Literature List Corneometer

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1 Courage + Khazaka electronic GmbH Mathias-Brüggen-Str.91 D Köln Phone Fax Literature List Corneometer H. Tronnier, Differenzierte Feuchtigkeitsmessungen an der menschlichen Haut, Ärzliche Kosmetologie 308, 1980 Differentiated moisture measurements on human skin are carried out by means of the demonstration of resonance frequency measurements, resistance measurements and condensor methods. Furthermore, the importance of applying the appropriate base in therapy and cosmetics depending on the individual hydration condition is demonstrated. K.-H. Schrader, Untersuchungen wasserretinierender Kosmetika auf der Haut, Parfümerie + Kosmetik 62, 1981 Mit dem Corneometer zur Bestimmung der aktuellen Feuchtigkeit der oberen Hautschichten gelingt es, kosmetische Produkte auf ihren Hydratationseffekt - besonders im Stratum Corneumzu überprüfen. Für diese Untersuchungen wurden eine W/O-Emulsion, eine O/W-Emulsion sowie ein Gesichtswasser herangezogen, die zugleich mit einem entsprechenden Wirkstoff der Haut auch Wasser zuführen. Es wurden alternativ geprüft - neben dem jeweiligen Placebo: Harnstoff, Desamidokollagen, Natriumsalz der Pyrrolidoncarbonsäure und Kollagenhydrolysat. Der Effekt bei einigen Wirkstoffen zeigt auch bei 120 Minuten nach der Applikation noch deutlich erhöhte Werte gegenüber der Kontrolle, während bei anderen eine Exsikkation gemessen wurde. Die Resultate dieser Prüfungen lassen weitere Untersuchungen mit anderen Wirkstoffen sinnvoll erscheinen. H. Tronnier, Meßmethoden zur Prüfung kosmetischer Präparate und Grundstoffe, Parfümerie + Kosmetik 61, 1980, p Unsere Kenntnisse über Reaktionsabläufe in der menschlichen Haut, insbesondere auch über die, die Schutz- und Abwehrfunktionen des Hautorgans bedingen, sind dem Dermatologen zum Teil aus pathologischen Störungen, also dermatologischen Krankheitsbildern, geläufig. K. Mosler, Hautfeuchtigkeitsmessung kein Problem mit dem Corneometer CM 420, Parfümerie + Kosmetik 64, 1983, p Der Hydratationsgrad der Hornschicht das Stratum Corneum und auch seine Beeinflussung durch Pharmaka und Kosmetika spielen eine wichtige Rolle, nicht nur in der Dermatologie, sondern auch in der allgemeinen Körperpflege Simon, Cosmetic effect in relation to hydration of the skin proved by changed electric conductivity, Ärztliche Kosmetologie, , 1984 Several skin care products have been investigated. The skin resistance was measured with a dermotest apparatus. Computer processing revealed that complex cosmetic treatment causes a decrease of skin resistance (i.e. an increase of the skin hydratation) as compared to the control Literature Corneometer 2019/01 1

2 side.the results are supported by the opinions of the treated subjects. Y. Werner, The water content of the stratum corneum in patients with atopic dermatitis, Acta Derm Venereol 66: , 1984 M. Gloor, M. Gehse, E. Wölfle, Beeinflussung der Hornschichtfeuchtigkeit durch waschaktive Substanzen, Ärztliche Kosmetologie, 15/1985 Bei 32 hautgesunden Versuchspersonen wurde der Wassergehalt der Hornschicht vor und nach Anwendung einer 3-bzw.6%igen Tensidlösung (3mal täglich über 4 Tage) bestimmt. Bei weiteren 20 gesunden Versuchspersonen wurde die gleiche Untersuchung mit einer 3-bzw 6%igen Seifenlösung vorgenommen. Die Messungen erfolgten mit Hilfe der Infrarotspektroskopie und der Kapazitätsmessung der Hornschicht. Eindeutig war mit beiden Methoden ein Dehydratationseffekt sowohl durch die Seife als auch durch die Tensidlösung nachweisbar, der bei der Tensidlösung quantitativ weitgehend unabhängig von der Konzentration der waschaktiven Substanzen war, bei der Seifenlösung jedoch bei der 6%-Lösung weniger ausgeprägt als bei der 3% Lösung. In der zweiten Stunde nach der letzten Waschung kam es nach Anwendung der Tensidlösung zu einem deutlichen Rehydratationseffekt, der nach Anwendung der Seife nicht in gleichem Ausmaß zu beobachten war. Der Rehydratationseffekt war unabhängig von der Konzentration der waschaktiven Substanz. Beim Vergleich der Methoden erwies sich der Rehydratationseffekt als eindrucksvoller, wenn man die infrarotspektroskopischen Meßwerte zugrunde legte. Wie infrarotspektroskopische Untersuchungen nach Strippen der Haut zeigen, erstreckt sich die Dehydratation der Hornschicht nur auf deren oberflächlichste Anteile. Morganti, Randazzo, Cardillo, Role of insoluble and soluble collagen as skin moisturizer, J. Appl. Cosmetol /1986 The normal state of skin hydration depends mainly on the water content present at the stratum corneum level. In order to evaluate the water-binding property of soluble and insoluble animal collagen, and in order to compare its abilities in cutaneous hydratation, both the long and shortterm water-binding capacity of human skin was tested "in vivo". First data shows that the presence of soluble native collagen is indispensable in order to obtain a long-lasting hydrating effect. Dikstein, Katz, Maibach, Instruments for measuring stratum corneum moisture content, International Journal of Science, , 1986, 8 Hevert, Berz, Händewaschen ohne Wasser, Arbeitsmedizin, Sozialmedizin, Präventivmedizin, 1987 Within the feasibility stage of ORDET (Prospective Study on Hormones and Diet in Breast Cancer Etiology) a reproducibility study on the measuring of cutaneous sebum has been carried out. The Schwarzhaupt SM410 Sebumeter was used for the assessment of the sebum production. 11 measurements were taken from the forehead, back and nape over 36 hr. period, on 9 women ranging in age from 28 to 61 years. A good reproducibility was observed for all measurements and sebumeter discrimination capacity for different levels of sebum production appears particularly high for the forehead. The use of forehead sebum measurement has proved to be suitable for epidemiological studies. Tronnier, Dermatologische Bewertung von Kosmetika und Körperpflegemitteln, Ärztliche Kosmetologie, , 1987 The practitioning dermatologist is interested in body care products and cosmetics because of their potential side-effects which may be allergic or primarily toxic. In view of skin physiology also cosmetics and body care products having special effects, such as light and skin protective preparations, deodorants and antiperspirants, dandruff and hair removing products, washing products and preparations which are supposed to have an anti-wrinkle effect on the skin, are of interest Literature Corneometer 2019/01 2

