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2 Revised Edition: 2016 ISBN All rights reserved. Published by: White Word Publications 48 West 48 Street, Suite 1116, New York, NY 10036, United States

3 Table of Contents Chapter 1 - Fustanella Chapter 2 - Hobble Skirt & A-Line Chapter 3 - Jean Skirt & Job Skirt Chapter 4 - Leather Skirt & Kilt Chapter 5 - Men's Skirts Chapter 6 - Microskirt & Miniskirt Chapter 7 - Pencil Skirt & Poodle Skirt Chapter 8 - Sarong Chapter 9 Slip, Train & Wrap (Clothing) Chapter 10 - Ball Gown & Debutante Dress Chapter 11 - Evening Gown Chapter 12 - Little Black Dress Chapter 13 - Petticoat Chapter 14 - Wedding Dress Chapter 15 - Sari

4 Chapter 1 Fustanella Fustanella is a traditional skirt-like garment worn by men of many nations in the Balkans, similar to the kilt. In modern times, the fustanella is part of traditional Albanian, Greek and Macedonian dresses. In Greece it is worn mainly by ceremonial Greek military units (such as the Evzones) and folk dancers, where as in Macedonia and Albania is is worn just by the folk dancers. The dress was adopted by the Royal Guard of Albania ( ). Byzantine Greeks called the fustanella, or pleated kilt, podea. The wearer of the podea History The fustanella is derived from a series of ancient Greek garments such as the chiton (or tunic) and the chitonium (or short military tunic). The Roman toga may have also influenced the evolution of the fustanella based on statues of Roman emperors wearing knee-length pleated kilts (in colder regions, more folds were added to provide greater warmth). was either associated with a typical hero or an Akritic warrior and can be found in 12th century finds attributed to Manuel I Komnenos. During the Ottoman period, the fustanella was worn by the armatoloi and the klephts. The fustanella was originally thought to have been a southern Albanian outfit of the Tosks and introduced in Greece during the Ottoman occupation that began after the 15th century, but this was proven untrue due to Albanian documents showing that the foustanella has only been used amongst the Albanians since the 13th century. Evolution Albania The Albanian fustanella appears for the first time in a document of 1335, which regards a sailor in the port of Drin river in the Skadar Lake, from whom were confiscated, among other things, the following items: his tunic, mantle, and his fustanum. The Albanian version has around sixty pleats, or usually a moderate number. It is made of heavy homewoven linen cloth. The Albanian version has historically been of a skirt which was long

5 enough to cover the whole thigh (knee included), leaving only the lower leg exposed. It was usually worn by rich Albanians who would also expose an ornamented yataghan on the side and a pair of pistols with long chiseled silver-handles in the belt. The general custom in Albania was to dip the white kilts in hot melted sheep-fat for the double purpose of making them waterproof and less visible at a distance. Usually, this was done by the men-at-arms (called in Albanian trima). After being removed from the cauldron, the kilts were hung up to dry and then pressed with cold irons so as to create the pleats. They had then a dull gray appearance but were not dirty by any means. The jacket, worn with the fustanella in the Albanian costume, has a free armhole to allow for the passage of the arm, while the sleeves, attached only on the upper part of the shoulders, are thrown back. The sleeves can be worn, but usually aren't. The footwear is of three types: the kundra, which are black shoes with a metal buckle; the sholla, which are sandals with leather thongs tied around a few inches above the ankle; and finally, the opinga, which is a soft leather shoe, with turned-up points, which, when intended for children, are surmounted with a pompon of black or red wool. Status and practicality Greece The number of pleats in the Greek version is much higher than the Albanian one. Some Greeks, such as General Theodoros Kolokotronis had almost four hundred pleats in their garments, one for each year of Turkish rule over Greece. The style evolved over time. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, the skirts hung below the knees, following the Albanian tradition, and the hem of the garment was gathered together with garters and tucked into the boots to create a "bloused" effect. Later, during the Bavarian regency, the skirts were shortened to create a sort of billowy pantaloon that stopped above the knee; this garment was worn with hose, and either buskins or decorative clogs. This is the costume worn by the modern Greek Evzones, the Presidential Guard. While the image of warriors with frilly skirts tucked into their boots may seem impractical to a contemporary audience, modern paratroopers use a similar method to blouse their trousers over their jumpboots. Lace was commonly worn on military uniforms in the west until well into the 19th century, and gold braid and other adornments still serve as markers of high rank in formal military uniforms. Fustanella were very labor-intensive and thus costly, which made them a status garment that advertised the wealth and importance of the wearer. Western observers of the Greek War of Independence noted the great pride which the klephts and armatoloi took in their foustanella, and how they competed to outdo each other in the sumptuousness of their costume.

6 Name The word derives from Italian fustagno 'fustian' + -ella (diminutive), the fabric from which the earliest kilts were made. This in turn derives from Medieval Latin fūstāneum, perhaps a diminutive form of fustis, "wooden baton". Other authors consider this a calque of Greek xylino lit. 'wooden' i.e. 'cotton'; others speculate that it is derived from Fostat, a suburb of Cairo where cloth was manufactured. The Greek plural is foustanelles (φουστανέλλες) but as with the (semi-correct) foustanellas, it is rarely employed by native English speakers. Name in various languages Native terms for "skirt" and "dress" included for comparison: Language Kilt/short skirt Skirt Dress Albanian fustanellë/fustanella fund fustan Aromanian fustanelã fustã fustanã Bulgarian фустанела фуста (fustanela) (fusta) Greek φουστανέλλα φούστα φουστάνι (foustanélla) (foústa) (foustáni) Italian fustanella gonna Macedonian фустан фустан фустан fustan fustan fustan Megleno-Romanian fustan fustan Romanian rochiţă fustă rochie Serbo-Croatian фустанела фистан фистан fustanela fistan fistan Turkish fistan

7 Macedonian fustanella for children, Museum of Macedonia in Skopje. Macedonian fustanella for adults, Museum of Macedonia in Skopje.

