1 MUSEUM COLLECTIONS AS SUPPORT FOR RESEARCH ON DRESS AND FASHION: THE CASE JAMES LAVER. Fausto Viana (Escola de Comunicações e Artes/ Universidade de São Paulo) Abstract: James Laver ( ) was one of the main researchers in fashion and costumes in the 20 th Century. He was the author of over one hundred publications, including papers, articles and books on varied subjects, and among those Costume and fashion, from 1969, is still one the most used books in fashion schools. The main aim of this article is to point out the importance of his iconographic sources. Key words: fashion; museum; Laver, James; costumes. 1. James Laver - fundamental bibliographical notes. James Laver was born in 1899, in Liverpool, in the United Kingdom. He was an orphan and raised by his religious father, and that caused him deep influence. He studied in the Liverpool Institute and stated that poetry was his favorite subject. He was 19 when he joined the army, but did not fight. The time was enough, though, for him to learn a lot on gambling, drinking and prostitution. Above all, he noticed how atheistic his colleagues were (LAVER, 1963, p.39). In 1919, he went to the University of Oxford, where he took modern history and theology, with a thesis on John Wesley. He engaged actively on the student s magazine Isis and won the Newdigate prize for his poem on Cervantes. In 1922, there was a contest for administrative sections of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. Laver was hired with two other young fellows. That job would only end in thirty seven years later. 2. Laver and the job at the Victoria and Albert Museum The work of Laver would happen in the Department of Engraving, Illustration and Design. His boss in that period was Martin Hardie ( ), a very distinguished engraver and painter. He was - like I was going to be later on, Laver said (1963:86) the keeper not only of the section of engravings but also painting, that included an immense number of watercolors and probably the best collection of miniatures of the world. (Idem) The prerequisites for that position were many for a 24 year-old youth.
2 There were six weeks of a severe adapting test, and maybe I should add, a bluff. Because Martin Hardie was only waiting for me to arrive to leave on vacation, and as soon as I was installed, there he left and told me to swim or sink. That was probably the best thing he could have done for me. (Idem, p. 87) engraving: He said that he should already have had previous knowledge of the different types of [...] it was necessary to know about the drawings of the Old Masters, posters, card games, fashion drawings, labels of commercial packages, Persian miniatures, Japanese engravings and every design type from architecture to embroidered vests. To have detailed knowledge on all this was simply impossible. To learn something on everything and everything of something was the best that I could do; and that is what I did. (Idem, p. 86) The work with Hardie was not the only element that helped make him famous - the work in the Victoria and Albertgot him in touch with collectors and riches of several categories. Under the auspices of the Museum, he travelled all over Europe, negotiating acquisitions for the collections. When I went back to the Museum, Laver said, soon it was clear for me that many of the connnoiseurs and collectors were a little crazy. I reached the reluctant conclusion that collecting, by itself, it is a pathological activity. One of the most surprising cases described by him was the one of a collector of engravings that had twenty thousand pieces. He couldn t notice what it meant to own twenty thousand drawings. If that man spent all of his free time looking at the drawings, it would take him years until he could look at all of them individually. (Idem, p.104) It was the work in that session of the museum that got him interested in fashion. It was to his surprise that he became an expert in fashion after publishing Taste and fashion, released little before the War (idem, p.239). My main objective with the study of fashion had one main purpose, he said, a technical and utilitarian purpose. I wanted to date pictures, he explained (idem). He created a file with dates and information that could help him date the paintings and drawings. But when that job was done, many other questions popped up: I found myself led irresistibly into some curious avenues of speculation. Having studied the What and the When, I began to wonder about the How and the Why. I am still wondering, but I began to evoke certain theories... (Idem, p.240) 3. Laver and his theoretical references The theme of this article is the importance of James Laver's iconographical material. However, in the work of Laver no picture, painting, sculpture or image is presented without a
