemotional, without anger or blame. Speak respectfully to the individual, using his or her name to get their attention, for example, Excuse me, John. Aggressive people are likely to raise their voices in an effort to speak over you, escalating the conflict. Continue to politely repeat this until the difficult person finally stops speaking and turns his or her attention to you. Do you listen with an open mind? Some people are not willing to entertain the prospect of Elite Page 33

36 changing their opinion, no matter what they hear. Do you consider what the difficult person is saying without predisposition or bias? Do you show good listening behavior? Is your tone of voice and body language saying the same thing as your words? Are you making eye contact and nodding or commenting to show your interest? Do your questions further understanding of the difficulty? How do you look and act? Are you tapping your foot, or are your eyes darting around the room? Are you thinking about how you re going to respond to the individual? Not only your words, but your body language and manner of speaking (volume and tone of your voice) also should convey interest and concern. Do you ask the right questions and provide appropriate and supportive feedback? Do you use the principles of active listening, paraphrasing and asking questions when you need clarification and to show you are interested and listening to what is being said? At some point, the individual may stop talking or start to repeat what he or she has already said. At that point, you provide feedback, consisting of a statement of positive intent, then feedback or clarify what he or she just said. If you think you understand what the person said, briefly summarize what you heard using some of the same terms the difficult person used. By using the same words they used, you convey that you have been listening intently and understood the meaning they intended. Do not replay the whole conversation, simply the main points. Note any statements in which the difficult individual mentioned his or her feelings as much as you emphasize what happened in the sequence of events. Finding a solution to a problem often requires learning more information or different information than the difficult person is giving you. Clear up confusion with specific questions that will help you understand the difficulty. Asking questions also communicates to the difficult person that you are interested in finding a solution for the problem. Clarification (questions) should be phrased in an even-handed, unemotional tone. Avoid sounding accusatory or phrasing questions in a blaming way. Difficult people may speak in vague generalities or provide little of substance in what they say. Ask brief questions that clarify the factual details until you and others begin to have an understanding of the difficult situation and why the difficult person feels this way about it. There are usually rational reasons at the root of every action or behavior. Ask questions until you understand the motivation behind the difficult behavior. Most clarification questions begin with who, what, where, when, and how. Use them to fill in any information gaps left by the speaker. Asking questions that fill in the blanks helps the difficult person pull himself out of the difficult situation and also makes him feel his difficult situation is being addressed seriously and respectfully. Page 34 Your focus in asking questions should be: To clarify the meaning of the situation for the difficult person. To clarify the person s intention in the interaction. To clarify the criteria for a solution or way to ease the person s distress. Asking the difficult person to explain his or her reasoning can be very useful. Ask the difficult person what rationale or criteria led him or her to the problematic conclusion or decision. After learning these criteria, summarize them to the person and confirm that these are the reasons or rationale behind their position. If you sense defensiveness, acknowledge good intent and confirm that you understand what they are trying to accomplish. After clarifying any questions you have about the difficult situation, summarize what you ve heard, answering these questions: What is the problem? Who is involved? When it happened? Where it happened? How it happened? By doing this, you demonstrate to the listener that you are working to understand his point, and you provide the individual with the opportunity to fill in any gaps, if either you or the other person missed an important detail. When you are done summarizing, ask the individual if you understand him correctly. And confirm that you understand. Clients needs There are many ways we in the service industry can help meet the needs of our clients. They are simple but sometimes over looked ways of increasing the motivation and meeting those needs. Smile A smile given with sincerity can make all the difference in a client s day as well as the time spent during the service being provided. A smile conveys a respect for others and meets a basic esteem need in people. Warm professional handshake A proper handshake can give a sense of belonging, which is part of the second stage of basic need needs in Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs. You can show acceptance and meet the need for love and affection. However, your handshake can also create the reverse and cause your client to feel unwelcome. Touch is an important part of our profession in the creative arts field; our touch needs to convey a sense of belonging and acceptance. This starts with the handshake. Talk in a soft, calm voice A soft tone not only causes people to lean in and listen but most often creates the response to use the same tone. Using a calm, soothing, professional tone can relieve stress not only in your client but in yourself, too. Professional appearance Hairstyling is a field that places great emphasis on fashion and style, and a stylist can greatly increase his or her income, reputation and client base by dressing in a professional and stylish manner. Chances are, a stylist who wears fashionable and trendy clothing to work will attract a more prestigious and affluent base of clients than a stylist who comes to work wearing jeans and a tank top. Be aware of how you look and smell to your clients. Are you smacking gum in their ears? Is your top cut so low that your client is getting too much of an eyeful? Are your clothes so tight or short that there is nothing left to the imagination? Is your clothing so loose that it is hitting your client? Is your jewelry rattling? Is your perfume so overwhelming, it covers any other scent within a half-mile? If any of this is so, you can bet that it is causing added stress in your client. Offer comforts Providing water, tea, coffee or snacks are good customer service anyway, but especially so to the stressed client. Meeting basic human needs is key to stress relief. Make sure they are comfortably seated at your station. Things like air and water temperature make a big difference to those you serve. Personal space Be aware of how comfortable your client is about having you in his or her personal space. Find a balance of comfort for your client and proper ergonomic positions for yourself. Safety and sanitation We cannot repeat this enough! If your client ever feels unsafe or that your sanitation is in question, you can be guaranteed that he or she will not return or refer others, no matter how good your technical skill. Team spirit Don t be a rock and an island. You are part of a team, even if it is just you and your client in the room. Make clients feel like they are a part of what is going on. Include other workers and support each other in making every client feel that he or she is special. Clients can feel and often see that there are stresses and tensions going on between salon employees. Keep in mind, you are there to serve the customer s needs, not your own. Be an active listener Give clients the attention and care to be able to relax. Do not go on and on about yourself. It is about them, not you. Offer helpful information Suggest some of the ways you have learned to handle stress. Recommend extra service A cleansing facial using steamed towels and gentle exfoliation, a scalp massage and treatment, even a discount can be a stress reliever. Consider all the services your salon offers for other ideas. Stress effects on hair, nails and skin (American Academy of Dermatology. Feeling Stressed? How Your Skin, Hair And Nails Can Show It, 2007) Speaking at the American Academy of Dermatology s SKIN academy, dermatologist Flor A. Mayoral, MD, FAAD, clinical instructor in the departments of dermatology and cutaneous surgery at the University of Miami s Miller Elite

37 School of Medicine in Miami, Fla., discussed the most common outward signs of stress on the skin, hair and nails, and offered stress management tips to control these symptoms. In treating hundreds of patients over the years with skin conditions such as eczema, rosacea, acne and psoriasis, I have seen firsthand how stress can aggravate the skin and trigger unexpected flare-ups that, in effect, create more stress for patients, said Mayoral. Learning how to manage the effects of stress on your skin can help alleviate some of the anxiety and symptoms. Stress and the skin When a person becomes stressed, the level of the body s stress hormone (cortisol) rises. This in turn causes an increase in oil production, which can lead to oily skin, acne and other related skin problems. Mayoral noted that even patients with skin that is not affected by acne tend to develop temporary stress-related acne caused by increased oil production. In fact, a study in the January 2001 issue of the Archives of Dermatology entitled Psychological Stress Perturbs Epidermal Permeability Barrier Homeostasis, found that stress has a negative effect on the barrier function of the skin, resulting in water loss that inhibits the skin s ability to repair itself after an injury. Specifically, the study involving 27 medical, dental and pharmacy students examined how periods of higher stress (in this case, during final examinations) affected the skin s response to repeated stripping of cellophane tape on the subjects forearms vs. periods of lower stress (such as after returning from winter vacation). Researchers found that it took longer for the skin to recover from the minimally invasive tape stripping during periods of perceived higher stress than during less stressful periods. This study was the first of its kind to suggest what dermatologists anecdotally have known for years that psychological stress adversely affects the normal functions of the skin, Mayoral said. While the subjects in this study did not have any pre-existing skin conditions, I would suspect that people with skin conditions such as eczema or psoriasis would have been even more adversely affected by this experiment. Stressed-out hair There are many reasons why men and women lose their hair, but Mayoral believes that stress may be the primary reason for unexplained hair loss. When someone is under stress, hair can go into the telogen (fall-out) phase. Telogen effluvium is a very common hair loss problem that can occur up to three months after a stressful event. After the initial hair loss, hair usually grows back in six to nine months. Life-changing events such as childbirth or surgery also can cause hair loss. Mayoral explained that during these times, the body takes a time-out from growing hair to concentrate on recovery and healing. As such, hair does not grow as much, and some may shed and not grow back right away. Stress affects people differently some may develop an ulcer, or have a heart attack, or lose their hair, Mayoral said. Hair loss is a normal response to stress, but patients should see a dermatologist for a proper evaluation to rule out other medical causes. I also advise patients to avoid any strange diets where only one or two foods are allowed, as improper nutrition and extreme or rapid weight loss can result in hair loss. Effects of stress on nails Nails are not immune to showing outward signs of stress, and some people develop the nervous habit of biting their nails or picking at them when they feel stressed. Another stress-related nail habit that Mayoral discussed is people who rub their fingers over their thumbnail, which can create a ridge across the nail. This rubbing causes a distortion of the nail plate, and when the nail grows, a raised ridge forms in the middle of the nail. In addition, physical or emotional stress, certain diseases and chemotherapy can cause white horizontal lines to appear across the nails. Brittle, peeling nails also are a common side effect of stress. Stress-relieving services for clients Scalp massage and treatment Cool fingertips run along your neck, gently rubbing the tension away from your spine. They make their way up the back of your head. You close your eyes to rest. You re not dreaming you re enjoying a scalp massage. Massage is one of the most common ways to reduce stress. It s a simple, complementary medicine technique that involves kneading soft tissues in the body, which can create a calming effect and removing tension [source: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine]. One popular type of massage therapy is scalp massage. Massaging the scalp can help stimulate the nerves and blood vessels beneath the skin while calming muscle tension around the head. Although many different cultures have used massage as a form of therapy for thousands of years, it s possible to trace the history of the head and scalp massage to India. The people of India have incorporated head massage into therapeutic practice for about 5,000 years as part of ayurveda, a holistic medicine. Many Indian women used it as part of a weekly ritual, massaging the scalps of family members to prevent stress and even illness [source: Osborn]. Like massages delivered in salons and spas, ayurvedic scalp massages often include massage of the face, neck, back and shoulders. Massage technicians and therapists use their fingers to rub the base of the scalp beneath the hair, the sides of the head, the forehead, chin, hairline, neck, shoulders and spine. While we cannot diagnose conditions of hair, skin and nail, we can perform services to alleviate some of the anxiety and symptoms and condition them. A good shampoo with a scalp massage is the cornerstone to a great relaxing service. This is a step not to be rushed. Your client will remember and recommend other clients based on your shampoo alone if they are relaxed and comforted by your shampoo service. Shampoo 101: with scalp manipulation Seat client comfortably at the shampoo sink. 1. Supporting the client s head with one hand, draw the back of the cape over the outside of the shampoo chair to keep water from running down the client s back 2. Adjust the volume and temperature of the water spray. Consider the client s preference when adjusting the water temperature. Turn on the cold water first and gradually add warm water until you obtain a comfortably warm temperature. Test the water temperature by spraying on the inner side of your wrist. Monitor the temperature throughout the shampoo by keeping one finger over the edge of the spray nozzle and in contact with the water. 3. Wet the hair thoroughly with warm water spray. Lift the hair and work it with your free hand to saturate the scalp. When working around the hairline, shift your hand to protect the client s face, ears and neck from the spray. If you wish, you can place your little finger behind your client s ear to create a cup with your hand for a shield, thus preventing water from running into the client s ear. You can also bend the ear forward to keep water out. 4. Choose the product that best suite your client s needs. Remember, for stress relief and scalp treatment, a tea tree or peppermint shampoo can give a tingling, relaxing effect. Apply a very miniscule amount of shampoo (about the size of a quarter) to palm and rub hands together to evenly distribute to all the necessary areas. Work into a lather using the balls of the fingers (not your nails) from front hairline and down to the back, working the shampoo to the scalp. 5. Manipulate the scalp. a. Begin at the front hairline and work in a back and forth movement until the top of the head is reached. b. Continue in this manner to the back of the head, shifting your fingers back 1 inch at a time. c. Lift the client s head with one hand. With the other hand, manipulate the scalp above the ear, and using the same movement, work to the back of the head. d. Drop your fingers down 1 inch and repeat the process until that side of the head is covered. e. Beginning at the other ear, repeat steps c. and d. f. Allow the client s head to relax, and work around the hairline in a rotary movement. g. Repeat these movements until the scalp has been thoroughly massaged. h. Lift client s head with one hand and continue down her neck, massaging with rotary movement along the neck to the shoulders. i. Remove excess shampoo and lather by sliding hands from the hairline to the ends, squeezing the hair. Elite Page 35

38 j. Rinse hair thoroughly with a strong spray of lukewarm water. Lift the hair at the crown and back with the fingers of your left hand to permit the spray to rinse thoroughly. Cup your left hand along the nape and pat the hair, forcing the spray of water against the base scalp area. k. If necessary, repeat steps for a second shampoo. l. Gently squeeze excess water from the hair. Apply conditioner, avoiding the base of the hair near the scalp. Gently comb the conditioner through using a widetooth comb while the client remains in a reclining position at the bowl. m. Leave the conditioner on hair for the recommended time. Then rinse thoroughly and finish with a cool rinse to seal the cuticle. Now your client should be relaxed and ready for other services. There are many other types of scalp treatments you can perform, but the shampoo is the most basic and beneficial of them all. Don t take for granted what a good shampoo technique can do for your clientele. Basic facial 101: Facial bar concept (done in the chair) The facial bar concept has brought the service out of the facial room. You are able to perform a facial right in your chair. There are several good videos posted on YouTube of this emerging concept in action. Here are the preliminary steps: 1. Have client remove jewelry, including earrings and necklaces. 2. Seat client comfortably in chair with headrest. 3. Drape client with towel and cape to protect clothing. 4. Use a cap or towel around hair to protect hair from any products. 5. Sanitize hands. 6. Begin procedure. Here are the steps for a facial in the chair: 1. Make-up removal for clients who wear make-up: a. Apply a pea-sized amount of eye makeup remover to each of two damp cotton pads and place them on the client s closed eyes. Leave them in place for 1 minute. b. Meanwhile, apply a pea-sized amount of eye makeup remover to a damp cotton pad and remove client s lipstick with even strokes from the corners of lips towards the center. Repeat the procedure until lips are clean. c. Next, remove the eye make-up in the same way, gently stroking down and outward with the cotton pad. Do one eye first, then the other. Repeat procedure until all make-up is removed. d. Ask the client to look up, and then remove any make-up underneath the eyes. Always be gentle around the eyes; never rub or stretch the skin, because it is very thin and delicate. 2. Apply cleanser: a. Remove about a teaspoon of cleanser from the container with a clean spatula. Blend with your fingertips to soften. Page 36 b. Starting at the neck, with a sweeping movement use both hands to spread cleanser upward on the chin, jaws, cheeks and base of nose to the temples and along the sides and bridge of nose. Make small circular movements with your fingertips around the nostrils and sides of the nose. Continue the sweeping motion between the brows and across to the forehead to the temples. c. Take additional cleanser from the container with a clean spatula and blend. Smooth down neck, chest and back with long, even strokes. 3. Starting at the forehead, move your fingertips lightly in a circle around the eye to the temples, and then back to center of the forehead. 4. Slide your fingers down the nose to the upper lip, from the temples through the forehead, lightly down the chin, then firmly up the jaw line back toward the temples and forehead. 5. Remove the cleanser with facial sponges, tissues, moist cotton pads or warm, moist towels. Start at the forehead and follow the contours of the face. Remove all the cleanser from one area of the face before proceeding to the next area. Finish with neck, chest and back. 6. Steam the face mildly with warm, moist steam towels to open the pores so they can be cleansed of oil and comedones. Steam also helps to soften superficial lines and increases blood circulation to the surface of the skin. 7. Select a massage cream appropriate to the client s skin type. Using the same procedure as for the cleanser, apply the massage cream to the face, neck, shoulder and back. 8. Use massage techniques for facials; there are many techniques that you can view online. 9. Complete facial using toner, astringent or freshener. 10. Apply a moisturizer or sunscreen. 11. Remove head covering and draping from client and perform cleanup and sanitation. These services can be performed right in your chair. It is a wonderful opportunity for your client to have a relaxing service, and a great up-sell for you. Other services you can recommend or perform are a basic manicure or pedicure. Keep in mind, our clients comfort is our goal, we want them leaving our chair less stressed than when they arrived. Explore different types of facial and nail products; there are many on the market, and most will come with instructional videos. Knowledge is power. The more knowledgeable, the more diverse and the more professional you are, the better you will be in your business. A final note Product suggestions to help you provide stress relief for yourself and your clients are suggestions only. You can research and find many ways and product lines to create a relaxing, stress-free environment for your clientele. Remember, knowledge is power! References 1. Sangha at Clouds in Water Zen Center. See cloudsinwater.org/guidelinesforcommunication.htm 2. htm#what%20is%20nonassertive,%20aggressive,%20and%20 Assertive%20Thinking%20and%20Behavior? Or csulb.edu/~tstevens/ 3. Adapted from Assertiveness Inventory Scale; Authors: K. Daniel O Leary and Alison D. Curley; see psychology.sunysb.edu/marital-/downloads/aggression.htm Elite

39 CHAPTER 5 MAKE-UP CLASSICS (5 CE Hours) Nothing does more for a house and a woman than a little bit of paint. Unknown Learning objectives Explain the steps and theories in color analysis for your client. List the hair colors that flatter cool-toned persons and warm-toned persons. Explain the seasonal theory of color and how to use it to help clients with wardrobe colors and other fashion advice. Define and list primary colors, secondary colors and tertiary colors. List the essential tools for makeup application. List characteristics to consider when buying makeup brushes. Explain how eye concealers and correctors work. List the different types of foundations and the skin types they each enhance. List considerations to make when selecting powder. Describe features of common facial shapes and techniques to enhance them. Describe how to enhance eyes with corrective makeup techniques. List blush types and formulas available and how each is used. List types and formulas available for lip color and their characteristics. Describe ways to contour the eyes with makeup. List eyeliner types and formulas. List eyeliner dos and don ts. List mascara types and formulas and how each is used. Describe the proper way to apply mascara. Introduction Trends, especially here in the United States, seem to drive the desires of women in their make-up selections. Add to this the influence of Hollywood and force of habit, and you have two more contributors to how the American woman chooses and applies her make-up. Strange as it seems, women experiment a lot in their teens, copying what they see in the fashion magazines. Then, at about age 18, they devise a look that they tend to wear for the rest of their lives. They stop experimenting and choose and apply the tried and true. This alone serves to date the woman, and she is stuck in the trend of that earlier year. As professional cosmetologists and make-up artists, we know this to be true. Unless and until someone intervenes with a makeover, she will wear the same colors and apply them in the same way she did in high school. As professionals, we have studied cosmetics and their application. We have learned how to balance the features, correct flaws and highlight the best features of the face. The old song by Bobby Van in the Broadway musical Lost Horizon goes: You ve got to: accentuate the positive, Eliminate the negative, Latch on to the affirmative, And don t mess with Mr. In-between. This becomes the mantra for successful services on our clients. So, how did you decide which colors and what method of application were best for you? For me, it was a combination of what my own mother did and what my friends were experimenting with in high school. Now, please understand, my dear mother had a very fair, almost translucent complexion and green eyes. I have a medium complexion, with sallow undertones, and hazel eyes. When I would look at school pictures, I always felt that something was wrong. Guess what? She bought clothes for me that she would wear that is, the colors. When I borrowed her make-up, the results on me were much less than pretty. And the forest green blazer that was part of my uniform in high school only served to make my skin appear yellow-green on the edges. Do you get the image that I was a mess? It was not until I had my first class on make-up in cosmetology school that I understood that there was a real art and science to the choices and application of the paint. This fascinated me beyond words, and I literally consumed anything that had to do with beautifying the human face. Now, over 50 years later, I still take delight in sharing the secrets that I learned in my worldwide travel and study. Interestingly, European women would not think of leaving these important decisions to the chance of experimentation. They bring their daughters to professionals at a very young age to be analyzed and advised. This is true of all beauty and wardrobe decisions. Aware American women have adopted this practice. Volumes have been written about which colors go with which skin tones and eye colors. Personally, I have always found these both confusing and difficult to follow when consulting with a client. But in my European study experience, I discovered a simple and foolproof way to analyze, suggest and apply enhancing colors to clients. This method of color analysis will be successful for hair color changes, make-up choices and wardrobe selections simply because it focuses on the individual s glow of natural coloring. The method will hold true for every race and nationality and is used worldwide. Let s face it, our clients expect us to advise them on fashion points. How many times have your clients approached you with questions about which lipstick to use with this dress or which jewelry with that outfit? They trust our fashion sense and respect our advice. The analysis Drape the client in a white cape. Work either in natural daylight (natural daylight fluorescent light) or under a white light bulb above her head. This allows the clearest reading of your analysis. Use a lighted magnifying glass (about $4 at a drugstore). Look into the eyes, either from the front or side, and observe the ring around the iris (the pigmented area of the eye). If the outer ring of the iris is blue (It could be blue-grey to as dark as navy blue) the person is cool-toned. Note: Even brown eyes can have a blue ring. Elite Page 37 If the outer ring of the iris is green (It could be aqua to as dark as forest green) the person is warm-toned. Note: Even blue eyes can have a green ring. Look for points of inspiration in the eyes, i.e., flecks of gold, copper or bronze. Any of these tones will be enhancing to that person. Because these pigments are part of the persons genetic make-up, the principle of the two color families will apply, regardless of race or nationality. Only the concentration of pigments will be different, and that applies to the depth of color. The variations will range from pastel (fair), medium, to intense (deep) and everywhere in between. Notations should be made on client s record card: The color family (refer to eye color). The natural level of hair color (1 to 10). The skin color level (1 to 10). The underlying tone or tones. Pigment bundles on the skin (i.e., freckles). Presence of sun damage and general condition of the skin. Face shape. Any problems in balance and proportion. While the focus of this course is on the face, everything should tie together. With that in mind, let s consider hair color choices and wardrobe selections. Who can wear what in hair color changes? The cools can wear: Naturals/neutrals. All cool tones. Iridescent tones. Beige tones. Soft gold tones. Lavender/blue reds. The warms can wear: Naturals/neutrals. Strong golds. Copper tones. Bronze tones. Honey blondes/reds. Scarlett reds. The other consideration is the depth/level of pigmentation (No.1, the darkest, through No. 10, the lightest). It is possible to lighten or darken the hair 2-3 levels/numbers (8 to 12 shades), without conflicting with the natural appearance of the skin. Beyond this, either way will require extensive modifications in make-up colors, as in the case of theatrical make-up. For this course, we are concentrating on real people : your clients and their needs for everyday advice. The aware woman considers her hair color to be the most important cosmetic to the skin, primarily because it is always present.

