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2 Revised Edition: 2016 ISBN All rights reserved. Published by: White Word Publications 48 West 48 Street, Suite 1116, New York, NY 10036, United States

3 Table of Contents Chapter 1 - Fustanella Chapter 2 - Hobble Skirt & A-Line Chapter 3 - Jean Skirt & Job Skirt Chapter 4 - Leather Skirt & Kilt Chapter 5 - Men's Skirts Chapter 6 - Microskirt & Miniskirt Chapter 7 - Pencil Skirt & Poodle Skirt Chapter 8 - Sarong Chapter 9 Slip, Train & Wrap (Clothing) Chapter 10 - Ball Gown & Debutante Dress Chapter 11 - Evening Gown Chapter 12 - Little Black Dress Chapter 13 - Petticoat Chapter 14 - Wedding Dress Chapter 15 - Sari

4 Chapter 1 Fustanella Fustanella is a traditional skirt-like garment worn by men of many nations in the Balkans, similar to the kilt. In modern times, the fustanella is part of traditional Albanian, Greek and Macedonian dresses. In Greece it is worn mainly by ceremonial Greek military units (such as the Evzones) and folk dancers, where as in Macedonia and Albania is is worn just by the folk dancers. The dress was adopted by the Royal Guard of Albania ( ). Byzantine Greeks called the fustanella, or pleated kilt, podea. The wearer of the podea History The fustanella is derived from a series of ancient Greek garments such as the chiton (or tunic) and the chitonium (or short military tunic). The Roman toga may have also influenced the evolution of the fustanella based on statues of Roman emperors wearing knee-length pleated kilts (in colder regions, more folds were added to provide greater warmth). was either associated with a typical hero or an Akritic warrior and can be found in 12th century finds attributed to Manuel I Komnenos. During the Ottoman period, the fustanella was worn by the armatoloi and the klephts. The fustanella was originally thought to have been a southern Albanian outfit of the Tosks and introduced in Greece during the Ottoman occupation that began after the 15th century, but this was proven untrue due to Albanian documents showing that the foustanella has only been used amongst the Albanians since the 13th century. Evolution Albania The Albanian fustanella appears for the first time in a document of 1335, which regards a sailor in the port of Drin river in the Skadar Lake, from whom were confiscated, among other things, the following items: his tunic, mantle, and his fustanum. The Albanian version has around sixty pleats, or usually a moderate number. It is made of heavy homewoven linen cloth. The Albanian version has historically been of a skirt which was long

5 enough to cover the whole thigh (knee included), leaving only the lower leg exposed. It was usually worn by rich Albanians who would also expose an ornamented yataghan on the side and a pair of pistols with long chiseled silver-handles in the belt. The general custom in Albania was to dip the white kilts in hot melted sheep-fat for the double purpose of making them waterproof and less visible at a distance. Usually, this was done by the men-at-arms (called in Albanian trima). After being removed from the cauldron, the kilts were hung up to dry and then pressed with cold irons so as to create the pleats. They had then a dull gray appearance but were not dirty by any means. The jacket, worn with the fustanella in the Albanian costume, has a free armhole to allow for the passage of the arm, while the sleeves, attached only on the upper part of the shoulders, are thrown back. The sleeves can be worn, but usually aren't. The footwear is of three types: the kundra, which are black shoes with a metal buckle; the sholla, which are sandals with leather thongs tied around a few inches above the ankle; and finally, the opinga, which is a soft leather shoe, with turned-up points, which, when intended for children, are surmounted with a pompon of black or red wool. Status and practicality Greece The number of pleats in the Greek version is much higher than the Albanian one. Some Greeks, such as General Theodoros Kolokotronis had almost four hundred pleats in their garments, one for each year of Turkish rule over Greece. The style evolved over time. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, the skirts hung below the knees, following the Albanian tradition, and the hem of the garment was gathered together with garters and tucked into the boots to create a "bloused" effect. Later, during the Bavarian regency, the skirts were shortened to create a sort of billowy pantaloon that stopped above the knee; this garment was worn with hose, and either buskins or decorative clogs. This is the costume worn by the modern Greek Evzones, the Presidential Guard. While the image of warriors with frilly skirts tucked into their boots may seem impractical to a contemporary audience, modern paratroopers use a similar method to blouse their trousers over their jumpboots. Lace was commonly worn on military uniforms in the west until well into the 19th century, and gold braid and other adornments still serve as markers of high rank in formal military uniforms. Fustanella were very labor-intensive and thus costly, which made them a status garment that advertised the wealth and importance of the wearer. Western observers of the Greek War of Independence noted the great pride which the klephts and armatoloi took in their foustanella, and how they competed to outdo each other in the sumptuousness of their costume.

6 Name The word derives from Italian fustagno 'fustian' + -ella (diminutive), the fabric from which the earliest kilts were made. This in turn derives from Medieval Latin fūstāneum, perhaps a diminutive form of fustis, "wooden baton". Other authors consider this a calque of Greek xylino lit. 'wooden' i.e. 'cotton'; others speculate that it is derived from Fostat, a suburb of Cairo where cloth was manufactured. The Greek plural is foustanelles (φουστανέλλες) but as with the (semi-correct) foustanellas, it is rarely employed by native English speakers. Name in various languages Native terms for "skirt" and "dress" included for comparison: Language Kilt/short skirt Skirt Dress Albanian fustanellë/fustanella fund fustan Aromanian fustanelã fustã fustanã Bulgarian фустанела фуста (fustanela) (fusta) Greek φουστανέλλα φούστα φουστάνι (foustanélla) (foústa) (foustáni) Italian fustanella gonna Macedonian фустан фустан фустан fustan fustan fustan Megleno-Romanian fustan fustan Romanian rochiţă fustă rochie Serbo-Croatian фустанела фистан фистан fustanela fistan fistan Turkish fistan

7 Macedonian fustanella for children, Museum of Macedonia in Skopje. Macedonian fustanella for adults, Museum of Macedonia in Skopje.

8 Sarakatsani Greeks in Thrace, 1938.

9 Spiridon Louis, Olympic marathon champion (1896).

10 Greek from Ioannina by Dupré Louis (1820)

11 Albanian fustanella.

12 Fustanella as worn by an officer of the Greek Presidential Guard, Athens.

13 Fustanella worn by an Arnaut, by Jean-Léon Gérôme

14 Albanian warriors wearing traditional fustanella from southern Albania 1906 by Edith Durham.

15 Black fustanella, worn by Greek of Macedonia region.

16 Fustanella as worn by the Royal Guard of Albania in 1921.

17 Warrior ("Pallikari") of Sellaida, Greece, by Dupré Louis.

18 Chapter 2 Hobble Skirt & A-Line Hobble Skirt A hobble skirt is a skirt with a narrow enough hem to significantly impede the wearer's stride, thus earning its name. A knee-long corset is also used to achieve this effect. A dress consisting of such skirt is called a hobble dress. History

19 A postcard (circa 1911) depicting a man pointing at a woman wearing a hobble skirt. The caption says, "The Hobble Skirt: What's that? It's the speed-limit skirt!" as hobble skirts limit the wearer's stride. Although restrictive skirts first appeared in Western fashion in 1880s, the term was first used in reference to a short-lived trend of narrow skirts in around The Parisian fashion designer Paul Poiret is sometimes credited with the design, inspired by the widespread Oriental influence on Western culture, but in fact the extreme hobble skirt is an evolution of the narrowing skirt seen in fashion since the turn of the century. Poiret may have also been influenced by Mrs Hart O. Berg after an early aeroplane flight in October 1908 with Wilbur Wright who had to rope the bottom of her skirt to keep it from blowing up in mid flight. After Wilbur and Mrs Berg landed she was seen to 'hobble' around the ground until the rope was let go of her skirt. The archives of the New York Times between 1910 and the beginning of the First World War contain many detailed accounts of the hobble skirt wearers of the era. It seems that some New York fashion houses may have asked their dressmakers to interpret too literally the slim styles depicted in Paris fashion illustrations. Many women and their admirers subsequently discovered the way of walking which such narrow skirts create, and the hobble skirt, impractical though it was, achieved tremendous popularity. Modern history Although the term is sometimes used in reference to narrow ankle-length skirts in the early 1910s, some skirts of this period, although called hobble skirts, had slits, hidden pleats, and draping that lessened the restriction on a woman's ability to move freely, because in this period women were becoming more active in various activities which would have been impossible to do in a hobbled hemline. The most restricting extant styles from this period, which truly do hobble the wearer, are either evening wear or are found in wedding dresses when a woman was only required to take small measured steps down the aisle of a church. Long tight skirts reappeared through the century in various forms, particularly in evening gowns, as well as daytime pencil skirts popular from the 1950s onwards. A more literal interpretation of hobble skirts became a mainstay in bondage-oriented fetish fashion, often made out of leather, PVC, or latex. For example, they were a regular topic in the 1950s John Willie fetish magazine, Bizarre. Hobble skirts are still present today in goth and BDSM communities, but are also sometimes used as evening gowns and wedding dresses and sometimes in other occasions although rarely due to restricting properties.

20 A-Line An a-line skirt An A-line skirt is a skirt that is fitted at the hips and gradually widens towards the hem, giving the impression of the shape of a capital letter A. The term is also used to describe dresses and coats with a similar shape. History The term was first used by the French couture designer Christian Dior as the label for his collection of spring The A-Line collection's feature item, then the "most wanted

21 silhouette in Paris", was a "fingertip-length flared jacket worn over a dress with a very full, pleated skirt". Although an A-shape, this silhouette was not identical to what is now understood to embody the A-line idea. That idea was given its definitive expression and popularized by Dior s successor, Yves Saint Laurent, with his "Trapeze Line" of spring 1958, which featured dresses flaring out dramatically from a fitted shoulder line. A-line clothes remained popular in the 1960s and 70s, disappeared from fashion almost completely by the early 1980s and were revived by the retro trend of the late 1990s. By that time, "A-line" was used more loosely to describe any dress wider at the hips than at the bust or waist, as well as a number of flared skirt styles. "True" A-line shapes on the pattern of Dior and Saint Laurent saw a revival in the early 2000s. Style details The A-line skirt has no visible embellishments for ease, such as pleats or slits, but is fitted to the upper hip by means of seams and/or darts. Its fastening is usually kept discreet, with a side or back zipper. A belt is sometimes used. Pockets may be present, but not usually. The length of an A-line skirt varies, between mini- and below-kneelength. When referring to dresses and coats, the term A-line generally means fitted from the shoulders to the hips and then widening to the hem, but it is also sometimes used to mean widening from the shoulders to the hem, ignoring the waist and hips. It is often used to describe a popular style of wedding dress, which is fitted above and around the hips but flares gently to the hem, giving a streamlined and quite slim look.

22 Chapter 3 Jean Skirt & Job Skirt Jean Skirt Singer Natasha Bedingfield wearing a jean miniskirt A denim skirt, commonly known as a "jean skirt," is a skirt made of denim, the same material as blue jeans. Jean skirts come in a variety of styles and lengths to suit different populations and occasions. For example, full-length jean skirts are commonly worn by women whose religious beliefs prohibit them from wearing trousers, including Orthodox Jews, some Muslims, Mennonites, and Pentecostals, among others. Shorter skirts made of denim are commonly worn by teenagers and young adults.

23 Some are modeled after the exact style of jeans, with a front fly, belt loops, and back pockets. Others are constructed more like other types of skirts, with a column of front button, closures on the side or back, or elastic waists. And like jeans, skirts vary in shades of blue, ranging from very pale to very dark, or occasionally in other colors. History Jean skirts were first introduced in mainstream fashion lines in the 1970s, and since then, have grown in popularity. Their popularity, after flagging in the 80s and early 90s, was reinvigorated by Marnie Bjornson in Today, jean skirts are one of the most common type of skirts worn by women in Western fashion. In the sixties, hippies first came up with the idea of recycling old denim pants or jeans into long denim skirts, by opening the inseams, and inserting pieces of triangular denim (or any other fabric) in the front and, unless a tall slit in back is preferred, also in the back of the opened-up trousers. Styles of jean skirt The classic style of a jean skirt resembles a common pair of jeans, with a front fly, a fitted waist, belt loops, and pockets. There have been a large number of other styles constructed over time to resemble other types of skirts. Types of skirts more common in denim than in other fabrics include skirts with a variety of panels, going beyond the four panels most common with other fabrics. These include chevron, diagonal, diamond, horizontal, multiple vertical panels, and combinations of the above. Denim skirts not made from pants are often designed as though they were made from pants, i.e. with front and back triangular denim panels. To tone down the rough and somewhat masculine look of the denim fabric, denim skirts are sometimes designed with alternating cloth panels, which can be diagonal, triangular, vertical, or there can be cloth panel trim at the bottom of the skirt. Also, to make the skirt look more feminine, denim skirts are (more often than skirts in other fabrics), trimmed with fringes, lace, leather fringes, or decorated with embroidery, patchwork, rhinestones, writing, or even painting. Prints are quite rare on jeans skirts. Deviating from the front fly and button closure is common though, with back or side zippers or a column of front buttons being common. One style jeans skirts shares with jeans is the ripped or destroyed look, which is more common with short denim skirts than with long ones. Another style shared with jeans and jeans cutoffs, but maybe even more popular in jeans skirts, is the rough hem. This is achieved by not hemming the skirt (or undoing or cutting off the existing hem) and washing the skirt by machine several times. The resulting edge of the skirt will have a frayed or unraveling look, popular with teenagers and young