8 Sarakatsani Greeks in Thrace, 1938.

9 Spiridon Louis, Olympic marathon champion (1896).

10 Greek from Ioannina by Dupré Louis (1820)

11 Albanian fustanella.

12 Fustanella as worn by an officer of the Greek Presidential Guard, Athens.

13 Fustanella worn by an Arnaut, by Jean-Léon Gérôme

14 Albanian warriors wearing traditional fustanella from southern Albania 1906 by Edith Durham.

15 Black fustanella, worn by Greek of Macedonia region.

16 Fustanella as worn by the Royal Guard of Albania in 1921.

17 Warrior ("Pallikari") of Sellaida, Greece, by Dupré Louis.

18 Chapter 2 Hobble Skirt & A-Line Hobble Skirt A hobble skirt is a skirt with a narrow enough hem to significantly impede the wearer's stride, thus earning its name. A knee-long corset is also used to achieve this effect. A dress consisting of such skirt is called a hobble dress. History

19 A postcard (circa 1911) depicting a man pointing at a woman wearing a hobble skirt. The caption says, "The Hobble Skirt: What's that? It's the speed-limit skirt!" as hobble skirts limit the wearer's stride. Although restrictive skirts first appeared in Western fashion in 1880s, the term was first used in reference to a short-lived trend of narrow skirts in around The Parisian fashion designer Paul Poiret is sometimes credited with the design, inspired by the widespread Oriental influence on Western culture, but in fact the extreme hobble skirt is an evolution of the narrowing skirt seen in fashion since the turn of the century. Poiret may have also been influenced by Mrs Hart O. Berg after an early aeroplane flight in October 1908 with Wilbur Wright who had to rope the bottom of her skirt to keep it from blowing up in mid flight. After Wilbur and Mrs Berg landed she was seen to 'hobble' around the ground until the rope was let go of her skirt. The archives of the New York Times between 1910 and the beginning of the First World War contain many detailed accounts of the hobble skirt wearers of the era. It seems that some New York fashion houses may have asked their dressmakers to interpret too literally the slim styles depicted in Paris fashion illustrations. Many women and their admirers subsequently discovered the way of walking which such narrow skirts create, and the hobble skirt, impractical though it was, achieved tremendous popularity. Modern history Although the term is sometimes used in reference to narrow ankle-length skirts in the early 1910s, some skirts of this period, although called hobble skirts, had slits, hidden pleats, and draping that lessened the restriction on a woman's ability to move freely, because in this period women were becoming more active in various activities which would have been impossible to do in a hobbled hemline. The most restricting extant styles from this period, which truly do hobble the wearer, are either evening wear or are found in wedding dresses when a woman was only required to take small measured steps down the aisle of a church. Long tight skirts reappeared through the century in various forms, particularly in evening gowns, as well as daytime pencil skirts popular from the 1950s onwards. A more literal interpretation of hobble skirts became a mainstay in bondage-oriented fetish fashion, often made out of leather, PVC, or latex. For example, they were a regular topic in the 1950s John Willie fetish magazine, Bizarre. Hobble skirts are still present today in goth and BDSM communities, but are also sometimes used as evening gowns and wedding dresses and sometimes in other occasions although rarely due to restricting properties.

20 A-Line An a-line skirt An A-line skirt is a skirt that is fitted at the hips and gradually widens towards the hem, giving the impression of the shape of a capital letter A. The term is also used to describe dresses and coats with a similar shape. History The term was first used by the French couture designer Christian Dior as the label for his collection of spring The A-Line collection's feature item, then the "most wanted

21 silhouette in Paris", was a "fingertip-length flared jacket worn over a dress with a very full, pleated skirt". Although an A-shape, this silhouette was not identical to what is now understood to embody the A-line idea. That idea was given its definitive expression and popularized by Dior s successor, Yves Saint Laurent, with his "Trapeze Line" of spring 1958, which featured dresses flaring out dramatically from a fitted shoulder line. A-line clothes remained popular in the 1960s and 70s, disappeared from fashion almost completely by the early 1980s and were revived by the retro trend of the late 1990s. By that time, "A-line" was used more loosely to describe any dress wider at the hips than at the bust or waist, as well as a number of flared skirt styles. "True" A-line shapes on the pattern of Dior and Saint Laurent saw a revival in the early 2000s. Style details The A-line skirt has no visible embellishments for ease, such as pleats or slits, but is fitted to the upper hip by means of seams and/or darts. Its fastening is usually kept discreet, with a side or back zipper. A belt is sometimes used. Pockets may be present, but not usually. The length of an A-line skirt varies, between mini- and below-kneelength. When referring to dresses and coats, the term A-line generally means fitted from the shoulders to the hips and then widening to the hem, but it is also sometimes used to mean widening from the shoulders to the hem, ignoring the waist and hips. It is often used to describe a popular style of wedding dress, which is fitted above and around the hips but flares gently to the hem, giving a streamlined and quite slim look.