3 theoretical context. The theoretical reflection on costume is based on ideas and iconographical observation. And the demonstration of how certain clothes appeared historically. In that sense, it is important to highlight that James Laver works with a wide spectrum of authors that approach the topics costume and fashion in their works. But there are two that deserve prominence for the importance that they had in the development of the work of Laver. The first is C. W. Cunnington ( ), a doctor that together with his wife Phillis, also a doctor, created an important collection and became historians of costumes. Their work was based on the analysis of the object, according to Taylor (TAYLOR, 2004, p.51). Together, he and the wife wrote several books on English costume. Taylor affirms that both Laver and Cunning ton took deep interest in issues of women, style, sexuality and fashion, building in their own ways on Flügel's ideas (Idem, p.51). Flügel was Professor J. C. Flügel ( ), from the University of London and the author of The psychology of costumes. Flügel and Laver presented a TV show together, in dialog shape, and Laver stated that He was one of the few professional psychologists to turn his attention to what is surely a most important department of psychology. His book on dress is a classic, and he was, so far as I know, the first to propound the theory of the shifting erogenous zone. According to this theory the naked body has little or no erotic appeal; but if a part of it is, so to speak, shut off, it acquires erotic capital, and it then becomes possible to draw attention to it with effective results. When the body of woman is thus divided into zones, the function of the dress designers is to emphasize them one after the other and this shifting of emphasis is what we know as fashion. (LAVER, 1963, p. 242) 4. Laver and his iconographical references Laver analyses in his book Costume through the ages, in a very simplified manner, that documentation is the key to understanding the past. The Greeks knew that the Persian Kings were clad in garments that gleamed with gold; the Romans were aware that the barbarian tribes on the outskirts of the Empire wore trousers. Trousers were indeed the mark of the barbarians. The Byzantine emperors had only too much reason to know that the invading Turks wore turbans. (LAVER, 1961, p.5) Laver suggests that the most reliable documentation dates back to the first century of our era (I Century D.C). Most painting of that period has disappeared, he says, but
4 Much sculpture has survived, and from statues, busts, bas-reliefs and the like it is possible to know with a considerable degree of accuracy what was worn by both sexes in the Roman world, at least so far as the upper classes were concerned. [...] We know what the Roman emperors looked like as well as the empress, leading senators and fashionable women. The change in hairstyles of the first and second centuries, for example, can be followed in meticulous detail. (Idem, p.6) Laver will use the collections in museums and private collectors: the Vatican, the Louvre, the National Museum of Naples, institutions in Pompeii and in many other places. The portraits of Justin and Theodora, Byzantine Emperors analyzed by Laver, are portrayed in mosaics in Ravenna and date back to Century 6 th d. C. Between the 9 th and 11 th centuries he mentions only a few illuminati documents and sculpted tombs. For the clothes of the 12 th century, he searches for the cathedrals and the Gothic sculptures as a true encyclopedia of contemporary clothes of the Medium Ages. (Idem) The material of the 14 Century is more abundant: there are more manuscripts that allow understanding their colors and their shapes. There are sculptured figures and monuments, and they normally tell the date they were produced. Dating, according to Laver, is particularly important, because it is in the second half of the fourteenth century that there emerges something which we can recognize as fashion (idem, p.7) From then on, paintings, drawings and engravings turn out to be the main documental references (see Images 1 and 2). But with the French Revolution and the democratization of the fashion, and even in Louis XIV times ( ), engravers began to publish engravings in which the dresses of the ladies start to appear. The dolls of fashion, the Pandoras, appeared and could be taken to the noble ladies, so that they could choose their models. It was, anyway, a rather clumsy way to popularize fashion, and it involved a time delay. It was impossible for a woman in distant countries, or even distant provinces, to be fashionable. (Idem)
5 Img.1- A drawing by Leonardo da Vinci, belonging to Windsor Castle. Laver used it in his book Drama, its costume and decor. Souce: LAVER, 1951, p. 46. Img. 2- Washings the ruffs, engraving by Crispin van der Passe ( ). It was used by Laver in his book Clothes. Source: LAVER, 1952, p.65. Laver states that most of his iconographical sources were the fashion plates (see Images 3 and 4). They were not expensive and were easily transportable. They were issued in regular
6 sequence and in enormous numbers. Henceforward, it is possible to trace fashion s changes year by year (LAVER, 1961, p.9) Another source used by Laver were the fashion books that started to appear in the 19th Century and that could not be reproduced in a large number, due to lack of technical skills in large scales. But he is very clear when judging the works: A costume history is nothing without pictures, and these were for the most part provided by lithography or wood engraving, the color being laboriously added by hand (idem, 1961, p. 9), what certainly diminished quality. Image 3- Engraving from the journal La belle Assemblée, from It was used by Laver in his book Fashion and fashion Plates Source: LAVER, 1943, plate 2. Image 4- Drawing inspired by the fashion plates, depicting costumes from 1818 to Source: LAVER, 1961, p.82.