24 women. The longer unraveled threads are usually cut off for an even fuzzy look, but some teenagers leave them hanging on their shorter skirts. Job Skirt A job skirt is a conservatively-styled skirt that resembles the style of trousers typical to business casual attire. They exist in both A-line and straight cut, figure hugging styles similar to pencil skirts. Job skirts vary in length, but are most commonly either slightly above or slightly below knee-length. Occasionally, they may be miniskirts or anklelength. There is also significant variation in waistlines, ranging from just above the waist to just below the breasts. Generally a higher waistline is paired with a higher hemline so that the general length of the skirt remains the same. The name "job skirt" is given because they are generally considered acceptable and are often preferred as work wear in positions held frequently by women such as secretaries, teachers and flight attendants. At the same time, job skirts are well liked by women for dress-down occasions outside the workplace although these usually have longer slits to improve mobility during social activity. Characteristics Job skirts are usually made of fabrics common to business casual slacks, such as khaki or corduroy, but as denim has become more acceptable in career lines, jean skirts fitting the same description are also viewed as job skirts. Some job skirts come with matching jackets as a suit. Job skirts provide an attractive but professional figure that emphasises a thin waist, curved hips and slender legs. The common characteristics of a job skirt are: Solid color (tan is common) A generally tailored appearance A fitted waistline A front fly, resembling trousers Belt loops Rear pockets (sometimes) Worn with stockings and/or high heels A slit at the back to aide mobility

25 Chapter 4 Leather Skirt & Kilt Leather Skirt A woman in a leather skirt

26 A leather skirt is a skirt made of leather. Although durable material, the particular combination of style and material makes for a certain fashion statement. Leather skirts appear in a variety of lengths and styles. Fashion Use varies with current trends in fashion, eg. during the 80s and 90s they were a popular item on the catwalks with popularity dwindling in the early 2000s. Suitability A short leather skirt might be regarded as more sexy than an equivalent short skirt of other material, and thus as more suitable to a night out than as office wear. A long leather skirt might look professional and chic without looking too sexy for the office. Subculture Leather garments, including skirts, use in heavy metal, goth and BDSM subcultures. Gender Like other skirts in western culture they are almost exclusively worn by women, but there are movements, such as MIS that fight for making them acceptable for everyday wear by men. Kilt The kilt is a knee-length garment with pleats at the rear, originating in the traditional dress of men and boys in the Scottish Highlands of the 16th century. Since the 19th century it has become associated with the wider culture of Scotland in general, or with Celtic (and more specifically Gaelic) heritage even more broadly. It is most often made of woollen cloth in a tartan pattern. Although the kilt is most often worn on formal occasions and at Highland games and sports events, it has also been adapted as an item of fashionable informal male clothing in recent years, returning to its roots as an everyday garment. History The kilt first appeared as the great kilt in the 16th century, a full-length garment whose upper half could be worn as a cloak draped over the shoulder, or brought up over the head. The small kilt or walking kilt (similar to the "modern" kilt) did not develop until the late 17th or early 18th century, and is essentially the bottom half of the great kilt.

27 Variants The name "kilt" is applied to a range of garments: The traditional garment, either in its historical form, or in the modern adaptation now usual in Scotland, usually in a tartan pattern The kilts worn by Irish pipe bands are based on the traditional Scottish garment but in a single (solid) colour Variants of the Scottish kilt adopted in other Celtic nations, such as the Welsh cilt and the Cornish cilt Other skirt-like garments designed for men, but more or less different in structure from the Scottish kilt, including contemporary kilts Certain types of pleated wrapover skirt worn as school uniform by girls. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the noun derives from a verb to kilt, originally meaning "to gird up; to tuck up (the skirts) round the body", itself of Scandinavian origin.

28 Scottish kilt The modern Scottish kilt worn with formal evening wear (2009) The Scottish kilt displays uniqueness of design, construction, and convention which differentiate it from other garments fitting the general description. It is a tailored garment that is wrapped around the wearer's body at the natural waist (between the lowest rib and the hip) starting from one side (usually the wearer's left), around the front and back and across the front again to the opposite side. The fastenings consist of straps and buckles on both ends, the strap on the inside end usually passing through a slit in the waistband to be buckled on the outside; alternatively it may remain inside the waistband and be buckled inside.

29 A kilt covers the body from the waist down to the centre of the knees. The overlapping layers in front are called "aprons" and are flat; the single layer of fabric around the sides and back is pleated. A kilt pin is fastened to the front apron on the free corner (but is not passed through the layer below, as its function is to add weight). Underwear may or may not be worn, as the wearer prefers, although tradition has it that a "true Scotsman" should wear nothing under his kilt. The Scottish Tartans Authority, however, has described the practice as childish and unhygienic. Organizations that sanction and grade the competitions in Highland dancing and bagpiping all have rules governing acceptable attire for the competitors. These rules specify that kilts are to be worn (except that in the national dances, the female competitors will be wearing the Aboyne dress). Design and construction be selected for warmer weather or for active use, such as Highland dancing. Some Fabrics The typical kilt as seen at modern Highland games events is made of twill woven worsted wool. The twill weave used for kilts is a "2 2 type", meaning that each weft thread passes over and under two warp threads at a time. The result is a distinctive diagonal-weave pattern in the fabric which is called the twill line. This kind of twill, when woven according to a given sett or written colour pattern, is called tartan. In contrast kilts worn by Irish pipers are made from solid-colour cloth, with saffron or green being the most widely used colours. Kilting fabric weights are given in ounces per yard and run from the very-heavy, regimental worsted of approximately ounces down to a light worsted of about ounces. The most common weights for kilts are 13 ounces and 16 ounces. The heavier weights are more appropriate for cooler weather, while the lighter weights would tend to patterns are available in only a few weights. A modern kilt for a typical adult uses about 6 8 yards of single-width (about inches) or about 3 4 yards of double-width (about inches) tartan fabric. Double-width fabric is woven so that the pattern exactly matches on the selvage. Kilts are usually made without a hem because a hem would make the garment too bulky and cause it to hang incorrectly. The exact amount of fabric needed depends upon several factors including the size of the sett, the number of pleats put into the garment, and the size of the person. For a full kilt, 8 yards of fabric would be used regardless of size and the number of pleats and depth of pleat would be adjusted according to their size. For a very large waist, it may be necessary to use 9 yards of cloth.

30 Setts Oliver tartan kilt (2006). One of the most-distinctive features of the authentic Scots kilt is the tartan pattern, the sett, it exhibits. The association of particular patterns with individual clans and families can be traced back perhaps one or two centuries. It was only in the 19th-century Victorian era that the system of named tartans known today began to be systematically recorded and formalized, mostly by weaving companies for mercantile purposes. Up until this point, Highland tartans held regional associations rather than being identified with any particular clan. Today there are also tartans for districts, counties, societies and corporations. There are also setts for states and provinces; schools and universities; sporting activities; individuals; and commemorative and simple generic patterns that anybody can wear.

31 Setts are always arranged horizontally and vertically, never diagonally (except when adapted for ladies' skirts). They are specified by their thread counts, the sequence of colours and their units of width. As an example, the Wallace tartan has a thread count given as "K4 R32 K32 Y4" (K is black, R is red, and Y is yellow). This means that 4 units of black thread will be succeeded by 32 units of red, etc., in both the warp and the weft. Typically, the units are the actual number of threads, but as long as the proportions are maintained, the resulting pattern will be the same. This thread count also includes a pivot point indicated by the slash between the colour and thread number. The weaver is supposed to reverse the weaving sequence at the pivot point to create a mirror image of the pattern. This is called a symmetrical tartan. Some tartans, like Buchanan, are asymmetrical, which means they do not have a pivot point. The weaver weaves the sequence all the way through and then starts at the beginning again for the next sett. Setts are further characterized by their size, the number of inches (or centimetres) in one full repeat. The size of a given sett depends not only on the number of threads in the repeat, but also on the weight of the fabric. This is because the heavier the fabric the thicker the threads will be, and thus the same number of threads of a heavier-weight fabric will occupy more space. The colours given in the thread count are specified as in heraldry, although tartan patterns are not heraldic. The exact shade which is used is a matter of artistic freedom and will vary from one fabric mill to another as well as in dye lot to another within the same mill. cloth weathered by the elements. Greens turn to light brown, blues become gray, and reds Tartans are commercially woven in four standard colour variations that describe the overall tone. "Ancient" or "Old" colours may be characterized by a slightly faded look intended to resemble the vegetable dyes that were once used, although in some cases "Old" simply identifies a tartan that was in use before the current one. Ancient greens and blues are lighter while reds appear orange. "Modern" colours are bright and show off modern aniline dyeing methods. The colours are bright red, dark hunter green, and usually navy blue. "Weathered" or "Reproduction" colours simulate the look of older are a deeper wine colour. The last colour variation is "Muted" which tends toward earth tones. The greens are olive, blues are slate blue, and red is an even deeper wine colour. This means that of the approximately 3,500 registered tartans available in the Scottish Tartans Authority database as of 2004 there are four possible colour variations for each, resulting in around 14,000 recognised tartan choices. Setts may be registered with the International Tartan Index (ITI) of the charitable organisation Scottish Tartans Authority (STA), which maintains a collection of fabric samples characterized by name and thread count, for free, and/or registered with the Scottish Register of Tartans (SRT) of the statutory body the National Archives of Scotland (NAS), if the tartan meets NAS's criteria, for UK 70 as of Although many tartans are added every year, most of the registered patterns available today were created in the 19th century onward by commercial weavers who worked with a large variety of colours. The rise of Highland romanticism and the growing Anglicisation of Scottish culture by the Victorians at the time led to registering tartans with clan names. Before that, most of these patterns were more connected to geographical regions than to

32 any clan. There is therefore nothing symbolic about the colours, and nothing about the patterns is a reflection of the status of the wearer. Measurements Stitching on the felt of a kilt (Robertson Red Modern) Although ready-to-wear kilts can be obtained in standard sizes, a custom kilt is tailored to the individual proportions of the wearer. At least three measurements, the waist, hips, and length of the kilt, are usually required. Sometimes the rise (distance above the waist) or the fall (distance from waistline to the widest part of the hips) is also required. A properly made kilt, when buckled on the tightest holes of the straps, is not so loose that the wearer can easily twist the kilt around their body, nor so tight that it causes "scalloping" of the fabric where it is buckled. Additionally, the length of the kilt when buckled at the waist reaches a point no lower than halfway across the kneecap and no higher than about an inch above it.

33 Pleating and stitching Pleating to the stripe (2005) A kilt can be pleated with either box or knife pleats. A knife pleat is a simple fold, while the box pleat is bulkier, consisting of two knife pleats back-to-back. Knife pleats are the most common in modern civilian kilts. Regimental traditions vary. The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders use box pleats, while the Black Watch make their kilts of the same tartan with knife pleats. These traditions were also passed on to affiliated regiments in the Commonwealth, and were retained in successor battalions to these regiments in the amalgamated Royal Regiment of Scotland. Pleats can be arranged relative to the pattern in two ways. In pleating to the stripe, one of the vertical stripes in the tartan is selected and the fabric is then folded so that this stripe runs down the center of each pleat. The result is that along the pleated section of the kilt (the back and sides) the pattern appears different from the unpleated front, often emphasisng the horizontal bands rather than creating a balance between horizontal and vertical. This is often called military pleating because it is the style adopted by many military regiments. It is also widely used by pipe bands.

34 Pleating to the sett In pleating to the sett the fabric is folded so that the pattern of the sett is maintained and is repeated all around the kilt. This is done by taking up one full sett in each pleat, or two full setts if they are small. This causes the pleated sections to have the same pattern as the unpleated front. Any pleat is characterized by depth and width. The portion of the pleat that protrudes under the overlying pleat is the size or width. The pleat width is selected based on the size of the sett and the amount of fabric to be used in constructing the kilt, and will generally vary from about 1/2" to about 3/4". The depth is the part of the pleat which is folded under the overlying pleat. It depends solely on the size of the tartan sett even when pleating to the stripe, since the sett determines the spacing of the stripes. The number of pleats used in making kilts depends upon how much material is to be used in constructing the garment and upon the size of the sett. The pleats across the fell are tapered slightly since the wearer's waist is usually narrower than the hips and the pleats are usually stitched down either by machine or by hand.

35 Highland dancer revealing the action of a kilt, worn here with a velvet waistcoat. In Highland dancing, it is easy to see the effect of the stitching on the action of a kilt. The kilt hugs the dancer's body from the waist down to the hipline and, from there, in response to the dancer's movements, it breaks sharply out. The way the kilt moves in response to the dance steps is an important part of the dance. If the pleats were not stitched down in this portion of the kilt, the action, or movement, would be quite different. Accessories The Scottish kilt is usually worn with kilt hose (woollen socks), turned down at the knee, often with garter flashes, and a sporran (Gaelic for "purse": a type of pouch), which hangs around the waist from a chain or leather strap. This may be plain or embossed leather, or decorated with sealskin, fur, or polished metal plating.