22 Chapter 3 Jean Skirt & Job Skirt Jean Skirt Singer Natasha Bedingfield wearing a jean miniskirt A denim skirt, commonly known as a "jean skirt," is a skirt made of denim, the same material as blue jeans. Jean skirts come in a variety of styles and lengths to suit different populations and occasions. For example, full-length jean skirts are commonly worn by women whose religious beliefs prohibit them from wearing trousers, including Orthodox Jews, some Muslims, Mennonites, and Pentecostals, among others. Shorter skirts made of denim are commonly worn by teenagers and young adults.

23 Some are modeled after the exact style of jeans, with a front fly, belt loops, and back pockets. Others are constructed more like other types of skirts, with a column of front button, closures on the side or back, or elastic waists. And like jeans, skirts vary in shades of blue, ranging from very pale to very dark, or occasionally in other colors. History Jean skirts were first introduced in mainstream fashion lines in the 1970s, and since then, have grown in popularity. Their popularity, after flagging in the 80s and early 90s, was reinvigorated by Marnie Bjornson in Today, jean skirts are one of the most common type of skirts worn by women in Western fashion. In the sixties, hippies first came up with the idea of recycling old denim pants or jeans into long denim skirts, by opening the inseams, and inserting pieces of triangular denim (or any other fabric) in the front and, unless a tall slit in back is preferred, also in the back of the opened-up trousers. Styles of jean skirt The classic style of a jean skirt resembles a common pair of jeans, with a front fly, a fitted waist, belt loops, and pockets. There have been a large number of other styles constructed over time to resemble other types of skirts. Types of skirts more common in denim than in other fabrics include skirts with a variety of panels, going beyond the four panels most common with other fabrics. These include chevron, diagonal, diamond, horizontal, multiple vertical panels, and combinations of the above. Denim skirts not made from pants are often designed as though they were made from pants, i.e. with front and back triangular denim panels. To tone down the rough and somewhat masculine look of the denim fabric, denim skirts are sometimes designed with alternating cloth panels, which can be diagonal, triangular, vertical, or there can be cloth panel trim at the bottom of the skirt. Also, to make the skirt look more feminine, denim skirts are (more often than skirts in other fabrics), trimmed with fringes, lace, leather fringes, or decorated with embroidery, patchwork, rhinestones, writing, or even painting. Prints are quite rare on jeans skirts. Deviating from the front fly and button closure is common though, with back or side zippers or a column of front buttons being common. One style jeans skirts shares with jeans is the ripped or destroyed look, which is more common with short denim skirts than with long ones. Another style shared with jeans and jeans cutoffs, but maybe even more popular in jeans skirts, is the rough hem. This is achieved by not hemming the skirt (or undoing or cutting off the existing hem) and washing the skirt by machine several times. The resulting edge of the skirt will have a frayed or unraveling look, popular with teenagers and young

24 women. The longer unraveled threads are usually cut off for an even fuzzy look, but some teenagers leave them hanging on their shorter skirts. Job Skirt A job skirt is a conservatively-styled skirt that resembles the style of trousers typical to business casual attire. They exist in both A-line and straight cut, figure hugging styles similar to pencil skirts. Job skirts vary in length, but are most commonly either slightly above or slightly below knee-length. Occasionally, they may be miniskirts or anklelength. There is also significant variation in waistlines, ranging from just above the waist to just below the breasts. Generally a higher waistline is paired with a higher hemline so that the general length of the skirt remains the same. The name "job skirt" is given because they are generally considered acceptable and are often preferred as work wear in positions held frequently by women such as secretaries, teachers and flight attendants. At the same time, job skirts are well liked by women for dress-down occasions outside the workplace although these usually have longer slits to improve mobility during social activity. Characteristics Job skirts are usually made of fabrics common to business casual slacks, such as khaki or corduroy, but as denim has become more acceptable in career lines, jean skirts fitting the same description are also viewed as job skirts. Some job skirts come with matching jackets as a suit. Job skirts provide an attractive but professional figure that emphasises a thin waist, curved hips and slender legs. The common characteristics of a job skirt are: Solid color (tan is common) A generally tailored appearance A fitted waistline A front fly, resembling trousers Belt loops Rear pockets (sometimes) Worn with stockings and/or high heels A slit at the back to aide mobility

25 Chapter 4 Leather Skirt & Kilt Leather Skirt A woman in a leather skirt

26 A leather skirt is a skirt made of leather. Although durable material, the particular combination of style and material makes for a certain fashion statement. Leather skirts appear in a variety of lengths and styles. Fashion Use varies with current trends in fashion, eg. during the 80s and 90s they were a popular item on the catwalks with popularity dwindling in the early 2000s. Suitability A short leather skirt might be regarded as more sexy than an equivalent short skirt of other material, and thus as more suitable to a night out than as office wear. A long leather skirt might look professional and chic without looking too sexy for the office. Subculture Leather garments, including skirts, use in heavy metal, goth and BDSM subcultures. Gender Like other skirts in western culture they are almost exclusively worn by women, but there are movements, such as MIS that fight for making them acceptable for everyday wear by men. Kilt The kilt is a knee-length garment with pleats at the rear, originating in the traditional dress of men and boys in the Scottish Highlands of the 16th century. Since the 19th century it has become associated with the wider culture of Scotland in general, or with Celtic (and more specifically Gaelic) heritage even more broadly. It is most often made of woollen cloth in a tartan pattern. Although the kilt is most often worn on formal occasions and at Highland games and sports events, it has also been adapted as an item of fashionable informal male clothing in recent years, returning to its roots as an everyday garment. History The kilt first appeared as the great kilt in the 16th century, a full-length garment whose upper half could be worn as a cloak draped over the shoulder, or brought up over the head. The small kilt or walking kilt (similar to the "modern" kilt) did not develop until the late 17th or early 18th century, and is essentially the bottom half of the great kilt.