7 Other references include pattern making books, like the one in Image 5. He would also use this kind of material when engaged as a consultant in movie production. He never acted as a costume designer. Image 5- Cavalry pattern from the book Military Taylor s Pattern Book (circa 1800). Source: LAVER, 1948, plate 6. Image 6- Mary Bagot, the Countess of Falmouth. Source: LAVER, 1942, plate 11. Painting and portraits, individual or collective, are represented all the time in Laver s work and show his very specific viewpoints of fashion. It is the case of Image 6, a historical portrait of the Countess of Falmouth ( ), circa The piece is in the book The ladies of Hampton Court, from Laver was a very connected man to his time and photography wouldn t take long t be part of his publications. One good example of that is Image 7, from of the latest books written by Laver: Modesty in dress, from He compared this costume with the one on image 8, analyzing the female social and cultural context and the material used in the costumes, in the past and present.
8 Image 7- Costume to ride a bicycle cycle, Source: LAVER, 1969, p Image 8- Costume for bicycle riding, Source: LAVER, 1969, p Final remarks Image 9- James Laver, in 1965, at the age of 66. Source: LAVER, 1965, p.2. One might always wonder, when holding in hands one of those manuals of the 19th century that depict costumes from all over the world at different ages: how could this author do it? It was an age with no Internet, no fast mailing, no proper transportation system Taylor explains, for instance, that August Racinet, the author of Le costume historique, from 1888, used very badly recommended material about costumes of Turkey, for example. They were fantasized versions, a highly romanticized version of the costumes of Turkey and the European East. (TAYLOR, 2004, p. 21) is nothing without images, Said Laver, as we have seen
9 (LAVER, 1961, p. 9). However, introducing an image without giving precise information about her- even to question its authenticity- is totally null when it comes to researching costumes. Et quel est votre métier, Monsiuer? Je suis conservatéur de musée. (LAVER, 1963, p.149) Laver would become one of the two most important researchers in the popularization of fashion studies in the 20th century, especially through his book Taste and Fashion. The other was François Boucher ( ), keeper of the Carnavalet Museum in Paris, and the author of The History of Costume in the West. It was precisely the intense care for information that made these studies so respected in a field that once had been considered futile. Laver, that as we have seen started his costume studies because of his job - conservateur de musée at the Victoria and Albert Museum, created many theories, but there are two that are still studied and respected. The first states that: In fact, there is a list we could follow. The same costume will be : Indecent / 10 years before its time; Shameless / 5 years before its time; Outré (Daring) / 1 year before its time; Smart / 'Current Fashion'; Dowdy / 1 year after its time; Hideous / 10 years after its time; Ridiculous / 20 years after its time; Amusing / 30 years after its time; Quaint / 50 years after its time; Charming / 70 years after its time; Romantic /100 years after its time; Beautiful / 150 years after its time. (LAVER, 1937, cap.18) The other establishes that costumes follow three main principles in their creation: Hierarchical Principle = dressing to indicate one's position in society Utility Principle = dressing for warmth and comfort Seduction Principle = dressing to attract the opposite sex. These principles were based on Flügel s and naturally need to be updated, especially because of the diversity of genre, the inclusion of women in the working market and social political changes from 1930 on. What is most important for one to notice is that all the images used in this paper so far, except Image 9, belong to museum s collections. These institutions were visited by Laver or even directed by him. These images are fundamental to the study of fashion and costume, and belong to French, English and other museums.