36 Other common accessories, depending on the formality of the context, include: A belt (usually with embossed buckle) A jacket (of various traditional designs) A kilt pin A sgian dubh (Gaelic: "black knife": a small sheathed knife worn in the top of the hose) Ghillie brogues Occasionally worn with a Ghillie shirt, although this is more casual Styles of kilt wear Today most Scotsmen regard kilts as formal dress or national dress. Although there are still a few people who wear a kilt daily, it is generally owned or hired to be worn at weddings or other formal occasions, much the same way as tuxedos in America, and may be worn by anyone regardless of nationality or descent. For formal wear, kilts are usually worn with a Prince Charlie or an Argyll jacket. (Commercial suppliers have now produced equivalent jackets with Irish and Welsh themed styling.) instruction/band practice. Ceremonial kilts have also been developed for the U.S. Marine Kilts are also used for parades by groups such as the Scouts, and in many places kilts are seen in force at Highland games and pipe band championships as well as being worn at Scottish country dances and ceilidhs. Certain regiments/units of the British Army and armies of other Commonwealth nations (including Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa) with a Scottish lineage or heritage still continue to wear kilts as part of dress or duty uniform, though they have not been used in combat since Uniforms in which kilts are worn include Ceremonial Dress, Service Dress, and Barracks Dress. Kilts are considered appropriate for ceremonial parades, office duties, less formal parades, walking out, mess dinners, and classroom Corps, and the pipe and drum bands of the U.S. Military Academy, U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Air Force. In recent years, kilts have also become increasingly common in Scotland and around the world for casual wear, for example with the Jacobite shirt. It is not uncommon to see kilts worn at Irish pubs in the United States, and it is becoming somewhat less rare to see them in the workplace. Casual use of kilts dressed down with lace-up boots or moccasins, and with t-shirts or golf shirts, is becoming increasingly more familiar at Highland Games. The kilt is associated with a sense of Scottish national pride and will often be seen being worn, along with a football top, when members of the Tartan Army are watching a football or rugby match. The small ornamental Sgian Dubh dagger is often omitted where security concerns are paramount (for example, they are not allowed on commercial aircraft). For the same reasons, the traditional Sgian Dubh is sometimes substituted by a wooden or plastic alternative, as its use is now largely ornamental (with only the hilt showing over the top of the hose).

37 Kilts in Ireland A mix of Irish Defence Force pipers wearing saffron kilts Though the origins of the Irish kilt continue to be a subject of debate, current evidence suggests that kilts originated in the Scottish Highlands and Isles and were adopted by Irish nationalists at the turn of the 20th century as a symbol of Celtic identity. A garment that has often been mistaken for kilts in early depictions is the Irish 'Leincroich', a long tunic traditionally made from solid colour cloth, with black, saffron and green being the most widely used colours. Solid coloured kilts were first adopted for use by Irish nationalists and thereafter by Irish regiments serving in the British Army, but they could often be seen in late 19th and early 20th century photos in Ireland especially at political and musical gatherings, as the kilt was adopted as a symbol of Gaelic nationalism in Ireland during this period. Upwards of 100 Irish tartans have been registered with the Scottish tartan Authority. The earliest dating back to the 1880s. Many faux "Irish County" tartans were designed by Polly Wittering, first produced in 1996 by the House of Edgar, of Perth in Scotland. Marton Mills in West Yorkshire produced a competing "Irish County Crest Collection" based on the colours from Irish county crests, resulting in tartans that are considered aesthetically questionable by many traditionalists. There are also a number of "Irish District" tartans most of which are recent designs by Lochcarron of Scotland. The Ulster tartan is one of the oldest registered Irish tartans. It was found by a farmer, W.G. Dixon, in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, in 1956 as he uncovered pieces of clothing

38 made from the design. The Belfast Museum and Art Gallery dated the material from between the 1590s to 1650s. Its exact origins are unknown, but it is likely that came from a Scottish pioneer during the beginning of the Ulster plantation period when the Scots first came in great numbers to Ulster. There are other generic Irish tartans including the Irish National, St. Patrick's, Tara, and Clodagh. Some Irish family tartans have been appearing over the years, although these are few at the moment more are being created. O'Brien, Sullivan, Murphy, Fitzpatrick, and Forde are fairly common examples of Irish family tartans. The current crop of county and district tartans is largely unknown in Ireland and indeed difficult to obtain, having been designed and marketed primarily for the Irish-American market. In the book District Tartans by Gordon Teall of Teallach and Philip D Smith Jr (ISBN ) only three tartans are identified as being distinctly Irish; these are Ulster, Tara, and Clodagh. As noted above the Ulster tartan originates from around and is probably Scottish in origin. The Tara was first noted around 1880 and was originally called Murphy. The Clodagh has an earliest date of 1971 with uncertainty as to its original designer or first appearance. Other Celtic nations Day-to-day kilt wearing is rarely encountered, the tradition is largely confined to members of the Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland and areas of Scottish settlement in Ireland. Within the world of Irish dancing boy's kilts have been largely abandoned, especially since the worldwide popularity of Riverdance and the revival and interest in Irish dancing generally. Although not a traditional component of national dress outside Scotland, kilts have become recently popular in the other Celtic nations as a sign of Celtic identity. Kilts and tartans can therefore also be seen in Wales, Cornwall, the Isle of Man, Brittany, Galicia in Spain, the Minho and Tras-os-Montes regions in the North of Portugal, and Normandy, as well as parts of England, particularly the North East. The St. David's tartan (Welsh: brithwe Dewi Sant) is one of the most popular tartans in Wales, but individual family tartans are being produced, despite there being no evidence that the Welsh (or any other Celtic nation for that matter) traditionally used tartan to identify families. Edwards, Williams, Jones, Thomas, Evans, and Davies are among the most popular tartans and common names in Wales. The Welsh National tartan was designed by D. M. Richards in 1967 to demonstrate Wales's connection with the greater Celtic world. Its colours (green, red, and white) are the colours of the Welsh national flag. Nowadays with Welsh nationalism national pride on the rise, there has been an increase in the number of people wearing a kilt (Welsh: cilt), most often seen in formal settings like weddings, to rugby or football matches, paired with a jersey rather than a formal jacket. There are currently twelve Breton tartans officially recorded in the Scottish tartan registries. The Breton tartans are: Brittany National (Breton National), Brittany Walking,

39 Lead it Of, and a further nine county tartans (Kerne, Leon, Tregor, Gwened, Dol, St. Malo, Rennes, Nantes, St. Brieuc). There are two Galician tartans recorded in the Scottish registries: Galicia and National Gallaecia. There is historical evidence of the use of tartan and kilt in Galicia up to the 18th century. Ancient Egypt The shendyt, worn by Pharaohs and warriors in Ancient Egypt, is often called a kilt. It is a piece of pleated linen wrapped around the body at the waist. Contemporary kilt Example of contemporary kilt

40 Contemporary kilts (also known as modern kilts and, especially in the United States, utility kilts) have appeared in the clothing marketplace in Scotland, the US and Canada in a range of fabrics, including leather, denim, corduroy, and cotton. They may be designed for formal or casual dress, for use in sports or outdoor recreation, or as white or blue collar workwear. Some are closely modelled on traditional Scottish kilts, but others are similar only in being knee-length skirt-like garments for men. They may have box pleats, symmetrical knife pleats, or no pleats at all, and be fastened by studs or velcro instead of buckles. Many are designed to be worn without a sporran, and may have pockets or tool belts attached. Kilts are sometimes referred to by enthusiasts for their daily use as male unbifurcated garments or "MUGs", though strictly this term also covers other garments such as sarongs which are regarded as viable alternatives to trousers (bifurcated garments). In 2008, a USPS letter carrier, Dean Peterson, made a formal proposal that the kilt be approved as an acceptable postal uniform for reasons of comfort. The proposal was defeated at the convention of the 220,000-member National Association of Letter Carriers. miniseries are also shown wearing kilts, as a sort of working peasant garb. This, along Female athletes, especially lacrosse players, often wear kilts during games. These athletes typically wear compression shorts or spandex under their kilts because during the contact sport, players often fall over and potentially expose their underwear. Kilts are popular among many levels of lacrosse, from youth leagues to college leagues, although some teams are replacing kilts with the more streamlined athletic skirt. Mens kilts are seen in many places in popular contemporary media, without attention necessarily being drawn to them. For example, in the Syfy channel (US) series, Tin Man specifically in episode 2, at time index 53 minutes, a tertiary character of a farmer who gives the main characters shelter is seen to be wearing a tan leather kilt, of modern fashioning, with large pockets, and a button front. Other side characters later in the with trends in the fashion and Gothic communities have led to a popularization of the kilt as an everyday form of attire, appropriate for any man or woman, wishing to choose an alternative to pants, shorts, or skirts. Some of these (marketed by companies like Utilikilt, Freedomkilt, Lip Service, and Tripp NYC) are made of PVC or Polyester-Cotton blends, however, this also makes them more affordable to the average consumer.

41 Chapter 5 Men's Skirts An Indian man wearing Dhoti.

42 A Sri Lankan man wearing a sarong. Outside of Western cultures, men's clothing commonly includes skirts and skirt-like garments, however in North America and much of Europe, the wearing of a skirt is today usually seen as typical for females and not males. People have variously attempted to promote the wearing of skirts by men in Western culture, and to do away with this arbitrary sex distinction, albeit with limited general success and considerable cultural resistance. Outside of Western cultures Outside of Western cultures, male clothing includes skirts and skirt-like garments. One common form is a single sheet of fabric folded and wrapped around the waist, such as the

43 dhoti or lungi in India, and sarong in South and Southeast Asia. There are different varieties and names of sarong depending on whether the ends are sewn together or simply tied. Some long robes also resemble a skirt or dress, including the Middle Eastern and North African caftan and djellaba. Other similar garments worn by men around the world include the Greek and Balkan fustanella (a short flared cotton skirt), the Pacific lava-lava (similar to a sarong), some forms of Japanese hakama and the Bhutanese gho. Skirts that is called qun( 裙 ) or chang( 裳 ) in Chinese were also worn by ancient Chinese men.

44 In the Western world An illustration from between showing a British man in a skirted garment. Ancient times Ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Roman men generally wore some form of tunic. Ancient Egyptians wore a wrap skirt, similar to sarongs. Both the Anglo-Saxons and Normans wore skirted garments, as can be seen in the Bayeux Tapestry. These fashions continued well into the Middle Ages.

45 Decline From the early Victorian period there was a decline in the wearing of bright colours and luxurious fabrics by men, with a definite preference for sobriety of dress. By the mid 20th Century orthodox Western male dress, especially business and semi-formal dress, was dominated by sober suits, plain shirts and ties. Revival In the 1960s there was widespread reaction against the accepted North American and European conventions of male and female dress. This unisex fashion movement aimed to eliminate the sartorial differences between men and women. In practice, it usually meant that women would wear male dress, i.e. shirts and trousers. Men rarely went as far in the adoption of traditionally female dress modes. The furthest that most men went in the 1960s in this regard were velvet trousers, flowered or frilled shirts and ties, and long hair. Roses singer, Axl Rose, was known to wear men skirts during the Use your Illusion In the 1970s David Hall, a former research engineer at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), actively promoted the use of skirts for men, appearing on both the Johnny Carson Show and the Phil Donahue show. In addition, he featured in many articles at the time. In his Essay "Skirts for Men: the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of bodily covering" he stated that men should wear skirts for both symbolic and practical reasons. Symbolically, wearing skirts would allow men to take on desirable female characteristics. In practical terms, skirts, he suggested, do not chafe around the groin, and they are more suited to warm climates. In the 1980s, a few male celebrities dressed in skirts, and fashion designers such as Jean- Paul Gaultier, Giorgio Armani, John Galliano, Kenzo, Rei Kawakubo, Marc Jacobs and Yohji Yamamoto tried to promote the idea of men wearing skirts, but failed to popularize the idea. Male skirt wearing remained firmly linked with ideas of effeminacy. Guns N' period. Recently, in France, an association was created to help spur the revival of the skirt for men.

46 Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibition Different styles of modern men's skirts. In 2003, the Metropolitan Museum of Art displayed an exhibition, organized by Andrew Bolton and Harold Koda of the Museum's Costume Institute and sponsored by Gaultier, entitled Bravehearts: Men in Skirts. The idea of the exhibition was to explore how various groups and individuals (from hippies through pop stars to fashion designers) have promoted the idea of men wearing skirts as "the future of menswear". It displayed male skirts on mannequins, as if in the window of a department store, in several historical and cross-cultural contexts. The exhibition display pointed out the lack of a "natural link" between an item of clothing and the masculinity or femininity of the wearer, mentioning the kilt as "one of the most potent, versatile, and enduring skirt forms often looked upon by fashion designers as a symbol of a natural, uninhibited, masculinity". It pointed out that fashion designers and male skirt-wearers employ the wearing of skirts for three purposes: to

47 transgress conventional moral and social codes, to redefine the ideal of masculinity, and to inject novelty into male fashion. It linked the wearing of male skirts to youth movements and countercultural movements such as punk, grunge, and glam rock, and to pop music icons such as Boy George, Miyavi and Adrian Young. Ellsworth eavesdropped on several visitors to the exhibition, noting that because of the exhibition's placement in a self-contained space accessed by a staircase at the far end of the Museum's first floor, the visitors were primarily self-selected as those who would be intrigued enough by such an idea in the first place to actually seek it out. According to her report, the reactions were wide-ranging, from the number of women who teased their male companions about whether they would ever consider wearing skirts (to which several men responded that they would) to the man who said "A caftan after a shower or in the gym? can you imagine? 'Excuse me! Coming through!'". An adolescent girl rejected in disgust the notion that skirts were similar to the wide pants worn by hip-hop artists. Two elderly women called the idea "utterly ridiculous". One man, reading the exhibition's presentation on the subject of male skirt-wearing in cultures other than those in the North America and Europe, observed that "God! Three quarters of the world's population [wear skirts]!". General popularity The exhibition itself attempted to provoke visitors into considering how, historically, male dress codes have come to this point, and whether in fact a trend towards the wearing of skirts by men in the future actually exists. It attempted to raise challenging questions of how a simple item of dress connotes (in Ellsworth's words) "huge ramifications in meanings, behaviours, everyday life, senses of self and others, and configurations of insider and outsider". A beige contemporary kilt.