3 to the dermatologist. These preparations claiming a certain effect are opposed to the series of cosmetics which to some extent also make this claim, but on the whole have general effects such as improvement of the hydration of the horny layer and influence on the ph-value of the skin effects which, however, are also assigned to some special products. These preparations contain a number of active substances the effects of which are at least controversial and often difficult to prove. So, it is pointed out to the fact that just in case of body care products and cosmetics the effect of the basic substances used is essentially responsible for the effects of care. K.-H. Schrader, S. Bielfeldt, Die Beeinflussung der Hautfeuchtigkeit und Hautglätte durch den Biokatalysator Adenosintriphosphat (ATP), Ärztliche Kosmetologie,1988, Sehr geringe Mengen ATP-Dinatriumsalz (0,005%, 0,05%) wurden in einem feuchtigkeitsspendenden Gesichtstonic eingesetzt. Gemessen wurde die Beeinflussung der Hautfeuchtigkeit und der Hautglätte. Obwohl die Grundlage erwartungsgemäß bereits befriedigende Wirkungen, insbesondere was die Hautfeuchtigkeit anbelangt, erzielt, führt der Zusatz sehr geringer Mengen ATP noch zu einer dramatischen Wirkungssteigerung. Blichman, J. Serup, Assessment of skin moisture measurement of electrical conductance, capacitance and transepidermal water loss, Acta Derm Venereol 1988 Experiments on skin moisture were undertaken using three different equipments, i.e. the Skicon 100 and Corneometer CM 420 hydrometers, and the ServoMed EP1 evaporimeter. Studies included ten healthy volunteers. Water was applicated to test sites on the forearm and the palm of the hand, and effects monitored by the three methods. Parallel increases in conductance, capacitance and transepidermal water loss were registered lasting about five min. The Skicon-100 was more sensitive for measurement of increased hydration while the Corneometer CM 420 might be more sensitive for measurement of decreased hydration. Inter- and intra- individual variations were minor with all instruments. According to reproducibility studies the Corneometer CM 420 was more accurate than the Skicon-100. Technical experiments indicated that the Corneometer CM 420 depicts changes of hydration down to a depth of 0.1 mm while the Skicon-100 measures very superficially. In conclusion, both hydrometers were relevant and valid for assessment of skin moisture. The methods are supplementary, and their combined use is recommended. D. van Neste, J.L. Antoine, A vehicle controlled study of the effects of hydrating agents in a human model of rough dermatitic skin, Bioengineering and the Skin, 4/1988 Rough dermatitic skin (RDS) sites induced by sodium laurylsulphate (SLS, aqueous solutions at 10%,5% and 1% left under occlusion for 48 hours, distilled water served as a 0% SLS control; ten subjects) showed increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and increase cutaneous blood flow values (CBFV) which lasted from day 1 to days 5 to 7. There were no significant changes of skin electrical properties (COND) 24 hours after removal of the SLS patches. However, this lag phase was followed by a gradual decrease of COND (days 2 to 5). Normal COND values were again recorded around day 7 after the initial insult, along with elimination of the superficial SLS induced flake. COND was correlated with clinical scores of roughness. Finally, almost complete recovery of RDS was observed by day 10 with normal TEWL, CBFV and COND. A time course study of TEWL, CBFV and COND showed epidermal repair after daily topical treatment with the vehicle alone tested or the vehicle with hydrating agents (HA) (10% urea and 5% lactic acid).when compared with untreated skin or vehicle treated RDS patches, COND was higher at HA treated sites. Under the experimental conditions proposed in this study, COND did not reflect the acute changes of barrier function of the skin as accurately as TEWL or CBFV measurements. It generated a signal closely related to the feeling of roughness, hence allowing instrumental monitoring of the epidermal healing underneath the superficial scale. Finally, it provided quantitative data in relation to substantivity of topically applied hydrating agents onto experimentally induced RDS in human skin. Literature Corneometer 2019/01 3