40 Your salon s color service business will grow if you provide natural-looking hair color, done in good taste. Close attention to your analysis and points of inspiration will do this for you. And your clients will appreciate your talents. Wardrobe selections If you wish to equate this analysis to seasonal colors, we can do that, too: A person who is cool-toned with fair/light skin is a summer. A person who is cool-toned with medium to deep skin is a winter. A person who is warm-toned with fair/light skin is a spring. A person who is warm-toned with a medium to deep skin is an autumn. For harmony, everything needs to be relative. Women of color can carry more color. While very young women can pull off hot, trendy colors, the middle-aged woman needs to be aware of the impact of a harmonious appearance. Wardrobe colors by the seasons You can wear almost any color; it s the shade and intensity that count. Spring s colors are clear, delicate, and bright with yellow undertones. Autumn s colors are stronger with orange and gold undertones. Winter s colors are clear, vivid, or icy with blue undertones. And summer s colors are cool and soft with blue undertones. Study the characteristics of each seasonal palette, noting especially the differences in the beiges, blues, greens, pinks and reds. Do you see, for example, that the spring palette has clear yellowgreens, while autumn has both yellow-greens and earth greens? Winter s greens are true or icy, and the summer palette contains only blue-greens. Summers and winters wear blue-reds (cool), while springs and autumns look best in orangereds (warm). Spring s pinks have yellow in them; summer s are blue-pinks. Winter s are true and vivid or icy; and autumn has no pink. A summer is flattered by soft colors with a blue undertone and can wear: Soft white. Rose-beige. Cocoa. Rose-brown. Light blue-gray. Charcoal blue-gray. Grayed navy. Gray-blue. Powder blue. Sky blue. Medium blue. Periwinkle blue. Pastel aqua. Pastel blue-green. Medium blue-green. Deep blue-green. Light lemon yellow. Powder pink. Pastel pink. Rose pink. Deep rose. Page 38 Watermelon. Blue-red. Burgundy. Lavender. Orchid. Mauve. Raspberry. Soft fuchsia. Plum. Silver-toned jewelry and accessories. A winter may appear to have an olive skin tone, but it actually has a blue undertone. Oliveskinned people and most blacks and Orientals look radiant in clear, vivid, cool colors, but sallow in warm colors. Mediterranean (Italians and Greeks) and Hispanics may also fall into this category. The winter can wear: Pure white. Light true gray. Medium true gray. Charcoal gray. Black. Gray-beige (taupe). Navy blue. True blue. Icy green. Icy yellow. Icy aqua. Icy violet. Icy pink. Icy blue. Royal Blue Hot turquoise. Chinese blue. Lemon yellow. Light true green. True green. Emerald green. Pine green. Shocking pink. Deep hot pink. Magenta. Fuchsia. Royal purple. Bright burgundy. Blue-red. True red. Silver-toned jewelry and accessories. A spring will have a peach undertone to the skin. The spring palette contains clear, warm colors, some delicate, some bright all with yellow undertones. Ivory. Buff. Light warm beige. Camel. Golden tan (honey). Medium golden brown. Light warm gray. Light clear navy. Light clear gold. Bright golden yellow. Pastel yellow-green. Medium yellow-green. Bright yellow-green. Apricot. Light orange. Peach. Clear salmon. Bright coral. Warm pastel pink. Coral pink. Clear bright warm pink. Clear bright red. Orange-red. Medium violet. Light periwinkle blue. Dark periwinkle blue. Light true blue. Light warm aqua. Clear bright aqua. Medium warm turquoise. Gold-toned jewelry and accessories. The autumn has a true peach skin tone and is complemented by warm colors with golden undertones. She can wear: Oyster white. Warm beige. Coffee brown. Dark chocolate brown. Mahogany. Camel. Gold. Medium warm brown. Yellow-gold. Mustard. Pumpkin. Terra cotta. Rust. Deep peach/apricot. Salmon. Orange. Orange-red. Bittersweet red. Dark tomato red. Lime green. Chartreuse. Bright yellow-green. Moss green. Grayed yellow-green. Olive green. Jade green. Forest green. Turquoise. Teal blue. Deep periwinkle blue. Gold-toned jewelry and accessories. The seasonal color theory was inspired by the studies of artist and colorist Johannes Itten of the famous Bauhaus school in Germany. He discovered the power of physical coloring in directing a student s choice of colors in his paintings. He noted that a student s personal colors were consistently those complementary to his skin tone, hair, and eyes, in both tone and intensity. After years of observation and documentation, he emphatically states in his book, The Elements of Color, that Every woman should know what colors are becoming to her; these will always be her subjective colors and their complements. So Itten concluded that our personal palette, the one to which we are drawn naturally, consists of the very colors that look best on us. Elite

41 In adapting Itten s theory to fashion, we have developed the four seasonal palettes as guides for clothing, make-up and wardrobe planning. You don t have to be a brilliant colorist or fashion coordinator yourself, though you will look as if you are. Simply determine which palette fits your coloring, wear those colors, and enjoy the compliments. You can also see the value of this knowledge when advising the clients. You have given them a reason to listen to you and buy your services. A true story Many years ago, while I was sharing this information with a group of educators, one friend was convinced that my analysis was off. We had analyzed her as a winter. However, she had just come from a color party where the fee was $75. This is where attendees are systematically draped with various fabrics to discover their best colors. There she was analyzed as an autumn. At this time, I dismissed it as a rule exception. You know the one: There is an exception to every rule, and it is the exception that proves the rule. She was challenged by these findings and decided to do a survey of her own. For the next 30 days, she alternated wearing winter s and autumn s colors. Day by day in her salon, she would note the reactions of her clients and staff. She had been in business at this location for 15 years and was well known in the neighborhood. At the end of the 30 days, she reviewed the findings from her journal. On the days that she wore winter s colors, she received compliments many times over, such as: You look terrific today. On the days that she wore autumn s colors, she did not receive compliments. In fact, many remarks were: Don t you feel well today? She became a believer in the two-color family system and uses it in her business everyday. In fact, in the town of Canton, Ohio, her salon is the place to go for color services, color correction, make-up application and bridal preparation. The history of makeup c. 500,000 B.C.E. Cave dwellers in Africa and South America cover their bodies with mud applied in decorative patterns. The mud also functions as an insect repellent. c B.C.E. Egyptians use more than 30 different types of cosmetic balms and ointments made from ingredients such as beeswax, vegetable oil and animal fat. Moisturizers are considered so essential, they are routinely distributed to workers and farmers. Egyptian women have elaborate makeup chests, equipment and products. They give themselves egg white facials, use complexion cream, and apply perfumed oils. Women paint their faces with a (deadly) powder made from lead carbonate and water. Nails are painted with henna, and lipsticks are available in several orange-based shades. The use of red is banned because it is considered magical. To outline the eyes, they use either powdered kohl or crushed ant s eggs. Eye shadows in red or green are created using plant stems. Other makeup tools include stone pestles for grinding, bronze or silver mirrors, ivory or alabaster spoons, bronze jars for holding face cream, linen, razors, ivory combs, and pumice. c B.C.E. An Egyptian papyrus includes formulas for removing wrinkles, pimples, age spots and other blemishes. One mixture includes bullock s bile. Egyptians who want to get rid of wrinkles are told to apply a mixture of incense, olive oil, crushed cypress, and wax to the face and to leave it on for six days. Overseers stop all work on the pyramids until makeup supplies (kohl, green malachite, and galena) that help to protect the eyes of workers from the sun are delivered. c B.C.E. Sumerians invent the first tweezers to get rid of unwanted hair and use a flat bone to push back cuticles. c B.C.E. Gold dust is used by Babylonian men to powder their hair. c B.C.E. Egyptian women use body oils scented with frankincense and myrrh to moisturize and protect their skin from the dry, dusty climate. Mesopotamian soldiers are paid in bottles of oil and perfume, which are more highly valued than cash. c B.C.E. Egyptians of this era are wearing a full face of cosmetics. They create eye shadows out of malachite, a copper ore that has a greenish tone, to line their bottom lids. Eyelashes and upper lids are darkened with powder made from lead ore. c. 600 B.C.E. Makeup and lavish clothing are worn by all Babylonians of rank. An ambitious warrior named Parsondes was said to have complained to King Nebuchadnezzar about the governor Nanarus s focus on beauty rather than on government. When word got back to the governor, he ordered that the warrior shave all his hair and wear makeup and perfumed oils. c. 400 B.C.E. Women from various cultures use powders made from crushed minerals, such as ocher, hematite, and white lead, to color their skin. FIRST century B.C.E. Roman women use saffron or wood ash as eye shadow and antimony to darken their lids, lashes, and brows. Fucus, a purple pigment, is mixed with saliva and used for rouge and lip color. Blue paint is used to outline veins, which are seen as a sign of beauty. Nails are buffed with sheep s fat. Pumice is used to whiten teeth. SECOND century A.D. Women in Palestine apply a mixture of starch, white lead, and crimson dye to their faces as an early form of blush. THIRD century A.D. Talmudic law forbids Jewish women from applying makeup on the Sabbath. 636 The first glass mirror is invented. Women hang them, placed in elaborate cases, on a chain from their girdles, and men keep theirs under their hats Charles V of France receives a gift of Hungary water, a body rub made of an alcohol base with rosemary, cedar, and turpentine. Soap is a luxury, but the use of these waters sweetens the smell of the body. c Cosmetics, including a white paste made of flour to cover the face, become increasingly popular among the French aristocracy. Women pluck their hairlines and even remove their eyebrows in the name of beauty. c Renaissance women use a mixture of honey and egg whites to condition their skin. White lead is applied to reduce the appearance of wrinkles. Mercuris sulphide is used for rouge. To keep complexions clear, some wash their faces in urine or a mixture of rose water and wine. To reduce ruddiness, raw veal soaked in warm milk for several hours is placed on the affected area. c Catherine de Medici uses skin tonic made from crushed peach blossoms mixed with almond oil Gerard s Herbal is published. This is one of the first printed publications to include recipes for various skin creams, including one for acne To soothe chapped lips, it is recommended that sweat from behind the ears be applied to the affected area. Queen Elizabeth I dies and is rumored to have an inch and a half of makeup on her face at the time of her passing. This is not uncommon in an era when no one washes their faces, and makeup is used to cover the horrible scars left by smallpox. Late 1600s A doll-like look with a pure white face and scarlet cheeks is all the rage. A foundation of white ceruse, which contains lead, is mixed on a palette with water or egg white and applied to the skin. Rouge is commonly applied by rubbing a piece of Spanish felt or wool that has been dyed scarlet onto dampened cheeks. Late 1600s to 1700s Silk taffeta or thin leather patches in shapes like flowers, stars, and moons become a popular product to temporarily conceal smallpox scars on the face. More than just coverups, however, the patches signal a woman s availability if placed near the lips. Engaged women wear them on the left cheek and switch to the right after marriage. Some even carry small patch boxes with them to social events to replace any that fall off. Small scenes are sometimes pasted over an eyebrow, and profiles of family members are sometimes worn on the face. c Women put a few drops of belladonna into their eyes to dilate the pupils, creating a dreamy look. Belladonna is a plant extract used since ancient times as a poison Pond s Extract, a commercial cold cream, is introduced The department store B. Altman and Company opens a making up department to teach women to apply rouge, powder, and eyebrow pencil Avon, the door-to-door cosmetics line, is founded by David Hall McConnell, a former door-to-door book salesman. Elite Page 39

42 c Guerlain introduces the first lip colors to come in stick form Polish-born Helena Rubinstein opens the world s first modern beauty salon in Australia. She sells a simple face cream inspired by her mother s beauty cream. The product is an instant hit among Australian women. In 1902, Helena expands her business to London, followed by Paris in 1906 and New York in Actresses are the only people who know much about makeup, as it is used exclusively for the stage. No woman dares to go out in public with more than the lightest dusting of rice powder. Rice powder makes the face appear lighter but also swells up in the pores of the skin, enlarging them. Helena Rubinstein starts to produce a tinted face powder that is more natural looking, does not have harmful side effects, and has a broad appeal Rubinstein s lifelong rival, Elizabeth Arden, opens her Fifth Avenue Salon Russian immigrant Max Factor opens his first makeup studio in Hollywood Eugene Schueller, a French chemist, opens the French Harmless Hair Dye Company, selling the first safe commercial hair dye product. A year later, he renames his product L Oreal (in French, aura of light). c The first pressed powder compact powders complete with mirrors and puffs are introduced, 1910 The Daily Mirror Beauty Book is published. The makeup hints and recipes for homemade lotions reflects the fact that cosmetics have become publicly accepted for the first time in almost 100 years. The little booklet includes references to a device that curls lashes, a homemade eyebrow darkener, and astringent lotion, and it suggests using a pencil line to elongate the eyes Tattoos are extremely popular in Britain. George Burchett, a famous tattoo artist, practices his art on men and women alike. His card indicates that he can tint and shade complexions and remove moles, blemishes, and other marks After seeing his sister, Maybel, apply petroleum jelly to her lashes, T. L. Williams formulates the first mascara. He forms a company, named Maybelline after his sister, to manufacture the new product. c Coco Chanel makes tans chic, calling a suntan an important fashion accessory. 1920s The flapper Clara Bow is everyone s favorite it girl. Her look includes heavy eyeliner and ultrathin eyebrows. The opening of chain stores, in which all can examine products and prices, make inexpensive cosmetics available to everyone Elizabeth Arden opens a salon on Bond Street in London When she finds that her new cream can heal and improve the skin in a matter of hours, Elizabeth Arden names the product Eight Hour Cream. It remains a best seller to this day. Page Revlon launches its first nail enamel World War II restricts the manufacture of cosmetics. Petroleum and alcohol, two principal ingredients used in makeup, are needed for war supplies. 1940s Joan Crawford s heavily penciled-in, arched eyebrows become the trademark look for the 1940s career woman Estee Lauder launches her company with a line of six products Revlon s Fire and Ice, an all-out sexy red lipstick color, is launched and becomes an instant success The Color Additive Amendment requires that coloring ingredients in cosmetics be tested for safety and approved by the FDA Estee Lauder launches a new line called Clinique, which emphasizes scientific skin care and cosmetics. The supermodel Twiggy popularizes a dramatic eye look; she draws lashes around the eye with a pencil and applies numerous false lashes, creating a doe-eyed effect. 1970s Natural makeup is all the rage. Models to know: Veruschka, Marissa Berenson, Lauren Hutton, Margaux and Mariel Hemingway, Cheryl Tiegs, Christie Brinkley, Beverly Johnson. Beauty icons: Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Bo Derek, Farrah Fawcett, whose poster was the topselling poster in history Ilana Harkavi, a former professional dancer, launches Il Makiage. The line is positioned as the makeup artist s makeup Lauren Hutton becomes the first model to sign an exclusive cosmetics contract. Revlon signs her for $100, Trish McEvoy launches a line of makeup brushes to fill the demand for high-quality makeup tools Calvin Klein launches a line of cosmetics, which relaunches in s Makeup is strong and exaggerated. Color trends are bold lots of blues and fuchsias. Avon and Mary Kay create palettes to take the guesswork out of choosing a color scheme. Models to know: Rosemary McGrath, Pat Cleveland, Esme, Lisa Taylor, Jerry Hall. Beauty icons: Madonna, Grace Jones, Jane Fonda, Pat Benatar Canadians Frank Toskan, a makeup artist and photographer, and Frank Angelo, a hair salon owner, launch Make-up Art Cosmetics, or MAC. Their line, which is originally designed for use in fashion photography, wins a wide following with its socially conscious motto: All ages, all races, all sexes. Make Up For Ever is launched by Dany Sanz and Jacques Waneph to meet the unique needs of the stage and fashion industries Paulina Porizkova signs on as the face of Estee Lauder for $6 million Hollywood makeup artist Carol Shaw launches LORAC, a line featuring oil and fragrance-free foundations Ultima II relaunches the Naked Collection. 1990s Makeup is all about looking natural. Models to know: Linda Evangelista, Christy Turlington, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Tatjana Patitz. Beauty icons: Jennifer Aniston, Jennifer Lopez New York makeup artist Bobbi Brown launches Bobbi Brown essentials with 10 brownbased lipsticks at Bergdorf Goodman Kate Moss appears on Calvin Klein Obsession perfume ads and billboards. Jeanine Lobell launches Stila cosmetics. Fashion model Iman launches IMAN, a line of cosmetics for women of color. Francois Nars launches NARS with 12 lipsticks at Barneys New York. In 1996, he shoots his first advertising campaign for his brand, and continues to do so today Frustrated by the lack of bold, vibrant colors, Vincent Longo launches his own line Crème de la Mer, a potent cream developed by aerospace physicist Max Huber, is relaunched. Laura Mercier launches her line of cosmetics Sonia Kashuk launches the Sonia Kashuk Professional Makeup collection for Target. This marks the first partnership between a high-profile makeup artist and mass-market retailer. 2000s-present Fake tans, sun beds, and tanning products are all the rage; mineral-based makeup enters the marketplace, and makeup brands explode. While the above information is just a brief overview, it answers the question, How did we get to where we are? As in all industries, we have watched and learned from competitors. So it is not surprising that there are many products in common in all makeup and skin care lines. And, yes, it has been a very long time since a woman took a burnt piece of wood and darkened around her eyes and put berry juice on the lips and cheeks to bring a flush to the face. And still the quest for enhancement to beauty goes on. Makeup color theory Now that we know how it all started, let s review some fundamentals. A strong understanding of how color works is vital to effective makeup application. Everyone sees color a little differently, and it may take a while to learn to see color naturally and easily. Let s review how to identify primary, secondary, and tertiary colors, as well as warm, cool, and complementary colors. Once you understand these basics of color theory, you can use your creative instincts to invent any color palette you desire. Primary colors are fundamental colors that cannot be obtained from a mixture. The primary colors are yellow, red, and blue. Elite

43 Secondary colors are obtained by mixing equal parts of two primary colors. Yellow mixed with red makes orange. Red mixed with blue makes violet. Yellow mixed with blue makes green. Tertiary colors are formed by mixing equal amounts of a secondary color and its neighboring primary color on the color wheel. These colors are named by primary color first, secondary color second. For example, when we mix blue (a primary) with violet (a neighboring secondary), we call the resulting color blue-violet. A primary and secondary color directly opposite each other on the color wheel are called complementary colors. When mixed, these colors cancel each other out to create a neutral brown or gray color. When complementary colors are placed next to each other, each color makes the other look brighter, resulting in greater contrast. For example, if you place blue next to orange, the blue seems bluer, the orange brighter. Try this with magic markers or colored paper to compare. The concept of complementary colors is useful when determining color choice. For example, the use of complementary colors will emphasize eye color, making the eyes appear brighter. Warm and cool colors Learning the difference between warm and cool colors is essential to your success as a makeup artist. This is the basis of all color selection, and understanding the difference will enable you to properly enhance your client s coloring. Warm colors are the range of colors from yellow and gold through the oranges, redoranges, most reds, and even some yellowgreens. Cool colors suggest coolness and are dominated by blues, greens, violets, and bluereds. You will realize that reds can be both warm and cool. If the red is orange-based, it is warm. If it is blue-based, it is cool. Green is similar: if a green contains more gold, it is warm; if it contains more blue, it is cool. You may hear people refer to a color as having a lot of blue in it. For example: This lipstick has a blue base or That blush is very blue. This does not mean that the color is truly blue. Rather, it means that when the pigments were mixed to create that cosmetic, more blue color was added. What you are seeing might look primarily violet or magenta. Selecting makeup colors Now that we have determined warms and cools, it is time to learn a system that will help you feel more comfortable when choosing colors for your clients. Keep in mind this is simply one way of choosing colors. The art of makeup application allows for more than one way to achieve the result you are looking for. However, once you learn the rules of a basic color selection system, you can then go on to break them if you so desire. As you look at the color wheel, think of it as a tool in determining color choice. There are three main factors to consider when choosing colors for a client: skin color, eye color, and hair color. Determining skin color When determining skin color, you must first decide whether the skin is light, medium or dark in level. Then determine whether the tone of the skin is warm or cool. (Refer to The analysis at the beginning of this course.) You may not see skin colors truly in the beginning. Give yourself time and practice to develop your eye. Neutral skin tones contain equal elements of warm and cool, no matter how light or dark the skin is. Remember to always match the foundation color to the color of the skin, or use the corrective techniques discussed later in this course. Once you have determined whether the skin is light, medium or dark, you may choose eye, cheek and lip colors to match the skin color in level, or try contrast for more impact. Most skin tones and levels can wear a surprisingly wide range of eye, cheek and lip colors. If the skin color is light, you may use light colors for a soft, natural look. Medium to dark colors will create a more dramatic look. If the skin color is medium, medium tones will create an understated look. Light or dark tones will provide more contrast and will appear bolder. If skin color is dark, dark tones will be most subtle. Medium to medium light or bright tones will be striking and vivid. Be cautious when choosing tones lighter than the skin. If the color is too light, it will turn gray or chalky on the skin. Look for translucent, shimmery colors if you are choosing these tones. The effects of lights and darks This is where the rules of contouring and highlighting can make a real difference in the overall presentation. If a lighter foundation is applied to a smaller or receding area, the available light source will fall on this area first, thereby making it appear larger. Examples of this are on a chin that is too small, on a forehead that is too low, or even on a neck that is too slender. If a darker foundation is applied to an area that is too large, the light source will fall on the lighter areas first and cause the larger areas to appear less obvious. Examples of this are: on a forehead that is too high, or on a double chin. Be careful to lighten or darken minimally and blend well. Complementary colors for eyes As you begin recommending eye, cheek and lip colors, neutrals will always be your safest choice. They contain elements of warm and cool and work well on any skin tone, eye color, or hair color. They come in variations of brown or gray. For instance, they may have a warm or cool base with brown tones. Or you might choose a plum-brown, which would be considered a cool neutral. An orange-brown would be considered a warm neutral. Charcoal gray is a cool neutral, as is blue-gray. Contrary to popular belief, matching eye color with shadow color is not the best way to enhance it; it only creates a flat region of color. By contrasting eye color with complementary colors, you emphasize the color most effectively. The following is a guideline for eye color selection. Complementary colors for blue eyes. Orange is the complementary color to blue. Because orange contains yellow and red, shadows with any of these colors in them will make blue eyes look bluer. Common choices include gold, warm orange-browns like peach and copper, red-browns like mauves and plum, and neutrals like taupe or camel. Complementary colors for green eyes. Red is the complementary color to green. Because red shadows tend to make the eyes look tired or bloodshot, pure red tones are not recommended. Instead, use brown-based reds or other color options next to the red on the color wheel. These include red-orange, redviolet and violet. Popular choices are coppers, rusts, pinks, plums, mauves and purples. Complementary colors for brown eyes. Brown eyes are neutral and can wear any color. Recommended choices include such contrasting colors as greens, blues, grays, and silvers. Adding cheek and lip color After you have chosen eye makeup, use the color wheel to determine whether your choices are warm or cool and then coordinate cheek and lip makeup in the same color family as the eye makeup. For example, if your client has green eyes with a blue ring, you recommended plums for her, which are cool. Now you should stay with cool colors for the cheeks and lips to coordinate with the eye makeup. You may also choose neutrals, because they contain both warm and cool elements and coordinate with any makeup colors. Hair color and eye color Hair color needs to be taken into account when determining eye makeup color. For example, if a woman has blue eyes, your instinct might be to select orange-based eye makeup as the complementary choice. But if she has cool blueblack hair, the orange will not be flattering. In this case, you would choose cool colors to coordinate with the hair color. Red-violets (plums) would be a more flattering choice. Look at orange on the color wheel: it is warm. Go around the wheel toward the cool end. Red-violets are the closest to orange on the color wheel while still remaining cool. As stated earlier, there is a range of colors to choose from for any client. Tip: It is not recommended to mix warms and cools on a face. They will compete with each other and will result in an off appearance. Staying within the color ranges you have chosen will ensure a balanced, beautiful look. The best thing about choosing colors is the unlimited number of choices you have. Try one or all methods of choosing color. You may choose colors based only on skin tone, or you might find that working with complementary colors makes you feel more comfortable. Bring out hair color by matching or contrasting with it, or by blending all three areas as discussed here. Elite Page 41