48 The wearing of skirts, kilts, or similar garments on an everyday basis by men in western cultures is something of a minority but growing movement. Kilts, and derivatives of the garment remain popular. One manufacturer of contemporary kilt styles claims to sell over 12,000 such garments annually, resulting in over $2 million annually worth of sales, and has appeared at a major fashion show. According to a CNN correspondent: "At Seattle's Fremont Market, men are often seen sporting the Utilikilt" US News said in 2003 that "... the Seattle-made utilikilt, a rugged, everyday riff on traditional Scottish garb, has leapt from idea to over 10,000 sold in just three years, via the Web and word of mouth alone." "They've become a common sight around Seattle, especially in funkier neighbourhoods and at the city's many alternative cultural events. They often are worn with chunky black boots." writes AP reporter Anne Kim. "I actually see more people wearing kilts in Seattle than I did when I lived in Scotland," one purchaser remarked in In addition, since the mid-1990s a number of clothing companies have been established to sell skirts specifically designed for men. These include Macabi Skirt in the 1990s, Menintime in 1999 and Midas Clothing in Recently, fashion shop chain H&M started selling skirts for men.

49 Counter-culture Many male musicians have worn skirts and kilts both on and off stage. The wearing of skirts by men is also part of the goth sub-culture. Wicca and neo-paganism In Wicca and neopaganism in the United States of America, men (just as women) are encouraged to question their traditional gender roles. Amongst other things this involves the wearing of robes at festivals and sabbat celebrations, as ritual clothing (which Eilers equates to the "church clothes" worn by Christians on Sundays).

50 Dance In some western dance cultures, men commonly wear skirts and kilts. These include a broad range of professional dance productions where they may be worn to improve the artistic effect of the choreography, a style known as contra dance, where they are worn partly for ventilation and partly for the swirling movement, gay line dancing clubs where kilts are often worn, and revellers in Scottish night clubs where they are worn for ventilation and to express cultural identity.

51 Chapter 6 Microskirt & Miniskirt Microskirt A denim microskirt

52 A woman wearing a microskirt A microskirt or micro-miniskirt is a very short skirt. It is shorter than a miniskirt, being less than 8 inches (20 cm) in length. At that length, the microskirt exposes the thighs and the lower portion of the buttocks, as well as part of the underwear. To avoid exposure of the buttocks and underwear, a microskirt is sometimes worn with tights, leggings, shorts or bloomers, but is also worn with bare legs. They are predominantly worn by teenage girls or young women to evoke an impression of cheekiness and playfulness, especially when accompanied with appropriate body language and in an appropriate social context. It is sometimes humorously referred to as a beltskirt and is described as more an evocation of the idea of a skirt than something that covers anything substantial. Microskirts are rarely worn as streetwear, but commonly worn by cheer girls.

53 The microskirt is regarded by some as being chosen by those who have a desire, conscious or subconscious, to expose their lower buttocks. Stretch microskirts are sometimes made using Spandex material which are often worn by the more daring in conjunction with hold-ups and a pair of stiletto heel pumps, and sometimes with G-string underwear. Microskirts are often worn by singers during performances, such as by Fergie, Micky Green, Beyoncé Knowles and others. They have also on occasion been worn without controversy by celebrities, such as Gwyneth Paltrow. Miniskirts were very popular in Japan, where they became part of school uniforms, and microskirts came to be worn within the kogal subculture and by young girls practising panchira, a form of exhibitionism. The microskirt became common on European catwalks after 2000, especially after Tom Ford, the stylist at Gucci, made a statement in September 2002 forecasting that microskirts will feature in the spring/summer 2003 collections."

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57 Miniskirt A woman modeling a miniskirt A miniskirt, sometimes hyphenated as mini-skirt, is a skirt with a hemline well above the knees generally no longer than 10 cm (4 in) below the buttocks; and a minidress is a dress with a similar meaning. A micro-miniskirt or microskirt is a further abbreviation of the miniskirt and short shorts are the shortened versions of the shorts.

58 The popularity of miniskirts peaked in the "Swinging London" of the 1960s, but its popularity is since still commonplace among many women, mostly teenagers, preteens, and young adults. Before that time, short skirts were only seen in sport clothing, such as skirts worn by female tennis players. History Until 1960s Roman soldiers wearing the traditional tunic From the ancient Greek tunic until the military tunic of Roman times, the very short tunic was exclusively worn by slaves and fighters. In the Middle Ages they were worn under the armour. During her theatre performances in the Folies Bergère in Paris in 1926, Joséphine Baker wore a sort of miniskirt made from bananas. In the 1950s, they could be seen in the science fiction films Devil Girl from Mars and Forbidden Planet.

59 1960s Wedding minidress, 1968

60 Red velvet Minidress, c Mary Quant ran a popular clothes shop in Kings Road, Chelsea, London, called Bazaar, from which she sold her own designs. In the late 1950s she began experimenting with shorter skirts, culminating in the creation of the miniskirt in 1965 one of the defining fashions of the decade. Quant named the miniskirt after her favourite make of car, the Mini. Owing to Quant's position in the heart of fashionable "Swinging London", the miniskirt was able to spread beyond a simple street fashion into a major international trend. The style came into prominence when Jean Shrimpton wore a short white shift dress, made by Colin Rolfe, on 30 October 1965 at Derby Day, first day of the annual Melbourne Cup Carnival in Australia, where it caused a sensation. According to Shrimpton, who claimed that the brevity of the skirt was due mainly to Rolfe's having insufficient material, the ensuing controversy was as much as anything to do with her having dispensed with a hat and gloves, seen as the essential accessories in such conservative society. The miniskirt was further popularized by André Courrèges who developed it separately and incorporated it into his Mod look, for spring/summer His miniskirts were less body-hugging, and worn with the white "Courrèges boots" that became a trademark. By introducing the miniskirt into the haute couture of the fashion industry, Courrèges gave it a greater degree of respectability than might otherwise have been expected of a street fashion.. An even more prominent French fashion designer, Yves St. Laurent, began to show shorter skirts in his fall/winter 1965 collection, including his famous "Mondrian" dress (inspired the work of painter Piet Mondrian), a trend that he continued with throughout the 1960s, although he became more famous during this period for introducing the concept of the formal trouser suit for women into haute couture. Fashion designer Rudi Gernreich was among the first U.S. designers to offer miniskirts.

61 Upper garments, such as rugby shirts, were sometimes adapted as mini-dresses. With the rise in hemlines, the wearing of tights or pantyhose, in place of stockings, became more common. Mary Quant cited this development in defence of the miniskirt: "In European countries where they ban mini-skirts in the streets and say they're an invitation to rape, they don't understand about stocking tights underneath." 1970s Woman in miniskirt, 1970

62 A stretch miniskirt, c During the mid-1970s, the fashion industry largely returned to longer skirts such as the midi and the maxi. Journalist Christopher Booker gave two reasons for this reaction: firstly, that "there was almost nowhere else to go... the mini-skirts could go no higher"; and secondly, in his view, "dressed up in mini-skirts and shiny PVC macs, given such impersonal names as 'dolly birds', girls had been transformed into throwaway plastic objects". Certainly this lengthening of hemlines coincided with the growth of the feminist movement. However, in the 1960s the mini had been regarded as a symbol of liberation, and it was worn by some, such as Germaine Greer and, in the following decade, Gloria Steinem, who became known for their promotion of women's issues. Greer herself wrote in 1969 that:

63 "The women kept on dancing while their long skirts crept up, and their girdles dissolved, and their nipples burst through like hyacinth tips and their clothes withered away to the mere wisps and ghosts of draperies to adorn and glorify..." Indeed, miniskirts never entirely went away and, for example, were often worn by Deborah Harry, of the group Blondie, during the "new wave" of the late 70s. The song (I Don't Want to Go to) Chelsea (1978), by new wave artist Elvis Costello, contained the line: "There's no place here for the mini-skirt waddle." 1980s and 1990s In the 1980s, short skirts began to re-emerge, notably in the form of "rah-rahs", which were modeled on those worn by female cheerleaders at sporting and other events. In the mid-1980s the "puffball" skirt enjoyed short term popularity, being worn by, among others, the Princess of Wales and singers Pepsi and Shirlie. Many women began to incorporate the miniskirt into their business attire, a trend which grew during the remainder of the century. Films and television series made in the mid-1990s (Friends, Sex and the City, Ally McBeal, for example) show how common the mini had become again. In the BBC TV series Keeping Up Appearances (1990-5) the snobbish Hyacinth Bucket was frequently outraged by the brevity of her sister Rose's skirts. 21st century Around the turn of the 21st century, hipster trousers became highly fashionable for women. The micro mini or microskirt has been reworked as an even less substantial beltskirt, which is more an evocation of the idea of a skirt than something that covers anything substantial. However, these "microskirts" are rarely worn as streetwear, but for theatrical effect. Miniskirts are also seen worn over trousers or jeans, or with leggings that provide coverage of each leg from above the knee. Although "floaty" skirts were most closely associated with the boho look of mid-decade, short skirts also featured in some outfits, and in London, for example, minis were more widespread during the hot summer of 2006 than for several years before, a trend that continued through the mild autumn and winter and into the following summer. Stretch miniskirts and micro-minis can be made using Spandex material or PVC and are sometimes worn by the more daring as club-wear in conjunction with hold-ups and a pair of stiletto heel pumps.

64 In sport Severine Bremond wearing a tennis miniskirt at the 2008 US Open

65 FC de Rakt DA1 (2008/2009) For many years, the wearing of white dresses or skirts by female players was a requirement for competitions such as tennis, table tennis and badminton. Over time, tennis dresses got shorter and coloured clothing is now generally permitted. The French Suzanne Lenglen discarded the usual tennis costume during the 1920 Summer Olympics for a dress produced by Jean Patou. The dress featured bare arms and a pleated skirt that was above the knee. In the 1928 Winter Olympics in St. Moritz, in figure skating, the Norwegian Sonja Henie wore for the first time a short skirt. At the Wimbledon Championships in 2007, Tatiana Golovin appeared dressed in red shorts under a white minidress. The organisers took a long time in determining that the clothing was within the regulations. As early as 1933, Helen Jacobs wore shorts, and today women may wear either shorts or skirts in professional tennis. On 16 September 2008, a Holland women's soccer team FC de Rakt broke tradition by playing not in shorts but in mini skirts, which team captain Rinske Temming described as more elegant.

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72 Chapter 7 Pencil Skirt & Poodle Skirt Pencil Skirt A pencil skirt is a slim fitting skirt with a straight and narrow cut. Generally the hem falls to, or just below, the knee and is tailored for a close fit. Its name comes from its shape: long and slim. A modern pencil skirt

73 Style The pencil skirt is usually worn either on its own or as part of a suit. The slim, narrow shape of a pencil skirt can restrict the movement of the wearer so pencil skirts often feature a slit at the back, or less commonly at the sides. Sometimes a pleat, which is considered to be more modest, is used instead of a slit. The classic shoes for wearing with a pencil skirt are a pair of high heels, with sheer stockings or tights. Back-seamed hosiery matches well, recalling the classic pencil-skirt era of the 1950s. History Narrow-fitting skirts have a long history in western fashion. The predecessor to the pencil skirt is the hobble skirt of the early 20th century, which is a full-length skirt which seriously impedes the wearer's walking, and sometimes those two terms are used as synonyms. However, it was the French designer Christian Dior who introduced the pencil skirt in the late 1940s, using the term H-line to describe its shape. It quickly became very popular, particularly for office wear. This success was due to women's desire for new fashions in the wake of the drudgery of the Second World War coupled with the austere economic climate, when fabrics were expensive and still rationed, and full-skirted garments were seen as wasteful. It again became popular for business women in the 1980s, as part of the "power suit" style of dressing, and has remained a popular mainstream fashion choice ever since. practice; and when sitting the legs are held close together which some can find restrictive Wearing The pencil skirt feels different from looser types of skirts, and can take some adjustment by the wearer in terms of movement and posture in order to manage it successfully. Walking needs to be done in short strides; entering and leaving a car gracefully takes (though others like the feeling of their legs being "hugged" by the skirt). Activities such as climbing ladders and riding bicycles can be very difficult in a pencil skirt. In spite of these apparent disadvantages, the pencil skirt does have practical benefits: it is warmer due to the reduced ventilation, and is less likely to be blown up by gusts of wind.