4 E. Beradesca, H.I. Maibach, Racial Differences in Sodium Lauryl Sulphate induced cutaneous irritation: black and white, Contact Dermatitis 18: 65-70, 1988 The different reactivity of black and white skin after exposure to sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) has been investigated. 9 white and 10 black male volunteers entered the study. The tests were performed on the back at 3 sites: untreated skin, skin pre-treated with occlusion and skin predelipidized. Irritant reactions were elicited applying 0.5% and 2.0% SLS via Finn chamber patch tests and monitored by means of laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum water content (WS). Higher TEWL, LDV, and WC values were recorded for 2.0% SLS when compared to 0.5% SLS and baselines. Pre-treatment with short-term occlusion generally increased values, while delipidization produced flattening of the data more detectable in whites than in blacks. Significant TEWL differences for two concentrations were recorded in whites for the occluded site (P<0.02) while in blacks in the untreated (P<0.04) and delipidized (P<0.03) sites. LDV revealed significant changes in the untreated and pre-occluded white skin (P<0.05 and 0.01, respectively). In blacks, the values were significantly different only in the pre-occluded skin (P<0.01). Water content correlated with the visual score and was greatly increased in sites with strongly positive reactions (P<0.01). It appears that there are significant differences in the modulation of irritation, in the behaviour of water barrier function and of the erythematous response between blacks and whites. Clinical correlations are discussed. A.O. Barel, P. Clarys, B. Wessels, R. van Straat, Quantitative Biophysical Measurements of the Mildness Properties of Cleaning and Detergent Products in Hand Immersion Test, Algemene en Biologische Scheikunde, Vrije Univerteit Brussel, Belgium H. Tronnier, Die Haut als Grenzschicht, Kosmetik International 8/88 Als äußere Begrenzung des Organismus ist die menschliche Haut wie kein anderes Organ Umwelteinflüssen ausgesetzt. Eine seiner wesentlichsten Aufgaben ist es, diese Umwelteinflüsse abzuwehren, zu neutralisieren oder soweit zu modifizieren, daß sie den Organismus nicht gefährden. Einen Teil insbesondere akuter Schädigungen vermag die Haut über verschiedene Rezeptoren, die sie insgesamt auch zu einem Sinnesorgan machen, zu erkennen. Gegen andere, insbesondere relativ schwache und chronische Noxen vermag die Haut mit Anpassungsvorgängen, erwähnt sei nur die Hornschichtverdickung oder die Pigmentbildung, zu reagieren. In dem Thema "Die Haut als Grenzschicht" möchte ich zu drei Komplexen Stellung nehmen, die entweder zurzeit zum Teil kontrovers diskutiert werden oder von denen ich glaube, daß sie thematisch aus Ihrer Arbeitsrichtung von Interesse sein könnten. Fiorentini, Becheroni, Iorio, Hyaluronic acid: analytical procedures for purity determination, polymerization degrees and comparative instrumental tests "in vivo", International Journal of cosmetic science 26.29/09/88 Recent studies have shown that hyaluronic acid is an important molecule in cosmetics, although there are different, sometimes controversial theories about its role. This work is an analytical contribution to the characterization and a control of hyaluronic acid. The main techniques used are UV, GCP or SEC, IR and corneometry. Surveys conducted with the aid of these techniques have allowed a better knowledge of the molecular weight determination and of the uniform quality of commercial supplies. These procedures may be of application for quality control and promote further investigation on the biological tissular role played by hualuronic acid in topical cosmetic products. The analytical results of a study of the evaluation of oil/water (o/w) emulsions containing hyaluronic acid of different origins are reported. The analytical data obtained from cutaneous hydratation control apparatuses were compared statistically. The choice of hyaluronic acid, made through screening and evaluation by the above-mentioned techniques, ensures the optimal formulation of the finished product and a quality standard of the active principle. Literature Corneometer 2019/01 4

5 P. Nissen, Physikalische Meßmethoden in der Kosmetik, Kosmetik International, p , 11/1988 Bei der Anwendung physikalischer Meßmethoden in der kosmetischen Praxis sind grundsätzliche Gesichtspunkte zur Messung sowohl hinsichtlich der Methoden als auch der Versuchsdurchführung zu beachten. Die anwendbaren Meßverfahren sollten einfach und ohne großen technischen, personellen und finanziellen Aufwand möglich sein. Diese Bedingungen werden von einigen Meßgeräten erfüllt. Mit ihrer Hilfe kann in kurzer Zeit eine exakte Hautdiagnose gestellt und die kosmetischen Wirkansprüche bestimmter Produkte überprüft werden. A.O. Barel, Protocole of the experimental determinationof the efficacy of hydrating products on the human skin by measurements of the hydration of the horny layer with a Corneometer CM 820 PC (Courage + Khazaka), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Algemene Biologische Scheikunde, Brussel 1989 Desai, Kosmetische Spezialprodukte aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen, Vortrag anläßlich des SCC annual meeting, New York, , Parfümerie und Kosmetik, 6/89 Special cosmetic products bases on regrowing raw materials. Some new cosmetic specialities based on "regrowing raw materials" are introduced. These chemicals are harmless from the toxicological and dermatological point of view. Moreover, they possess interesting cosmetic properties such as gentleness, anti-irritation, emolliency and moisture regulation. The new bio-raw materials presented here offer various possibilities for a wide use in all fields of the grooming cosmetics. L. Nogueira, D. Gabrielle, New techniques to assay skin care products, D & CI 09/88 The skin is a complex organ with numerous functions, some remarkable subtle. Cosmetic products play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the skin, including restoration of the skin s slightly acidic ph (average 5 to 5.5). P. Morganti, S.D. Randazzo, L utilizzazione degli indici di correzione per il trattamento cosmetico della cute secca e desidratata, Il Prodotto Chimico, April 1989 La normale funzione prottetiva della cute è strettamente legata all azione prottetiva svolta dal film lipidico di superficie che la ricopre come una barriere, difendendola dalle agressioni dell ambiente esterno, e dal suo contentunuto del acqua, indispensabile per manterla morbida elestica a hydratata. T. Frödin, Specific determination of epidermal water by optothermal infrared spectometry, Regional Symposium, Copenhagen, Optothermal infrared spectrometry (OTIS) is recently introduced technique shown to be useful for assessment of the water content of human stratum corneum in vivo. C. W. Blichmann, Effects of single application of a moisturizer, Regional Symposium, Copenhagen, Effects of single application of an oil in water emulsion were studied on the forearm skin of 12 healthy volunteers. A. Winther, Effects of repeated application of a moisturizer, Regional Symposium, Copenhagen, Skin hydration and scale pattern on forearm skin was studied after one week application (twice daily) of a moisturizer (Decubal lotion), with follow-up after one week with no treatment. Literature Corneometer 2019/01 5