44 If there is one thing that I learned about studying many methods, it s that all of the systems have something legitimate to offer. In any one given class, we can always find something to use. The secret of my own success is that I would go into a class with an open mind and learn the information exactly as the artist presented it. I would master his/her techniques. Then I would incorporate those ideas into my own repertoire, using what fit and discarding what didn t. I also find it most efficient to assemble my color selections before beginning application. Essential tools Brushes make all the difference in makeup application. Everyone from the most skilled makeup artist to the woman who wears only the basics can benefit from using the right tools. Consider investing in at least a few key brushes. High-quality blush, eye shadow, eyebrow and eyeliner brushes are basic. Good brushes are not hard to find. Look at those made by makeup artists lines as well as less expensive versions available at beauty and art supply stores. To find out which brushes you need and which ones are good quality, familiarize yourself with a variety of styles, shapes, and bristle types. Assessing brush quality Before purchasing brushes, you have to know what you are looking for and which brushes are worthwhile investments. Assess the quality of a brush by testing the way the bristles feel against the skin and by running your fingers through the bristles to make sure that they don t shed. It s important to test how a brush feels when you hold it in your hand. It needs to feel comfortable and easy to maneuver. Brush size The brushes that come with most makeup compacts are too small and narrow for proper blush application. Toss them and use a brush designed specifically for that purpose instead. Natural bristles Natural bristles (such as squirrel, goat, pony or sable) are very soft and offer a more blended, natural application. They re best for working with powderbased products blush, powder and eye shadow. Synthetic bristles Synthetic bristles are the best choice for brushes that will be used with creamy products, such as concealer, gel liners, and lip colors. They are generally stiffer than natural hair, so they give you greater control and a more precise application. Tool guide This alphabetized glossary describes the different types of brushes as well as other tools you might want to keep in your kit. It will help you decide what brushes work best for a specific need or technique. Blush brush: This needs to be wide enough to cover the apple of the cheek. The bristles should be soft, natural hair with beveled and curved edges. Page 42 Bronzer brush: This is thicker and fuller than a blush brush and has a flat profile. It is designed for sweeping and pressing bronzer over cheeks, forehead, nose, and chin to provide naturallooking warmth to the skin. Brow brush: A brush with stiff, short bristles cut on an angle. Designed for applying shadow to the brows. Look for a synthetic/natural blend of bristles, because the 100 percent synthetic brushes are too stiff and don t deposit color as effectively. Brow grooming brush: This is for brushing brows into place. It has stiff bristles cut straight across, like a toothbrush. Concealer brush: This should have firm but soft bristles that aren t too hard or scratchy, because the brush will be used on the delicate skin under the eyes. Look for a brush with glossy synthetic hairs, because these slip along the skin. The ends of the bristles should be tapered to help you place concealer in hard-to-reach spots, such as the inner corners of the eyes, and apply stick foundation to cover any redness around the nose. Eye blender brush: A soft, fluffy, natural-hair brush with long bristles designed to blend eye shadow and eliminate lines of demarcation on the lids after applying multiple shades. It is also great for applying powder to set corrector, concealer or foundation around the eyes or over blemish cover. Eye contour brush: A round, flat-head, naturalhair brush. Short. Dense bristles apply a greater amount of shadow in the crease to contour eye. Eye shader brush: A wide, flat-head brush that can gently sweep eye shadow color over the entire lid, from the lash line to the brow bone. Eye shadow brush: Wide enough to cover about half the eyelid. This brush has natural, soft, rounded bristles with beveled edges that deposit a sweep of shadow across the lower lid without leaving any harsh lines. Eye smudge brush: A small-head brush with a slightly rounded point. This brush has soft, flexible bristles that help smudge liner to create a smoky look. Eyelash comb: This has straight, stiff (often plastic), fine teeth and is designed to separate lashes immediately after applying mascara (while the lashes are still wet). Mascara wands work just as well and are more convenient. Eyelash curler: Look for a basic metal version with rubber pads. An eyelash curler shapes lashes into a natural-looking curl. Replace pads regularly. To avoid breakage, always curl the lashes before applying mascara. Eyeliner brush (angled) or eye definer brush: This small brush has very short, dense bristles cut on an angle. It is designed to use with shadow to strengthen thin brows or as an alternative to an eyeliner brush. Eyeliner brush (flat): With flat, dense, synthetic bristles that are slightly rounded at tip, this brush can be used wet or dry to apply a precise line at the lash line. Eyeliner brush (ultra fine): The bristles on this small brush are synthetic, dense, and curve to a point. Perfect for the precise application of liquid or gel eyeliner. Face blender brush A natural or synthetic brush used to deposit shimmer, bronzer, powder or blush. Face brush: A natural or synthetic fluffy, curved brush that can be used to apply bronzer, blush or powder. Foundation brush: Synthetic bristles in this full, flat-edged brush deposit just the right amount of foundation onto the skin. Lip brush: Firm, long bristles come to a slightly pointed tip. This brush allows for the precise placement of lip color. Bristles can be either synthetic or natural. Powder brush: A natural-hair, large, fluffy brush with soft bristles that bevel to a slight point (for navigating around the nose and under the eyes). Designed for use with both loose and pressed powders. Powder puff: A velour puff that s about the size of your palm. Designed to press powder onto the face to lock foundation in place. Can be washed or tossed in the dishwasher (at least once a week). Sponges: Disposable sponges are invaluable. Wedge-shaped ones are great for applying foundation around the nose and other hard-toreach places, as well as for blending. Don t bother washing them toss dirty ones and take a new one. Higher-quality sponges can be washed and reused many times. Touch-up brush: Short, firm, natural-bristled brush used with foundation for spot touch-ups and for hard-to-reach areas around the nose and mouth. This brush can also be used to touch up concealer and apply eye shadow. Tweezers: It s well worth investing in a good pair. Look at the Tweezerman or Rubis brands. Tweezers that are angled at the tip are easier to control than those that come to a sharp point. Always cover tweezers tips with the included rubber cap when they are not in use. Spray-on foundation applicator: Follow the manufacturer s directions. TIP Using your fingers: Nothing beats the warmth of the fingers to blend makeup into the skin. Lipstick can be blotted onto the lips to create a stain effect. Face cream, balm, or oil rubbed between both palms and then gently pressed onto cheeks adds moisture and a youthful glow to the face. I use my hands to warm concealers, blend foundation, and mix lip shades together. I also use my hands to work makeup into the face so that the makeup feels like a part of the skin and not like a mask. Brush care A good set of brushes will last several years if they are cared for well. This involves storing the bushes properly (either in a neat brush roll that has individual slots for each brush or upright in a pencil cup) and keeping them clean. Elite

45 To clean brushes, take a drop of brush cleaner or very gentle soap in your palm. Wet the brush, and swirl the bristles around on your palm until they are covered in soap. (I like to use baby shampoo.) Rinse thoroughly until all soap residue is gone. Do not immerse the brush head in water, because the hair is glued to the base, and even the most expensive brushes will come apart. Squeeze out the excess moisture with a clean towel, reshape the brush head, and let it dry with the bristles hanging off the edge of a counter so the bristles dry into the perfect shape. Brushes can become mildewed if they rest on a towel while drying. Clean all your brushes every month, regardless of whether they have been used, with the above method. After each use, use a spray brush cleaner. Spritz it onto the bristles, and swipe them back and forth on a tissue until all product residues are removed and the brush is sanitized. Wipe the brush with an unscented baby wipe to remove previous color and keep brush clean while in service. Make up care Examine the contents of your makeup bag, drawer, or cabinet. Take out anything that s in a broken container or missing a cap. You can pour liquid foundation into a fresh bottle, scoop out creams and lipsticks and transfer them to small containers or palettes, and place capless pencils in zip-top bags. Broken powder blushes and pressed powder compacts are irreparable and should be tossed. Weekly maintenance is far easier than semiannual overhauls. You also need to get rid of any makeup that is past its expiration date. After two years: Liquid and cream foundation. Concealer. Powder. Eye shadow. Cream blush. Moisturizer. Sunscreen. Face cream. After 12 to 18 months: Lipstick. Lip and eye pencils. After six months: Mascara. Eye cream. Preparing the face for makeup Begin with these steps before applying any makeup: Analyze the type and condition of the skin. This will determine the combination of skin care and makeup formulas to use. The condition of your skin changes each day, so make an assessment each morning. Decide which products will improve the skin s current condition. That includes determining what weight moisturizer is appropriate and whether an oil-controlling gel, a skin-soothing lotion, or a combination of skin care products is needed. Understanding how various ingredients work and the range of options available to you is important. Choose the right foundation formula for the skin type and condition. Options include stick foundation, lightweight tinted moisturizer, denser tinted balm, fuller coverage liquid foundation, powder, and oil-free formulas. Select the correct foundation shade for the skin tone. It is important to select the foundation shade first. Select an under-eye concealer one or two shades lighter than the foundation, and determine whether a corrector is needed. Select the perfect shades of powder to ensure that makeup stays fresh looking and lasts for hours. Choose a lighter powder to set concealer and that will double as an eye primer, and a deeper shade that works with the foundation tone. Test the color of the powder on the skin after applying foundation. Concealers and correctors Correctors brighten the darkest areas under the eyes, allowing concealers to both lighten and blend. Concealers should blend into the skin, lightening dark circles and instantly making the client look better. Concealers are the secret of the universe. While concealers are available that cover tattoos, spots, blemishes, scars, redness and bruises, most people use a concealer to lighten dark circles under the eyes. Different concealers and correctors are formulated for each specific use. Pick a concealer and, when needed, a corrector designed for each of the problem areas. For example, under-eye concealers are not formulated for use on blemishes or areas of redness. They are creamier in consistency and lighter than the skin tone. Using under-eye concealer on areas of redness will only highlight the imperfections. Yellow-toned foundation that matches the skin tone is the best way to adequately cover blemishes, scars and tattoos. The application of under-eye concealer is the most important step in any makeup routine. Concealer is the one product that, when chosen and applied correctly, can instantly lift and brighten the face. Choose a color one or two shades lighter than the foundation. The skin under the eye is very thin, so the blue of the fine veins just under the surface tend to show through. A light yellowtoned concealer masks this blue discoloration and brightens the skin. For those with alabaster skin, a porcelain-toned concealer will work. Sometimes a stick foundation one or two shades lighter than the face can serve as an under-eye concealer for those who need very little coverage. Correctors are available for extreme under-eye darkness. When a regular concealer cannot fully lighten the under-eye area, a peach or pink corrector is used to counter the purple or green tone. A regular yellow-toned concealer is usually lightly layered over the corrector to lighten the under-eye area. Occasionally, those with extremely deep purple or green coloration under the eye will not need the layer of regular concealer. TIPS: Some women need between two and four colors that can be mixed and blended to accommodate changes in skin tone under the eye, which can vary with the time of the day, amount of rest, and hormones. Sometimes a corrector is enough to solve the under-eye problem. Rules should be followed, but there should be flexibility for what works where. Sometimes something as bold as a bright pink or peach cream blush will work for very intense darkness. Choosing a corrector color Correctors are for extreme under-eye darkness. If the skin is pale, choose the lightest colors, beginning with bisque or light pink. For deeper skin shades, choose peach or darker peach. 1. Begin with a clean face. 2. Apply corrector (with the concealer brush) beginning at the inner corner of the eye and continue underneath close to the lashes, where there is darkness. 3. Gently press with your fingers. 4. Follow with the foundation. Troubleshooting: Corrector or concealer If it creases: Using enough powder applied correctly is key. If you skimp, it will end up creasing. If it s cakey: The ratio of eye cream to concealer is off. If it s too light: Use an extremely light dusting of light bronzing powder to warm up the area. If it s not bright enough or if it s too dark: Try to add a bit of fast-absorbing eye cream, then repeat corrector and concealer. If the eye makeup transfers to the concealer: Use eye makeup remover, a cotton swab, or a sponge and remove all under-eye products. Start over with eye cream, and let it absorb before applying other eye makeup. Remember: Corrector brightens. Corrector can be pink or peach toned. Make sure it is applied up to the lashes and in the inner corner space between the eye and the bridge of the nose. Concealer lightens. Concealer should be one or two shades lighter than the foundation and yellow in tone to blend as it lightens. Apply after correction in most cases. Powder sets concealer. Most women can use a yellow-toned, loose powder, but those with extremely fair skin may need a whitetoned powder. Foundation Beauty starts with great skin. The right foundation will make you look like you re not wearing any foundation at all. You ll just have even-toned, great looking skin. The reason we wear foundation is to even out our skin tone and texture. When applied correctly, the result is skin that looks clear and smooth. But, what is most important is that the skin looks better than it did without foundation. Some women shy away from foundation because they associate it with thick pancake makeup that Elite Page 43

46 sometimes looks like a mask. But even the strongest makeup should have a natural-looking base. Foundations are available in many different formulas. Choose one that is right for your skin and style and has a consistency you like to use. Use the following guidelines to choose the formula. Tinted moisturizer For normal/normal-to-dry skin. Gives a sheer, lightweight coverage and is an alternative to foundation. Provides a totally natural look. Great for weekends. Tinted face balm For extra-dry skin. Provides sheer coverage. Intensively hydrates and gives skin a dewy finish. Balm actually plumps the skin and reduces the appearance of fine lines. Stick foundation For all skin types except oily. Provides easy spot coverage and is also buildable for medium to full coverage. Best foundation for photography. Liquid foundation For dry to extra-dry skin. Hydrates and smooths, providing medium to full coverage. Moisturizing compact For dry to extra-dry skin. Hydrating formulas provide medium to full coverage. Whipped foundation For combination skin and great for skin with texture. Balances the skin by hydrating dry areas and absorbing oil in the T-zone. Provides medium to full coverage. Oil-free liquid foundation For oily skin. For combination skin in the summer. Absorbs oil and smooths while providing light to medium coverage. Oil-free cream foundation For normal-to-oily skin. Absorbs oil, providing medium to full coverage. A good choice to cover acne and large pores. Oil-free powder compact For oily skin. Provides medium to full coverage. Because of the portable packaging, compact foundations are great for touch-ups. Mineral powders Suggested for very oily skin. (Be careful when choosing color. Oily skin can change color of powders, and they may appear dry and pasty.) Once you have decided on the right formula of foundation, you need to find the right shade. The correct shade will disappear on the skin. Make sure the foundation is yellow-based. Everyone has yellow undertones in the skin. Pink-based foundations look like a mask on most people. Only one percent needs a pink tone: those who sunburn even in the shade. Foundation should not change the color of the face but simply even out the tone. Test several shades of foundation on the side of the face, between the nose and the side of the cheek. Make a stripe of foundation in the preferred formula from cheek to jaw line, gently blending into the skin. Also test a shade lighter and a shade darker for comparison. The correct shade will disappear. Double-check the selected color on forehead. Sometimes women have darker skin on the forehead, and the foundation shade that matches here will work better for the whole face. Page 44 Always test foundation in natural light or with natural daylight bulb as discussed during analysis. The swatch that disappears into the skin is the right shade. Do not test foundation on the hand or arm, because the face is rarely the same color as the rest of the body. If your skin tone gets darker in the summer or on a vacation, you may need to adjust the foundation shade. Keep a deeper shade on hand to accommodate changes in skin tone. It can be blended with your regular foundation if you are between shades or used alone when skin is darkest. Oily skin sometimes turns foundation darker. Check and adjust accordingly. Stick foundation that is a shade or two lighter than the skin tone can be used for light under-eye coverage instead of concealer. For those with combination skin, foundations are now available with both silica beads, which soak up oil, and lecithin, which hydrates skin. Moisturizers and oil-control lotions can be applied to parts of the face that need it to counterbalance the foundation choice. Powder A light dusting of powder sets concealer and foundation for hours, keeping skin looking fresh. Remember to always finish with a downward stroke to have the facial hairs aligned with the skin. Choosing the right powder Color Like foundation, powder works only when it is the right shade. For most people, the right powder has a yellow undertone. While the color of the powder will vary to match the foundation, it is the yellow-base that will give warmth to the skin. White powder is right only for those with alabaster skin. Translucent powder is not invisible or transparent and only makes skin look ashy. Texture Pressed powder is best for touch-ups. It dispenses a small amount and comes in a convenient compact. It is great for those who like a very natural look. Loose powder is denser and provides more coverage. Depending on the application technique, loose powder can be matte or sheer. Not everyone needs powder. Those with very dry skin might use powder only to set under-eye concealer. Tools The right tools will supply the perfect amount of powder. Using a powder puff will give powder a smooth, opaque finish. A powder brush will allow a sheer finish. A clean powder brush is also used to remove excess powder after an application with a powder puff. A small concealer brush can be used to apply powder to the corners of the face under and around the eyes and around the mouth and nose. Tip: Oily skin can turn powder yellow or orange with time. Sometimes you have to choose a lighter color. To avoid powder build-up on oily skin, use an oil-blotting paper before touching up. After an application of concealer, foundation and powder, step back and observe what you have done. Do the products blend seamlessly and invisibly into the skin? Do you see any darkness or redness? Do not continue with any other makeup until the skin looks the best it can. If you need to improve how the skin looks, stop and look. Can it be corrected with a bronzing product? Or should you begin again using a different product? Ashy: Warm up the powder color and add bronzer. Orange: Is the skin oily? Did it change? Switch to paler powder and wait to check the results. Flaky: The skin is too dry. Cakey: Make sure you have enough moisturizer on the skin. It s also possible to have too much. The foundation-to-moisturizer ratio may be giving the powder too much grab. Corrective makeup Before going on to the choices for blush, eyes and lips, it is important to address the corrective makeup. All faces are interesting in their own special ways, but few are perfect. When you analyze a client s face, you might see that the nose, cheeks, lips, or jaw line are not the same on both sides, or that one eye might be larger than the other, or that the eyebrows might not match. In fact, these tiny imperfections can make the face more interesting if treated artfully. In any case, facial makeup can create the illusion of better balance and proportion when so desired. Facial features can be accented with proper highlighting, subdued with correct shadowing or shading, and balanced with the proper hairstyle. A basic rule for the application of makeup is that highlighting emphasizes a feature, while shadowing minimizes it. A highlight is produced when a cosmetic, usually foundation that is lighter than the original foundation is used on a particular part of the face. A shadow is formed when the foundation is darker than the original color. The use of shadows (dark colors and shades) minimizes prominent features so that they are less noticeable. My own preference is to use powders and bronzers for these corrections, simply because they can be applied quickly and blended easily. Highlighting powders can accentuate a small area readily and draw the light to that area. Analyzing features and face shape The basic rule of makeup application is to emphasize the client s attractive features while minimizing features that are less appealing. Learning to see the face and its features as a whole and determining the best makeup for an individual takes practice. While the oval face with well-proportioned features has long been considered the ideal, other face shapes are just as attractive in their own way. The goal of effective makeup application is to enhance the client s individuality, not to remake her image according to some ideal standard. Elite