27 Variants The name "kilt" is applied to a range of garments: The traditional garment, either in its historical form, or in the modern adaptation now usual in Scotland, usually in a tartan pattern The kilts worn by Irish pipe bands are based on the traditional Scottish garment but in a single (solid) colour Variants of the Scottish kilt adopted in other Celtic nations, such as the Welsh cilt and the Cornish cilt Other skirt-like garments designed for men, but more or less different in structure from the Scottish kilt, including contemporary kilts Certain types of pleated wrapover skirt worn as school uniform by girls. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the noun derives from a verb to kilt, originally meaning "to gird up; to tuck up (the skirts) round the body", itself of Scandinavian origin.

28 Scottish kilt The modern Scottish kilt worn with formal evening wear (2009) The Scottish kilt displays uniqueness of design, construction, and convention which differentiate it from other garments fitting the general description. It is a tailored garment that is wrapped around the wearer's body at the natural waist (between the lowest rib and the hip) starting from one side (usually the wearer's left), around the front and back and across the front again to the opposite side. The fastenings consist of straps and buckles on both ends, the strap on the inside end usually passing through a slit in the waistband to be buckled on the outside; alternatively it may remain inside the waistband and be buckled inside.

29 A kilt covers the body from the waist down to the centre of the knees. The overlapping layers in front are called "aprons" and are flat; the single layer of fabric around the sides and back is pleated. A kilt pin is fastened to the front apron on the free corner (but is not passed through the layer below, as its function is to add weight). Underwear may or may not be worn, as the wearer prefers, although tradition has it that a "true Scotsman" should wear nothing under his kilt. The Scottish Tartans Authority, however, has described the practice as childish and unhygienic. Organizations that sanction and grade the competitions in Highland dancing and bagpiping all have rules governing acceptable attire for the competitors. These rules specify that kilts are to be worn (except that in the national dances, the female competitors will be wearing the Aboyne dress). Design and construction be selected for warmer weather or for active use, such as Highland dancing. Some Fabrics The typical kilt as seen at modern Highland games events is made of twill woven worsted wool. The twill weave used for kilts is a "2 2 type", meaning that each weft thread passes over and under two warp threads at a time. The result is a distinctive diagonal-weave pattern in the fabric which is called the twill line. This kind of twill, when woven according to a given sett or written colour pattern, is called tartan. In contrast kilts worn by Irish pipers are made from solid-colour cloth, with saffron or green being the most widely used colours. Kilting fabric weights are given in ounces per yard and run from the very-heavy, regimental worsted of approximately ounces down to a light worsted of about ounces. The most common weights for kilts are 13 ounces and 16 ounces. The heavier weights are more appropriate for cooler weather, while the lighter weights would tend to patterns are available in only a few weights. A modern kilt for a typical adult uses about 6 8 yards of single-width (about inches) or about 3 4 yards of double-width (about inches) tartan fabric. Double-width fabric is woven so that the pattern exactly matches on the selvage. Kilts are usually made without a hem because a hem would make the garment too bulky and cause it to hang incorrectly. The exact amount of fabric needed depends upon several factors including the size of the sett, the number of pleats put into the garment, and the size of the person. For a full kilt, 8 yards of fabric would be used regardless of size and the number of pleats and depth of pleat would be adjusted according to their size. For a very large waist, it may be necessary to use 9 yards of cloth.

30 Setts Oliver tartan kilt (2006). One of the most-distinctive features of the authentic Scots kilt is the tartan pattern, the sett, it exhibits. The association of particular patterns with individual clans and families can be traced back perhaps one or two centuries. It was only in the 19th-century Victorian era that the system of named tartans known today began to be systematically recorded and formalized, mostly by weaving companies for mercantile purposes. Up until this point, Highland tartans held regional associations rather than being identified with any particular clan. Today there are also tartans for districts, counties, societies and corporations. There are also setts for states and provinces; schools and universities; sporting activities; individuals; and commemorative and simple generic patterns that anybody can wear.