6 J.L. Antoine, J.L. Contreras, D. van Neste, ph Influence on surfactant-induced skin irritation, Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Band 37, 1989, 3, Even though various experimental methods have been proposed for in vitro testing of detergents such as SLS (sodium laurylsulfate) no absolutely relevant clinical information can be inferred from them as to the irritancy of a given compound. In particular the relative importance of ph needs further assessment. This study reports on in vivo evaluation of skin function changes under given experimental conditions with SLS applied at 3 different ph values. There is a dramatic increase of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), i.e. a substantial reduction in the barrier function of the skin, when SLS is applied under occlusion for 48 H. The alkaline control solution (NaOH ph 9) induced low-grade, but significant TEWL increases, as compared to the other controls (distilled water ph7; HCl ph5), which had no influence on TEWL. The changes obtained with the controls were much lower than those observed with SLS. The barrier-function changes induced by the surfactant SLS could, however, promote transepidermal passage of acid and/or alkaline molecules, hence increasing toxic damage of the skin; yet no such effects could be observed, indicating that the main effects are due to detergency. Assessment of cutaneous blood flow values (CBFV) by laser Doppler velocimetry showed increased values after SLS. When ph-adjusted SLS solutions were compared, there was neither a difference in relation to ph nor did the control solutions induce any significant CBFV change. This study reveals that TEWL and CBFV are probably the most reliable methods to investigate acute irritancy by SLS. Accordingly, ph cannot be considered as a major contributive factor of irritancy when SLS solutions are applied under occlusion (48H). The current level of sebaceous secretion and the electrical properties of the skin surface were not parameters to evaluate acute SLS-induced skin damage, but longitudinal studies are presently being conducted in order to assess their significance in monitoring epidermal repair after SLS insults. M. Rimpler, Zur Wirksamkeit von Kosmetika, Teil1: Messung der Hautfeuchtigkeit, Beauty Nr. 2/89 Immer wieder wird die Möglichkeit diskutiert, wie sich Änderungen des Hautorgans sinnvoll erfassen und verwerten lassen. F. Hevert, U. Stelbrink, B. Bush, K.H. Schrader, Hautschutz mit abdruckfreier Hautcreme, Arbeitsmedizin, Sozialmedizin, Präventivmedizin, 10/89 A new barrier cream without lipids in the formulation is particularly suited for skin protection of workers in the fields of electronics and light engineering. In addition the cream protects the components and articles to be worked on: no fat- or- silicone-oil containing fingerprints are transferred. Excellent skin-tolerance, high-acceptance, easiness on the skin and healing properties on already damaged skin add to the product's attributes. The efficacy was investigated on subjects in industrial plants. Objective data on the protective effect and tolerance were determined experimentally under controlled laboratory conditions. E. Berardesca, G. Borroni, L. Rigano, G.F. Secchi, Valutazioni dermatologiche e misurazioni cutanee nella detersione con latte di soia atomizzato, Incontri di cosmetologia, 06/89 La detersione come processo di eliminazione dello sporco superficiale e dell accesso die secrezioni sebacee e sudorifere, di riduzione della carica betterica a microtica epidermaica, di normalizzazione degli scambi cutanei con l ambiente ha spesso come inconveniente pricipale la dissoluzione del film hydrolipidica e làumento della perdita d acqua transepidermica (TEWL), la combinatione Literature Corneometer 2019/01 6

7 P. Morganti, S.D. Randozzo, Gli indici di idratazione e di emolienza per la verifica dello stato cutaneo, Incontri di Cosmetologia No. 3, 07/89 Per la misurazione sia del sebo di superficie che dell'idrazione cutanea ci si è serviti di un sistema computerizzato denominato Dermotest Hytech dato dall'unione del Sebometer SM 810 PC et del CORNEOMETER CM 820 PC, opportunamente collegati ad un PC mediante un adeguato programma di utilizzazione. Utilizzando il Dermotest Hytech è possibile ottenere direttamente sia i valori sebometrici espressi in mg/cm² che i valori della idratazione cutanea espressi in CV (corneometer values). Vor Übertreibung wird gewarnt, Stiftung Warentest, 07/89 P. Elsner, H.I. Maibach, Ein PC/AT - gestütztes Datenerfassungssystem für das Hautphysiologielabor, Workshop "Computer in der Dermatologie", Für die quantitative Untersuchung physiologischer Parameter des Hautorgans wurde eine Reihe nichtinvasiver Methoden entwickelt, die Anwendung v.a in der Dermatopharmakologie und der Dermatotoxikologie gefunden haben. Zu diesen Methoden zählen die Evaporimetrie zur Messung des transepidermalen Wasserverlustes, konduktive und kapazitative Verfahren zur Messung des epidermalen Wassergehaltes und die Messung der Hautdurchblutung mittels des Laser- Doppler-Verfahrens. Die Reproduzierbarkeit von Evaporimeter- und Laser-Doppler-Messungen wird durch dynamische Veränderungen der Meßgrößen beeinträchtigt. Ferner fallen bei experimentellen Studien mit den genannten Geräten erhebliche Datenmengen an, deren manuelle Erfassung unökonomisch ist. Wir haben daher ein Datenerfassungssystem emtwickelt, mit dem die Meßwerte von Hautoberflächen-Thermistor, Evaporimeter, Kapazitometer, ph-meter und Laser- Doppler direkt in ein Spreadsheet auf einem PC eingelesen und sofort statistisch ausgewertet werden können. Hardwareseitig besteht das System aus einem AT-kompatiblen Computer mit 2 seriellen Schnittstellen und einem Metrabyte DAS-16-A/D-Board, das die simultane Erfassung von bis zu 16 Datenkanälen erlaubt. An Software werden Lotus und Lotus Measure eingesetzt. Der Aufbau des Systems und Einsatzmöglichkeiten werden erläutert. S. Bonazzi, G.C. Gazzaniga, Skin plastoelasticity modifications due to application of a reconstructed moisturizing compound, 3rd international congress on cosmetic dermatology, Wien, M. Rieger, Skin, water and moisturization, Cosmetics & Toiletries Vol. 104, 12/89 The well-know British dermatologist, John Cotterill, recently (Int. J. Dermatol. 27 (X), (1988)) took cometic publications (and the industry) to task for providing conflicting messages. D. van Neste, L. Ghys, J.L. Antoine, J.P. Riboux, Pharmacological modulation by Cetirizine and Atropine of the Histamine - and Methacholine- Induced wheals and flares in human skin, Skin Pharmacology Reprint, Vol. 2 No. 2 (pp ) 1989 This study was planned to verify wether different methods for the measurement of skin reactivity, i.e., wheal and flare area, wheal trickness, skin capacitance and transepidermal water loss, were or were not able to discriminate between intradermally injected agonists (histamine and methacholine). For evaluating agonist/antagonist interactions, we adopted a cross-over, doubleblind, placedo-controlled study designed to compare the effects of cetirizine and atropine. The intradermal injection of agonists elicited the appearance of wheal and flare reactions and, after histamine, the skinfold thickness was significantly increased. Skin capacitance and transepidermal water loss measurements reflected sweat gland activation after methacholine injection but were, respectively, not or less affected by histamine dry skin prick test or saline; hence, both methods Literature Corneometer 2019/01 7