47 Oval-shaped face The artistically ideal proportions and features of the oval face are the standard to which you will refer when learning the techniques of corrective makeup application. The face is divided into three equal horizontal sections. The first third is measured from the top of the hairline to the top of the eyebrows. The second third is measured from the top of the eyebrows to the end of the nose. The last third is measured from the end of the nose to the bottom of the chin. The ideal oval face is approximately three-fourths as wide as it is long. The distance between the eyes is the width of one eye. Round face The round face is usually broader in proportion to its length than the oval face. It has a rounded chin and hairline. Corrective makeup can be applied to slenderize and lengthen the face. Square-shaped face The square face is composed of comparatively straight lines with a wide forehead and square jaw line. Corrective makeup can be applied to offset the squareness and soften the hard lines around the face. Triangular (pear-shaped) face A jaw that is wider than the forehead characterizes the pear-shaped face. Corrective makeup can be applied to create width at the forehead, slenderize the jaw line, and add length to the face. Inverted triangle (heart-shaped) face The inverted triangle or heart-shaped face has a wide forehead and narrow, pointed chin. Corrective makeup can be applied to minimize the width of the forehead and to increase the width of the jaw line. Diamond-shaped face This face has a narrow forehead. The greatest width is across the cheekbones. Corrective makeup can be applied to reduce the width across the cheekbone line. Oblong face This face has greater length in proportion to its width than the square or round face. It is long and narrow. Corrective makeup can be applied to create the illusion of width across the cheekbone line, making the face appear shorter. Forehead area For a low forehead, the application of a lighter foundation lends a broader appearance between the brows and hairline. For a protruding forehead, applying a darker foundation over the prominent area gives an illusion of fullness to the rest of the face and minimizes the bulging forehead. A suitable hairstyle also goes a long way toward drawing attention away from the forehead. Nose and chin areas For a large or protruding nose, apply a darker foundation on the nose and a lighter foundation on the cheeks at the sides of the nose. This will create fullness in the cheeks and will make the nose appear smaller. Avoid placing cheek color close to the nose. For a short and flat nose, apply a lighter foundation down the center of the nose, ending at the tip. This will make the nose appear longer and larger. If the nostrils are wide, apply a darker foundation to both sides of the nostrils. For a broad nose, use a darker foundation on the sides of the nose and nostrils. Avoid carrying this dark tone into the laugh lines because it will accentuate them. The foundation must be carefully blended to avoid visible lines. For a protruding chin and receding nose, shadow the chin with a darker foundation and highlight the nose with a lighter foundation. For a receding chin, highlight the chin by using a lighter foundation than the one used on the face. For sagging double chin, use a darker foundation on the sagging portion, and use a natural skin tone foundation on the face. Jaw line and neck area The neck and jaw are just as important as the eyes, cheeks, and lips. When applying makeup, blend the foundation onto the neck so that the client s color is consistent from face to neck. Always set with powder to avoid transfer onto the client s clothing. To correct a broad jaw line, apply a darker shade of foundation over the heavy area of the jaw, starting at the temples. This will minimize the lower part of the face and create an illusion of width in the upper part of the face. To correct a narrow jaw line, highlight by using a lighter foundation shade. For a round, square, or triangular face, apply a darker shade of foundation over the prominent part of the jaw line. By creating a shadow over this area, the prominent part of the jaw will appear softer and more oval. For a small face and a short, thick neck, use a darker foundation on the neck than the one used on the face. This will make the neck appear thinner. For a long, thin neck, apply a lighter shade of foundation on the neck than the one used on the face. This will create fullness and counteract the long, thin appearance of the neck. Corrective makeup for the eyes The eyes are very important when it comes to balancing facial features. The proper application of eye color and shadow can create the illusion of the eyes being larger or smaller, and will enhance the overall attractiveness of the face. Round eyes can be lengthened by extending the shadow beyond the outer corner of the eyes. Close-set eyes are closer together than the length of one eye. For eyes that are too close together, lightly apply shadow up from the outer edge of the eyes. Protruding or bulging eyes can be minimized by blending the shadow carefully over the prominent part of the upper lid, carrying it lightly toward the eyebrow. Use a medium to deep shadow color. Heavy-lidded eyes need shadow evenly and lightly across the lid from the edge of the eyelash line to the small crease in the eye socket. Small eyes will appear larger when you extend the shadow slightly above, beyond and below the eyes. Wide-set eyes need shadow on the upper inner side of the eyelid, toward the nose, blended carefully. Deep-set eyes require bright, light, reflective colors. Use the lightest color in the crease, and a light to medium color sparingly on the lid and brow bone. Eyebrows Reshaping and defining eyebrows can be an art unto itself. The ideal eyebrow shape can be drawn in three lines. The first line is vertical, from the inner corner of the eye upward. This is where the eyebrow should begin. The second line is drawn at an angle from the outer corner of the nose to the outer corner of the eye upward. This is where the eyebrow should end. The third line is vertical, from the outer circle of the iris of the eye upward. The client should be looking straight ahead as you determine this line. This is where the highest part of the arch would ideally be. Of course, not everyone s eyebrows fit exactly within these measurements, so use them only as guidelines. When the arch is too high, remove the superfluous hair from the top of the brow and fill in the lower part with eyebrow pencil or shadow. Build up the shape by layering color lightly until the desired effect is achieved. Groom the brows with a brow brush and trim the longer hairs if needed. Fill in the missing shape with the closest shade in short, hair-like strokes. I like to use a taupe or brown-gray pencil with a light dusting of powder and brush well. Adjustments to eyebrow shape can also be used to correct other facial shortcomings. Low forehead. A low arch gives more height to a very low forehead. Wide-set eyes. The eyes can be made to appear closer together by extending the eyebrow lines to the inside corners of the eyes. However, care must be taken to avoid giving the client a frowning look. Close-set eyes. To make the eyes appear farther apart, widen the distance between the eyebrows and slightly extend them outward. Round face. Arch the brows high to make the face appear narrower. Start on a line directly above the inside corner of the eye and extend to the end of the cheekbone. Long face. Making the eyebrows almost straight can create the illusion of a shorter face. Do not extend the eyebrow lines farther than the outside corners of the eyes. Square face. The face will appear more oval if there is a high arch on the ends of the eyebrows. Begin the lines directly above the corners of the eyes and extend them outward. Elite Page 45

48 The lips. Lips are usually proportioned so that the curves or peaks of the upper lip fall directly in line with the nostrils. In some cases, one side of the lips may differ from the other. Lips can be very full, very thin, or uneven. Balance is achieved here by using the lip pencil, compatible with the desired lipstick, to draw the new shape. Follow with the choice of lipstick, applied with the lip brush. Bronzer and self-tanners Bronzers and self-tanners imitate the healthy look of the sun. They are also used as correctors to warm up the complexion. Applying bronzer is a great way to add a healthy glow all over the face and to even out color differences, especially through the neck. Bronzers work on all skin tones except porcelain because bronzer can make porcelain skin look dirty. Self-tanners can be used on the face and body to add color and hide flaws. When used on the face, apply self-tanners several hours before applying makeup, and don t forget the neck and ears (and remember to wash your hands with soap and water). Bronzer works as a blush for very dark skin. On all other skin tones, blush should be used over bronzer to add a pop of bright color. Bronzers work best when the skin looks natural. They can be brown-, red-, blue-, orange-, and sometimes yellow-based. Bronzers are available in flat, or shimmering powder, gel stick, and cream formulas. Self-tanners are available in cream, gel, spray, and are often mixed with moisturizer to get the best results. Blush Blush is used to create a healthy, pretty look. It is most often applied to the apple of the cheek. Blush can also be used to create the dramatic contouring sometimes seen in fashion shows and the theater. Pick a skin-type-appropriate formula that you find easy to use. Different formulas can be used, depending on the desired finish or time of year. For the most natural look, match the blush color to that of the cheeks when flushed from exercise. You can also pinch the cheeks and look at the tone; catch that color. By holding several shades of blush next to the cheek, you will see which add a lift and can eliminate those that are too dull or orange. The right shade will add a pretty brightness to the face without looking obvious. Blush formulas Powder is the easiest formula to use. It blends easily and works on all skin types. Gel delivers sheer color, but blending is a bit more difficult. It works well for smooth skin. Cream goes on smoothly and leaves a dewy finish, which is great for dry skin. Cream/powder goes on as a cream and dries to a long-lasting powder finish. It is best for normal skin. Chubby pencils are very portable and easy to blend. They are best for normal to dry skin. Cheek tints are similar to gels. They go on sheer for a stained look and can be difficult to blend. Tints work only for smooth skin. Page 46 Pot rouge provides blendable color for normal to dry skin types. These products are usually creamy in texture and packaged in pots. They provide a sheer stain on the cheeks and medium coverage on the lips. Lips Applying lip color is one of the simplest of all makeup steps and is a great way to instantly change a look. Lip color applications range from simple, blotted-on stains to combinations of lip pencil, lipstick, and gloss. The right shade works with the skin tone and complements the natural color of the lips. You can choose from a wide range of product formulas, which include matte, sheer, shimmery, and creamy lipsticks and glosses. The perfect neutral shade pinky brown, nude, beige pink, rosy brown, pink, chocolate, or blackberry will generally be close in tone to the natural lip color. The one that looks good on the naked face is the right neutral, everyday, mistakeproof color. It should not look ashy, orange, or pink but like an enhanced version of the natural lip color. Some women might need more color, and the shade that works best without makeup could be bright or dark rather than neutral. You know that you have found the right shade when it enhances the skin tone, makes the eyes look brighter, and gives the face a lift. Once you have identified the right neutral or everyday shade of lip color, you have the basis for selecting more dramatic colors. Most lip colors with the same undertone as the natural shade will look flattering. Formulas Matte products are dense and last longest. They contain less moisture than other products, so they adhere to the lips and don t fade as quickly. They are not appropriate for very dry lips. Semi-matte products are less dry than matte products and don t last as long. They work best on textured or dry lips and give a soft sheen. Sheer colors are see-through, forgiving, and easy to use. Stains provide long-lasting, highly pigmented color. Tints, like sheer glosses or balms, protect the lips with moisturizing formulas that usually contain sunscreen. Balms are tinted or clear formulas and help soften lips. Gloss sticks are hybrids, between sheer lipstick and gloss. They add a bit more pigment than lip gloss, but both are seethrough and moist. Lip-glosses provide hydration, sun protection, and sheen. This formula is great for making the lips look fuller and for layering on top of other lip colors. Chubby lip pencils will both define lips and provide a creamy matte texture. They are long lasting but can be a bit dry. Lip liners define the lips, make corrections, and keep lipstick on longer when used on the entire lip area. They also will keep a creamy lipstick from creeping onto the surrounding skin. Eye makeup The purpose of eye makeup whether it s simple black mascara or dramatic contouring shadow is to make the eyes stand out. When it s done right, eye makeup can give the appearance of brighter, more beautiful eyes. Here we cover the basics, like choosing flattering shades and lining the eyes, as well as advanced techniques, like creating a smoky eye and applying false lashes. Eye shadow Eye shadow helps accentuate the eye and makes eye color stand out. It is also used to correct eye shape. Formula and texture Eye shadow is available in many formulas and textures: powder, cream, and pencil; matte, sheer, shimmery, glittery, creamy, glossy, etc. The basic eye Most of the time, a simple, natural look works best. For everyday application, pick shades of shadow that bring out the eye color rather than shadows that make a statement. The basic application is a simple, three-step process. Use a light shadow color as a base on the lids; apply it with a full shadow brush that covers the entire lid from lash line to the brow bone. This step creates a clean slate for the other shadows. It also keeps moisture away from the lid and takes away any discoloration. For some women who prefer a clean eye look, this may be the only shadow that s needed. Crease color or contour If you want to create depth or contour, choose a slightly deeper medium-toned shadow to sweep in the crease of the eye. Crease contour creates definition for puffy or deep-set eyes and can make a stronger eye statement for evening. Begin the shadow at the outside edge of the crease, and move inward with the brush. Softly layer the shadow, repeating and blending until you achieve the desired effect. Always use a blending brush or finger to create a smooth look. Eye shadow color chart Eye color Shadow color for eyelid Blue ash, taupe, gray, heather, slate, lilac Green yellow-toned beige, camel, heather, moss, slate taupe Brown cement, sable, mocha, khaki, stone, bark Contouring for eyes These tips can help change the look of the eyes, making them stand out or correcting a full, puffy eyelid. Deep-set eyes need to be brought out with light and medium to deep shades of shadow. Colors that are too dark recede and will make the eyes look even more deep set. Wide-set eyes will appear closer together with a sweep of shadow one to two shades darker Elite

49 than the foundation tone at the inner corner of the eye. When applying liner, thicken the line a bit at the inner corner, and do not extend it past the outer corner of the eye. To make eyes look bigger, line the eyes all the way around. To make eyes look more oval, top and bottom liner should meet at the outer corners. Then contour shadow from the lash line along the eyeliner outward and into the crease. To make large eyes look smaller, use a soft shadow color as a liner at the lower lash line. The shadow should be several shades lighter than the top liner. To make eyes look less puffy, apply contour shadow at the outer corners and blend it as you move in toward the nose. *Neutrals work for most applications, but color is fun to play with. Eyeliner Eyeliner is the ultimate way to define and enhance the eyes. It frames the eyes, makes them appear larger, and really makes them stand out. Liner can also be used to improve the shape of the eyes. Its application needs to be generous enough to be visible when the eyes are open to make the most impact. Many women achieve a beautiful, defined look by using liner only on the top lash line. For those who use liner on both top and bottom lash lines, it is important to keep the top thicker than the bottom. To avoid the appearance of tiredness and darkness under the eye, apply a relatively thin or smudged line as close as possible to the lower lash line. Liner formulas There are several eyeliner formulations: powdered shadow, eye pencil, and liquid or gel liner. Each has its advantages and specific techniques. Shadow liners are easy to apply, dry or damp, and can be long-lasting if applied correctly. Using shadow liner requires a good eyeliner brush one that is thin, stiff and flat, with either a straight or a slightly rounded tip. Eyeliner pencils are easy to apply but may smudge. Pencil liners have a creamy consistency that smears if they are not set with either eye shadow or face powder. Liquid, cake, and gel liners are most difficult to apply, but with practice, you can achieve incredible results. These liners are extremely long-wearing, very precise, and a good choice for creating dramatic looks. Eyeliner dos and don ts Do line all the way across the lids! You can line just the top and not the bottom, but don t line either lid halfway. Lining from the inner corner to the outer corner will help open up the eye. Do apply liner as close as possible to the lash line, making sure there is no gap. This has the added benefit of making the lashes look fuller and lush. Do apply liner thinnest at the inner corner of the eye, and thicken it as you move outward. This accentuates the eye s shape and gives the eyes a lift. Do make the top and bottom lines of liner meet at the inside and outside corners to make the eyes appear larger. Not connecting the lines makes the eyelids appear too round and small. Don t leave space between the eyeliner and the lash line. If, after application, there is a small space, fill it in with the same shadow of powdered eye shadow. Don t line just the bottom of the eye. Don t apply liner to the inside rim of the eyelids, except for a theatrical effect or a fashion shoot. You risk infection and injury. And, rather than making the eyes stand out, lining inside the rim actually makes the eyes appear smaller. Special effects For evening or other special occasions, you may want to use bolder, more dramatic eyemakeup techniques. Smoky eyes Prime the eye area with an all-over white base that will allow the darker colors to blend. Apply a slightly darker shadow on the lower lid, from the lash line up to the crease and use a deeper tone in the same color family layered on top. The standard technique described above can be used to line the lower lashes, keeping the application lighter and balanced with the upper eye. Apply a double layer of liner, first using a dry brush and then a gel or pencil. Extend the liner line slightly beyond the outer corners of the eyes. Then reapply the liner a bit heavier and repeat two more times if desired. Always add multiple coats of mascara. Smudge and blend. Glam eyes This look is great for New Year s Eve or the Oscars. Over a white base, layer cool colors, such as gray and slate. Build the depth of color gradually, from the lash line to the crease. Finish with a strong liner application along the top lash line only, ending in an upward-sweeping point. Sweep a metallic or shimmery color over the lid layered from medium to dark. Finish with false lashes or three to four coats of black mascara. Eyelashes Lashes open up and emphasize the eyes. Most lashes are transformed with a sweep of mascara and the use of an eyelash curler. Black mascara is always my first choice. For women with very fair coloring or those who have naturally blond lashes, mascara is a must product. For the women with very fair coloring, I have used the brownblack mascara. Product choices include mascara, curlers, and false eyelashes. Formulas Thickening mascara is designed to make lashes appear fuller. To avoid clumping, wipe the wand before use; following application, the lashes can be separated with a lash comb, or separate them as you go. Lengthening mascara is a thinner formula than the thickening product, so it lengthens lashes in a way that looks natural. Waterproof mascara is great to use on those occasions when you anticipate tears or sweat, or in humid climates. The product can be removed only with an eye makeup remover specially formulated for waterproof products. Colored mascaras are fun for the very young and for making theatrical or fashion statements. Henna-colored mascara can work for those with light red hair. Eyelash curling Start with clean lashes. Gently lift the lid, hold the curler in front, and move the arm up to curl lashes. Hold for five to 10 seconds. Mascara application When applied properly, mascara will both define your eyes and make them stand out. Remember, you ll need two or three coats for impact. 1. Wipe the tip of the wand. Gently lift the lid. Looking down, begin at the outside of the eye. 2. Move the wand in close to the nose. 3. Be sure to apply mascara close to the base of the lashes. 4. Separate the lashes as you go along. 5. If you smudge the mascara, wipe it instantly before it dries. 6. If mascara dries on your skin, use a Q-tip to clean it up with a bit of non-oily makeup remover. 7. Wait a few seconds before beginning the lower lashes. Apply mascara lightly to the lower lashes. 8. Turn the brush at an angle to get all the lashes. 9. Apply at least one more coat. Eye makeup removers Eye makeup removers are available in liquid, lotion and cream formulations. Find a product that thoroughly removes your eye makeup without causing any irritation or stinging. Generally, a non-oily product will remove makeup quickly and easily. However, when using waterproof makeup, oil-based removers are the most effective. Place a nickel-size amount of the product on a cotton ball, and gently press through the eye area to dissolve the makeup, If needed, repeat this process until the cotton ball comes away clean. False eyelashes False eyelashes are used to create a more dramatic-looking eye and for special effects. Lashes can be applied individually, in small sections, or in a full band. Eyelash glue comes in white, clear, and black. I prefer black because it blends into the lash line. There are many effective ways to create the illusion of lashes with false eyelashes. Sparse eyelashes For those with sparse lashes, try smudging dark shadow at the lash line with a liner brush and then applying two thin coats of mascara. Pale lashes Very light colored lashes sometimes don t look natural with black or very dark mascara. Elite Page 47

50 Try light brown or henna-colored mascara for a natural look. No lashes When lashes have been lost due to alopecia or chemotherapy, a double application of powder shadow in a smoky shade helps create the illusion of lashes. First, use a damp brush and powder shadow to line the lid close to the lash line, and then smudge the dry shadow from the lashes upward. Special occasion makeup Few women have the time or energy to clean their faces at the end of the workday and redo their makeup for a night out. Instead, they want a few quick tricks to make a simple transition from office to evening. Since lighting is often softer at night and the occasions are dressier, the idea is to make the face look a bit more dramatic than during the day. Transforming the day face into an evening face Start with a touch of eye cream to smooth out existing concealer. Reapply as needed. Apply foundation as needed to cover any blemishes and even out skin tone, especially around the nose. Use a blush that is slightly brighter than the one used for a daytime look. Use it alone or as a pop of color just on the apple of the cheeks. If skin is showing on the neck and chest, make it glow with a light sweep of bronzing powder. Use shimmer on lips, eyes, or cheeks to make the face look dressed up. Warning: Too much shimmer will look overdone, so don t use it on all three areas at the same time. Switch to a darker shade of lipstick. Red or burgundy will add drama to your look. Or try a sheer shade paired with a more dramatic eye. Add drama to eyes by sweeping on a darker shadow as a liner and applying plenty of black mascara. A smoky eye is always sexy for night looks. Applying white as a highlighter under the brow bone is also a great evening look. Spritz on a warm, sensual fragrance, and put on a great pair of earrings. Try red lips with pink cheeks and minimal eye makeup. Pair shimmery bronzer with smoky brown eyes, bronze cheeks and copper lips. Add shimmer to either lips or eyes, not both. Have fun with a bright pink or orange mouth, pale pink or apricot blush, and soft eye makeup with several coats of black mascara and add false eyelashes. For very special occasions, don t be afraid to go all out. Cool colors such as white, platinum, gunmetal, and slate work on the eyes with black liner and individual eyelashes. Using pale pink with a hint of shimmer on the cheeks and soft beige or sandy pink gloss on the lips will look great. Use an oil-control lotion on oily areas of the face to keep it shine-free. *After completing your client s makeup application, make notes on her record card of the products and colors used; which, of course, you carry in your retail area. References In Style Getting Gorgeous Time Inc. Home Entertainment, 2005 Milady s Standard Manual of Cosmetology ; 2004 Thompson Learning Inc. Color Me Beautiful By Carole Jackson, 1981 BOBBI BROWN Makeup Manual, 2008 Jo Ann M. Stills; America s Educator, 1975 to present Notes Page 48 Elite