74 Poodle Skirt A woman twirling her poodle skirt A poodle skirt is a wide swing felt skirt of a solid bold color (often pink and powder blue) displaying a design appliquéd or transferred to the fabric. The design was often a coiffed French poodle. Later substitutes for the poodle patch included flamingos, flowers, and hot rod cars. Hemlines were to the knee or just below it. The skirt originated in the 1950s in the United States, designed by Juli Lynne Charlot. It quickly became very popular with teenage girls, who wore them at sock hops (school

75 dances), and as everyday wear. People liked the poodle skirt because of its full, freeswinging shape that made it good for dancing, and for its cute looks. The skirt was also easy and fun for people to make at home, since the design was simple and the materials easily available. Movie stars commonly wore this skirt, and it featured widely in magazines and advertising, and many were eager to keep up with Hollywood's fashions adding to its popularity. The poodle skirt remains one of the most memorable symbols of 1950s Americana, and is frequently worn as a novelty retro item, part of a nostalgic outfit. A similar design of these skirts became popular in the years The skirts have been shortened, and the band has stayed.

76 Chapter 8 Sarong Javanese men often wear sarongs during religious or casual occasions. Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. A sarong or sarung is a large tube or length of fabric, often wrapped around the waist and worn as a kilt by men and as a skirt by women throughout much of South Asia,

77 Southeast Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, the Horn of Africa, and on many Pacific islands. The fabric most often has woven plaid or checkered patterns, or may be brightly colored by means of batik or ikat dyeing. Many modern sarongs also have printed designs, often depicting animals or plants. Overview Sundanese sarong weaver in Bandung, West Java, Dutch East Indies, In strict usage, sarong (Malay, "sheath") denotes the lower garment worn by the Malay (and other Maritime Southeast Asian) people, both men and women. This consists of length of fabric about a yard (0.91 m) wide and two-and-a-half yards (2.3 m) long. In the center of this sheet, across the narrower width, a panel of contrasting color or pattern about one foot wide is woven or dyed into the fabric, which is known as the kepala or "head" of the sarong. This sheet is stitched at the narrower edges to form a tube. One steps into this tube, brings the upper edge above the level of the navel (the hem should be level with the ankles), positions the kepala at the center of the back, and folds in the excess fabric from both sides to the front center, where they overlap and secures the sarong by rolling the upper hem down over itself. Malay men wear sarongs woven in a check pattern; women wear sarongs dyed in the batik method, with, for example, flower motifs, and in brighter colors.

78 The sarong is common wear for women, in formal settings with a kebaya blouse. Malay men wear sarongs in public only when attending Friday prayers at the mosque, but sarongs remain very common casual wear at home for men and women of all races and religions in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Northeast Part of India, in which Sarong is known as Phanek in Manipuri and most parts of Southern India where it is called mundu or lungi in Myanmar. Regional variations Arabian Peninsula Yemeni men in traditional loincloth.

79 white in color, similar to the Keralan mundu of South Asia and it is usually worn under Yemeni man tying his futah (sarong). Sometimes people keep money and other small utensils in the folds of the futah. Sarongs known under a variety of local names are traditionally worn by the people of Yemen and elsewhere on the Arabian Peninsula. Local names for the garment include futah, izaar, wazaar and ma'awiis. In Oman, sarongs are called wizaar and are often the Thawb. In Saudi Arabia, sarongs are known as izaar. Designs can be checkered or striped as well floral or arabesque, but double plaid (i.e. a vertical section of the izaar with a different plaid pattern) designs from Indonesia are also very popular. In southwestern Saudi Arabia, tribal groups have their own style of unstitched izaar, which is locally weaved. This are also worn in northern Yemen. However, the tribal groups in Yemen each have their own design for their futah, the latter of which may include tassels and fringes. It is thought that these tribal futah resemble the original izaar as worn on the Arabian Peninsula since pre-islamic times. They are generally worn open and unstitched in such a way that the loin cloth does not reach over one's ankles. Other izaars, often imported from Bangladesh, are also the traditional clothing of Arab fishermen of the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. It was the traditional garment for men prior to the introduction of pant-like pyjamas and kaftans during the Turkish and European colonial periods. Tube-stitched as well as open sarongs are both worn, even in formal dishdasha-wearing countries, as casual sleep wear and at home.

80 South Asia Bangladeshi boy in a traditional lungi loincloth. Sarongs are widespread in the Northeast part of India - in the state of Manipur, where they are called phanek, in the South Indian states of Kerala, where they are called mundu (if fully white or fully black) and lungi or kaili if coloured, and Tamil Nadu, where they are called sarem or veshti or lungi (worn by Muslims) and are usually worn at home. A standard lungi measures 2.12 by 1.2 metres. Unlike the brightly coloured Southeast Asian sarongs, the Kerala variety (the mundu) is more often plain white and is worn for ceremonial or religious purposes. In Kerala, the brightly coloured sarongs are called kaily and the white ones are called mundu. The more formal, all-white Dhoti, is worn for formal and religious occasions. While there are also dresses based on the mundu which can be worn by women, they more commonly wear the sari. Somalia Sarongs are ubiquitous in Somalia and the Muslim-inhabited areas of the Horn of Africa. Although both nomadic and urban Somali men have worn them for centuries in the form of a plain white kilt, the colorful macawiis (ma'awiis) sarong, which is the most popular form of the garment in the region, is a relatively recent arrival to Somalia courtesy of trade with the Southeast Asian islands and the Indian subcontinent. Prior to the 1940s,

81 most macawiis were made of cotton. However, since the industrialization of the market for sarongs, they now come in many different fabrics and combinations thereof, including polyester, nylon and silk. Designs vary greatly and range from checkered square motifs with watermarked diamonds and plaid to simple geometric lines. The one constant is that they tend to be quite colorful; black macawiis are rare. Sarongs in Somalia are worn around the waist, and folded several times over to secure their position. They are typically sold pre-sewn as one long circular stretch of cloth, though some vendors offer to sew them as a valueadded service. Sri Lanka A Sri Lankan man wearing a sarong.

82 Sarongs are very common in Sri Lanka, and worn only by men. (A similar garment is worn by women. However, the women's garment is not called 'Sarong' but 'Redda', which is wraparound skirt.) It is the standard garment for most men in rural and even some urban communities. However, most men of upper social classes (whose public attire is trousers) wear the sarong only as a convenient night garment, or only within the confines of the house. Statistically, the number of people wearing sarong as their primary public attire, is on the decline in Sri Lanka; the reason being that the sarong carries the stigma of being the attire for less educated lower social classes. However, there is a trend towards adopting sarong either as a fashionable garment, or as a formal garment worn with national pride, only on special occasions. Political and social leaders of Sri Lanka whom want to portray their humility and closeness to 'common man' and also their nationalism, choose a variation of the sarong nicknamed the National as their public attire. Western World In North America and Europe, hip wraps are worn as beach wear, or as a cover-up over swimwear. The wrap is often made of a thin, light fabric, often times rayon, and may feature decorative fringing on both sides. They may also have ties, which are long thin straps of fabric which the wearer can tie together to prevent the wrap from falling down. These wraps are almost exclusively worn by women, and do not usually resemble a traditional African or Asian sarong. They do not resemble traditional sarongs as used in Africa or Asia, neither in size, pattern or design. Securing Numerous tying methods exist to hold a sarong to the wearer's body. In some cases, these techniques customarily differ according to the gender of wearer. If a sarong has ties, they may be used to hold it in place. If no ties exist, a pin may be used, the fabric may be tightly tucked under itself in layers, the corners of the main sheet may be around the body and knotted, or a belt may be used to hold the sarong in place.

83 Similar garments A traditional Khmer dancer wearing a sampot in Cambodia The basic garment known in English most often as a "sarong", sewn or unsewn, has analogs in many regions, where it shows variations in style and is known by different names. Africa o In East Africa, it is called either a kanga (worn by African women), or a kikoi (traditionally worn by Southeast African men). Kangas are brightly coloured lengths of cotton that incorporate elaborate and artistic designs and usually include the printing of a Swahili proverb along the hem.

84 o o o o o Kikois are also made from cotton, but the fabric is heavier and their designs are much simpler, usually consisting of a single colour with striped borders along the edges. In Madagascar it is called a lamba. In Malawi it is called a chitenje. In Mauritius they are called pareos. In Mozambique it is called a capulana. In South Africa it is called a kikoi and commonly used as a furniture throw or for going to the beach. o In Zimbabwe they are known as Zambias. Indian subcontinent o In South Asia it is called a [phanek] or lungi. It is most often sewn into a large cylindrical shape, so there is no slit when the phanek or lungi is tied. o In India similar articles of clothing are the [phanek] in Manipur, dhoti (or dhuti in West Bengali, vertti in Tamil, pancha in Telugu,panche in Kannada and Mundu in Malayalam). o In the Maldives, and Indian state of Kerala, it is known as a mundu or neriyathu. o In Punjab it is a called Chadra.(from chadar=sheet). o In Sinhalese, it is known as the Sarama Southeast Asia o In Cambodia it is used as an alternative to sampot. o In Indonesia it is known as a kain sarung ('sarong cloth'). o In Malaysia it is known as a kain, kain pelikat, kain sarung, kain tenun, kain batik, or kain sampin (specialised sarong worn by men with Baju Melayu). o o o In Myanmar, it is known as a longyi. In the Philippines it is also known as a malong (in Mindanao) or patadyong (in Visayan), often used as a cloth for making household "pang bahay" or outdoor shorts. A similar wrap-around worn by Tagalog women is called the saya or tapis, and is half of the Baro't saya. In Thailand, it is known as a pa kao mah for men and a pa toong for women.

85 Polynesian Hiva Oa dancers dressed in pāreu around 1909 Pacific Islands o In Fiji it is known as a sulu. o In Hawaii it is referred to by the Anglicized Tahitian name, pareo. o In Papua New Guinea the Tok Pisin term is lap-lap. Worn by men and women. o In Rotuma, it is known as a "hạ' fạli" o In Samoa it is known as a lavalava (also lava-lava). o In Tahiti it is known as a pāreu. o In Tonga it is known as tupenu. Motion pictures The American public is most familiar with the sarong for the dozens of motion pictures set in the South Seas, most of them romantic dramas made in the 1930s and 1940s. Dorothy Lamour is by far the actress most linked with the garment, which was designed by Edith Head. Lamour starred in multiple films of this genre, starting with The Hurricane in In fact, Lamour was nicknamed "The Sarong Girl" by the press and even wore a sarong on occasion in more traditional films. Among the other actresses to don the sarong for film roles are Maria Montez, Gilda Gray, Myrna Loy, Gene Tierney, Frances Farmer and Movita. Male stars who wore the manly sarongs on film include Jon Hall, Ray Milland, Tyrone Power, Robert Preston, Sabu Dastagir and Ralph Fiennes in The Constant Gardener (film). The sarong was also worn by Pierce Brosnan in The

86 Thomas Crown Affair. In documentary movie, we can see soldiers in Sarong directed by Lokendra Arambam.

87 Chapter 9 Slip, Train & Wrap (Clothing) Slip (Clothing) A silky pink half slip

88 A slip is a woman's undergarment worn beneath a dress or skirt to help it hang smoothly and to prevent chafing of the skin from coarse fabrics such as wool. Slips are also worn for warmth, and to protect fine fabrics from perspiration. A full slip hangs from the shoulders, usually by means of narrow straps, and extends from the breast to the fashionable skirt length. A half slip hangs from the waist. May also be called a waist slip or rarely a petticoat. Slips are usually made of a smooth and slippery fabric such as silk, satin, polyester, tricot or nylon, although cotton slips are also used particularly in hot countries. They are often decorated with lace at the edges and hem, and are typically worn over more intimate undergarments. Slips are also worn for modesty under translucent outer garments. A half slip may be worn with a matching camisole as an alternative to a full slip. A slip dress is a dress for street wear styled like a slip, fitting close to the body and having narrow shoulder straps. The term should not be confused with the British English gymslip, an outer garment worn by girls during physical education classes in high school. In various other languages, such as Dutch, French, German and Greek, slip refers to different types of undergarment: tightly fitting, both male and female undershorts, such as briefs and thongs.

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91 Train (Clothing) Isabella II of Spain in a blue gown with separate court train, mid-19th century. A train in clothing is the long back portion of a skirt or dress that writes a trail on the ground behind the wearer in ruler, or a separate trailing overskirt. It is a common part of a Court dress or a wedding dress. In the Roman Catholic Church the cappa magna (literally, "great cape"), a form of mantle, is a voluminous ecclesiastical vestment with a long train. Cardinals, bishops, and certain other honorary prelates are entitled to wear the cappa magna.

92 Evening dress with train, 1883

93 Wrap (Clothing) A woman wearing a wrap skirt A wrap, in the context of clothing, is a simple skirt-type garment made by wrapping a piece of material round the lower body. Many people of both genders throughout the world wear wraps in everyday life, however, in the West, they are largely worn by women. They are sometimes sewn at the edges to form a tube which keeps the required size. They are secured using a knot, ties, or in modern examples buttons or velcro. Traditional examples Dhoti and Lungi, worn in India. Lava-lava, worn throughout Oceania. Sarong, worn throughout South-east Asia. Ta'ovala, worn in Tonga. Kanga and similar garments worn in throughout Africa.