8 appear very sensitive for in vivo testing of cholinomimetic agents. Cetirizine inhibited all the specific skin modifications induced by histamine challenge, wheals, flares and increase thickness, without affecting the methacholine-induced perspiration. This would further support the H1 specificity of this anti-h1 agent in vivo. However, at the agonist/antagonist ratios tested in view of the safety of the test persons, we were unable to objectivate methacholine blockade by atropine. H. Nougaigui, J.L. Antoine, M.L. Masmudi, D. van Neste, J.M. Lachapelle, Étude invasive et noninvasive du pouvoir protecteur d une crème siliconée et de son excipient vis-à-vis de l irritation cutanée induite par le laurylsulfate de sodium, Ann. Dermatol. Venereol. 116:1989, S Invasive and non-invasive studies of the protective effect of a silicone-containing cream and its vehicle on cutaneous irritation induced by sodium laurylsulphate. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the protective effect of a new silicone-containing barrier-cream (Anthydro TM) and its vehicle (AnthydroTM without silicone) in the prevention of cutaneous irritation by detergents: We therefore planned a study in several stages, using an anionic surfactant well known for its irritant properties: sodium laurylsulphalte (SLS) in aqueous solution. In a first series of experiments, the protective effect of the Anthydro cream against SLS was studied by invasive methods on guineapigs in order to determine histologically the protective effect of the cream when a 10 p.100 SLS solution was applied on the skin under occlusion during 24 hours (Square chamberstm, Van der Bend). Typical and reproducible lesions were apparent, and the protected sites were compared with the unprotected sites. In parallel, we used non-invasive methods (conductivity, transepidermal water loss and cutaneous blood flow) to determine in humans the protective effect of Anthydro cream in comparison with unprotected sites after application during 24 hours of patches soaked with a 5 p. 100 SLS solution on the foreams of 13 adult and healthy volunteers (Silver patch teststm, Van der Bend). In both experiments the Anthydro cream was effective in reducing the SLS- induced cutaneous irritation. In a second series of experiments, the Anthydro barrier-cream was compared with its "base" (Anthydro without silicone) in terms of effectiveness, following the same experimental procedure (invasive on guinea-pigs, and non-invasive on humans). The base was shown to be effective in protecting against irritation. However, the histological lesions were less intense when the skin was protected by Anthydro than by its vehicle. Concerning the noninvasive methods in humans, no signifiant statistical differences appeared in the measurement of various parameters between the sites protected by Anthydro and the sites protected by the vehicle. These results lead us to suggest the existence of an essentially mechanical protective effect in which the silicone plays a very small part in terms of effectiveness. These experimental results necessitates further investigations to be extrapolated to occupational conditions without test performed in industries and well-conducted epidemiological investigations. K.-H. Schrader, Optimierung eines kosmetischen Pflegeproduktes auf die menschliche Haut, H+G Zeitschrift für Hautkrankheiten 12/89 After explaining the idea and purpose of cosmetic products, we report on the course of development these products usually take: marketing briefing, selection of the raw materials, serial experiments and stability tests, and finally, dermatophysiological efficacy tests. In particular, we deal with the application of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and its moisturing and smoothing effect on human skin. Our results are discussed in details. K.-H. Schrader, S. Bielfeld, Vergleichende experimentelle Untersuchungen zwischen Hautoberflächenprofil und der Hautfeuchtigkeit, Parfümerie und Kosmetik, Nr 2/89 Kosmetische Wirkungen von Pflegeprodukten an der menschlichen Haut sind oft sehr gering und demzufolge auch nicht so einfach nachzuweisen. Häufig ist es deshalb nicht möglich, diese geringen Veränderungen anhand eines Prüfkriteriums zu dokumentieren. Zu den wichtigsten Parametern zur Charakterisierung der kosmetischen Hautwirkungen ist die Hautrauhigkeit sowie die Hautfeuchtigkeit von großer Bedeutung. Literature Corneometer 2019/01 8

9 K. Klein, H.-W. Voss, M. Voss, Untersuchungen zur Oberflächencharakteristik der menschlichen Haut Teil 1, Umwelt & Gesundheit aktuell In der Kosmetik begnügt man sich häufig bei der Beurteilung des Charakters der menschlichen Haut bzw. der Zuordnung zu bestimmten Hauttypen zumeist nur mit einer (subjektiven) visuellen Begutachtung. D. Doughty, J. Jamillo, E. Spengler, Methods for Assessing the Mildness of Facial Cleansing Products, 16 th IFSCC Congress, New York, 1990 The mildness of a facial cleansing product was assessed in studies using exaggerated use conditions on the forearm as well as on the face. V. Rogiers, M.P. Derde, G. Verleye, D. Roseeuw; Standardized Conditions Needed for Skin Surface Hydration Measurements, Cosmetics & Toiletries, Vol. 105, October 1990 Stratum corneum moisturization can be assessed by various in vitro and in vivo instrumental testing techniques. Simple, quick and noninvasive in vivo methods based on the electric and dielectric properties of the skin have been developed. Methods working in the lower part of the MHz zone seem to be very useful. A comparison between two commercially available electrical methods, measuring electrical conductance (Skicon-100) and electrical capacitance (Corneometer CM 420) respectively, showed that both are very suitable methods for measuring the hydration state of the superficial epidermis. A.B. Cua, H.I. Maibach, K.P. Wilhelm, Elastic properties of human skin: relation to age, sex and anatomical region, Dermatologica Research, 1990 Using a recently developed noninvasive, in vivo suction device for measuring skin elasticity, we evaluated age, sex, and regional differences in the visco-elastic properties of skin. A total of 33 volunteers participated in the study consisting of (a) 8 young females, (b) 9 old females, (c) 8 young males and (d) 8 old males. Measurements were performed on 11 anatomical regions; three different loads were applied: 100, 200, and 500mbar. The parameters used were: immediate distension (Ue); delayed distension (Uv); immediate retraction (Ur) ; and, final deformation (Uf). To compare between subjects and anatomical regions, relative parameters independent of skin thickness were calculated: Uv/Ue, the ratio between the viscoelastic properties of skin and immediate distension, and Ur/Uf, which measures the ability of the skin to regain its initial position after deformation. Generally, Uv/Ue increased while Ur/Uf decreased with aging. Responses were variable with respect to load applied. Variability, within anatomical regions was also noted. However, differences between the sexes were not statistically significant for most regions. These findings are in congruence with earlier studies suggesting the differences are mainly attributable to alterations in the elastic fiber network. This procedure provides a simple, quantitative assessment of elastic properties of the skin. Its application may help in future investigations of other connective tissue disorders. V. Rogiers, Assessment of skin surface hydration: the need for standardized conditions in capacitance measurements, Lecture held at the congress of CIE Cosmetic Ingredients Europe, , Wiesbaden The practical usefulness of the CORNEOMETER CM 820, a commercially available apparatus for measuring stratum corneum moisture content, has been evaluated on the skin of normal volunteers. Factors such as cleaning procedure intragroup and regional variations, temperature and humidity have been examined. Under well-defined conditions of skin cleaning, environmental temperature and relative humidity large site-to-site variations occurred. However when selected areas, 1/4, 2/4 and 3/4 on the forearm, were studied, constant hydration values were measured for the individual spots for at least 1 month, although they differed significantly among each other. Literature Corneometer 2019/01 9