51 CHAPTER 6 YOU A SALON OWNER (5 CE Hours) Learning objectives List the characteristics and skills commonly associated with successful entrepreneurs, and consider whether you have them. Understand the questions you must ask yourself before deciding to open your own salon. Describe the elements of a business plan. List important elements and steps to finding the right location for a salon. List the sources of financing for your business, and how to determine which is right for you. Describe the options for the legal structure of your business. Explain what a doing business as name is, and what you must do when you create one. Describe your employer tax obligations. Understand your employer responsibilities, according to the law. List the elements you must consider in startup costs, necessary assets costs, and ongoing monthly expenses. Explain the difference between a-la-cart pricing and bundling. List elements to consider when determining your optimum pricing. List the important retail products you should carry. Describe some innovative ways to promote your business. Explain the kinds of employee compensation you may consider. Describe tips to becoming an effective manager. Introduction You have paid your dues! You have studied and struggled and built a decent clientele. You have been working for someone else for a long time and feel that you want to reap the rewards of your hard work for yourself. So, is it time for you to open your own salon? Starting, owning and running a successful salon is one of the great joys in a dedicated stylist s life. No, there are no guarantees, and yes, there are obstacles. But if you do it right, if you start the right small business one suited to your strengths, one that you are passionate about, one that epitomizes your highest dreams and values, and certainly one that allows you to make a nice profit then there is no telling how far it can take you. Starting your own business is an enormous responsibility and is not a step to be taken lightly. Much serious planning is necessary. You will need a thorough knowledge of business principles, bookkeeping, business laws, insurance, salesmanship, and psychology before you can take on the role of salon owner and manager. The scope of this course is twofold. It is a useful overview of what you will need to research in more depth before opening your own business. It also serves as a refresher course for those who already are in business. If you come to a point in your life when you feel you are ready to become your own boss, you will have two main options to consider: opening a salon of your own or renting a booth in an existing salon. Both options have their pros and cons. Booth rental Many people see booth rental, or renting a booth in a salon (also known as chair rental), as a more desirable alternative to owning a salon, and it has grown in popularity in recent years. In a booth rental arrangement, a stylist generally rents a station in a salon from either a salon owner or a landlord, and is solely responsible for his or her own clientele, supplies, record keeping, and accounting. The only obligation to the salon owner is weekly rent for the use of the booth, along with whatever utilities fees that are agreed upon. A booth rental situation can also be a stepping-stone toward opening your own salon in the future. The advantage is that you can become your own boss for a very small amount of money. Your initial investment is not as large as it would be if you were to open your own business. Another advantage is that your expenses are fairly low, limited to your supplies and your rent. For many booth renters, this low overhead balances nicely with the income generated right at the beginning, even if the clientele is small. Booth rental is ideal for someone who is interested in working part time or is supplementing another income. But before becoming a booth renter, you must be sure that you have a large enough clientele to cover your costs. Although it may sound like a good option, booth renting has its share of obligations, some of which may feel burdensome to some individuals. For one thing, you will need to keep your own records for income tax purposes and other legal reasons. You will need to carry your own malpractice insurance and health insurance, as well as inventory, purchasing and advertising expenses. You will not enjoy the same benefits as an employee of a salon would, such as paid days off or vacation time. Remember, if you are not there to do the work, you do not get paid. In many ways, you will be on your own and will need to be prepared for that. Opening your own salon Opening a salon is a kind of Mount Everest for many stylists; it is the dream they wish to attain. But climbing Mount Everest is a huge undertaking, and opening your own salon can be a huge undertaking as well. Entire books have been written on each of the topics we will touch on in this course, so be prepared to read and research your business idea extensively before you make any final decisions. Regardless of the type of salon you hope to open, there are some basic factors you should consider carefully, such as location, written agreements, business regulations, laws, insurance, salon operation, record keeping, and salon policies. Consider your options. You could create a salon from scratch. You could buy an existing salon. You could purchase a franchise. You could create a salon at your home (if it is a separate area, approved by the state Board of Cosmetology and the local zoning board). The possibilities are many. The important thing is to: Realize that there are in fact a variety of options. Learn about the pros and cons of each. Whether you want to start a salon because you want to start a business or because you want to spend your time surrounded by your passion, the important thing is to do your homework and find a niche that fills a market need. Do that, and you are well on your way. Assessing your strengths Not everyone is cut out to be an entrepreneur. While the common perception of entrepreneurship is that it is exciting, and indeed it is, many other words equally describe the life of the selfmade small business owner: nerve-wracking, liberating, difficult, challenging, time-consuming, overwhelming, fun, joyous, productive, and uncertain and that s just for starters. Any smallbusinessperson could expand at length about any one of these adjectives, for all come into play to some degree or another in almost every small business, and often in the same day. So, the question is not whether entrepreneurship is right for you, but rather, are you right for entrepreneurship? Can you handle the stress, the freedom, the lack of structure, the uncertainty, and the opportunities that wait if you decide to start your own business? This really can t be emphasized enough. While there is no doubt that being in business for yourself can be great, if you are not temperamentally cut out for it, it will be a tough road. There is no shame in this. Some people are artists and others are lawyers, some are vagabonds and others are homebodies, some are entrepreneurs and some are not. Starting your own business can be an exciting and rewarding experience. It can offer numerous advantages, such as being your own boss, setting your own schedule and making a living doing something you enjoy. But becoming a successful entrepreneur requires thorough planning, creativity and hard work. Consider whether you have the following characteristics and skills commonly associated with successful entrepreneurs: Comfortable with taking risks: Being your own boss also means you re the one making tough decisions. Entrepreneurship involves uncertainty. Do you avoid uncertainty in life at all costs? If yes, then entrepreneurship may not be the best fit for you. Do you enjoy the thrill of taking calculated risks? Then read on. Independent: Entrepreneurs have to make a lot of decisions on their own. If you find you can trust your instincts and you re not afraid of rejection every now and then you could be on your way to being an entrepreneur. Persuasive: You may have the greatest idea in the world, but if you cannot persuade customers, employees and potential lenders or partners, you Elite Page 49

52 may find entrepreneurship to be challenging. If you enjoy public speaking, engage new people with ease and find you make compelling arguments grounded in facts, it s likely you re poised to make your idea succeed. Able to negotiate: As a small-business owner, you will need to negotiate everything from leases to contract terms to rates. Polished negotiation skills will help you save money and keep your business running smoothly. Creative: Are you able to think of new ideas? Can you imagine new ways to solve problems? Entrepreneurs must be able to think creatively. If you have insights on how to take advantage of new opportunities, entrepreneurship may be a good fit. Supported by others: Before you start a business, it s important to have a strong support system in place. You ll be forced to make many important decisions, especially in the first months of opening your business. If you do not have a good support network of people to help you, consider finding a business mentor. A business mentor is someone who is experienced, successful and willing to provide advice and guidance. Check into COSE (Congress of Small Enterprises). These members have been where you are now. Still think you have what it takes to be an entrepreneur and start a new business? Great! Now ask yourself these 20 questions to ensure you ve thought about the right financial and business details: 1. Why am I starting a business? 2. What kind of salon do I want? 3. Who is my ideal client? 4. What services and products will my salon provide? 5. Am I prepared to spend the time and money needed to get my salon started? 6. What differentiates my salon idea and the services I will provide from others in the market? 7. Where will my salon be located? 8. How many employees will I need? 9. What types of suppliers will I need? 10. How much money will I need to get started? 11. Will I need to get a loan? 12. How soon will it take before my services are available? 13. How long do I have until I start making a profit? 14. Who is my competition? 15. How will I price my services compared to my competition? 16. How will I set up the legal structure of my business? 17. What taxes do I need to pay? 18. What kind of insurances do I need? 19. How will I manage my salon? 20. How will I advertise my salon? While we will delve into these topics later on, use these 10 steps as an overall guide to beginning your plan. 10 steps to starting a business Starting a business involves planning, making key financial decisions and completing a series of Page 50 legal activities. These 10 easy steps can help you plan, prepare and manage your business. Step 1: Write a business plan Use these tools and resources to create a business plan. This written guide will help you map out how you will start and run your business successfully. What goes into a business plan? There is no single formula for developing a business plan, but some elements are consistent throughout all business plans. Your plan should include an executive summary, a description of the business, a plan for how you will market and manage your business, financial projections and the appropriate supporting documents. To help you get started in writing your business plan, try the business planner (available online from SBA.GOV). In addition, we have summarized the essential elements in the following outline. Elements of a business plan Cover sheet Executive summary (statement of the business purpose) Table of contents Body of the document A. Business Description of business. Marketing. Competition. Operating procedures. Personnel. Business insurance. B. Financial data Loan applications Capital equipment and supply list Balance sheet Breakeven analysis Profit and loss statements Three-year summary Detail by month, first year Detail by quarters, second and third year Assumptions upon which projections were based Pro-forma cash flow C. Supporting documents Tax returns of principals (partners in the business) for at least three years, personal financial statements (all banks have these forms). Step 2: Get business assistance and training Take advantage of free training and counseling services, from preparing a business plan and securing financing to expanding or relocating a business. The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA.GOV) is a free source of information. Step 3: Choose a business location Get advice on how to select a customer-friendly location and comply with zoning laws. It s all about location: Choosing a business location is perhaps the most important decision a small business owner will make in a start-up, so it requires precise planning and research. It involves looking at demographics, assessing your supply chain, scoping the competition, staying on budget, understanding state and local laws and taxes, and much more. A good location is one of the most important factors in predicting the success of a business. How can you determine what makes a location good? Essentially, a good location has the visibility and accessibility to attract a volume of customers. It is always best for the salon to be located near other active businesses, such as supermarkets, restaurants, department stores, specialized clothing stores, shoe stores, and other fashion-related shops. That way, the salon can become part of the one-stop shopping that is so important to busy people today. Unless you can afford to do a lot of advertising, it is difficult to operate a successful salon in a low-traffic area or tucked into an office building on the 22 nd floor. In general, the location you select should reflect your target market. If you are targeting highincome clients, head for a high-income area. If you plan to open a high-volume operation, you will need a high-traffic area with convenient access to public transportation. Here are some tips to help you determine the right business location: Study the area Determine the area s demographics, information about the size, average income, and buying habits of the population. The best way to do this is to talk to other business owners who are located near the site in which you are interested. Ask them if they think a salon with the clientele you envision would do well in the area. Many people, when considering starting their own business, actually spend hours or days sitting in a car or a coffee shop, counting the number of people who walk by at any given hour. Be visible No matter what the location, a salon should be clearly visible and sufficiently eye-catching to attract the attention of people walking or driving by. Be sure that all signs are easy to see, and whenever possible, have the salon s name on a billboard along with the names of other businesses if you are in a strip mall. Try not to select a name that is difficult to spell or pronounce. Remember that people may want to look you up in the phone book, and if the name of your salon is an alternate spelling of some other name Kristofer s, for instance that might present a problem. Parking facilities When selecting a site for a new business or when planning to take over an established business, consider the parking facilities. People hesitate to patronize a business that is inconvenient to reach, particularly in bad weather. Ample and convenient parking is a must. Also, if the salon is near a parking lot that requires payment or has meters, be sure to inform your clients about this when they call to schedule an appointment. Because most salons remain open even after nightfall, it is also very important that the parking area be well lit for your safety and that of your clients. Elite

53 Competition Competition is a fact of life. In fact, competition can be a positive and motivating force. For most new businesses, however, too much direct competition in the immediate area can raise the stakes too high. It is better to be located in an area where yours is the only salon of its type. Salons can be located near each other provided that each is trying to attract a different clientele. An upscale salon can operate close to a budget salon and both may be successful because they are focusing on different markets. This can be tricky to determine, so do your homework. Visit all the salons in the neighborhood to determine how closely they will be competing with yours. Determine your needs: Most businesses choose a location that provides exposure to customers. Additionally, there are less obvious factors and needs to consider, for example: Brand image Is the location consistent with the image you want to maintain? Competition Are the businesses around you complementary or competing? Local labor market Does the area have potential employees? What will their commute be like? Plan for future growth If you anticipate further growth, look for a building that has extra space should you need it. Proximity to suppliers They need to be able to find you easily as well. Safety Consider the crime rate. Will you and your employees feel safe alone in the building or walking to their vehicles? Zoning regulations These determine whether you can conduct your type of business in certain properties or locations. You can find out how property is zoned by contacting your local planning agency. Evaluate your finances: In this crucial early stage, make sure you ask for enough working capital to open your salon and to keep you afloat long enough to build the business. On the day that I opened my salon in August 1966, the phone didn t ring and the only person that opened the door was the mailman. By December 1966, I had one other full-time stylist and two part-time stylists, and the phone was ringing off the wall. I had purchased an existing salon, but my price structure was double that of the previous owner. You may think that when you leave your current situation, you will be able to take all your clients with you, thereby ensuring enough of a cash flow to pay your bills. It is more likely, however, that not all your current clients will make the transition, so you will need to allow time to rebuild your clientele. In addition, you are now solely responsible for all expenses, so you will need a cushion of funds to protect you if you are caught off guard by any unplanned business expenses. One or two surprises can kill a new business. And the greatest reason for a business failure is that it is undercapitalized. Also, if it is possible for you to purchase the space rather than renting it, you are further ahead in the long run. Take a serious look at buying a building. Compare what the investment will return versus the rent receipts. You may need to borrow to set up your own business anyway. This way, your other tenants will help to pay back your loan. This would all become a part of your business plan. Besides determining what you can afford, you will need to be aware of other financial considerations: Hidden costs Very few spaces are salon business-ready. Include costs like renovation, decorating, IT system upgrades and so on. Taxes What are the income and sales tax rates for your state and community? What about property taxes, personal property taxes and such? Minimum wage While the federal minimum wage is $7.25 per hour, many states have a higher minimum. View the Department of Labor s list of minimum wage rates by state. We will talk further about compensation of salon employees later in this course. Government economic incentives Your business location can determine whether you qualify for government economic business programs, such as state-specific smallbusiness loans and other financial incentives. Is the area business friendly? Understanding laws and regulations imposed on businesses in a particular location is essential. As you look to grow your business, it can be advantageous to work with a small business specialist or counselor. Check what programs and support your state government and local community offer to small businesses. Many states offer online tools to help small business owners start up and succeed. The bottom line: Do your research. Talk to other business owners and potential co-tenants. Consult the small business community and use available resources, such as free government-provided demographic data, to help in your efforts. Step 4: Finance your business What are the sources available to you? Sources of financing available to prospective and expanding businesses fall into two broad categories: Debt financing (dollars borrowed). Equity financing (ownership dollars injected into the business). Debt financing Debt financing is generally obtained from one of two sources. It can come either from a non-professional source such as a friend, relative, customer or colleague, or from a traditional lending institution such as a bank, commercial finance company, or on special occasions, directly from the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). Friends or relatives. Borrowing from a friend or relative is generally the most readily available source, especially when the capital requirements are smaller. This is frequently the least costly in terms of dollars, but may become the most costly in terms of personal relations if your repayment schedule is not timely or your venture does not work out. This avenue should be approached with great caution! Angel programs. For smaller business owners, women and minorities, there has been a growing trend toward the development of angel programs through business organizations and companies specializing in small business. Individuals and small companies that want to invest smaller amounts in promising businesses are linked with those companies, and the two decide whether the loan will be made. This avenue is still relatively new, but holds even more promise for the future. Several organizations exist that serve as an intermediary between angel investors and business owners. Business owners can submit their business plans, which will then be matched and submitted to prospective investors with funding interests in specific plans. For a list of intermediary networks and lists of angel investors, search on the Internet using the term angel investors. Traditional lending institutions. Banks, savings and loans, and commercial finance companies have long been the major sources of business financing, principally as shortterm lenders offering demand loans, seasonal, lines of credit, and single-purpose loans for fixed assets. You should be aware that almost all lending institutions are strict about collateral requirements and may reasonably require established businesses to provide one-third of the equity injection and start-ups up to 50 percent or more. Again, as a borrower, you will be required to have a business plan with adequate documentation demonstrating a projected operating cash flow that will enable you to repay (on time) the loan with interest. SBA guaranteed loans. The SBA guaranteed loan program is a secondary source of financing. This option comes into play after private lending options have been denied. The SBA offers a variety of loan programs to eligible small businesses that cannot borrow on reasonable terms from conventional lenders in the amount needed without governmental help. Most of SBA s business loans are made by private lenders and then guaranteed by the agency. Though it may not necessarily be easier to be approved for an SBA guaranteed loan, the guaranty will allow you to obtain a loan with a longer maturity at better repayment terms and interest rates, thereby reducing your monthly payments and the initial loan burden. 7(a) Guaranteed loan program. This is the SBA s primary loan program. You can use a 7(a) loan to expand or renovate facilities; purchase machinery, equipment, fixtures, and leasehold improvements; finance receivables and augment working capital; refinance existing debt (with compelling reason); finance seasonal lines of credit; construct commercial buildings; and/or purchase land or buildings. Elite Page 51

54 Loan amounts of $100,000 or less receive an SBA guaranty as high as 80 percent. All other loans receive a 75 percent SBA guaranty. Currently, the maximum amount for a loan guaranty is $1,500,000 (75 percent of $2 million). The average size loan is $175,000 with an eight-year maturity. The 7(a) loan program is available to businesses that operate for profit and qualify as small under SBA size standard criteria. You submit a loan application to a lender for initial review. If the lender approves the loan subject to an SBA guaranty, a copy of the application and a credit analysis are forwarded by the lender to the nearest SBA office. The SBA looks for good character, management expertise, financial resources to operate the business, a feasible business plan, adequate equity or involvement in the business, sufficient collateral, and the ability to repay the loan on time from the projected operating cash flow. After SBA approval, the lending institution closes the loan and disburses the funds; you make monthly loan payments directly to the lender. As with any loan, you are responsible for repaying the full amount of the loan. Generally, liens will be taken on assets financed by SBA proceeds, and the personal guarantee of the principal owners or the CEO are required. Borrowers must pledge sufficient assets, to the extent that they are reasonably available, to adequately secure the loan. However, in most cases, a loan will not be declined by SBA where insufficient collateral is the only unfavorable factor. The lender sets the rate of interest: loans under seven years, maximum prime percent; seven years or more, maximum 2.75 percent over prime; less than $50,000, rates may be slightly higher. The length of time for repayment depends on the use of proceeds and the ability of the business to repay, usually five to 10 years for working capital and up to 25 years for fixed assets. CAPLines. Eligibility and interest rate rules are the same as for 7(a) guaranteed loans. It is for the financing of assets. The primary collateral will be the shortterm assets financed by the loan. SBA will guarantee up to 75 percent of loans above $150,000. (85 percent on loans of $150,000. or less). There are five shortterm working-capital loan programs for small businesses under CAPLines: 1. Seasonal line. 2. Contract line. 3. Builders line. 4. Standard asset-based line. 5. Small asset-based line. The asset-based lines must revolve. For our purposes, the International Trade Loan Program, the Export Working Capital Program, and the Defense Loan and Technical Assistance Program will not be covered, as they are not applicable. Page 52 Streamlined applications and approvals There are several options available to lenders that help streamline delivery of the SBA s loan guaranty: LowDoc loan program. LowDoc is one of the SBA s most popular programs. Once you have met your lender s requirements for credit, LowDoc offers a simple, one-page SBA application form and rapid turnaround for loans of $150,000 or less. SBA will guarantee up to 85 percent of the loan amount. The loans should be adequately secured. Business assets are usually pledged, and personal guarantees of the principals are required. The applicant completes the front of a one-page SBA application; the lender completes the back. The lender requires additional information. The same interest rate rules apply as in the 7(a) program. To be eligible, a business must have average annual sales for the past three years not exceeding $5 million and must have fewer than 100 employees. Business start-ups are also eligible for the LowDoc loan program. SBA Express. This program makes capital available to businesses seeking loans of up to $350,000 without requiring the lender to use the SBA process. Lenders use their existing documentation and procedures to make and service loans. The SBA guarantees up to 50 percent of an SBA Express loan. Your local SBA office can provide you with a list of SBA Express lenders. Certified and Preferred Lenders program. The most active and expert SBA lenders qualify for the SBA s Certified and Preferred Lenders Program. Participants that have met certain other criteria are delegated partial or full authority to approve loans, which results in regular SBA loan-guaranty processing. Preferred lenders are chosen from among the SBA s best lenders and enjoy full delegation of lending authority. A list of participants in the Certified and Preferred Lenders Program may be obtained from your local SBA office. Again, for our purposes, the 7(M) Micro Loan Program and the 504 Certified Development Company Program will not be discussed, as these are not applicable. Interest rates applicable to SBA guaranteed loans Interest rates are negotiated between the borrower and lender, but are subject to SBA maximums, which are pegged to the prime rate. Interest rates may be fixed or variable. Fixed rate loans of $50,000 or more must not exceed prime plus 2.25 percent if the maturity is less than seven years, and prime plus 2.75 percent if the maturity is seven years or more. Loans between $25,000 and $50,000:Maximum rates must not exceed prime plus 3.25 percent if the maturity is less than seven years, and prime plus 3.75 percent if the maturity is seven years or more. Loans of $25,000 or less: Maximum interest rate must not exceed prime plus 4.25 percent if the maturity is less than seven years, and the prime plus 4.75 percent if the maturity is seven years or more. For current prime rates, visit bankrate.com; for more information on SBA programs, visit Equity financing If your company has a high percentage of debt to equity (what you owe compared to what you own), you will find it difficult to get debt financing and probably need to seek equity investment for additional funds. This simply means you will trade a certain percentage of your company for a specific amount of money to be injected into the company. Where does equity financing come from? As with debt capital, this type of capital can come from friends and relatives, SBA-licensed investment companies, or professional investors known as venture capitalists. Friends and relatives. Again, be reminded that mixing your friends or relatives and business may not be a good idea. SBA-licensed investment companies. The SBA also licenses small business investment companies (SBICs). They make venture/risk investments by supplying equity capital and extending unsecured loans to small enterprises that meet their criteria. The SBIC program provides an alternative to bank financing, filling the gap between the availability of venture capital and the needs of small businesses that are either starting or growing. They use their own funds plus funds obtained at favorable rates with SBA guaranties and by selling their preferred stock to the SBA. SBICs are for-profit firms whose incentive is to share in the success of a small business. The program provides funding to all types of manufacturing and service industries. For more information on SBIC, visit the following website: gov/inv/overview.html. Professional investors/venture capitalists. The venture capitalist is a risk taker, usually specializing in related industries and preferring 3-5-year-old companies that have shown high growth potential and will offer higher-than-average profits to their shareholders. These investments are often arranged through venture capital firms that act as matchmakers. As risk takers, venture capitalists focus on and have a right to participate in the management of the business. If the company does not perform, they may become active in the decision-making process. The most frequent question they get asked is, What is the standard amount of equity you have to trade for financing? The trade of equity for capital is based on supply and demand. In other words, the deal is made according to who has the best bargaining power. Venture capitalists also require the inclusion of an exit strategy in the company s business plan. The exit strategy lays out the future goals for the company and minimizes risk to the investor by providing a way out if there is Elite