31 Setts are always arranged horizontally and vertically, never diagonally (except when adapted for ladies' skirts). They are specified by their thread counts, the sequence of colours and their units of width. As an example, the Wallace tartan has a thread count given as "K4 R32 K32 Y4" (K is black, R is red, and Y is yellow). This means that 4 units of black thread will be succeeded by 32 units of red, etc., in both the warp and the weft. Typically, the units are the actual number of threads, but as long as the proportions are maintained, the resulting pattern will be the same. This thread count also includes a pivot point indicated by the slash between the colour and thread number. The weaver is supposed to reverse the weaving sequence at the pivot point to create a mirror image of the pattern. This is called a symmetrical tartan. Some tartans, like Buchanan, are asymmetrical, which means they do not have a pivot point. The weaver weaves the sequence all the way through and then starts at the beginning again for the next sett. Setts are further characterized by their size, the number of inches (or centimetres) in one full repeat. The size of a given sett depends not only on the number of threads in the repeat, but also on the weight of the fabric. This is because the heavier the fabric the thicker the threads will be, and thus the same number of threads of a heavier-weight fabric will occupy more space. The colours given in the thread count are specified as in heraldry, although tartan patterns are not heraldic. The exact shade which is used is a matter of artistic freedom and will vary from one fabric mill to another as well as in dye lot to another within the same mill. cloth weathered by the elements. Greens turn to light brown, blues become gray, and reds Tartans are commercially woven in four standard colour variations that describe the overall tone. "Ancient" or "Old" colours may be characterized by a slightly faded look intended to resemble the vegetable dyes that were once used, although in some cases "Old" simply identifies a tartan that was in use before the current one. Ancient greens and blues are lighter while reds appear orange. "Modern" colours are bright and show off modern aniline dyeing methods. The colours are bright red, dark hunter green, and usually navy blue. "Weathered" or "Reproduction" colours simulate the look of older are a deeper wine colour. The last colour variation is "Muted" which tends toward earth tones. The greens are olive, blues are slate blue, and red is an even deeper wine colour. This means that of the approximately 3,500 registered tartans available in the Scottish Tartans Authority database as of 2004 there are four possible colour variations for each, resulting in around 14,000 recognised tartan choices. Setts may be registered with the International Tartan Index (ITI) of the charitable organisation Scottish Tartans Authority (STA), which maintains a collection of fabric samples characterized by name and thread count, for free, and/or registered with the Scottish Register of Tartans (SRT) of the statutory body the National Archives of Scotland (NAS), if the tartan meets NAS's criteria, for UK 70 as of Although many tartans are added every year, most of the registered patterns available today were created in the 19th century onward by commercial weavers who worked with a large variety of colours. The rise of Highland romanticism and the growing Anglicisation of Scottish culture by the Victorians at the time led to registering tartans with clan names. Before that, most of these patterns were more connected to geographical regions than to

32 any clan. There is therefore nothing symbolic about the colours, and nothing about the patterns is a reflection of the status of the wearer. Measurements Stitching on the felt of a kilt (Robertson Red Modern) Although ready-to-wear kilts can be obtained in standard sizes, a custom kilt is tailored to the individual proportions of the wearer. At least three measurements, the waist, hips, and length of the kilt, are usually required. Sometimes the rise (distance above the waist) or the fall (distance from waistline to the widest part of the hips) is also required. A properly made kilt, when buckled on the tightest holes of the straps, is not so loose that the wearer can easily twist the kilt around their body, nor so tight that it causes "scalloping" of the fabric where it is buckled. Additionally, the length of the kilt when buckled at the waist reaches a point no lower than halfway across the kneecap and no higher than about an inch above it.

33 Pleating and stitching Pleating to the stripe (2005) A kilt can be pleated with either box or knife pleats. A knife pleat is a simple fold, while the box pleat is bulkier, consisting of two knife pleats back-to-back. Knife pleats are the most common in modern civilian kilts. Regimental traditions vary. The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders use box pleats, while the Black Watch make their kilts of the same tartan with knife pleats. These traditions were also passed on to affiliated regiments in the Commonwealth, and were retained in successor battalions to these regiments in the amalgamated Royal Regiment of Scotland. Pleats can be arranged relative to the pattern in two ways. In pleating to the stripe, one of the vertical stripes in the tartan is selected and the fabric is then folded so that this stripe runs down the center of each pleat. The result is that along the pleated section of the kilt (the back and sides) the pattern appears different from the unpleated front, often emphasisng the horizontal bands rather than creating a balance between horizontal and vertical. This is often called military pleating because it is the style adopted by many military regiments. It is also widely used by pipe bands.

34 Pleating to the sett In pleating to the sett the fabric is folded so that the pattern of the sett is maintained and is repeated all around the kilt. This is done by taking up one full sett in each pleat, or two full setts if they are small. This causes the pleated sections to have the same pattern as the unpleated front. Any pleat is characterized by depth and width. The portion of the pleat that protrudes under the overlying pleat is the size or width. The pleat width is selected based on the size of the sett and the amount of fabric to be used in constructing the kilt, and will generally vary from about 1/2" to about 3/4". The depth is the part of the pleat which is folded under the overlying pleat. It depends solely on the size of the tartan sett even when pleating to the stripe, since the sett determines the spacing of the stripes. The number of pleats used in making kilts depends upon how much material is to be used in constructing the garment and upon the size of the sett. The pleats across the fell are tapered slightly since the wearer's waist is usually narrower than the hips and the pleats are usually stitched down either by machine or by hand.

35 Highland dancer revealing the action of a kilt, worn here with a velvet waistcoat. In Highland dancing, it is easy to see the effect of the stitching on the action of a kilt. The kilt hugs the dancer's body from the waist down to the hipline and, from there, in response to the dancer's movements, it breaks sharply out. The way the kilt moves in response to the dance steps is an important part of the dance. If the pleats were not stitched down in this portion of the kilt, the action, or movement, would be quite different. Accessories The Scottish kilt is usually worn with kilt hose (woollen socks), turned down at the knee, often with garter flashes, and a sporran (Gaelic for "purse": a type of pouch), which hangs around the waist from a chain or leather strap. This may be plain or embossed leather, or decorated with sealskin, fur, or polished metal plating.