94 Modern examples Beach wraps - In the west, sarongs and towels are sometimes worn as wraps at the beach. Wrap skirts - skirts made in the design or style of a wrap. Wraps are sometimes worn for doing Yoga Weather wraps, wraps designed to be water- and wind-proof.

95 Chapter 10 Ball Gown & Debutante Dress Ball Gown Ball gowns of the 1860s A ball gown is worn for ballroom dancing and only the most formal social occasions according to rules of etiquette. It is traditionally a full-skirted gown reaching at least to the ankles, made of luxurious fabric, delicately and exotically trimmed. Most versions are

96 cut off the shoulder with decollete necklines. Such gowns are typically worn with a stole (a formal shawl in expensive fabric), cape or cloak in lieu of a coat, "good" (couture or vintage) jewellery and opera-length gloves. Standard accessories are dancing shoes and a clutch style evening bag. Where "state decorations" are to be worn, they are on a bow pinned to the chest, and married women wear a tiara if they have one. The ball-gown shape has changed little since the mid-19th century. Although artificial fabrics are now sometimes used, the most common fabrics are satin, silk, taffeta and velvet with trimmings of lace, pearls, sequins, embroidery, ruffles and ruching. The elements of ladies' white tie attire According to rules of etiquette and attire, ladies must wear a ball gown to events where men are required to wear white tie attire. The elements of ladies' white tie attire could include: state decorations - if specified on invitation; worn on a bow pinned to the chest tiaras - If married and the event does not take place in a hotel. ball gown - ballerina (to the ankle) or full-length (to the floor) dancing shoes - formal pumps, sandals, flats or ballet slippers jewellery - earrings and necklace; rings and bracelets are optional. A watch is not considered appropriate except for jeweled versions in which the face is covered so that it resembles a bracelet. gloves - if worn, should be opera length stole, cape or cloak, or an opera coat handbag - clutch style or small evening bag Optional: Debutantes For their debuts, debutantes wear long white ball gowns. They also wear long white leather gloves that go well above the elbow and that close with small pearl buttons at the wrist. Their jewellery is understated and suitable for a young lady about to be formally presented to society for the first time.

97 Débutante Dress The Debutante Dress A debutante dress is a white ball gown, accompanied by white gloves and pearls worn by young women at their debutante ball. Debutante balls were traditional coming of age celebrations for eligible young ladies ready to be presented to society as ready for marriage. Required rules of dress A young lady's gown was regulated by a set of meticulously defined rules which were strictly enforced. These rules varied from monarchy to monarchy and didn't always follow the fashion of the time. White was the preferred color for her gown, although soft colors such as ivory or eggshell were acceptable as long as they were over a white background. The headdress always included feathers and a veil although the number and size of the feathers varied with the time. Married women were required to wear a tiara.

98 Georgian Era During the reign of King George III and Queen Charlotte, the debutante dress featured a hoop skirt and elaborate trimmings which included a single ostrich plume worn on the head, even though simple dresses with high waists were favored. During the reign of King George IV, the hoop skirt was excluded and the style for a debutante gown became a variation of whatever was considered popular for formal evening wear during the period. Victorian Era For a young woman of this time, It was not an un-common practice for women to have their debutante gown modified into a wedding dress. These gowns were often made with two different bodices, one being for the presentation and the other one for her wedding. The dresses of this time were almost always short-sleeved and had to have a low neckline. However a doctor's certificate could be presented at the time stating that low cut was injurious to the young woman's health. Queen Victoria was said to have hated small feathers, so orders were sent out that Her Majesty wished to see the feathers as the young lady approached. Late in Queen Victoria's reign and into the court of Edward VII, the necessary headdress was three feathers arranged in a Prince of Wales plume. A center feather slightly higher than the two on each side worn slightly on the left side of the head. For young ladies and women to be presented who were in mourning, it was acceptable for their dresses and veils to be black. No matter how cold the weather was on this special day, absolutely no cloaks, shawls, capes, or wraps of any kind were permitted to be worn. Those items remained in the lady's carriage.

99 Chapter 11 Evening Gown Wedding - Bridesmaid in long gown

100 Evening gowns shown at a Los Angeles fashion show, 1947 An evening gown is a long flowing women's dress usually worn to a formal affair. It ranges from tea and ballerina to full-length. Evening gowns are often made of an elegant fabric such as chiffon, velvet, satin, or silk. Although the terms are used interchangeably, ball gowns and evening gowns differ in that a ball gown will always have a full, flared skirt and a strapless bodice; in contrast, an evening gown can be any silhouette - sheath, mermaid, A-line or trumpet shaped - and may have straps, halters or even sleeves. It corresponds to men's formal wear for white tie events. History In the Middle Ages, formal dress for women had yet to be developed. Women simply added a train to their kirtle for formal occasions. As centuries rolled by, most gowns were generally very elaborate, but more so for formal occasions. In the 18th century, formal dress started as the mantua, but later developed into the elaborate sack-back gown. Starting with the 19th century, the term "evening gown" began. The fashionable length was ankle-length, but, during the reign of Victoria, the evening gown was floor-length. The styles ranged from having huge sleeves in the 1830s, to off-the-shoulder and with wide flounces in the 1840s, to very low-necked in the 1850s, to having low necklines and short sleeves in the 1860s, to long and lean with a bustle and very short sleeves in the 1870s, to sleeveless, low-necked, and worn with gloves in the 1880s, to having a squared decolletage, a wasp-waist cut, and skirts with long trains in the 1890s. During the Edwardian era, the empire silhouette was popular. Later, in the 1920s, evening gowns

101 were very simple to match the style of the flapper era. Starting with the 1930s, evening gowns began to modernize. Along with the empire cut, over the years the sheath, mermaid, A-line, and trumpet shapes became popular. Also, the dropped waist and princesse styles were frequent, depending on the era. Grace Kelly is noted for wearing understated evening gowns. Today, the evening gown comes in any silhouette, and is popular for formal occasions such as the opera, formal dinners, cocktail parties, and wedding receptions. White tie occasions When worn to white tie occasions, the evening gown is generally more elaborate than when worn to black tie occasions. For example, the silhouette will be fuller, to match with the "very formal" white tie attire by men. In the modern times, the evening gown is becoming more frequent in women's formal wear, even at white tie occasions, despite etiquette stating that a ball gown must be worn. Black tie occasions Evening gowns can range to tea length (mid-calf to ankle-length) to full-length (to the floor). In general, the same rules of a white tie event apply to a black tie event, although in some cases a cocktail dress is acceptable. However, women usually wear evening gowns to black tie occasions. Different Styles of The Evening Gown Sheath The sheath style evening gown, like the usual sheath dress, is designed to fit the body tightly. It is generally unbelted, and has a straight drape. It can have shoulder straps or be strapless. Mermaid Mermaid, as the name suggests, means that the evening gown is shaped like a mermaid. It is form-fitting at the bodice, and the skirt is designed to resemble a mermaid's tail in silhouette. A-line The A-line style evening gown is somewhat bell-shaped, it is close-fitting at the top and widens gradually at the bottom, without gathers or pleats. This makes for a simple but elegant appearance.

102 Trumpet If the evening gown is trumpet shaped, it is tight-fitting until it reaches the knees, where it flares. Empire The Empire silhouette involves the waistline coming up to just below the bust, from which the skirt hangs straight and loose, in a simple breezy style. Dropped Waist The waistline is dropped below the actual waistline. The skirt can be fitted or flared. Princesse The princesse style evening gown is also tight, cut in single pieces, such as gores, and hanging in an unbroken line from shoulder to flared hem. Crafting Evening gowns can be distinguished from conventional or day dresses by a two primary features. The first is the cut, which tends to be couture and in line with the latest fashions, unless the article of clothing is a ball gown, in which case it will tend to be cut along more classic lines. The second distinguishing feature is the fabric. Evening gowns tend to use luxury materials such as silk, velvet, and taffeta, and they may be richly embroidered or decorated with beads, sequins, jewels, and other ornaments. Wealthy women also prefer to purchase tailored evening gowns, which are designed to flatter their figures. In all cases, evening gowns are designed to be worn with high quality jewelry. Evening gowns are typically associated with glamor and luxury, and appear at events like the Academy Awards in the United States, the opening of the society season in urban areas, and formal receptions. In most instances, evening gowns are not designed to be worn more than once, although high profile members of society such as celebrities may auction off gowns which they have worn for charity. In some cases, especially for highly public events, well known designers will lend custom or vintage dresses to famous attendees of the event, in order to showcase their design skills, and then take the evening gowns back at the end of the evening for part of a permanent archive. Alternatives to the gown In the 1940s, couturiers introduced dancing costumes, a party dress with a full skirt specifically made for semi-formal and formal dances. The dancing costume was shorter than the evening gown.

103 A ball skirt is a variant fashion which resurfaced in the 1990s, consisting of a full, long skirt that can be worn with a cashmere sweater, lace camisole, or other dressy top.

104 Chapter 12 Little Black Dress A little black dress

105 A little black dress is an evening or cocktail dress, cut simply and often quite short. Fashion historians ascribe the origins of the little black dress to the 1920s designs of Coco Chanel, intended to be long-lasting, versatile, affordable, accessible to the widest market possible and in a neutral color. Its ubiquity is such that it is often simply referred to as the "LBD" The "little black dress" is considered essential to a complete wardrobe by many women and fashion observers, who believe it a "rule of fashion" that every woman should own a simple, elegant black dress that can be dressed up or down depending on the occasion: for example, worn with a jacket and pumps for daytime business wear or with more ornate jewelry and accessories for evening. Because it is meant to be a staple of the wardrobe for a number of years, the style of the little black dress ideally should be as simple as possible: a short black dress that is too clearly part of a trend would not qualify because it would soon appear dated. Prior to the 1920s, black was often reserved for periods of mourning and considered indecent when worn outside such circumstances, such as depicted in John Singer Sargent's painting, Portrait of Madame X. A widow's mourning dress was closely observed at a time when details in fashion conveyed a sophisticated symbolic language. During the Victorian and Edwardian ages, a widow was expected to wear several stages of mourning dress for at least two years. Deep or full mourning required the woman to wear plain black clothing with absolutely no decoration for the first year and a day of mourning. The second stage lasted nine months and permitted the wearing of black silk. In ordinary mourning for three months, the widow could accessorize only with black ribbon, lace, embroidery, or jet jewelry. The final six months of half-mourning allowed the bereaved to wear muted or neutral colors: shades and tints of purple were most common. Because of the number of deaths in World War I, plus the many fatalities History during the Spanish flu epidemic, it became more common for women to appear in public wearing black. In 1926 Gabrielle Coco Chanel published a picture of a short, simple black dress in American Vogue. It was calf-length, straight, and decorated only by a few diagonal lines. Vogue called it Chanel s Ford. Like the Model T, the little black dress was simple and accessible for women of all social classes. Vogue also said that the LBD would become a sort of uniform for all women of taste. The little black dress continued to be popular through the Great Depression, predominantly through its economy and elegance, albeit with the line lengthened somewhat. Hollywood's influence on fashion in North America helped the little black dress's popularity, but for more practical reasons: as Technicolor movies became more common, filmmakers relied on little black dresses because other colors looked distorted on screen and botched the coloring process. During World War II, the style continued in part due to widespread rationing of textiles and in part as a common uniform (accessorized for businesswear) for civilian women entering the workforce.

106 The rise of Dior's "New Look" in the post-war era and the sexual conservatism of the 1950s returned the little black dress to its roots as a uniform and a symbol of the dangerous woman. Hollywood femmes fatales and fallen women characters were portrayed often in black halter-style dresses in contrast to the more conservative dresses of housewives or more wholesome Hollywood stars. Synthetic fibers made popular in the 1940s and 1950s broadened the availability and affordability of many designs. The generation gap of the 1960s created a dichotomy in the design of the little black dress. The younger "mod" generation preferred, in general, a miniskirt on their versions of the dress and designers catering to the youth culture continued to push the envelope - shortening the skirt even more, creating cutouts or slits in the skirt or bodice of the dress, using sheer fabrics such as netting or tulle. Many other women in the 1960s aspired to simple black sheath dresses similar to that designed by Hubert de Givenchy and worn by actress Audrey Hepburn in the film Breakfast at Tiffany's. Famous little black dresses The popularity of casual fabrics, especially knits, for dress and business wear during the 1980s brought the little black dress back into vogue. Coupled with the fitness craze, the new designs incorporated details already popular at the time such as broad shoulders or peplums: later in the decade and into the 1990s, simpler designs in a variety of lengths and fullness were popular. The grunge culture of the 1990s saw the combination of the little black dress with both sandals and combat boots, though the dress itself remained simple in cut and fabric. The new glamour of the late 1990s led to new variations of the dress but, like the 1970s, color has re-emerged as a factor in fashion and formalwear again shows an aversion against black. Starting in the late 2000s the fashion trends of the 1980s returned to favor. That meant the return of body conscious clothing, muted color schemes, and the reemergence of black. All these things have brought the LBD back, and as now it is popular as ever. Audrey Hepburn as Holly Golightly in Breakfast at Tiffany s dress designed by Hubert de Givenchy epitomized the for wearing little black dresses, accessorized with pearls, as was frequently seen throughout the early 1960s. The dress set a record in 2006 when it was auctioned for 410,000 - six times its original estimate. Betty Boop, a cartoon character based in part on the 1920s' "It Girl" Clara Bow, was drawn wearing a little black dress in her early films, though with Technicolor, Betty's dress became red. Wallis Warfield Simpson, Duchess of Windsor, was known to own several little black dresses and said much in praise of the garments. One quote of the Duchess: When a little black dress is right, there is nothing else to wear in its place. Edith Piaf, the French folk icon, performed in a black sheath dress throughout her career: for this habit she was nicknamed little black sparrow." It was thought that the dress helped audiences focus more on Piaf's singing and less on her appearance.