55 a strong indicator that the business will fail to reach its profitability goals. Which type of financing costs the most? The cost of financing is usually related to the degree of risk involved. If the risk is high, so is the cost. The least expensive money to use is your own. The cost to you is whatever you would have made on your money by investing it in other sources (savings, money market accounts, bonds, retirement plans, real estate, etc.). Note: It s important to mention credit cards here. Many new business owners borrow heavily on their credit cards only to find themselves up to their ears in debt. Credit cards are one of the most expensive sources of cash and have paved the road to bankruptcy court more than once. Don t get caught in this trap! Friends and relatives. The next lowest in cost generally comes from friends and relatives, who may charge you a lower interest rate. But don t forget that it may cost you in other ways. Banks and other traditional lenders. The third on the cost ladder is probably the traditional lender (banks, SBA, and so on) This lender will want to know what the capital will be used for and require that it be used for those specific needs. If the risk is too high, most conventional lenders cannot approve your loan because it would be a poor financial decision for its investors. One default out of 10 will undermine its whole program. Outside lenders and venture capitalists. Traditionally, the most expensive is the outside lender who charges a high interest rate because of the risk involved and the venture capitalist who requires a percentage of your business. Calculating the cost Before you get a loan, take time to understand the terms under which the loan will be made. What is the interest rate? How long do you have to repay the loan? When will payments begin and how much will they be? What are you putting up as collateral? If you have venture capital injected into the business, what will be the overall price to you of the equity and control that you will forfeit? The cost of any source of financing can and should be calculated before the financing is finalized. This goes back to your business plan. Determine when the financing is needed; plug cash injection, repayment figures and resulting income projections into your cash flow statement; and check out the result. Will the financing make you more profitable and enable you to repay the lender or distribute profits to the venture capitalist? In summary Securing financing for your company must be planned well in advance. The more immediate your need, the less likely you are to get the best terms. Don t ask your banker to give you a loan yesterday, and don t expect a venture capitalist to jump on the bandwagon because you suddenly need money. Planning ahead for cash flow is one of the best means for determining how much you need. When you plan for financing, remember that you will not only have to show your industry has good potential for profit but also have to present a strong case for the ability to manage your company through a period of debt. Getting financing is serious business for both you and for the lender/investor. Take time to plan carefully for your financial needs, and your company will prosper and grow accordingly. Step 5: Determine the legal structure of your business Decide which form of ownership is best for you: sole proprietorship, partnership, limited liability company (LLC), corporation, S corporation, nonprofit or cooperative. Determine your federal tax obligations When starting a business, you must decide what form of business entity to establish. Your form of business (e.g., sole proprietorship, partnership, LLC) determines which income tax return form you have to file. The federal government levies four basic types of business taxes: Income tax. Self-employment tax. Taxes for employees. Excise taxes. To learn more about these taxes, visit the Internal Revenue Service s (IRS) Guide to Business Taxes at Select the form of your business below to find out which federal tax forms you need to file: Sole proprietorship. Partnership. Corporation. S Corporation. Limited liability company (LLC). State income taxes Nearly every state levies a business or corporate income tax. Like federal taxes, your state tax requirement depends on the legal structure of your business. For example, if your business is an LLC, the LLC is taxed separately from the owners of the business, while sole proprietors report their personal and business income taxes using the same form used to report their business taxes. Consult state and local tax guides for specific requirements. Step 6: Register a business name ( Doing business as ) Register your business name with your state government. Naming your business is an important branding exercise, but if you choose to name your business as anything other than your own name, you ll need to register with the appropriate authorities. What is a doing business as name? A fictitious name (or assumed name, trade name, or DBA name) is a business name that is different from your own name, the names of your partners or the officially registered name of your LLC or corporation. It s important to note that when you form a business, the legal name of the business defaults to the name of the person or entity that owns the business unless you choose to rename it and request it as a DBA name. For example, consider this scenario: John Smith sets up a painting business. Rather than operate under just his own name, John instead chooses to name the business: John Smith Painting. This name is considered an assumed name and John will need to register it with the appropriate local agency. The legal name of your business is required on all government forms and applications, including your application for employer tax IDs, licenses and permits. Do I need a doing business as name? A DBA is needed in the following scenarios: Sole proprietors or partnerships If you wish to start a business under anything other than your real name, you ll need to register a DBA so that you can do business as another name. Existing corporations or LLCs If your business is already set up and you want to do business under a name other than your existing corporation or LLC name, you will need to register a DBA. Note: Not all states require the registering of fictitious business names or DBAs. How to register your doing business as name Registering your DBA is done either with your county clerk s office or with your state government, depending on where your business is located. There are a few states that do not require the registering of fictitious business names. Step 7: Get a tax identification number Learn which tax identification number you ll need to obtain from the IRS and your state revenue agency. Obtain your federal business tax ID An employer identification number (EIN) is also known as a federal tax identification number, and is used to identify a business entity. Generally, businesses need an EIN. You may apply for an EIN in various ways, and now you may apply online. You must check with your state to determine whether you need a state number or charter. The information at Small-Businesses-&-Self-Employed/Apply-for-an- Employer-Identification-Number- (EIN)-Online will give you all that you need so that you can make deductions from your employees salaries or commissions and the correct form to use (W-4). Step 8: Register for state and local taxes Register with your state to obtain a tax identification number, workers compensation, unemployment and disability insurance. In addition to business taxes required by the federal government, you will have to pay some state and local taxes. Each state and locality has its own tax laws. The link below provides access to key resources that will help you learn about your state obligations. Having knowledge of your state tax requirement can help you avoid problems and your business save money. The Elite Page 53

56 most common types of tax requirements for small business are income taxes and employment taxes. For information, go to content /learn-about-your-state-and-local-taxobligations. Income taxes Nearly every state levies a business or corporate income tax. Your tax requirement depends on the legal structure of your business. For example, if your business is a limited liability company (LLC), the LLC gets taxed separately from the owners, while sole proprietors report their personal and business income taxes using the same form. Consult the general tax information link on your state website for specific requirements. Employment taxes In addition to federal employment taxes, business owners with employees are also responsible for paying certain taxes required by the state. All states require payment of state workers compensation insurance and unemployment insurance taxes. The following states and territory also require a business to pay for temporary disability insurance: California. Hawaii. New Jersey. New York. Rhode Island. Puerto Rico. These taxes are due and payable in the quarterly report by the business owner. The only exception is in the case of paying an employee on a Here, the employee is responsible for all taxes himself/herself. Step 9: Obtain business licenses and permits Get a list of federal, state and local licenses and permits required for your business. Apply to the state Board of Cosmetology for the license to operate a salon. Federal licenses and permits Certain businesses, like ones that sell alcohol or firearms, require a federal license or permit. Find out which ones impact your business and how you can comply. State licenses and permits Some states have requirements for specific businesses. Find out what business licenses and permits you need in your state. For salons (this includes nail, tanning, skin care), go online to the state Board of Cosmetology. You will be required to give a complete physical description of the location as well as other information about the business you intend to open. A state examiner will make an appointment to view the premises and give approval. This license is renewable every year thereafter. The Board of Health, the local Fire Department and OSHA will conduct other examinations. The premises must be compliant with all agencies. Find business licenses and permits SBA has a tool to determine which licenses and permits you need to start and run your business at Page 54 Step 10: Understand employer responsibilities Learn the legal steps you need to take to hire employees. Hire your first employee If your business is booming, but you are struggling to keep up, perhaps it s time to hire some help. The eight steps below can help you start the hiring process and ensure you are compliant with key federal and state regulations. Step 1. Obtain an employee identification number (EIN) Before hiring your first employee, you need to get an employment identification number (EIN) from the U.S. Internal Revenue Service. The EIN is often referred to as an employer tax ID or as Form SS-4. The EIN is necessary for reporting taxes and other documents to the IRS. In addition, the EIN is necessary when reporting information about your employees to state agencies. Apply for an EIN online or contact the IRS at Step 2. Set up records for withholding taxes According to the IRS, you must keep records of employment taxes for at least four years. Keeping good records can also help you monitor the progress of your business, prepare financial statements, identify sources of receipts, keep track of deductible expenses, prepare your tax returns, and support items reported on tax returns. Below are three types of withholding taxes you need for your business: Federal income tax withholding Every employee must provide an employer with a signed withholding exemption certificate (Form W-4) on or before the date of employment. The employer must then submit Form W-4 to the IRS. For specific information, read the IRS Employer s Tax Guide. Federal wage and tax statement Every year, employers must report to the federal government wages paid and taxes withheld for each employee. This report is filed using Form W-2, wage and tax statement. Employers must complete a W-2 form for each employee to whom they pay a salary, wage or other compensation. Employers must send Copy A of W-2 forms to the Social Security Administration by the last day of February to report wages and taxes of employees for the previous calendar year. In addition, employers should send copies of W-2 forms to their employees by Jan. 31 of the year following the reporting period. Visit SSA.gov/employer for more information. State taxes Depending on the state where your employees are located, you may be required to withhold state income taxes. Visit the state and local tax page for more information. Step 3. Employee eligibility verification Federal law requires employers to verify an employee s eligibility to work in the United States. Within three days of hire, employers must complete Form l-9, employment eligibility verification, which requires employers to examine documents to confirm the employee s citizenship or eligibility to work in the U.S. Employers can only request documentation specific on the l-9 form. Employers do not need to submit the l-9 form with the federal government but are required to keep them on file for three years after the date of hire or one year after the date of the employee s termination, whichever is later. Employers can use information taken from the Form l-9 to electronically verify the employment eligibility of newly hired employees by registering with E-Verify. Visit the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services l-9 website at to download the form and find more information. Step 4. Register with your state s new hire reporting program All employers are required to report newly hired and re-hired employees to a state directory within 20 days of their hire or rehire date. Visit the new hires reporting requirements page at IRS.gov to learn more and find links to your state s new hire reporting system. Step 5. Obtain workers compensation insurance All businesses with employees are required to carry workers compensation insurance coverage through a commercial carrier, on a self-insured basis or through their state s workers compensation insurance program. Step 6. Post required notices Employers are required to display certain posters in the workplace that inform employees of their rights and employer responsibilities under labor laws. Visit the Department of Labor s workplace posters page at topics/posters.htm#.ulfvlqvsb8s for specific federal and state posters you ll need for your business. Step 7. File your taxes Generally, employers who pay wages subject to income tax withholding, Social Security and Medicare taxes must file IRS Form 941, Employers Quarterly Federal Tax Return. For more information, visit IRS.gov. New and existing employers should consult the IRS Employer s Tax Guide at irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p15.pdf to understand all their federal tax filing requirements. Visit the state and local tax page for specific tax filing requirements for employers. Step 8. Get organized and keep yourself informed Being a good employer doesn t stop with fulfilling your various tax and reporting obligations. Maintaining a healthy and fair workplace, providing benefits and keeping employees informed about your company s policies are key to your business success. Here are some additional steps you should take after you ve hired your first employee: Elite

57 Set up record keeping In addition to requirements for keeping payroll records of your employees for tax purposes, certain federal employment laws also require you to keep records about your employees. The following sites provide more information about federal reporting requirements: Tax record keeping guidance at Labor record keeping requirements at wages/wagesrecordkeeping.htm#. UL0ArKVSb8s. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) compliance at dol.gov/compliance/laws/comp-osha. htm#.ul0a4avsb8s. Employment Law Guide (employee benefits chapter) compliance/guide/erisa.htm. Apply standards that protect employee rights. Complying with standards for employee rights to equal opportunity and fair labor standards is a requirement. Following statutes and regulations for minimum wage, overtime, and child labor will help you avoid error and a lawsuit. See the Department of Labor s Employment Law Guide at laws/comp-flsa.htm#.ul0b5avsb8s for up-to-date information on these statutes and regulations. Also, visit the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission at and the Fair Labor Standards Act at Now what? Whether you have decided to purchase an existing salon, start a new salon, purchase a franchise, or begin a booth rental, your next move is critical to your survival. Having come up with an idea that works for you financially, creatively, emotionally, intellectually the next step is to figure out what it will actually cost to start that business, and what sort of sales you will need to achieve to sustain it. Assumptions Figuring out your start-up costs and potential sales is a matter of making educated assumptions. What will it cost to start a salon like the one you want? The numbers you input here will help you figure out how much money you need and can make, and will equally apply to the business plan you need to write. Starting a business from scratch, you will incur many expenses, some of which will not be encountered again incorporating, security deposits, that sort of thing. Others are ongoing creating marketing materials, rent, and so on. Calculating these costs is a four-step process. The first three steps help you understand how much money you will need for initial start-up costs, purchasing assets, and for monthly expenses. Step four helps you understand your potential sales and how much money you will need to break even and earn a profit. As you calculate these expenses, a word of caution is in order. Be conservative, both with your analysis and when it actually comes time to purchase these things. Cash is the lifeblood of any business, but especially a new business. And with a new business, there won t be the sales or experience to create a steady cash flow to replace what you will be spending. Don t blow it! Don t spend too much. Buy used. Buy off ebay. Hoard your precious, precious capital. Step 1: Calculating start-up expenses Put a realistic dollar figure next to each category. Creating your legal structure (sole proprietorship, partnership, LLC, or $ corporation) Accountant $ Building out the space, decorating, $ and remodeling Licenses and permits $ Stationary and logos $ Marketing and sales materials $ First month s rent and security $ deposit Insurance $ Telephone and utility deposits $ Signs $ Internet and website $ Other $ TOTAL $ Step 2: Purchasing assets What sort of assets will you need to open the doors? Real estate $ Furniture and fixtures $ Equipment $ Inventory $ Supplies $ Other $ TOTAL $ Step 3: Ongoing monthly expenses Keep adding, and yes, these numbers can be daunting. But the fact is, starting a business is usually a fairly expensive proposition. That is why being smart and frugal is so important. In this section, calculate what it is going to cost you to run your salon in a typical month. Rent $ Utilities $ Payroll $ Owner s draw $ Supplies $ Insurance $ Legal and accounting $ Inventory $ Taxes $ Debt repayment $ Working capital $ Other $ TOTAL $ Now, multiply this last total by six. This will tell you how much money you will need to run the business for six months. Then, add it to the totals in steps one and two. This will tell you how much money you need to open the doors and stay in business for six months. Ideally, having six months working capital in the bank before you start is a minimum. Step 4: Calculate monthly income Your previous research will tell you how much you can expect to make in an average sixmonth period. In order to calculate this, create a customer flow chart from your record cards. You should easily be able to determine the number of customers and the average amount spent from your own records. We have chosen the six-month period because it best typifies the average client flow. If you would prefer, these calculations can easily be extended into a one-year period of time. Either way, the analysis will give you an accurate calculation of what to expect. Successful pricing strategies If you really put a small value upon yourself, rest assured that the world will not raise your price. Anonymous How much should you charge for your services and products? This is a question that vexes many an entrepreneur. Of course you want to charge enough to make a healthy profit, but not so much that you drive customers away. Moreover, the price you charge is an important aspect of your brand. Thus, you may need to tinker a bit before you find that perfect price. The psychology of price You expect to pay more for a BMW than a Volkswagen because of the brands they have created (among other reasons). BMW aims to sell fewer products at a higher price to a wealthier and perhaps more discriminating audience. VW goes for high volume and less profit-per-sale. Both are valid strategies, and both work. So the price of your product carries with it great psychological impact. When you pay more, you expect more; you expect more from a car that costs $50,000 than you do from one that costs $20,000. That there is a direct correlation between price and quality in the minds of consumers is no secret. Your task is to use that mindset to your advantage. In the beauty industry, there has always been a dispute over which manner of pricing is best. Some believe that a-la-carte pricing works best. Others believe that bundling gives the client the feeling of getting more for the money. And some salons like to mix it up. There are pros and Elite Page 55

58 cons to each system. Let s look at each, so that you can decide. A-la-carte pricing: Client pays only for what he or she is getting, and generally, this price is lower. Stylist needs to sell additional services, i.e., blow-dry. Stylist may not get to see the design finished if client walks out with a wet head. Bundling: Conditioner and styling products are built-in to the final price. Client gets to use the professional products that the stylist prescribes. Stylist can double-check the design. Client walks out looking great. There is no question that bundling is better for business if you care how your clients look and feel about your services. Personally, I have never approved of allowing a client to leave with a wet head. I want to see my finished design dry to assure that there will be no problems with my service. Also, many times, I will shampoo, condition, blow-dry and smooth wavy or curly hair and design it dry. This is because curly hair will stretch a lot when it is wet, and then it will be too short when it is dry. I can see where there is breakage on long hair and correct this. For the gentleman client, shampooing after the cut will remove the small hairs from texturizing, thereby adding to the client s comfort. So, my vote is for bundling because complete service is my brand. We all know what our work is worth, and how much we wish to make per hour. If I wish to make $25 an hour, based on the 50 percent commission rate, I need to bring in $50 to the salon per working hour. I have the latitude to adjust this, depending upon what the client needs. First cuts must always be higher, because they take more time. A re-cut can only be claimed if the client comes back in within three to six weeks. Beyond this time frame, it is considered a first cut. A burning question that has always plagued me is: Why are stylists afraid to charge what the work is worth? This is not seen in any other profession here in the U.S., and certainly not in the rest of the world! Think of it this way: A good design cut gives the client up to 42 days of good hair days. A woman will think nothing of spending $100 for a dress that she will wear one time and then balk at a $50 haircut. I rest my case. More on pricing My accountant was not only very good, he was a friend and wanted me to succeed. He insisted that my supply bills stay between 10 and 14 percent of my gross sales. Based on this, a permanent wave that cost me $5 should sell (in service) for no less than $50, not including the haircut and finish work. This is where bundling comes in. I add in the price for haircut and finish to the total service and sell it as complete. This gives me the latitude to do what is best for the client. Page 56 I had a client once ask me if the service would be less if she did not have a haircut on the day of her perm. I answered: No, because I am giving you the haircut free. We know that after changing the curl pattern, adjustments must be made for the final design. This fact also is applicable to chemical relaxing. I have seen salons use exclusive products for hair color that cost $8 an application and charge $20 for the service, including the finish work. No wonder these salons are not in business any more, and the stylists say that they cannot make any money in this industry. When it comes to retailing hair care products, skin care or makeup, usually you will double the cost of the item. Be sure to check your competitors on these items. Determining your optimum price Your optimum price is the one that affords you the most sales at the greatest profit and that fits the brand you are creating. Determining that optimum price is a five-step process. 1. Figure out your minimum price. If you are selling widgets, you need to know what it costs you to sell one widget. This includes your actual cost to buy or manufacture that widget, plus a proportional cost of your overhead rent, labor, shipping, insurance, and so on. Once you know what it actually costs you to buy and sell a widget, then you will know the minimum price you must ask for that item. Anything less and you will go out of business. Anything more is profit. 2. What is the focus of your brand? Is yours the gourmet, boutique market or the produce warehouse? The gourmet store can charge more, but the produce warehouse will sell more. You can sell a lot for less at a lower profit, less for a lot at a higher profit, or something in the middle. 3. Analyze your competitors. Comparative price is not the only factor. You absolutely have to know what your competitors are charging and take that into account. Maybe you want to undercut them, which works. Maybe you want to match them while offering some different incentive. That works, too. Either way, remember that capitalism is cutthroat. You have to be cognizant of what your competitors are doing and offer something better price, service, location, something if you are going to succeed. 4. When analyzing competitors prices, be sure to note whether your products are superior, inferior, or similar. Which of your competitors seems to be doing the best? Ask yourself whether price is the reason. If not, what is? Can you beat them on price? If so, that s good. 5. Set a price. Knowing the minimum you must charge, knowing what your competitors do charge, and knowing the image you want to portray allow you to set your prices accordingly. 6. Test, test, test. Your first price is not your last price. Especially at the beginning, you will need to tinker a bit. Make up your menu of services and distribute it to all of your clients. Make special note of what they are getting for the price; that is, what is included, so that they have it in black-and-white. Note: Watch your supply costs and adjust your prices as necessary. No one is going to question a 50-cent increase on the shampoo/finish combination. But these same clients will object if you try to raise $5 on a service. I would follow one rule closely: When my supplies increased, my prices were adjusted accordingly. And, above all, do not raise your prices either immediately before or after remodeling or redecorating. This is a kiss of death! Credit cards and checks It is a proven fact that accepting credit cards means you will sell more. It allows clients to make impulse buys and pay for services when they don t have the cash. The downside is that it is not inexpensive to take credit cards. Expect to pay: The discount rate: From 1.5 percent to 3 percent, the amount you pay per transaction. Equipment costs: You either lease or purchase equipment. Monthly fees for your merchant account. To accept credit cards, you need to establish a merchant account with each of the credit card companies whose card you want to accept. You can do this through your own bank. If you have a hard time setting up a merchant account at your bank (for credit reasons), look online or in the Yellow Pages for independent credit card processing companies. They are more expensive, but are more flexible, too. After your merchant account is set up, you will receive a start-up kit and instructions, explaining how to swipe cards and get authorization. Finally, the same prudence that goes into extending credit also must go into the acceptance of checks. Of course, you need to see proper ID when taking a check from a customer, but beyond that, keep two tips in mind: First, don t accept new checks. Checks without a name imprinted on them, or numbered indicate new accounts, and new accounts are the ones most likely to bounce checks. Second, wait for any check to clear before giving a refund. Understand your market To run a successful salon business, you need to learn about your customers, your competitors and your industry. Market research is the process of analyzing data to help you understand which products and services are in demand, and how to be competitive. Market research can also provide valuable insight to help you: Reduce business risks. Spot current and upcoming problems in your industry. Identify sales opportunities. How to conduct market research Before you start your business, understand the basics of market research by following these steps: Identify official government sources of market and industry data. The government Elite