10 On the contrary, corresponding areas on the right and left forearm had exactly the same hydration value for at least 1 month. When the efficacy of moisturizing creams has to be tested, well-defined areas of one forearm may serve as controls, whereas on the corresponding areas of the other forearm the samples may be applied. Age seemed to be an important additional factor influencing skin hydration, whereas gender had no effect. When the efficacy of moisturizing creams was tested it appeared that some w/o creams had a significantly higher effect than o/w creams and this was dependent on the skin type involved. Creams with 10% glycerol exhibited significantly higher hydration values than those without. In conclusion, simple capacitance measurements are very useful for assessment of skin surface hydration on the condition that standardized conditions are rigorously taken into account. C. Artmann, M. Ghyczy, H.G. Pratzel, J. Röding, Influence of various liposome preparations on skin humidity, Parfümerie + Kosmetik, 05/90 The influence of similar liposome dispersions with varying phospholipid composition on the hydration of the skin was investigated by measurements of the capacitive resistance in human skin. The phospholipids influence the hydration behaviour of the liposomes on the skin. Celleno, Valutazione dermatologica dei prodotti per la detersione della cute, Cosmesi Dermatologica, 30/1990 The authors report the results and the methods of the dermatological and cosmetological evaluation of 16 solid products for cleaning the skin (traditional soaps, neutral soaps, syndets).there is a growing need for valid and reliable tests to evaluate the cosmetic properties and the safety of cosmetics. Data obtained in this field will contribute to the protection of both the consumer and the cosmetic industry. G. Jemec, Relation between scaling evaluated by the D-SQUAME TM Tape and skin hydration evaluated by capacitance measurement, 8th international symposium "Bioengineering and the skin", Stresa / Italia, June 1990 F. Pouzaud, Pharmaskin ou la reconquête de la cosmétologie, PraxiPharm, Frank Hevert, Kenngrößen eines betrieblichen Hautreinigungsmittels, Arbeitsmedizin, Sozialmedizin, Präventivmedizin, 08/90 K.H. Schrader, Criteria for practical dermatophysiological investigations of soaps and detergents, Parfümerie + Kosmetik, 10/90 To begin with the aim of skin and hair cleansing is treated also from the physico-chemical point of view. Then the advantages and disadvantages of syndets and soaps are brought out. The effects of surface-active agents on skin and hair are described. In the main part field efficacy tests are discussed in detail. First of all the general prerequisites for these tests are described taking into special account the climatic influences. In particular, simulated skin cleansing tests are presented as well as the determination of methylene blue adsorbed to the skin. Moreover, the measurement of transepidermal water loss caused by the action of surfactants is explained and an invitro test estimating the compatibility with the ophtalmic mucosa is described. The investigation was carried out with a number of well-known surfactants of different chemical structures. In the tests molar concentrations were compared instead of the actual concentrations. The results are explained and interpreted in detail with special regard to the interdependence of all results obtained. This leads to the conclusion that it seems appropriate to compare a number of dermatophysiological parameters in order to eventually judge the effect of these products on the skin. Literature Corneometer 2019/01 10