107 In notorious "Covent Garden incident", a director at London's Covent Garden theatre fired the then-obese soprano Deborah Voigt from an opera because she could not fit into a "little black cocktail dress," replacing her with the slimmer Anne Schwanewilms.

108 Chapter 13 Petticoat Madame de Pompadour in an elaborately embroidered gown with matching petticoat, 1760s

109 A petticoat or underskirt is an article of clothing for women; specifically an undergarment to be worn under a skirt or a dress. The petticoat is a separate garment hanging from the waist (unlike the chemise). In historical contexts (sixteenth to mid-nineteenth centuries), petticoat refers to any separate skirt worn with a gown, bedgown, bodice or jacket; these petticoats are not strictly speaking underwear as they were made to be seen. in both historical and modern contexts, petticoat refers to skirt-like undergarments worn for warmth or to give the skirt or dress the desired fashionable shape. In this context a petticoat may be called a waist slip or underskirt (UK) or half slip (US), with petticoat restricted to extremely full garments. Petticoat can also refer to a full-length slip in the UK, although this usage is somewhat old-fashioned. Petticoat is the standard name in English for any underskirt worn as part of non- Western clothing, as with the sari. History Woman of Wensleydale wearing a bedgown and petticoat, 1814 The practice of wearing petticoats as undergarments was well established by Petticoats were worn throughout history by women who wanted to have the currently fashionable shape created by their clothing. The petticoat(s), if sufficiently full or stiff, would hold the overskirt out in a pleasingly domed shape and give the impression of a smaller waist than the wearer actually had. It would also complement the desired large bust. Elaborately decorated petticoats were worn under open-fronted gowns and looped overskirts from the mid-sixteenth century. Eighteenth century petticoats of wool or silk were often quilted for additional warmth and were worn with matching short gowns or jackets, which could be fashioned like a man's jacket with military details and trimmings.

110 These ankle-length petticoats remained a rural fashion, especially in the UK, into the nineteenth century and are a part of Welsh national dress. Elaborate, lacy petticoats were worn with elegant silk dresses in the eighteenth century in much of Europe and America, sometimes supported by whalebone frames. The Laurel and Hardy film adaptation of Auber's comic opera Fra Diavolo offers a glimpse of the intricate petticoats, corsets, and other underwear worn in the eighteenth century, especially in a scene where actress Thelma Todd prepares for bed, assisted by a maid. Colored pictures, called "fashion plates", were used to advertise the popular dresses and lingerie of the eighteenth century, a practice that continued through the nineteenth century until the introduction of photography around In the early nineteenth century, dresses became narrower and simpler with much less lingerie. Then, as the waltz became popular in the 1820s, full-skirted gowns with petticoats were revived in Europe and the United States. By the mid nineteenth century, petticoats were worn over hoops, which were placed over other underwear, including a corset cover, a corset, and drawers. The popular novel Gone with the Wind provides considerable, detailed descriptions of these fashions. One scene in the 1939 film adaptation with actress Vivien Leigh gives a good idea of the layers of petticoats and underwear that were worn in the 1860s. petticoats were revived in the 1890s into the early twentieth century, but most women The sheer weight of the clothing, along with the tightness of the corsets, sometimes caused women to faint. The voluminous, layered Victorian petticoats were fashionable in the eras when "full-bodied" was associated with health, wealth, and belonging to a higher class in the social structure, while "skinny" was associated with sickness, poverty, and belonging to a lower class. The use of multiple petticoats continued to be popular until the 1870s, when the bustle was introduced, resulting in a return of narrower skirts. Some full-skirted gowns with continued to wear relatively narrow skirts. The "Gibson Girl" look with white blouses and long, narrow skirts was very popular during the late nineteenth and early 20thcentury. Modern petticoats For the first two decades of the twentieth century, multiple petticoats fell out of fashion; narrow, sometimes tight, skirts became more common. Then, in the late 1920s, chiffon dresses with several sheer petticoats became fashionable. With the Great Depression in the 1930s, narrow skirts returned and petticoats again were unpopular until the end of the decade when revived for some evening, prom, and wedding gowns. World War II, with its rationing and general shortage of materials, brought an end to petticoats. Petticoats were revived by Christian Dior in his full-skirted "New Look" of 1947 and tiered, ruffled, stiffened petticoats remained extremely popular during the 1950s, especially with teenage girls. Most of the petticoats were netlike crinoline, sometimes

111 made of horsehair. Increasingly, nylon chiffon, taffeta, and organdy were used in petticoats. Many department stores carried an extensive variety of styles and colors of petticoats until the early 1960s. They were also available through the famous Sears and J.C. Penney catalogues. Typically, at least three single petticoats were worn, until manufacturers began making double and triple layer petticoats. A narrow slip was usually worn under the petticoats, especially the crinoline type, because they tended to be "scratchy". Edith Head designed a number of gowns and dresses, supported by multiple layers of petticoats, for actresses such as Grace Kelly and Doris Day, who appeared in Alfred Hitchcock films in the 1950s. Dinah Shore frequently wore dresses with petticoats on her NBC television shows Actress Connie Stevens, who appeared in television series and movies, said she wore petticoats as long as possible because she had wide hips. Other entertainers who often wore petticoats were Brenda Lee, Connie Francis, and Patti Page. Petticoats today By the middle of the 20th century, the full petticoat was somewhat rare, having been commonly replaced by simple, ungathered underskirts/waist slips (UK) or half slips (US). However, petticoats were still worn for proms and weddings. Ruffled white or unbleached cotton petticoats were a brief fashion under Prairie skirts in the 1970s, and remain a component of Western wear. Short, full petticoats in the 1950s style are also commonly worn by squaredancers. There was a major attempt to revive separate petticoats in However, by that time, most women who wanted very full skirts for proms, parties, or weddings bought dresses or skirts with attached crinoline petticoats. Lately the full, tiered petticoat has made a small comeback in the alternative subcultures, especially the gothic and Lolita subculture. They have also been popular with some crossdressers. Various petticoats have also been used in films and musicals dealing with the 1950s, such as Grease, West Side Story, Peggy Sue Got Married, and Back to the Future, as well as occasional vintage rock music festivals, especially in Germany. Although the traditional purpose for the petticoat is no longer in fashion, the general design has stayed the same with minor alterations including ripping and/or the usage of bright or generally non-traditional colors to fit in with modern fashion. Petticoats are also making a comeback due to recent trends towards lavish weddings and grandiose bridal attire. Petticoats are commonly worn under bridal gowns with full skirts as a means of maintaining the gown's intended silhouette. Also, people who dress in period costumes have begun wearing petticoats for a more authentic look. A number of websites offer a great variety of petticoats for sale, while other websites show historic and modern photographs of petticoats, often worn by models.

112 The everyday use of petticoats in the 1950s and early 1960s appears to have passed. In the 1970s during the height of the miniskirt era, petticoats were still worn and were very tiny. Asian petticoats A petticoat is the main undergarment worn with a sari. Sari petticoats usually match the color of the sari and are made of satin or cotton., A notable difference between the western petticoat and sari petticoat is that the sari petticoat is rarely shorter than ankle length.

113 Chapter 14 Wedding Dress Lady Forrest from Australia, Victorian style dress.

114 A wedding dress or wedding gown is the clothing worn by a bride during a wedding ceremony. Color, style and ceremonial importance of the gown can depend on the religion and culture of the wedding participants. Western culture Weddings performed during and immediately following the Middle Ages were often more than just a union between two people. They could be a union between two families, two businesses or even two countries. Many weddings were more a matter of politics than love, particularly among the nobility and the higher social classes. Brides were therefore expected to dress in a manner that cast their families in the most favorable light, for they were not representing only themselves during the ceremony. Brides from wealthy families often wore rich colors and exclusive fabrics. It was common to see them wearing bold colors and layers of furs, velvet and silk.

115 The woman to the far right is wearing a typical wedding dress from Up until the late 1930s, wedding dresses reflected the styles of the day. From that time onward, wedding dresses have traditionally been based on Victorian styles. Over the centuries, brides continued to dress in a manner befitting their social status always in the height of fashion, with the richest, boldest materials money could buy. The poorest of brides wore their best church dress on their wedding day. The amount of material a wedding dress contained also was a reflection of the bride's social standing and indicated the extent of the family's wealth to wedding guests. Today, there are wedding dresses available in all price ranges, and Western traditions have loosened up to include a rainbow of colors and variety of lengths, which are now considered acceptable. Women may purchase ready-made gowns, wear a family heirloom, or they may choose to have a dressmaker create one for her. In addition, today many bridal salons have samples of

116 wedding gowns in their stores where the bride selects a certain style and orders one to be made to fit. Wedding dresses have traditionally been based on the popular styles of the day. For example, in the 1920s, wedding dresses were typically short in the front with a longer train in the back and were worn with cloche-style wedding veils. This tendency to follow current fashions continued until the late 1940s, when it became popular to revert to long, full-skirted designs reminiscent of the Victorian era. Although there has always been a style that dominates the bridal market for a time, and then shifts with the changes in fashion, a growing number of modern brides are not choosing to follow these trends. This is due in large part to non-traditional and non-first-time weddings, and women who are marrying later in life. Today, Western wedding dresses are usually white though "wedding white" includes creamy shades such as eggshell, ecru and ivory. It's also important to take into account the rising trend of selecting second hand wedding dresses over brand new in an attempt to lower wedding costs. Philippa of England was actually the first documented princess in history to wear a white wedding gown during a royal wedding ceremony: she wore a tunic with a cloak in white silk bordered with grey squirrel and ermine). connected to purity.) The white gown is in fact a symbolic Christening gown. They are a White did not become a popular option until 1840, after the marriage of Queen Victoria to Albert of Saxe-Coburg. Victoria had worn a white gown for the event so as to incorporate some lace she owned. The official wedding portrait photograph was widely published, and many other brides opted for a similar dress in honor of the Queen's choice. The tradition continues today in the form of a white wedding, though prior to the Victorian era, a bride was married in any color, black being especially popular in Scandinavia. Later, many people assumed that the color white was intended to symbolize virginity, though this had not been the original intention. (It was the color blue that was variation of the white surplice worn in the Western Catholic tradition by members of the clergy, church choirs and servers and the gowns worn by girls making their first communion and at their confirmation and also by women making religious vows. Jews have gone to great lengths to follow these Western (Judeo-Christian) customs, whilst adhering to the laws of Tzniut. Today, the white dress is normally understood merely as the most traditional and popular choice for weddings.

117 Eastern culture Vietnamese wedding Ao dai Many wedding dresses in China, India (wedding sari) and Vietnam (in the traditional form of the Ao dai) are colored red, the traditional color of good luck and auspiciousness. Nowadays, many women choose other colors besides red. In modern Chinese weddings, the bride may opt for Western dresses of any color, and later don traditional costume for the official tea ceremony. Red saris are the traditional garment choice for brides in Indian culture. Sari fabric is also traditionally silk. Over time, color options and fabric choices for Indian brides have expanded. Today fabrics like crepe, Georgette, tissue and satin are used, and colors have been expanded to include gold, pink, orange, maroon, brown, and yellow as well. Indian brides in Western countries often wear the sari at the wedding ceremony and change into traditional Indian wear afterwards (lehnga, choli, etc.). At Japanese weddings, brides will often wear three or more dresses throughout the ceremony and subsequent celebrations with a traditional kimono, white and colour dress combination being popular. The Javanese people of Indonesia wear a kebaya, a traditional kind of blouse, along with batik. In the Philippines, variations of the Baro't saya are considered to be wedding attire for women, along with the Barong Tagalog for men.

118 Native American culture Apache bride The indigenous peoples of the Americas have varying traditions related to weddings and thus wedding dresses. A Hopi bride traditionally would have her garments woven by the groom and any men in the village who wished to participate. The garments consisted of a large belt, two all-white wedding robes, a white wedding robe with red stripes at top and bottom, white buckskin leggings and moccasins, a string for tying the hair, and a reed mat in which to wrap the outfit. This outfit also would serve as a shroud, since these garments would be necessary for the trip through the underworld.

119 A Pueblo bride wore a cotton garment tied above the right shoulder, secured with a belt around the waist. In the traditions of the Delaware, a bride would wear a knee-length skirt of deerskin and a band of wampum beads around her forehead. Except for fine beads or shell necklaces, the body would be bare from the waist up. If it were a winter wedding, she would wear deerskin leggings and moccasins and a robe of turkey feathers. Her face would be painted with white, red and yellow clay. The tribes of Northern California (which include the Klamath, the Modoc and the Yurok) had a traditional bridal dress woven in symbolic colors: white for the east, blue for the south, yellow (orange) for the west; and black for the north. Turquoise and silver jewelry were worn by both the bride and the groom in addition to a silver concho belt. Jewelry was considered a shield against evils including hunger, poverty and bad luck.