59 offers a wealth of data and information about businesses, industries and economic conditions that can aid in conducting market research. These sources provide valuable information about your customers and competitors: Economic indicators. Employment statistics. Income and earnings. Indentify additional sources of analysis. Trade groups, business magazines, academic institutions and other third parties gather and analyze research data about business trends. Use Internet and database searches to find information on your location and industry. If there is any one secret to success in the salon business, it has to be continuing education. The salon business has changed, drastically, in the more than 50 years since I was licensed. In fact, the salon business has changed in the last four years. The necessity of continually studying cannot be stressed enough. And being aware of the trends, products, chemicals, and economic fluctuations will go a long way to assure your success as a salon owner. The best way that I know to truly stay abreast of our business s information is to belong and participate in a professional organization. You need to attend the meetings and classes to be aware of the changes in our industry. When I opened my salon, I naturally bought malpractice and liability insurance as advised by my attorney and tax accountant. A few months later, I attended my first meeting of the National Cosmetology Association (NCA). There, I met other salon owners and was intrigued with the amount of information and experience that they had. In one conversation, a salon owner answered my complaint about the malpractice and liability insurance that I had purchased. The cost of my insurance was more than $800 a year. He informed me that the same coverage for an NCA member would be about $360 a year. At that time, NCA yearly dues were $25. Quite a nice return on a tax-deductible investment, wouldn t you say? The other benefits are numerous, such as free entrance to major shows, subscription to the trade journal, information on the policies of states and national government that affect our industry, and exposure to some of the greatest artists in our industry. Suffice to say that my return has been far greater than my investment. I still attend the shows, continuing education classes, and have a network of the most successful people in the industry who I proudly claim as my friends. Another secret to success is to keep the services fluid. Make sure that all of the hottest trends are available to your clients. Have a wide and complete menu of services available. If the clients are reading about individual eyelash application in a fashion magazine, learn how to do them and list that service. Maybe she is not interested in having them, but I ll bet that she knows someone who is. Staying abreast of what is happening lets your clients know that they do not have to go to another salon to get that service, and you offer one-stop shopping when they are ready. Take a look at the services that you offer. Yes, there are the normal and regular. Do you offer gel nails or gel polish services? How about skin care? Do you retail? Do you have the space for a small boutique? If you do not wish to give these specialty services yourself, then bring in a new person or train one of your staff to offer the service. The most successful salons are the ones that have taken advantage of the trends and run with them. Retail retail retail My friend, whose salon is 60 miles south of Detroit in a very small town, retails hair care products, his own skin care and makeup brand, and accessories for evening wear. He nets more than $90,000 profit every year. He commissions his receptionist 10 percent on all sales. Whether it is for personal care or gift giving, this is one-stop shopping and his clients love it. A retail area does not have to be large. It can be a freestanding shelving unit close to the front desk. Choose products that are strictly professional or your own brand. When you finish a client, write out a prescription for home care of their new design. Products As a hired consultant for salon improvement, I have walked into literally hundreds of salons. One point of mismanagement stands out for me and wastes a lot of your precious dollars when I see three or four complete color lines and 12 different permanent waves on the shelves, even though they are basically the same chemical structure. Remember, the chemicals in the bottle cost about 80 cents. What makes that service be valued at $100 or more is your brain and your hands. Consider these options: Choose one color line. All manufacturers present comparable products. Get to know and work with one that you can use to do anything desired. Learn everything there is to know about that color line and have your staff do the same. The companies provide us with comparison charts, and we can test to find out how the product works. (By the way, did you know that all color manufacturers purchase their pigments from just three suppliers in the world?) Choose three permanent waves in all formulas (regular and tinted). First: A high ph Thio perm (great for long hair and medicine hair). These are the cold waves, and will give a crisp curl finish to the hair. Second: A low ph Thio perm (to be used on most other types of hair). These are usually heat-activated. They produce a softer finish than a cold wave. Third: An acid perm (sodium bisulfite or ammonium bisulfite). The Thio perms will break about 30 percent of the sulfur linkage in the hair and maintain the desired curl pattern. The acid perms will break only 15 percent of the sulfur linkage and give the softest finish to the hair. These will relax more than the usual 20 percent, so they are not suitable for a bouncy curl finish. Choose two types of relaxers. Sodium hydroxide is used for complete curl relaxation without reversion. This can be used on strong, coarse hair (super to mild formulas). Ammonium thioglycolate can be used on weaker, finer hair and on non-ebony hair. You can get some reversion with this chemical on ebony hair. Make sure to get the MSDS from your manufacturer to make comparisons. Take a look at your supplies. Do you have like or similar products stacked up on the shelves? You are wasting your money. Please don t be taken in by a marketing story. When a supplier wants you to try a new product, accept it, but only if it is free. Do not bring it in if duplicates what you already have. By all means, try everything; buy only what you need. You are not here to sell that company s product. Sales and selling This brings me to my favorite topic on salon management. What do you talk about with your clients? Do you talk about the weather, your kids, your neighbors, your animals, or your lovers? Do you have pictures of your family taped up on your station? With all due respect, please take them down! Instead, post your accomplishments, certificates, and diplomas. I have heard stylists moan: I can t sell anything, I am not a salesperson; I am a stylist, and I can t make money in this business! My question is: How s it working for you? When the client is in my chair, it is my time to sell! Yes, I do listen to them when they talk about their kids and their dogs. Moreover, I zero-in on their needs, their design, and their best image! Especially, when I get the opportunity to do a makeover; I spend time showing them new ideas and suggesting additional services. A tried-andtrue retail trick is Always leave the customer thinking. And make notations on the record cards. Do not trust your memory. Lead-in statements I am going to a show next weekend, and I know that we will come back with some exciting ideas. The next time that you come in, we can place some highlights around your face. This will brighten your skin. Terry (another staff member) has the time to apply your makeup. Consider this a thank-you for your business, and there will be no charge. I went to a class last week and learned a new haircut that will look terrific on you. Who doesn t want to look terrific? In addition to the increase in income, you get to have fun at work! Take a survey of your clients. You need to track your clients spending habits. How much is each Elite Page 57

60 client worth to the salon? Based on the national average, a haircut-only client brings about $500 into the salon each year. If that same client has partial highlights/lowlights six times and purchases hair care products from the salon, the total for the year jumps to $1,500. That s a difference of $1,000 or triple what he or she was spending as a haircut-only client. Multiply this by your promotions to 100 clients, meaning an increase of $100,000. With an increase of only $500 per client multiplied by 100 clients you would see an increase of $50,000! Do you get it? Imagine what this would mean to your business! And if your entire team is working this way, everybody benefits. Please, give this an honest try. I know that it works! Another practice that is absolutely imperative is to book the next appointment after you finish today s. People are busy and don t think about scheduling the appointment, and then forget to call. You are doing your client a service to book their next haircut, color or perm within the time averages. For haircuts, it can be three to four weeks for shorter hair and six weeks for longer hair. Do not let your color clients go longer than four to six weeks between appointments. When you allow your clients to walk around with new growth, they are not doing your business justice. For a permanent wave, schedule a trim at four to six weeks after the perm, then schedule the next perm six weeks after that. Think about it. Your dentist does it with your cleaning services at six months, otherwise you would forget. Remember, you are committed to having your clients look great every day. Advertising and promotions Early to bed, early to rise, work like hell, and advertise. Ted Turner Not advertising is like being alone in a dark room with the door closed. You know you are there, but no one else does. You absolutely have to advertise if you are going to succeed in business, because it is the basic way new customers learn you are out there. Yet it is surprising how many small business owners assume that their great idea, or ideal location, or big sign, or good looks, or whatever will bring people in the door. Here is what brings new people in the door: advertising. Sure, marketing is very important, as is networking, and customer service, and word of mouth, but advertising is the route with potentially the biggest payoff. Advertising turns the light on. The problem for many salons is that there are a lot of advertising choices; most are not inexpensive, and a costly mistake can be crippling to the budget. But one trait of the great entrepreneurs is that they reduce their risk to the extent possible. This is what we want to do here. Few salons have the cushion to absorb a costly mistake, so what is presented next is a process that allows you to greatly reduce the possibility that you will bet on the wrong horse, advertise Page 58 in the wrong place, and lose a bunch of money. What should happen, instead, is that you will create a winning campaign with little risk. Before you invest in radio, TV, newspaper ads, and contracts in phone books, consider these inexpensive promotions first: Three for one. As you finish a client, give him or her three of your cards, dated and signed by you (or your other stylist). When those three cards come back in with new clients, the first client gets his or her service free. This can and should be an ongoing promotion. Every month of the year offers a new opportunity for a promotion. Think about gift giving, with 10 percent off a certain service for every month of the year. For example, in May, offer a discount for highlights; in June, for makeovers; in December for gala, upswept hair; and so on. You can easily create a flier detailing this three months in advance. Develop a punch card for hair care products: After clients purchase five products, they get the sixth one free. Celebrate with the client: Give a 20 percent discount on services during the client s birthday month. Online promotions: Use your website if you have one, and also post these promotions on Facebook, Craigslist, and any other social network you can find. You would be amazed at how much business is generated with these simple promotions. And who doesn t want a bargain? Just remember to follow up and follow through. You can always go with the expensive forms of advertising as your business becomes stable. We like the free stuff! Your staff The final section in this salon management course addresses the factor that is most important for your survival in a small business: your staff. The size of your salon will determine the size of your staff. Large salons and day spas require receptionists, hairstylists, manicurists, shampoo persons, colorists, massage therapists, facial specialists, and hair removal specialists. Smaller salons have some combination of these personnel who perform more than one service. For example, the stylist might also be the colorist and texture specialist. The success of a salon depends on the quality of the work done by the staff. When interviewing potential employees, consider the following: Level of skill. Personal grooming. Image as it relates to the salon (are they too progressive or too conservative for your environment?). Overall attitude (do they seem more negative than positive in their responses to your questions?). Communication skills (are they able to understand your questions and can you understand their responses?). The clients they will bring with them. Making good hiring decisions is crucial; undoing bad hiring decisions is painful to all involved and can be more complicated than you might expect. Compensation and employee benefits To have a successful business, one in which everyone feels appreciated and is happy to work hard and serve clients, you must be willing to share your success with your staff whenever it is financially feasible to do so. You can do this in a number of ways. Make it your top priority to meet your payroll obligations. In the allotment of funds, this comes first. Whenever possible, offer hardworking and loyal employees as many benefits as possible and cover the cost of these benefits. If your financial situation does not allow you to cover the entire cost of these benefits, at least make them available to employees and allow them to decide whether they can cover the cost themselves. Although employees may have to pay their own way, group policies, especially for health insurance, are generally less expensive than individual policies. Provide staff members with a schedule of employee evaluations. Make it clear what is expected of them if they are to receive pay increases. Create and stay with a tipping policy. It is a good idea both for your employees and your clients to know exactly what is expected. You may consider a service charge added to the bill as an alternative to a tip, as is done in upscale restaurants. In my salon, we did not accept tips. I know that this may shock some, but a service charge worked very well for us. It was clearly posted and included in our menu for services, so there was no deviation. We started at 15 percent and then went to 18 percent a few years later. This was reported separately from the commission credit and given to the staff at the end of each day. My staff enjoyed it both because of image and convenience. (Personally, I have always felt that the concept of tipping a professional didn t make sense. I do not tip my doctor or nurse.) If offering a commission system instead of a salary, be sure to put it into writing, with a copy to each employee should questions arise. There are many ways to compensate your staff. Some salons offer an either/or compensation (whichever is greater, salary or commission). You may even have leased departments (booth rental) for your skin care specialist and massage therapist. You may prefer to pay a salary to a new stylist to help him or her to build a book, and later on switch to commission. You may like the control of salary plus commission, or may prefer a straight commission arrangement. Whatever you decide, it must be identified at the time of interview. Remember also that people who are on commission-only have a tendency to come in and leave as they Elite

61 will. I preferred the salary plus commission structure for two reasons: My staff was available for walk-in and call-in clients. They were also available to help other staff members or offer additional services. The commission checks were issued once a month, which gave the salon a dependable cash flow. They were also required to double their salary before receiving a commission check. I found what worked best for my salon was to talk to each individual and have an open discussion about his or her compensation. If staff members came to me with a book, then commission-only worked the best. But if they were new to the business, they needed training as my assistant and in building their book, so salary was better for them. These people eventually worked into salary plus commission. My goal was that we were both comfortable with the arrangement. Note: The charge back policy is considered another acceptable practice. The cost of the product is deducted before the commission is computed. For example, the service is $100 and the cost of the perm is $10. The commission credit is $90. Create incentives by giving your staff opportunities to earn more money, prizes or tickets to educational events and trade shows. Create salon policies and stick to them. Everyone in the salon should be governed by the same rules, and that includes you! Managing personnel As a new salon owner, one of your most difficult tasks will be to manage personnel (your employees and staff). But this can also be very rewarding. If you are good at managing others, you can make a positive impact on the lives of your employees and their ability to earn a living. If managing people does not come naturally to you, do not despair. People can learn how to manage just as they learn how to drive a car or overcome fears. Keep in mind that managing others is a serious job, and regardless of whether it comes naturally to you, it takes time to become comfortable with the role. Here are some tips for becoming an effective manager: Always be honest with employees. Tell them immediately what you are thinking, whether it is positive or negative. Unless clients are present, it is not a good idea to wait before providing feedback, because the impact of your thoughts and words may diminish as time goes by. Expect the best. Always give your employees the benefit of the doubt and expect the best intentions from them. Never jump automatically to a negative conclusion. Most times, you will find that employees really are trying to be helpful, even if they do not quite know how to go about accomplishing it. Also, make it your practice to recognize your employees efforts and to thank them for their good work. You did a great cut on Ms. Jones, or I really appreciate your staying late today, will be welcome words to your employees ears. Be a mentor. When you hire employees, you will be viewed as an experienced veteran, so it is your responsibility to help, guide and mentor them whenever possible. The benefits are not only increased harmony and loyalty, but should these employees move on, you and they can share the experience of being in a growing network of professional colleagues in your area. Have regular training sessions. Get your staff together to practice a new technique or design. These are mandatory for the image you wish to portray. Share information. There is no better way to help employees feel they are part of the process than to share information with them about important salon decisions that need to be made. Share only appropriate information with the staff. Too much information, if it is not the correct kind, can cause unnecessary concern and worry. By all means, have regular staff meetings. These should NOT be complaint sessions, but instead, positive input gatherings to share information and brainstorm problem solving. Follow the rules. Just as you will expect your employees to follow the rules you set for them and for the salon, so too must you follow the rules and provide a good example. If you find your own rules too burdensome, imagine how your employees feel. Personally, I had only two rules in management: The image of the salon will be upheld by all. The clients must be happy. Be reliable. Never make a promise you cannot deliver. Your employees need to believe you are reliable. They need to know you will come through for them. Teach them what you know. When you find yourself in the position to make management decisions that are of significance to the entire salon, explain your thinking behind these decisions, and include your employees in the decision-making process when appropriate. This way, your employees will learn how many factors must enter every decision. Their respect will go far in strengthening your relationship. And remember, in these financially difficult times, it is so important to pull together! References Steps to Small Business Start-up, Linda Pinson & Jerry Jinnett, 2006 The Everything Start Your Own Business Book, 3 RD EDITION, Judith B. Harrington, 2010 The Small Business Bible, Steven D. Strauss, 2005 Milady s Standard Cosmetology, Thompson Learning Inc., 2004 Jo Ann M. Stills, Americas Educator, 1975 to present Notes Elite Page 59

62 CHAPTER 7 Reporting your income to the Internal Revenue Service (2 CE Hours) Learning objectives Know the benefits of filing a correct tax return. Understand your federal income tax responsibilities. Identify your worker classification. Learn how to report income. Know how to identify business expenses. Know the differences between an employee and an independent contractor. Recognize your responsibilities as a shop owner or employer. Understand what is considered income. Introduction Whether a shop owner, an employee, or a booth renter (independent contractor), you need to know your federal tax responsibilities, including how to report your income and tips you receive from your customers. The most common forms of business are the sole proprietorship, partnership, and corporation. Your form of business determines which income tax return form you have to file. Publication 583, Starting a Business and Keeping Records, available free from the IRS, can help you decide. The purpose of this publication is to describe some of the federal tax responsibilities that owners and workers must address each day. As a shop owner you can elect to structure your business in different forms. You can choose to operate your business as a sole proprietorship, partnership, or as a corporation. Your business may have employees who work for you or you may decide to operate without employees. Another common arrangement is renting space to another individual who operates an independent business. This is commonly referred to as a booth renter and will be discussed later in this publication. It doesn t matter which business structure you choose; there are basic principles that do not change. Income received in the course of your business is taxable income and must be reported on the appropriate income tax return form. If you operate your business without employees, where you are the only worker, then your federal tax responsibilities would be limited to reporting your income earned (including tip income) and expenses on the appropriate tax form. For example, a sole proprietorship would file Form 1040, using Schedule C to report business income and expenses and Schedule SE to report selfemployment tax. Once you decide to hire workers you must determine whether if they are your employees or whether they will operate their own independent business (booth renters). Benefits of filing a correct tax return Reporting all of your income and paying the appropriate amount of tax may be confusing. You Page 60 may wonder why you should comply with the law. This section helps to put into perspective the positive side of tax compliance. Applying for credit When you apply for a loan or credit to purchase business equipment, a car, a house, or your own business, the financial institution will review your current and prior years federal income tax returns to determine your loan suitability. The amount of money you can borrow will be based (in part) on the earnings/income you have reported. By accurately reporting all income received, including tips, your financial picture is clearer, and you will be more apt to receive the amount of loan proceeds you desire. Example Lynette wanted to buy new stylist chairs. She did not have the funds to purchase the equipment so she went to the bank and applied for a loan. Lynette submitted her prior and current year tax returns. Lynette was denied a loan because the bank determined that she did not have adequate income. Lynette reviewed her income tax returns and realized that she had not included her tip income in her gross receipts on her Schedule C. Based on the additional income reported, Lynette was then able to qualify for the loan. Social Security benefits The benefits you receive from Social Security are calculated on the total combined earnings that have been recorded under your Social Security number (SSN). Correctly reporting all of your income, including tips, will determine how much Social Security is paid into your account. Social Security is not only for retirement purposes. The benefits also cover individuals who are injured or become disabled. If something happens to you, your spouse and your children can receive benefits based on your reported earnings. If you are an employee, based upon the amount of wages earned and tips reported, your employer provides matching funds for Social Security and Medicare. If you are a self-employed person, you are responsible for reporting and paying selfemployment tax (which is your Social Security and Medicare taxes) by completing Schedule SE. Unemployment compensation If you become unemployed, benefits are paid to you based on the wages and tips you have reported. Unemployment compensation is available for employees only. As an employee, your employer makes payments to an unemployment fund. Note: The laws governing unemployment benefits vary by jurisdiction. For more information, contact the appropriate agency in your state that handles unemployment compensation. Workers compensation benefits If you are an employee and are injured on the job, you are entitled to collect workers compensation. Workers compensation is based on wages and tips reported. Workers compensation is not a federal program. As of 2002 all states, except Texas, mandate that employers carry workers compensation insurance. This is an employer paid private insurance. Other benefits Filing a correct tax return and claiming all the ordinary and necessary business expenses that you are entitled to may reduce the amount of tax you owe and will provide greater working capital for you to use in your business. Your employer may offer other benefits based on your wages and reported tips; such as life insurance, disability insurance, 401K retirement plans, and the right to purchase stock options. You will need to check with your employer about these benefits. Filing a correct tax return will provide you with peace of mind. If you are selected for an audit, you will feel confident that your tax return was accurately prepared. Your worker classification The cosmetology industry is unique because it offers you a variety of career and employment opportunities. The obligations and responsibilities for each worker category are different. Proper worker classification will enable you to file and pay the correct tax. The choices are: employee, salon owner, booth renter, and independent contractor. Employees receive Form W-2 for wages earned and are responsible for reporting their tips to their employer as well as maintaining records of their non-reimbursed employee business expenses. Salon owners are in business for themselves. They are responsible for recording all income and expenses; withholding employment taxes if they have employees, and paying all taxes due. Booth renters, who are not employees of the salon, are self-employed. They are responsible for record keeping and the timely filing of returns and payment of taxes related to their business. Independent contractors are always selfemployed and are responsible for record keeping and timely filing of returns and payment of taxes related to their business. What determines worker classification? The courts have considered many facts in determining whether a worker is an employee or self-employed. These relevant facts fall into three main categories: behavioral control; financial control; and relationship or intent of the parties. In each case, it is very important to consider all the facts no single fact provides the answer. Elite

63 Behavioral control Behavioral control is having the authority to determine what to do, when to do it, why it needs to be done, and how it will be accomplished. Financial control Financial control is having the right to direct or control the business part of the work, such as how much to charge customers, how much to spend on business expenses and equipment, and the opportunity to realize a profit or loss. Relationship and intent of the parties Relationship or intent of the parties illustrates how the business owner and the worker perceive their relationship. Items to consider would be employee benefits and written contracts. Who is an employee? Simply stated, an employee is an individual who works at the control and direction of another. It is important to remember that as the employer, you do not have to control the worker all of the time, you simply have to have the right to control. The following questions are helpful in determining whether someone is your employee or an independent contractor: As the owner, do you establish the hours the shop is open? Who makes the determination on who works specific shifts? Do the workers purchase their own supplies with their own money? Who determines the prices charged to customers? Do the workers each set their own appointments? Who is responsible for expenses, such as insurance, advertising, etc.? These questions are not all inclusive, but they will provide insight as to whether you are their employer. If you give extensive instructions on how, when, or where to do the work and where to purchase the supplies, then more than likely you are the employer and the worker is your employee. For additional information, see Publication 1779, Independent Contractor or Employee? Example Lee works at Brett s Nail Salon. Lee is told to be at work, Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. 5 p.m. Brett observes the work that Lee does and has the right to provide direction. Lee reports all of her tips to Brett. Lee is Brett s employee and will receive Form W-2 at the end of the year. Self-employed A self-employed person works for himself or herself and is not subject to the will and control of another person. A self-employed person may be called a salon owner, a booth renter, or an independent contractor. Fees, tips, and retail sales are the most common forms of income received by a self-employed person and may include the following categories: Salon owner A salon owner is an individual (not a corporation) who owns and operates a salon. Salon owners may have employees, booth renters, independent contractors, or a combination thereof working in the same establishment. Salon owners are responsible for classifying workers correctly as employees, booth renters, or independent contractors. It is important that this classification is correct so that workers can determine their personal tax responsibilities. Shop owner/employer tax responsibilities As an employer, federal law requires you to withhold taxes from your employees paychecks. Depending on the wages, you must take out of your employees paychecks certain amounts for federal income tax, Social Security tax, and Medicare tax. You must then pay any liability for the employer s share of Social Security and Medicare taxes. This portion, your share, is not withheld from employees. You may also be required to pay unemployment (FUTA) taxes on these wages. In addition to reporting all taxable income on the appropriate income tax form, you would also have the responsibility for issuing Form W-2, Wage and Tax Statement. Wages paid, and taxes withheld, are reported on a quarterly basis by filing Form 941, Employer s QUARTERLY Federal Tax Return. You may also be required to file an annual form to pay federal unemployment taxes. This is done by filing Form 940, Employer s Annual Federal Unemployment (FUTA) Tax Return. Form W-2 is furnished to employees after the close of the calendar year, but no later than January 31st. Booth renter A booth renter is a person who rents or leases space in someone else s salon. The booth renter pays the owner an agreed upon amount for the use of the booth space. Booth renters set their own business hours and fees for their services. They are financially responsible for profit or loss in their own business and receive all income generated from their work. Booth renters who are not subject to the direction or control of the salon owner are not employees. Note: The lease agreement by itself does not make the booth renter a self-employed person. Example Graciella signed a lease with a salon owner that provided booth space and use of shampoo and hair dryer stations. In return for the space, she will pay $500 on the 10th of each month to the salon owner. The contract specifies that Graciella must work four days a week, 9 a.m. 5 p.m. and can only use the products the salon owner markets. Graciella does not set her own prices. Graciella is a booth renter employee. Example Ellen signed a lease with a salon owner that provided booth space and use of shampoo and hair dryer stations. In return for the space, she will pay $500 on the 10th of each month to the salon owner. The contract does not specify the number of days or times Ellen will use the booth. The lease does say that the salon owner would like Ellen to use, whenever possible, the products the salon owner markets to customers. Ellen establishes her own schedule and collects payments from her customers. Ellen is a selfemployed booth renter. Indications that you are an independent contractor include, but are not limited to: Having a key to the establishment. Setting your own hours. Purchasing your own products. Having your own phone number and business name. Determining the prices to be charged. If these factors are not present, then you are likely an employee of the business who is providing the space to you. If the above factors are present, then as an independent contractor you would be responsible for your federal taxes. Your tax responsibilities would include: Reporting all income (including tips) on the appropriate income tax return form, such as Form 1040, using Schedule C or Schedule C-EZ. Social Security and Medicare taxes are reported on Schedule SE. As a booth renter issuing Form 1099-MISC for business rent paid of more than $600 or more to non-corporate landlords each year. Issuing Form 1099 MISC or W-2 to workers you hire or employ. As an independent contractor booth renter, you may need to make estimated tax payments during the year to cover your tax liabilities. This is because as a booth renter (independent contractor), the business does not withhold taxes from your pay. Estimated tax is the method used to pay tax on income that is not subject to withholding, such as earnings from selfemployment you receive as a booth renter. Estimated tax payments are made each quarter using Form 1040-ES, Estimated Tax for Individuals. For additional information regarding tax withholding and estimated tax, see Publication 505, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax. If you hire others to work for you it is possible that these workers would be your employees. If you have employees in your business, you would be required to deduct from their pay Social Security, Medicare and federal income taxes. This would require you to file quarterly Forms 941, as well as an annual Form 940. You would also be required to file Forms W-2 for each employee who worked for you during the calendar year. Elite Page 61