36 Other common accessories, depending on the formality of the context, include: A belt (usually with embossed buckle) A jacket (of various traditional designs) A kilt pin A sgian dubh (Gaelic: "black knife": a small sheathed knife worn in the top of the hose) Ghillie brogues Occasionally worn with a Ghillie shirt, although this is more casual Styles of kilt wear Today most Scotsmen regard kilts as formal dress or national dress. Although there are still a few people who wear a kilt daily, it is generally owned or hired to be worn at weddings or other formal occasions, much the same way as tuxedos in America, and may be worn by anyone regardless of nationality or descent. For formal wear, kilts are usually worn with a Prince Charlie or an Argyll jacket. (Commercial suppliers have now produced equivalent jackets with Irish and Welsh themed styling.) instruction/band practice. Ceremonial kilts have also been developed for the U.S. Marine Kilts are also used for parades by groups such as the Scouts, and in many places kilts are seen in force at Highland games and pipe band championships as well as being worn at Scottish country dances and ceilidhs. Certain regiments/units of the British Army and armies of other Commonwealth nations (including Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa) with a Scottish lineage or heritage still continue to wear kilts as part of dress or duty uniform, though they have not been used in combat since Uniforms in which kilts are worn include Ceremonial Dress, Service Dress, and Barracks Dress. Kilts are considered appropriate for ceremonial parades, office duties, less formal parades, walking out, mess dinners, and classroom Corps, and the pipe and drum bands of the U.S. Military Academy, U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Air Force. In recent years, kilts have also become increasingly common in Scotland and around the world for casual wear, for example with the Jacobite shirt. It is not uncommon to see kilts worn at Irish pubs in the United States, and it is becoming somewhat less rare to see them in the workplace. Casual use of kilts dressed down with lace-up boots or moccasins, and with t-shirts or golf shirts, is becoming increasingly more familiar at Highland Games. The kilt is associated with a sense of Scottish national pride and will often be seen being worn, along with a football top, when members of the Tartan Army are watching a football or rugby match. The small ornamental Sgian Dubh dagger is often omitted where security concerns are paramount (for example, they are not allowed on commercial aircraft). For the same reasons, the traditional Sgian Dubh is sometimes substituted by a wooden or plastic alternative, as its use is now largely ornamental (with only the hilt showing over the top of the hose).

37 Kilts in Ireland A mix of Irish Defence Force pipers wearing saffron kilts Though the origins of the Irish kilt continue to be a subject of debate, current evidence suggests that kilts originated in the Scottish Highlands and Isles and were adopted by Irish nationalists at the turn of the 20th century as a symbol of Celtic identity. A garment that has often been mistaken for kilts in early depictions is the Irish 'Leincroich', a long tunic traditionally made from solid colour cloth, with black, saffron and green being the most widely used colours. Solid coloured kilts were first adopted for use by Irish nationalists and thereafter by Irish regiments serving in the British Army, but they could often be seen in late 19th and early 20th century photos in Ireland especially at political and musical gatherings, as the kilt was adopted as a symbol of Gaelic nationalism in Ireland during this period. Upwards of 100 Irish tartans have been registered with the Scottish tartan Authority. The earliest dating back to the 1880s. Many faux "Irish County" tartans were designed by Polly Wittering, first produced in 1996 by the House of Edgar, of Perth in Scotland. Marton Mills in West Yorkshire produced a competing "Irish County Crest Collection" based on the colours from Irish county crests, resulting in tartans that are considered aesthetically questionable by many traditionalists. There are also a number of "Irish District" tartans most of which are recent designs by Lochcarron of Scotland. The Ulster tartan is one of the oldest registered Irish tartans. It was found by a farmer, W.G. Dixon, in County Londonderry, Northern Ireland, in 1956 as he uncovered pieces of clothing

38 made from the design. The Belfast Museum and Art Gallery dated the material from between the 1590s to 1650s. Its exact origins are unknown, but it is likely that came from a Scottish pioneer during the beginning of the Ulster plantation period when the Scots first came in great numbers to Ulster. There are other generic Irish tartans including the Irish National, St. Patrick's, Tara, and Clodagh. Some Irish family tartans have been appearing over the years, although these are few at the moment more are being created. O'Brien, Sullivan, Murphy, Fitzpatrick, and Forde are fairly common examples of Irish family tartans. The current crop of county and district tartans is largely unknown in Ireland and indeed difficult to obtain, having been designed and marketed primarily for the Irish-American market. In the book District Tartans by Gordon Teall of Teallach and Philip D Smith Jr (ISBN ) only three tartans are identified as being distinctly Irish; these are Ulster, Tara, and Clodagh. As noted above the Ulster tartan originates from around and is probably Scottish in origin. The Tara was first noted around 1880 and was originally called Murphy. The Clodagh has an earliest date of 1971 with uncertainty as to its original designer or first appearance. Other Celtic nations Day-to-day kilt wearing is rarely encountered, the tradition is largely confined to members of the Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland and areas of Scottish settlement in Ireland. Within the world of Irish dancing boy's kilts have been largely abandoned, especially since the worldwide popularity of Riverdance and the revival and interest in Irish dancing generally. Although not a traditional component of national dress outside Scotland, kilts have become recently popular in the other Celtic nations as a sign of Celtic identity. Kilts and tartans can therefore also be seen in Wales, Cornwall, the Isle of Man, Brittany, Galicia in Spain, the Minho and Tras-os-Montes regions in the North of Portugal, and Normandy, as well as parts of England, particularly the North East. The St. David's tartan (Welsh: brithwe Dewi Sant) is one of the most popular tartans in Wales, but individual family tartans are being produced, despite there being no evidence that the Welsh (or any other Celtic nation for that matter) traditionally used tartan to identify families. Edwards, Williams, Jones, Thomas, Evans, and Davies are among the most popular tartans and common names in Wales. The Welsh National tartan was designed by D. M. Richards in 1967 to demonstrate Wales's connection with the greater Celtic world. Its colours (green, red, and white) are the colours of the Welsh national flag. Nowadays with Welsh nationalism national pride on the rise, there has been an increase in the number of people wearing a kilt (Welsh: cilt), most often seen in formal settings like weddings, to rugby or football matches, paired with a jersey rather than a formal jacket. There are currently twelve Breton tartans officially recorded in the Scottish tartan registries. The Breton tartans are: Brittany National (Breton National), Brittany Walking,