11 Vittel continue d innover: création d un Espace Beauté et d une Centre de Dermo-Cosmétologie, Vittel Magazine, N 29, 1991 Sous la galene thermale à quelques pas griffon de la Grande Source dans le prolongement des Thermes dont la restructuration a été réalisée. D. van Neste, Evaluation d état Fonctionelle de la peau par des methodes non invasives, Skinterface, Blgium 1991 Intérêt des mesurees capacitance, de perte transépidermic d eau, de flux sanguin et de leur évaluation combinée pour quantifier des processus inflammatoires cutanés chez l homme. A.O. Barel, P. Clarys, B. Wessels, A. de Romsée, Non-invasive electrical measurements for evaluating the water content of the horny layer: comparison between capacitance and conductance measurements, Abstracts of the Conference on Prediction of Percutaneous Penetration, Brussels, The measurement of the hydration state of the stratum corneum is an important factor in dermato-cosmetic research. This parameter is used for characterization of skin surface and for the evaluation of the efficacy of skin moisturing products. Different electrical measurements were developed for studying skin hydration. When applying an alternating voltage to the skin, the horny layer behaves similar to a simple electric circuit where a resistor and a capacitor are connected in parallel. The sensitivity, performance and practical use of one instrument which measures mainly the contribution of the capacitance properties of the skin (Corneometer) was compared with an instrument which measures the contribution of the conductance properties of the skin (Skicon). An evaluation of the efficacy of moisturing preparations (O/W and W/O emulsions) on the skin was carried out in vivo using two types of instruments. The influence of environmental factors such as the relative humidity was evaluated by measuring the same skin under increasing relative humidity (from 30 to 80%). D. van Neste, Comparative study of normal and rough human skin hydration in vivo: Evaluation with four different instruments, Journal of Dermatological Science, 1991 Appropriate monitoring of skin hydration during clinical and/or experimental trials needs devices with acceptable reproducibility and sensitivity under conditions ranging from increased, and normal to low hydration. The aim of this study was to compare the variation of electrometric data generated by 4 different instruments (Skicon Hygrometer, 2 CM420 and a CM820 corneometer) in normal and experimentally damaged skin displaying surface roughness. Rough skin sites were observed during the healing process after repeated tape stripping of stratum corneum in humans (e.g days after insult). They displayed lower conductance and /or capacitance levels as compared to normal skin sites of the same subjects. The Skicon hygrometer showed higher variability as compared to the corneometers and was less sensitive, in relative terms, in the rough skin sites. This device also showed a moderate zero drift and re-zeroing was repeatedly utilized during the experiment. When the corneometer data were plotted against the hygrometer data, the slope of the regression line generated by the CM420a was different from CM420b and from CM820; the two latter were not significantly different from each other. Hence, comparison of absolute data obtained under comparable conditions (in this case CM420a and CM420b) in a single laboratory should not be made without prior calibration. Standards for evaluating interinstrumental variation are currently unavailable.this aspect of the measurement of electrical properties of the skin has not been investigated in great details and has often been neglected in the past. Our findings also indicate that a constant control over the performances of a particular device should further improve the reliability of the data. Literature Corneometer 2019/01 11

12 R. Böhm, M. Ghyczy, S. Hager, The influence of liposomes from Soybean, lecithin on the efficacity of fungicides, Internationales Symposium über Pflanzenschutz, University Gent/Belgium, Lecithin is a mixture of phospholipids and oil that arises during the processing of oil seeds. Phospholipids are components of all living organism. They fulfill two functions: the emulsification of water insoluble substances, for example in blood and in the digestive tract and the formation of compartments as the major component of biological membranes. Phospholipids are one of the most commonly used emulsifiers in foodstuffs. Liposomes are vesicles in water comprised of phospholipids organized in double membranes, the same organization as occurs in biological membranes. Liposomes have become of practical significance in medicine and cosmetics. In this study, liposomes were produced from soya lecithin and were tested in the treatment of grape vines. The liposome dispersion was used as an additive in the spray cocktail at a concentration of 0,4%. W.O. Seiler, Rückfettung: Balsam für die Altershaut, Moderne Geriatrie, 03/91 Ältere Patienten schätzen oft Wasser und Seife wenig. Sie ahnen vielleicht besser als wir Ärtzte: Wasser, Scheuern und waschaktive Substanzen (Seife, Tenside) zur Hautreinigung entfernen die physiologischen Hautoberflächentenside. A. del Pozo, C. Cosa, Dispensacion dermofarmaceutica: Apoyo technologico al rol del Farmaceutico, Departemento de farmacia, Unitad docente de Farmacia Galenica, Universidad de Barcelona, 1991 El concepto dermofarmacia resulta en ocasiones, poco preciso, resultando a veces difficil delimitar su contenido y ámbito de actuación en relación, por un lado, al de la dermatologia, y por estrictame el extremo opuesto, al dela comotòlogia. P. Elsner, H.I. Maibach, AT-based Data Aquisition and Analysis System for the Skin Bioengineering Laboratory, Dermatosen 39, Heft In recent years, bioengineering instruments have found wide application for the non-invasive evaluation of functional properties of human skin. These devices measure transepidermal water loss (evaporimetry), skin hydration (methods based on conduction, impedance, and capacitance), skin blood flow (laser Doppler velocimetry, photoplethysmography), friction (friction meter), and mechanical properties (e.g. twistometer, suction devices), and allow the investigator to generate considerable data which requires documentation and analysis. Although some instruments meanwhile offer interfaces for the transfer of data into personal computers, integrated data acquisition systems supporting the whole spectrum of instruments used in the laboratory are lacking. We have developed an inexpensive data acquisition and analysis system for our skin bioengineering laboratory which allows the acquisition of data from several instruments simultaneously or in sequence. The data are fed into a spreadsheet on a personal computer and conversions and basic statistics are computed automatically. The system consists of an AT-compatible PC with two serial interfaces and an analog-digital conversion board. The software is an industry-standard spreadsheet (Lotus 1-2-3) with an instrument set (Lotus Measure). Using this system, we considerably improved the precision of our measurements and the scientific productivity in our skin bioengineering laboratory. Check-up Cosmetologique et Biometrologie Cutanée, Actualités Pharmaceutiques, Jul. 1991, Special Dermo-cosmétologie, No. 289 La notion de "Check-Up" cutane a toujours exprime un souci de rigueur pour definir des besoins cutanes et des reponses performantes. Une logique, aujourd'hui scientifique, qui s'assuie sur des connaissances precises de la physiologie cutanee pour interpreter les differents etats de la peau et proposer de veritables methodes de correction; c'est l'avenement d'une cosmetologie Literature Corneometer 2019/01 12