120 Rajput bride wearing a pink lehenga

121 Bride at a Nikah ceremony wearing typical South Asian red head covering and jewellery

122 Indian bride in white sari

123 American bride wearing a Contemporary Western Wedding Dress

124 Chinese couple wearing traditional wedding hanfu

125 Japanese woman in a wedding kimono

126 Chapter 15 Sari Woman and child in a sari A sari or saree is a strip of unstitched cloth, ranging from four to nine metres in length that is draped over the body in various styles. It is popular in India, Bangladesh, Nepal,

127 Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Burma, and Malaysia. The most common style is for the sari to be wrapped around the waist, with one end then draped over the shoulder baring the midriff. The sari is usually worn over a petticoat with a blouse known as a choli or ravika forming the upper garment. The choli has short sleeves and a low neck and is usually cropped, and as such is particularly well-suited for wear in the sultry South Asian summers. Cholis may be backless or of a halter neck style. These are usually more dressy with plenty of embellishments such as mirrors or embroidery, and may be worn on special occasions. Women in the armed forces, when wearing a sari uniform, don a short-sleeved shirt tucked in at the waist. The sari developed as a garment of its own in both South and North India at around the same time, and is in popular culture an epitome of Indian culture.

128 Origins and history Noble women in Mysore Sari In the history of Indian clothing the sari is traced back to the Indus Valley Civilisation, which flourished during BC around the western part of the Indian subcontinent. The earliest known depiction of the sari in the Indian subcontinent is the statue of an Indus Valley priest wearing a drape. Ancient Tamil poetry, such as the Silappadhikaram and the Sanskrit work, Kadambari by Banabhatta, describes women in exquisite drapery or sari. In ancient Indian tradition and the Natya Shastra (an ancient Indian treatise describing ancient dance and costumes), the

129 navel of the Supreme Being is considered to be the source of life and creativity, hence the midriff is to be left bare by the sari. Sculptures from the Gandhara, Mathura and Gupta schools (1st-6th century AD) show goddesses and dancers wearing what appears to be a dhoti wrap, in the "fishtail" version which covers the legs loosely and then flows into a long, decorative drape in front of the legs. No bodices are shown. Other sources say that everyday costume consisted of a dhoti or lungi (sarong), combined with a breast band and a veil or wrap that could be used to cover the upper body or head. The two-piece Kerala mundum neryathum (mundu, a dhoti or sarong, neryath, a shawl, in Malayalam) is a survival of ancient Indian clothing styles. The one-piece sari is a modern innovation, created by combining the two pieces of the mundum neryathum. It is generally accepted that wrapped sari-like garments, shawls, and veils have been worn by Indian women for a long time, and that they have been worn in their current form for hundreds of years. Women wearing a Choli

130 The tightly fitted, short blouse worn under a sari is a choli. Choli evolved as a form of clothing in 10th century AD and the first cholis were only front covering, the back was always bare but covered with end of saris pallu or veil. Bodics of this type are still common in state of Rajasthan. In Kerala and Tamil Nadu, it is indeed documented that women from many communities wore only the sari and exposed the upper part of the body till the 20th century. Poetic references from works like Silappadikaram indicate that during the Sangam period in ancient Tamil Nadu, a single piece of clothing served as both lower garment and head covering, leaving the bosom and midriff completely uncovered. In Kerala there are many references to women being bare-breasted, including many paintings by Raja Ravi Varma. Styles of draping Illustration of different styles of Sari & clothing worn by women in South Asia.

131 The most common style is for the sari to be wrapped around the waist, with the loose end of the drape to be worn over the shoulder, baring the stomach. However, the sari can be draped in several different styles, though some styles do require a sari of a particular length or form. The French cultural anthropologist and sari researcher Chantal Boulanger categorized sari drapes in the following families: Nivi styles originally worn in Andhra Pradesh; besides the modern nivi, there is also the kaccha nivi, where the pleats are passed through the legs and tucked into the waist at the back. This allows free movement while covering the legs. Bengali and Oriya style. Gujarati this style differs from the nivi only in the manner that the loose end is handled: in this style, the loose end is draped over the right shoulder rather than the left, and is also draped back-to-front rather than the other way around. Maharashtrian/Konkani/Kashta; this drape is very similar to that of the male Maharashtrian dhoti. The center of the sari (held lengthwise) is placed at the center back, the ends are brought forward and tied securely, then the two ends are wrapped around the legs. When worn as a sari, an extra-long cloth is used and the ends are then passed up over the shoulders and the upper body. They are primarily worn by Brahmin women of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Goa. Dravidian sari drapes worn in Tamil Nadu; many feature a pinkosu, or pleated rosette, at the waist. Madisaara style this drape is typical of Iyengar/Iyer Brahmin ladies from Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala Kodagu style this drape is confined to ladies hailing from the Kodagu district of Karnataka. In this style, the pleats are created in the rear, instead of the front. The loose end of the sari is draped back-to-front over the right shoulder, and is pinned to the rest of the sari. Gobbe Seere - This style is worn by women in the Malnad or Sahyadri and central region of Karnataka. It is worn with 18 molas saree with three four rounds at the waist and a knot after crisscrossing over shoulders. Gond sari styles found in many parts of Central India. The cloth is first draped over the left shoulder, then arranged to cover the body. Malayali style - the two-piece sari, or Mundum Neryathum, worn in Kerala. Usually made of unbleached cotton and decorated with gold or colored stripes and/or borders. Also the Set-saree, a sort of mundum neryathum. Tribal styles often secured by tying them firmly across the chest, covering the breasts. The nivi style is today's most popular sari style. (Dongerkerry K. S. 1959).

132 A highly embroidered wedding sari The nivi drape starts with one end of the sari tucked into the waistband of the petticoat, usually a plain skirt. The cloth is wrapped around the lower body once, then handgathered into even pleats just below the navel. The pleats are also tucked into the waistband of the petticoat. They create a graceful, decorative effect which poets have likened to the petals of a flower. After one more turn around the waist, the loose end is draped over the shoulder. The loose end is called the pallu or pallav or seragu or paita depending on the language. It is draped diagonally in front of the torso. It is worn across the right hip to over the left shoulder, partly baring the midriff. The navel can be revealed or concealed by the wearer by adjusting the pallu, depending on the social setting in which the sari is being worn. The long end of the pallu hanging from the back of the shoulder is often intricately decorated. The pallau may either be left hanging freely,tucked in at the waist, used to cover the head, or just used to cover the neck, by draping it across the right shoulder as well. Some nivi styles are worn with the pallu draped from the back towards the front,coming from the back over the right shoulder with one corner of the pallu tucked by the left hip, covering the torso/waist. The Nivi sari was popularised through the paintings of Raja Ravi Varma. In one of his painting the Indian subcontinent was shown as a mother wearing a flowing nivi sari.

133 Sari outside India In Bangladesh The sari is worn by women throughout Bangladesh. Sari is the most popular dress for women in Bangladesh, both for casual and formal occasion. There are many regional variations of Saris in both silk and cotton. But the Jamdani Tanta/Taant cotton, Dhakai Benarosi, Rajshahi silk, Tangail Tanter sari, tashar silk, and Katan sari are the most popular in Bangladesh. In Pakistan In Pakistan, saris are less commonly worn than the Salwar kameez which is worn throughout the country. Because of its long association with the Hindu culture and it exposing the stomach and navel, Sari is considered to be against the injunctions of Islam and as a 'Hindu dress'. Even though, saris have been worn by people living in the region that is now Pakistan since ancient times, it has lost popularity since Many Islamic right wing elements have pressed on a move to ban saris. However, the sari remains a popular garment among the upper class for many formal functions. The sari is worn as daily wear by Pakistani Hindus, by elderly Muslim women who were used to wearing it in pre-partition India and by some of the new generation who have reintroduced the interest in saris. In Sri Lanka Sri Lankan women wear saris in many styles. However, two ways of draping the sari are popular and tend to dominate; the Indian style (classic nivi drape) and the Kandyan style (or osaria' in Sinhalese). The Kandyan style is generally more popular in the hill country region of Kandy from which the style gets its name. Though local preferences play a role, most women decide on style depending on personal preference or what is perceived to be most flattering for their figure. The traditional Kandyan (osaria) style consists of a full blouse which covers the midriff completely, and is partially tucked in at the front as is seen in this 19th century portrait. However, modern intermingling of styles has led to most wearers baring the midriff. The final tail of the sari is neatly pleated rather than free-flowing. This is rather similar to the pleated rosette used in the Dravidian style noted earlier in the article. The Kandyan style is considered the national dress of Sinhalese women. It is the uniform of the air hostesses of Sri Lankan Airlines. In Nepal In Nepal, a special style of draping is used in a sari called haku patasihh. The sari is draped around the waist and a shawl is worn covering the upper half of the sari, which is used in place of a pallu.

134 The sari as cloth Silk sari weaving at Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu Saris are woven with one plain end (the end that is concealed inside the wrap), two long decorative borders running the length of the sari, and a one to three foot section at the other end which continues and elaborates the length-wise decoration. This end is called the pallu; it is the part thrown over the shoulder in the nivi style of draping. In past times, saris were woven of silk or cotton. The rich could afford finely-woven, diaphanous silk saris that, according to folklore, could be passed through a finger ring. The poor wore coarsely woven cotton saris. All saris were handwoven and represented a considerable investment of time or money. Simple hand-woven villagers' saris are often decorated with checks or stripes woven into the cloth. Inexpensive saris were also decorated with block printing using carved wooden blocks and vegetable dyes, or tie-dyeing, known in India as bhandani work. More expensive saris had elaborate geometric, floral, or figurative ornaments or brocades created on the loom, as part of the fabric. Sometimes warp and weft threads were tie-dyed and then woven, creating ikat patterns. Sometimes threads of different colors were woven into the base fabric in patterns; an ornamented border, an elaborate pallu, and often, small repeated accents in the cloth itself. These accents are called buttis or bhuttis (spellings

135 vary). For fancy saris, these patterns could be woven with gold or silver thread, which is called zari work. Sometimes the saris were further decorated, after weaving, with various sorts of embroidery. Resham work is embroidery done with colored silk thread. Zardozi embroidery uses gold and silver thread, and sometimes pearls and precious stones. Cheap modern versions of zardozi use synthetic metallic thread and imitation stones, such as fake pearls and Swarovski crystals. In modern times, saris are increasingly woven on mechanical looms and made of artificial fibers, such as polyester, nylon, or rayon, which do not require starching or ironing. They are printed by machine, or woven in simple patterns made with floats across the back of the sari. This can create an elaborate appearance on the front, while looking ugly on the back. The punchra work is imitated with inexpensive machine-made tassel trim. Types of saris Hand-woven, hand-decorated saris are naturally much more expensive than the machine imitations. While the over-all market for handweaving has plummeted (leading to much distress among Indian handweavers), hand-woven saris are still popular for weddings and other grand social occasions. While an international image of the modern style sari may have been popularised by airline stewardesses, each region in the Indian subcontinent has developed, over the centuries, its own unique sari style. Following are the well known varieties, distinct on the basis of fabric, weaving style, or motif, in South Asia: Eastern styles Sambalpuri Saree silk & Cotton Sambalpur, Orissa Ikkat Silk & Cotton Bargarh, Orissa Tangail cotton Bangladesh Jamdani Bangladesh Muslin Bangladesh Rajshahi Silk Bangladesh Tussar Silk Bihar Mooga silk Assam Tant famous Bengali cotton Shantipur, West Bengal Dhaniakhali cotton West Bengal Murshidabad silk West Bengal Baluchari silk West Bengal Khandua Silk & Cotton Cuttack, Orissa Bomkai/Sonepuri Sari Silk & Cotton Subarnapur, Orissa Berhampuri Silk Bramhapur, Orissa Mattha or Tussar Silk Mayurbhanj, Orissa Bapta Silk & Cotton Koraput, Orissa

136 Tanta Cotton Balasore, Orissa Shantipur Cotton West Bengal Phulia Cotton West Bengal Northern styles Banarasi Uttar Pradesh Shalu Uttar Pradesh Tanchoi; Uttar Pradesh Western styles Paithani Maharashtra Bandhani Gujarat and Rajasthan Kota doria Rajasthan Lugade Maharashtra Patola Gujarat Central styles Chanderi Madhya Pradesh Maheshwari Madhya Pradesh Kosa silk Chattisgarh Southern styles Kanchipuram (locally called Kanjivaram) Tamil Nadu Kumbakonam Tamil Nadu Set Saree; Kerala Neriyathu Saree; Kerala HAlf saree; Kerala Thirubuvabam Tamil Nadu Thanjavur Tamil Nadu Madurai Tamil Nadu Arani Tamil Nadu Pochampally Andhra Pradesh (GI rights applied) Venkatagiri Andhra Pradesh Gadwal Andhra Pradesh Guntur Andhra Pradesh Narayanpet Andhra Pradesh Mangalagiri Andhra Pradesh Balarampuram Kerala Mysore silk Karnataka Ilkal Karnataka

137 Women in Gujarati sari

138 Dancer in Kerala Sari

139 Banarasi Sari from Baily Road, Bangladesh

140 A Keralite Malayali woman dressed in a set-saree, a "quasi" - Mundum Neriyathum

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