39 Lead it Of, and a further nine county tartans (Kerne, Leon, Tregor, Gwened, Dol, St. Malo, Rennes, Nantes, St. Brieuc). There are two Galician tartans recorded in the Scottish registries: Galicia and National Gallaecia. There is historical evidence of the use of tartan and kilt in Galicia up to the 18th century. Ancient Egypt The shendyt, worn by Pharaohs and warriors in Ancient Egypt, is often called a kilt. It is a piece of pleated linen wrapped around the body at the waist. Contemporary kilt Example of contemporary kilt

40 Contemporary kilts (also known as modern kilts and, especially in the United States, utility kilts) have appeared in the clothing marketplace in Scotland, the US and Canada in a range of fabrics, including leather, denim, corduroy, and cotton. They may be designed for formal or casual dress, for use in sports or outdoor recreation, or as white or blue collar workwear. Some are closely modelled on traditional Scottish kilts, but others are similar only in being knee-length skirt-like garments for men. They may have box pleats, symmetrical knife pleats, or no pleats at all, and be fastened by studs or velcro instead of buckles. Many are designed to be worn without a sporran, and may have pockets or tool belts attached. Kilts are sometimes referred to by enthusiasts for their daily use as male unbifurcated garments or "MUGs", though strictly this term also covers other garments such as sarongs which are regarded as viable alternatives to trousers (bifurcated garments). In 2008, a USPS letter carrier, Dean Peterson, made a formal proposal that the kilt be approved as an acceptable postal uniform for reasons of comfort. The proposal was defeated at the convention of the 220,000-member National Association of Letter Carriers. miniseries are also shown wearing kilts, as a sort of working peasant garb. This, along Female athletes, especially lacrosse players, often wear kilts during games. These athletes typically wear compression shorts or spandex under their kilts because during the contact sport, players often fall over and potentially expose their underwear. Kilts are popular among many levels of lacrosse, from youth leagues to college leagues, although some teams are replacing kilts with the more streamlined athletic skirt. Mens kilts are seen in many places in popular contemporary media, without attention necessarily being drawn to them. For example, in the Syfy channel (US) series, Tin Man specifically in episode 2, at time index 53 minutes, a tertiary character of a farmer who gives the main characters shelter is seen to be wearing a tan leather kilt, of modern fashioning, with large pockets, and a button front. Other side characters later in the with trends in the fashion and Gothic communities have led to a popularization of the kilt as an everyday form of attire, appropriate for any man or woman, wishing to choose an alternative to pants, shorts, or skirts. Some of these (marketed by companies like Utilikilt, Freedomkilt, Lip Service, and Tripp NYC) are made of PVC or Polyester-Cotton blends, however, this also makes them more affordable to the average consumer.

41 Chapter 5 Men's Skirts An Indian man wearing Dhoti.

42 A Sri Lankan man wearing a sarong. Outside of Western cultures, men's clothing commonly includes skirts and skirt-like garments, however in North America and much of Europe, the wearing of a skirt is today usually seen as typical for females and not males. People have variously attempted to promote the wearing of skirts by men in Western culture, and to do away with this arbitrary sex distinction, albeit with limited general success and considerable cultural resistance. Outside of Western cultures Outside of Western cultures, male clothing includes skirts and skirt-like garments. One common form is a single sheet of fabric folded and wrapped around the waist, such as the

43 dhoti or lungi in India, and sarong in South and Southeast Asia. There are different varieties and names of sarong depending on whether the ends are sewn together or simply tied. Some long robes also resemble a skirt or dress, including the Middle Eastern and North African caftan and djellaba. Other similar garments worn by men around the world include the Greek and Balkan fustanella (a short flared cotton skirt), the Pacific lava-lava (similar to a sarong), some forms of Japanese hakama and the Bhutanese gho. Skirts that is called qun( 裙 ) or chang( 裳 ) in Chinese were also worn by ancient Chinese men.