13 de soins, rigoureuse. J.P. Marty, C.M. Vincent, E. Fiquet, Études des proprétés hydratante de la Crème Hydratante Visage Neutrogena, Réalités Thérapeutiques en Dermato-Vénérologie N. 15, Feb La créme Hydratenate Visage Neutrogena est une émulsion huile/eau dont les propriétés hydratantes peuvent être liées d une part à un effet occlusif et d autre part à une action humetante directe sur les cellules cornées. E. Fiquet, C.M. Vincent, A. Cohen-Letessier, J.P. Marty, Evaluation des propriétés de la crème hydrophile lipophile (Effadiane TM ), Nouv. Dertol. 1992: 11 p Effadiane TM is a water/oil emulsion, its effect on the skin hydration has been investiagetd in human volunteers by non-invasive techniques: the transepidermal waterloss to verify occlusive effects, the corneometric measurement to demonstarte a a direct water uptake by the horny layer. P. Agache, P. Creidi, B. Faivre, Assessment of skin hydration and softening effects of colloidal oat fraction containing cream, J. Appl. Cosmet. 1-6, Jan.- March 1992 A concentrated colloidal oat fraction in a O/W cream has been compared with a reference O/W emollient cream for stratum corneum hydrating and skin surface softening effects in a doubleblind randomized study in 10 healthy female volunteers whose skin had been made dry and irritated by repeated applications of sodium dodecylsulfate. Stratum corneum hydration was assessed through conductance measurements. Skin surface smoothness was evaluated through a visual plus tactile subjective assay and by profilometry of skin surface casts. All methods demonstrated recovery of the skin following one week's treatment with either product. This improvement was sustained a week later. It is concluded that the tested oat extract enriched cream has a hydrating and softening effect on the skin surface which is "similar or superior to that of a conventional O/W strongly moisturizing cream". A.O. Barel, P. Clarys, A. Romsée, B. Wessels, Misurazioni ellectriche non invasive per la misurazioni dell idratazione dello strato corneo: confronto tra misure di capacià (capacitanza) e di conductibilità, Cosmetics & Toiletries 04/92 La misura dell idratazine dello strato corneo è un fatto importante nella ricerca dermo-cosmetica. V. Rogiers, Capacitance and TEWL Measurements: The Need for Standardisation, Dep. of Toxicology, Vrije Universiteit Brussels Stratum corneum moisturisation can be assessed both in vivo as well as in vitro. The past few years, several practical, simple, quick and non invasive in vivo methods based on the electric and di-electric properties of the skin have been developed. Interest for such techniques is broad and varied: for example for dermatological research (regional variations, ageing, burns, etc.) and also in efficiency tests of the hydrating capacity of dermato-cosmetic preparations on human volunteers. R. Wolf, E.Tur, D. Wolf, M. Landau, The effect of smoking on skin moisture and on surface lipids, International Journal of Cosmetic Science 14/92 In the present retrospective study we investigated the effect of smoking on the moisture and surface lipid levels of the skin. We analysed data from the files of 576 female clients treated in a Tel-Aviv cosmetic parlour. Measurements have been conducted by the same cosmetician, by commercially available equipment, on every client receiving cosmetic treatment, regardless of the nature of the treatment. Results demonstrated a significant difference of skin moisture in the various smoking groups: women who smoked cigarettes per day showed significantly lower Literature Corneometer 2019/01 13

14 mean values than the non-smoker group, as expected. Moreover, women before or after menopause showed no significant differences in their moisture measurements. The surface lipid variables showed no significant differences in mean over the four smoking groups. We believe that the objective of the study was achieved, and that the results, indicating decreased skin moisture in smokers, will serve well in anti-smoking campaigns. We also believe that the present study will stimulate other investigators to conduct similar studies that will provide answers to many questions which still remain open. A. Cohen-Letessier, E. Fiquet, J.P. Marty, C.M. Vincent, Évaluation des propriétés de la crème hydrophile lipophile (Evaluation of a water/oil emulsion (Effadiane)), Les Nouvelles, 11/92 Effadiane is a water/oil emulsion, its effect on the skin hydration has been investigated in human volunteers by non invasive technics: the transepidermal water loss measurement to verify and occlusive effect, the corneometric measurement to demonstrate the direct water uptake by the horny layer. The emulsion persistency on the skin surface has been evaluated by sebumetry. Good correlation has been established between the hydration power and the persistency of the emulsion over time. A. Teglia, G. Mazzola, G.F. Secchi, Relationship between Chemical Characteristics and Cosmetic Properties of Protein Hydrolysates, 17th IFSCC Congress, Yokohama/Japan, 10/92 More than 20 protein hydrolysates, taken from the market or especially prepared for the test, of animal and vegetable origin and with significantly different molecular characteristics were tested and compared with respect to three cosmetic properties: substantivity to hair, reduction of sodium laurylsulfate (SLS) irritation and foaming. Peptide adsorption on hair was evaluated on virgin and damaged tresses after incubation with 2.5% hydrolysate solutions, re-extraction with 50 C hot water and high ionic strength solution and quantification after fluorescamine reaction. Inhibition of induced SLS skin and eye irritation was evaluated by visual scoring, moisture content of the horny layer (Electric Capacitance, EC) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements after skin chamber application and by Eytex methodology. Foaming properties were evaluated by standard Ross-Miles method. Molecular size, net charge and hydrophobicity were studied as important parameters affecting these cosmetic properties and were related to the origin of hydrolysates and the characteristics of the manufacturing process. P.J. Frosch, A. Kurte, Efficacy of Skin Barrier Creams, Contact Dermatitis, 1993 An improved human model for the quantification of skin barrier creme (BC) is described. In contrast to the previously published procedure the back instead of the forearm and a total of 4 irritants are used. Due to the larger area 3 BC formulations can be simulaneously compared to the control field which received the irritant only without BC-pretreatment. On 10 human volunteers the irritants 10% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), 1% sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 30% lactic acid (LA) and undiluted toluene (TOL) were applied via large Finn chambers for 30min, 5x during the first week and 4x during the second one. Taktosan Salbe (water-in-oil emulsion) and RAWI speerschutzcreme (oil-in-water emulsion) had been applied 30 min before contact with the irritants. In order to assess reproducibility and interindividual variation the BC RAWI was tested in duplicate. Irritant cutaneous reactions were quantified by 4 parameters: erythema score, transepidermal water loss, blood flow volume and stratum corneum hydration by measuring capacitance. The results showed marked differences in efficacy. Taktosan suppressed significantly the irritation of SLS, NaOH and LA, apparent in nearly all parameters. RAWI caused significant inhibition of the SLS irritation and a positive trend against NaOH and LA was observed. Both BC failed against TOL. The results of the suplicate testing with RAWI showed a good reproducibility. The dogma that oil-in-water emulsions are primarily effective against lipophilic irritants and water-in-oil emulsions against hydrophilic ones needs to be re-evaluated on the basis of our findings. This model seems to have potential for further studies on BC and might elucidate the complex interaction of BC with irritants. Literature Corneometer 2019/01 14

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