64 Independent contractor Independent contractors may provide their services at several different locations. They are always in control of their hours, the fees they charge, and the products they use. They are self-employed. Example Bonnie is a manicurist and esthetician that has a business contract with two large salons where she provides her services. In her contracts, she is provided with a workstation for which she pays $450 per month to each salon. She keeps her own appointment book and sets her own hours of operation at her convenience. She also provides her own tools, nail polish supplies, and makeup. Bonnie handles her own monetary receipts from customers and is responsible for filing and paying tax on her income and tips. Bonnie does not receive a Form W-2 from the salon because she is an independent contractor (self-employed). Reporting income The money you receive from your work, whether it is wages, commissions, tips, sales, or rent and whether paid by cash, check, charge or bartering is taxable. All income is taxable unless specifically excluded by the Internal Revenue Code. You must report all your income on your tax return including tips. If you are an employee and receive tips, you must report that amount to your employer. If you are a self-employed salon owner, booth renter, or independent contractor, all income received, including tips, must be reported on your federal income tax return. Whether you prepare your own tax return or pay a tax preparer, you need to know the tax law so you can file an accurate tax return. Internal Revenue Code Section 61 states: Gross income means all income from whatever source received. In the case of workers in the cosmetology industry, taxable income includes such payments as: wages, fees, commissions, retail sales, rent/lease payments, tips, and bartering. Examples of reportable income Wages Money paid to you as an employee. Fees Payments you receive from customers for services you perform as a self-employed person. Commissions Payments you receive for products sold, or as a percentage of fees for services (i.e., pay agreements and commissions). Retail sales Sales of merchandise or other products such as brushes, shampoo, makeup, etc. Rent/lease payments Payments the salon owner receives for space rented. Tips Gratuities received from clients in the form of cash, charges, and nonmonetary payments. Page 62 Bartering Bartering is an exchange of one taxpayer s property or services for another taxpayer s property or services. The fair market value of property or services received through barter is taxable income (i.e., if a barber agrees to give an accountant a hair cut in exchange for tax return preparation, the fair market value of the hair cut is taxable to the accountant, and the fair market value of the tax return preparation is taxable to the barber). Tips As previously mentioned, all income is taxable income and tips are income. There is a false belief that tips received are gifts and, therefore, not considered income. Tips are not gifts A gift is something that is given to you freely, voluntarily, and without an expectation for any services performed. For instance, it is your birthday; your customer brings in champagne and cake. This is a gift, not a tip. If you provide a service to a customer and they pay you more than what you have stated as your fee, then that additional amount is a tip and taxable. If the customer pays you at a later date or at a different location for the service you previously provided, it is still taxable income. The date and location are irrelevant when the monies paid are for a service provided. Tips paid to you in cash, charge, checks, and noncash (i.e., tickets to sporting events) are subject to income tax. If you are licensed and performing a service these tips are subject to Social Security tax also known as the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA). Students, employees, salon owners, booth renters, and independent contractors earn tips. How do I treat tips received as an unpaid apprentice or as a student of a barber/ cosmetology school? While you are an unpaid apprentice or student of a school, the tips you receive are subject to income tax but not Social Security tax (FICA). This type of tip income is not reported to the school, because you are not an employee of the school. Report this type of tip income as other income on Form 1040 if you are required to file an income tax return. Any employee, including paid apprentices who receive tips in excess of $20 in any given month, must report to their employer all tips received that month. This must be done in writing and must include your name, SSN, and the name and place of employment. This report must be done at least once a month and submitted to your employer, no later than the 10th calendar day of the following month after the tips are earned. An employee who receives tips of less than $20 in a calendar month does not have to report the tips to his or her employer; however, the tips must be reported as other income on the employee s income tax return. Tip records You are required to keep records to show the amount of tip income you received during the year. IRS has created Publication 1244, Employee s Daily Record of Tips. This handy publication allows you to record your tips on a daily basis by completing Form 4070A, which is included in Publication This form is given to your employer no later than the 10th calendar day of the following month after the tips are earned. Keep a record of the amount of tip-outs you pay to other employees through tip sharing, tip pooling, or any other arrangement. It is to your benefit to have both the names of employees to whom you paid the tips and the date you paid them. If you are not a student or an employee, you are a self-employed person. You may be called a salon owner, a booth renter, independent contractor or have some other title. As a self-employed person, report all income including tips on your Schedule C. Tip income responsibilities for the employer or booth renter Tips are considered taxable income and are subject to federal income taxes. Tips that your employee receives from customers are generally subject to withholding. Your employees must report tips they receive to you by the 10th of the month after the month that the tips are received. The report should include tips that you paid over to the employee from customers who added the tip to their charged or debit card receipt and tips that the employee received directly from customers. You must collect income tax, employee Social Security tax, and employee Medicare tax on the employee s tips. For more information on the taxation of tips, see Publication 15, Circular E Employer s Tax Guide, available free from the IRS. Employees are required by law to keep a daily record of all tips they receive. The IRS furnishes free, Publication 1244, Employee s Daily Record of Tips and Report to Employer, which employees can use to record their tips on a daily basis. Publication 1244 includes Form 4070, Employee s Report of Tips to Employer, and Form 4070A, Employee s Daily Record of Tips. If you operate your own business as a sole proprietor or booth renter, any tips received in the normal course of your business must be reported in gross receipts and then reported on the appropriate income tax form. See Publication 531, Reporting Tip Income, for more information regarding tip income reporting. All tips you receive are income and are subject to federal income tax. You must include in gross income all tips you receive directly from customers, charged tips paid to you by your employer, and your share of any tips you receive under a tip-splitting or tip-pooling arrangement. You can use Form 4070A, Employee s Daily Record of Tips to record your tips, or any diary of your choosing. You can also keep copies of documents that show your tips, such as customer receipts and credit card slips. Publication 1244 includes Form 4070, Employee s Report of Tips to Employer, and Form 4070A, Employee s Daily Record of Tips, available free from the IRS. You can use an electronic system provided by your Elite

65 employer to record your daily tips. If you do, you must receive and keep a copy of this record. Tip rate determination and education program (TRD/EP) Employers may participate in the Tip Rate Determination and Education program. The program consists of various voluntary agreements designed for specific industries where tipping is customary. There is one designed specifically for this industry. TRAC, Tip Reporting Alternative Commitment, has characteristics unique to the cosmetology and barber industry. The IRS developed this program to encourage voluntary compliance with tip income reporting through outreach and education and using enforcement actions as a last resort. Business expense reporting There are many kinds of business expenses. It is important to keep track of all of them, because they may reduce the amount of tax you have to pay. Deductible business expenses To be deductible, an expense must be: Ordinary One that is common and accepted in your trade or business. Necessary One that is helpful and appropriate for your trade or business. An expense does not have to be crucial to your business to be deductible. Some common business expenses are: Utilities. Employee salaries. Trade association dues. Rental expenses. Supplies Salon supplies for client use (not sold for retail) such as perms, papers, colors, and shampoos. Continuing education A class that enhances your current business knowledge. Deducting cost of goods sold (COGS) Cost of goods sold (COGS) is a formula used to calculate the cost of retail products or merchandise sold during the year. The formula is as follows: Beginning inventory (Items that you have on hand for resale on the first day of the year). Plus Purchases (Items that you buy for resale during the year). Minus Personal use (Items purchased for resale but used personally during the year). Minus Ending inventory (Items that you have on hand for resale on the last day of the year). Equals Cost of goods sold Not all expenses incurred are deductible. In fact, you should be aware that there are a number of abusive tax schemes, such as the home-based business tax scheme. An abusive tax scheme is any investment plan or promotion that claims to allow a person to deduct what would normally be considered a personal expense. As always, a true business purpose must exist before claiming any business expense. Deducting business expenses Generally, expenses are deducted in the year they are paid. If you borrow money or use a credit card to make your business purchases, regardless of when the loan or credit card is repaid, the business expense is deductible in the year purchased. Reporting business expenses If you are an employee, your deductible business expenses are listed on Form 2106, Employee Business Expenses. The total is carried forward to Schedule A, if you itemize. If you do not itemize, you will not be able to deduct your employee business expenses. Note: If your standard deduction exceeds the amount of your allowable Schedule A deductions, the standard deduction amount should be used, because it is more beneficial to you. If you are a self-employed salon owner, booth renter, or independent contractor, your deductible business expenses are listed on part two of Schedule C. Recordkeeping Record keeping is any system you use to keep track of and document all items of income and expenses. You want to keep good records for preparing your income tax return and for budgeting purposes. There are many deductions and tax credits for which you may qualify that will lower your tax. If you do not keep good records, you may not have verification to claim your expenses. There are many reasons why you need to keep good records. The most important reasons are listed below: To monitor your business success. You will be able to answer questions such as: How much is my business earning each week? What were my expenses last week, month, or year? In addition, good record keeping enables you to identify changes you need to make in your business to be more successful. For example, if you eliminated unwanted services or products, which did not sell, you could increase your profits. To identify your sources of income. You may receive money from many sources. Good record keeping helps you identify and separate business and non-business income and taxable and nontaxable income. For example, good records will allow you to distinguish between the $500 birthday gift that you deposited, which is not taxable, from the $500 tip income you deposited, which is taxable. To identify deductible expenses. Regardless of your employment status, you may have deductible expenses that could reduce your taxable income. A good record keeping system will help you to identify and document these deductible expenses throughout the year. Without an accurate record keeping system, you risk losing the benefit of a business deduction. To accurately prepare your tax return. A record keeping system supports the income, expenses, and credits you report on your income tax return and promotes accurate return preparation. Without good record keeping you may overlook taxable income, deductible expenses, or tax credits to which you are entitled. To support income, expenses, and credits reported on your tax return. You must keep records to support all items shown on your income tax return. If the IRS examines any of your tax returns, you may be asked to explain or verify items you reported. If you are unable to present the required information, you may be subject to payment of additional taxes and penalties. Types of records you should keep You should keep records for any items you have listed on your tax return. It is strongly recommended that you keep business and personal funds separate. Maintaining a separate bank account for your business is one way to do this. Some examples of business records are: Business income records: Bank deposit slips and bank statements. Credit card charge slips. Appointment book/calendar. Receipt books. Form(s) 1099-MISC received. Business expense records: Invoices. Receipts. Cancelled checks. Sales slips. Credit card receipts. Your supporting documents should show the amount paid and how it relates to your business. You must provide proof (i.e., supporting documents) that the purchase was for business use only. Keeping your records There are no specific guidelines for maintaining your records; however, a good record keeping system should be easy to use, understandable, reliable, accurate, and consistent. You should select a record keeping system and accounting method that is suitable for your business to allow you to determine your income and deductible expenses. You can use something as simple as a notebook to record taxable income, as it is received, and deductible expenses, as they are paid. The manner in which you store your records is up to you a file cabinet, shoebox, or other type of container. What s important is that you organize the documents by date and type of income and expense. You may want to separate deductible business expenses into categories such as rent, utilities, insurance, advertising, and professional publications. No matter how you keep your records, they should be organized and easy to find. Keep all records until the statute of limitations expires for that particular tax return. Generally, the statute of limitations expires three years Elite Page 63

66 after the return becomes due or is filed, or two years from the date the tax is paid, whichever is later. Keep all employment tax records for at least four years after the tax return becomes due or is filed or two years from the date the tax is paid, whichever is later. Employment taxes are discussed in the chapter, What are my federal tax responsibilities. Note: Major purchases, such as buildings and equipment, may have special record keeping requirements. Please refer to Publication 946, How to Depreciate Property, for additional information. Consequences of filing an incorrect tax return Filing accurate tax returns and paying taxes when due is the law. Penalties are assessed for noncompliance with tax laws. Consequences of not filing an income tax return on time If you are an employee, employer or selfemployed person and you fail to file your personal income tax return or employment tax return by the due date, including extensions, you may be subject to the failure-to-file penalty. The failure-to-file penalty will be assessed at 41/2 percent of the unpaid tax for the first month the penalty applies and an additional 41/2 percent for each additional month or fraction of the month that the return remains unfiled, not to exceed 22½ percent of the tax due. Minimum penalty is the lesser of 100 percent of the tax due or $100. Note: Percentage figures may be subject to change. Penalties for late filing If you are an employee, employer or selfemployed person and you fail to fully pay your income tax liability or your employment tax liability by the due date of your return, the failure-to-pay penalty may be assessed. The failure-to-pay penalty is ½ of 1 percent of the unpaid tax. This penalty will be assessed each additional month or fraction of a month until the tax is paid, not to exceed 25 percent of the tax. Estimated tax payments If you are an employee or self-employed person and you did not pay enough tax either through withholding or by making your estimated tax payments, you will have an underpayment of tax. Based on this underpayment you may be assessed a penalty. Failure to file an income tax return If you fail to file an income tax return or employment tax return when required, the IRS may file a substitute for return on your behalf, without crediting you with the exemptions, deductions, or credits of which you may be entitled. You may also be subject to additional penalties and interest as described above. Consequences for employers who fail to make timely Form 940 and Form 941 deposits Penalties may apply if you do not make the required deposits, are late making deposits, make deposits for less then the required amount, or if Page 64 you do not use Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS) when required. For any amounts not properly or timely deposited the penalty rates are: 2 percent Deposits made 1 to 5 days late. 5 percent Deposits made 6 to 15 days late. 10 percent Deposits made 16 or more days late. The penalty also applies to amounts paid within 10 days of the date of the first notice the IRS sent asking for the tax due. The penalties do not apply if any failure to make a proper and timely deposit was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect. Note: Penalties and interest assessed on tax and penalties are not deductible on your tax return. Federal tax responsibilities Your federal tax liability will be based upon your worker classification. The tax system is a pay-asyou-go system. As an employee, you will receive a Form W-2, Wage and Tax Statement, from each employer you have worked for during the year. Employers issue these forms in January of the following year. Form W-2 combines all wages and reported tips. It shows the amount of federal taxes withheld and paid throughout the year. Taxes are withheld based upon how you completed your Form W-4, Employee s Withholding Allowance Certificate. Tax withheld may differ depending upon the filing status you chose and the number of allowances you claimed. When you file your federal income tax return you should report the income shown on all Form W-2 s. If you do not report all of your tips to your employer during the year, you may be required to pay additional income tax such as Social Security and Medicare taxes on any unreported tips when you file your federal income tax return. A penalty for underpaying your required taxes during the year may be assessed. If you are self-employed, you are responsible for filing and paying all of your own taxes, which include both federal income and selfemployment taxes. Federal income tax is the tax calculated on the net (or adjusted gross) income, after all deductions have been taken. Self-employment tax is comprised of 100 percent of your Social Security and Medicare taxes. Note: It is possible to not owe any federal tax but still owe self-employment tax. If you are self-employed, you may be required to make quarterly estimated tax payments based upon your net income and any self-employment taxes. For help in calculating your estimated payment amounts, refer to Publication 505, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax. Form MISC is required to be issued to any person (not a corporation) to whom you have paid $600 or more during the year, who is not your employee. If you yourself have received $600 or more from one person for services you provided, you should also receive Form 1099-MISC. If you do not receive this form but have received the income, you are still required to report that income on your return. Employer s federal tax responsibilities If you are an employer, in addition to your own personal tax obligations, you will have employment tax responsibilities. As an employer, you are responsible for all of the following: Form 941, which is filed quarterly, shows the amounts that have been withheld and paid for each employee s federal income, Social Security and Medicare taxes. It will also include the employer s matching portion of Social Security and Medicare taxes. As the employer, you must deposit all income tax withheld and both the employer and employee s share of Social Security and Medicare taxes. Refer to Publication 15 for further information. Form 940, the Employer s Annual Federal Unemployment Tax return (FUTA) form is filed annually. The tax is paid 100 percent by the employer. Refer to Publication 15 for specific filing requirements. Form W-2, reflects total wages paid and tips reported, is filed annually and is issued to each employee. Form 1099-MISC is required to be issued to any persons (not a corporation or your employee) to whom you have paid $600 or more during the year for services provided. Tax credits When you file your income tax return, there are many tax credits to which you may be entitled. This section will focus on the earned income tax credit and the education credits. Earned income tax credit (EITC) EITC is a tax break for people who work but do not earn high incomes. Those who qualify could pay less federal tax, no tax, or even get a tax refund. Qualifying for EITC You may qualify for EITC if you meet the following: You must have a valid Social Security number (SSN). Your filing status cannot be married filing separate. You must be a U.S. citizen or resident alien all year. You cannot file Form 2555 or Form 2555 EZ. Your investment income (as of 2002) must be $2,550 or less. You must have earned income. Additionally, if you are claiming EITC and you have a child, you must meet the following: The child must meet the relationship, age, and residence test. If the child being claimed for EITC is the qualifying child for more than one person, only one person may claim the EITC for that child. You and the other qualifying person may choose which person gets the credit. If you cannot agree on who is to file for the credit, refer to Publication 596 to determine the criteria for unagreed-upon cases. Elite

67 You cannot be the qualifying child of another person and claim EITC for your child. If you are claiming EITC and you do not have a qualifying child, you must meet the following: You must be at least age 25 but under age 65. You cannot be the dependent of another person. You cannot be the qualifying child of another person. You must have lived in the U. S. for more than half of the year. The advance earned income tax credit (advance EITC) The advance EITC allows those taxpayers who expect to qualify for the earned income tax credit (EITC) and have at least one qualifying child to receive part of the credit in each paycheck during the year the taxpayer qualifies for the credit. Receiving advance EITC payments First, you must determine whether you qualify for advance EITC payments. To do so, obtain from your employer the Form W-5, Earned Income Credit Advance Payment Certificate, making sure to answer the five questions on the back of the form that determine qualification. If you qualify, complete the bottom part of the Form W-5 and give it to your employer. Then, based on your income, your employer adds additional money to your take-home pay in each paycheck. Note: If your only income is from selfemployment, you cannot qualify for Advance EITC payments. Income limits for claiming EITC In order to qualify for earned income tax credit, as of 2002, your earned income and adjusted gross income must be less than: $11,060 ($12,060 MFJ) if you do not have a qualifying child. $29,201 ($30,201 MFJ) if you have one qualifying child. $33,178 ($34,178 MFJ) if you have more than one qualifying child. Note: Income limits are subject to change. When you file your tax return (1040 EZ, 1040 A, or a 1040), you can calculate your EITC by using a worksheet included in the tax form instruction booklet or you can let the IRS calculate your earned income credit for you. For more information on the earned income tax credit, please refer to Publication 596, Earned Income Tax Credit. Education credits Education credits are tax credits for students only. You may be eligible for education credits, depending on your filing status, income level, and other factors. There are two kinds of education credits: The Hope credit. The Lifetime Learning credit Expenses that qualify for the education credits are based on qualified tuition and related expenses. Qualifying for the Hope credit The Hope credit is available to students for the first two years of undergraduate education including trade or vocational schools. You might be entitled to a credit of up to $1,500 of the money you paid out for tuition or other qualifying expenses. Here are some of the requirements: The student has not completed the first two years of post-secondary education. The student is enrolled in a program that leads to a degree, certificate or other recognized education credential. The student is taking at least half of the normal full-time workload for his/her course of study for at least one academic period, beginning during the calendar year. The student has no felony drug conviction. Example Phillip is a first-year student at Chicago Barber College, attending school full time. His tuition costs are $5,800, which includes lab fees and books. Phillip is a dependent on his parents tax return. Phillip is not entitled to take the Hope credit on his return, but his parents may be entitled to take the credit on their tax return for Phillip s educational costs. Qualifying for the Lifetime Learning credit The Lifetime Learning credit is a tax credit, but unlike the Hope credit, there is no limit to the number of years you can claim the credit! You may be able to claim up to $1,000 of the money you paid out for tuition or other qualifying expenses. These are the requirements: The student only has to take one (or more) courses, it s not based on workload. The student can be beyond his or her first two years of post secondary education. It is available for an unlimited number of years. The student does not have to be pursuing a degree or any recognized education credential. Beginning in 2003, the maximum Lifetime Learning Credit increases to $2,000. Example Lance is taking a hair braiding class so he can offer an additional service to his clients. This class is not part of a certificate or degree program from an accredited school. This class qualifies for the Lifetime Learning credit. About the credits The education credit cannot be more than the amount of your tax. You cannot get a refund for any part of the credit that is more than your tax. Neither the Hope nor the Lifetime Learning credits are dollar-for-dollar credits. The amount of credit you qualify for will be based upon your income. Just because you claim $1,500 in expenses, does not mean your tax credit is $1,500. Can the Hope and the Lifetime Learning credit be claimed in the same year? No. If a student qualifies for both the Hope and Lifetime Learning credit for the same year, he or she can claim either credit, but not both. You will want to determine which credit gives you the best benefit. What is e-filing? E-file is the preferred way of filing your tax return. It is so easy, that in 2002 more than 46 million people used it. Who can participate in e-file? Individual taxpayers. Sole proprietors. Employers. Partnerships. Tax practitioners. How can I participate in e-file? Telefile Direct to the IRS via a telephone, you must receive a Telefile package to participate. IRS E-file using an authorized e-file provider. E-file through your personal computer. What tax forms can you currently e-file? A EZ Certain qualified filers may use the 941 TeleFile program The IRS accepts nearly all related forms and schedules. 29 What are the benefits of e-filing? Electronic acknowledgement within 48 hours of filing confirming the IRS has accepted your return for processing. Chances of getting an error notice from the IRS are reduced. There is only a 1 percent error rate on e-filed returns. Receive your refund in half the time of paper filing, even faster with direct deposit. To find a list of software companies (authorized providers) or tax professionals who participate in the e-file program, visit the IRS Web site at What is Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS)? EFTPS enables individual taxpayers to pay all their federal taxes electronically including estimated taxes, balance due payments, installment payments, and estate and gift taxes. Business taxpayers can pay employment taxes, excise taxes, and corporate income taxes. EFTPS is easy, fast, accurate and convenient. Who can use EFTPS? Any individual taxpayer making more then one tax payment a year can use EFTPS. Any business taxpayer can use EFTPS for all taxes. Elite Page 65

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