44 In the Western world An illustration from between showing a British man in a skirted garment. Ancient times Ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Roman men generally wore some form of tunic. Ancient Egyptians wore a wrap skirt, similar to sarongs. Both the Anglo-Saxons and Normans wore skirted garments, as can be seen in the Bayeux Tapestry. These fashions continued well into the Middle Ages.

45 Decline From the early Victorian period there was a decline in the wearing of bright colours and luxurious fabrics by men, with a definite preference for sobriety of dress. By the mid 20th Century orthodox Western male dress, especially business and semi-formal dress, was dominated by sober suits, plain shirts and ties. Revival In the 1960s there was widespread reaction against the accepted North American and European conventions of male and female dress. This unisex fashion movement aimed to eliminate the sartorial differences between men and women. In practice, it usually meant that women would wear male dress, i.e. shirts and trousers. Men rarely went as far in the adoption of traditionally female dress modes. The furthest that most men went in the 1960s in this regard were velvet trousers, flowered or frilled shirts and ties, and long hair. Roses singer, Axl Rose, was known to wear men skirts during the Use your Illusion In the 1970s David Hall, a former research engineer at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), actively promoted the use of skirts for men, appearing on both the Johnny Carson Show and the Phil Donahue show. In addition, he featured in many articles at the time. In his Essay "Skirts for Men: the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of bodily covering" he stated that men should wear skirts for both symbolic and practical reasons. Symbolically, wearing skirts would allow men to take on desirable female characteristics. In practical terms, skirts, he suggested, do not chafe around the groin, and they are more suited to warm climates. In the 1980s, a few male celebrities dressed in skirts, and fashion designers such as Jean- Paul Gaultier, Giorgio Armani, John Galliano, Kenzo, Rei Kawakubo, Marc Jacobs and Yohji Yamamoto tried to promote the idea of men wearing skirts, but failed to popularize the idea. Male skirt wearing remained firmly linked with ideas of effeminacy. Guns N' period. Recently, in France, an association was created to help spur the revival of the skirt for men.

46 Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibition Different styles of modern men's skirts. In 2003, the Metropolitan Museum of Art displayed an exhibition, organized by Andrew Bolton and Harold Koda of the Museum's Costume Institute and sponsored by Gaultier, entitled Bravehearts: Men in Skirts. The idea of the exhibition was to explore how various groups and individuals (from hippies through pop stars to fashion designers) have promoted the idea of men wearing skirts as "the future of menswear". It displayed male skirts on mannequins, as if in the window of a department store, in several historical and cross-cultural contexts. The exhibition display pointed out the lack of a "natural link" between an item of clothing and the masculinity or femininity of the wearer, mentioning the kilt as "one of the most potent, versatile, and enduring skirt forms often looked upon by fashion designers as a symbol of a natural, uninhibited, masculinity". It pointed out that fashion designers and male skirt-wearers employ the wearing of skirts for three purposes: to

47 transgress conventional moral and social codes, to redefine the ideal of masculinity, and to inject novelty into male fashion. It linked the wearing of male skirts to youth movements and countercultural movements such as punk, grunge, and glam rock, and to pop music icons such as Boy George, Miyavi and Adrian Young. Ellsworth eavesdropped on several visitors to the exhibition, noting that because of the exhibition's placement in a self-contained space accessed by a staircase at the far end of the Museum's first floor, the visitors were primarily self-selected as those who would be intrigued enough by such an idea in the first place to actually seek it out. According to her report, the reactions were wide-ranging, from the number of women who teased their male companions about whether they would ever consider wearing skirts (to which several men responded that they would) to the man who said "A caftan after a shower or in the gym? can you imagine? 'Excuse me! Coming through!'". An adolescent girl rejected in disgust the notion that skirts were similar to the wide pants worn by hip-hop artists. Two elderly women called the idea "utterly ridiculous". One man, reading the exhibition's presentation on the subject of male skirt-wearing in cultures other than those in the North America and Europe, observed that "God! Three quarters of the world's population [wear skirts]!". General popularity The exhibition itself attempted to provoke visitors into considering how, historically, male dress codes have come to this point, and whether in fact a trend towards the wearing of skirts by men in the future actually exists. It attempted to raise challenging questions of how a simple item of dress connotes (in Ellsworth's words) "huge ramifications in meanings, behaviours, everyday life, senses of self and others, and configurations of insider and outsider". A beige contemporary kilt.

48 The wearing of skirts, kilts, or similar garments on an everyday basis by men in western cultures is something of a minority but growing movement. Kilts, and derivatives of the garment remain popular. One manufacturer of contemporary kilt styles claims to sell over 12,000 such garments annually, resulting in over $2 million annually worth of sales, and has appeared at a major fashion show. According to a CNN correspondent: "At Seattle's Fremont Market, men are often seen sporting the Utilikilt" US News said in 2003 that "... the Seattle-made utilikilt, a rugged, everyday riff on traditional Scottish garb, has leapt from idea to over 10,000 sold in just three years, via the Web and word of mouth alone." "They've become a common sight around Seattle, especially in funkier neighbourhoods and at the city's many alternative cultural events. They often are worn with chunky black boots." writes AP reporter Anne Kim. "I actually see more people wearing kilts in Seattle than I did when I lived in Scotland," one purchaser remarked in In addition, since the mid-1990s a number of clothing companies have been established to sell skirts specifically designed for men. These include Macabi Skirt in the 1990s, Menintime in 1999 and Midas Clothing in Recently, fashion shop chain H&M started selling skirts for men.

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