10 As stated Susan Sontag, the interpretation of a piece is not of absolute value. The evaluation in itself needs to be evaluated, within a scope of human historical conscience (FERNIE, 2011, p. 218), she says, pointing out that the work of a man like James Laver will always be worth double checking, as well as all the museum pieces he made use of. And that is why having the patrimony is essential. 6. References FERNIE, Eric (org.). Art history and its methods. Londres: Phaidon Press, FLÜGEL, J. C. A psicologia das roupas. São Paulo: Editora Mestre Jou, LAVER, James. British Military Uniforms. Londres: Penguin Books, Clothes. Londres: Burke, Costume through the ages. New York: Simon and Schuster, Drama- its costume and décor. Londres: The Studio Ltd, Fashion and fashion plates. Londres: The King Penguin Books, Modesty in dress. Londres: Heinemann, Museum piece or the education of an iconographer. Londres: A. Deutsch, Taste and fashion. Edição Kindle, 1937, capítulo 18.). The ladies of Hampton Court. Londres: William Collins, TAYLOR, Lou. Establishing dress history. Manchester: Manchester University Press, The study of dress history. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002.
Final French Culture - Mr. Muse Catharina Gangl Using your class lecture and touring experiences: MOVEABLE FEAST -What is it you will remember about your time in Paris in 15 years? Paris - city of lights,
Reading 1 Exercise A. Read the text and match the following headings (A-F) to the paragraphs (1-5). There is ONE EXTRA heading. A. Holidays B. Time C. Living Costs D. Places to Stay In E. Characteristics
American MovieMakers FEATURE LIZA REMEMBERS VINCENTE MINNELLI "My father," says Liza Minnelli, "was a funny, wonderful man and people loved him, but on the set -- he was an absolute czar." For twenty-six
STYLE MAGAZINE ISSUE 04 AYS OF ENIM reaming STEP INTO THE NEW SEASON IN STYLE WITH OUR TAKE ON HOW TO WEAR ENIM NOW Words: Emily Jane 1 Final Assignment MAG.indd 1 days of denim dreaming 2 Final Assignment
FF: Fashion Design-Art (See also AF, AP, AR, DP, FD, TL) FF 111 Visual Design Concepts I This course teaches students to understand, analyze, and draw the female fashion figure, front, turned, and back
Distinguishing Between Real & Fake Cameos By Danielle Olivia Tefft Copyright 2017 Cameos have been worn by both men and women as beloved adornments for over 2000 years. The most popular real cameos are
1 Worksheet CARTER ARCHAEOLOGY 2 1. Howard Carter s discovery Text A The Valley of the Kings The Valley of the Kings is on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the ancient city of Thebes. Thebes is called
Madonna NUDE SESSIONS Martin Schreiber ARTIST S PHILOSOPHY What is photography, then you may as well ask what is an image, what is a painting or drawing or a design? It is an expression, it is an idea,
International Journal of Applied Home Science Volume 3 (1&2), January & February (2016) : 31-35 Received : 08.01.2016; Revised : 13.01.2016; Accepted : 18.01.2016 REVIEW ARTICLE ISSN : 2394-1413 Impact
Robert Tonner Interview The Tonner Doll Company, established in 1991, is internationally renowned for award-winning dolls. The dolls sculpted at Tonner dolls are known for their attention to detail. This
UNIVERSIDADES PÚBLICAS DE LA COMUNIDAD DE MADRID PRUEBA DE ACCESO A ESTUDIOS UNIVERSITARIOS (LOGSE) Curso 2013 JUNIO MATERIA: INGLÉS INSTRUCCIONES GENERALES Y VALORACIÓN l. Lea todo el texto cuidadosamente.
Crown (regalia) I INTRODUCTION Crown (regalia), headdress symbolizing sovereignty, or other high rank or special condition. The word is also used to refer to a monarchy as an institution. II ANCIENT CROWNS
My Time in Paris By Kristin Shust Paris was my first trip out of the United States; I was never even to Canada or Mexico. So you could imagine I was kind of nervous on the flight over. It just so happens
МИНИСТЕРСТВО НА ОБРАЗОВАНИЕТО, МЛАДЕЖТА И НАУКАТА ЦЕНТЪР ЗА КОНТРОЛ И ОЦЕНКА НА КАЧЕСТВОТО НА УЧИЛИЩНОТО ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ ТЕСТ ПО АНГЛИЙСКИ ЕЗИК ЗА VII КЛАС PART ONE: LISTENING COMPREHENSION Listening A Directions:
Read Online and Download Ebook THINK AND GET LAID: THE 11 KEYS TO UNLOCKING FEMALE ATTRACTION BY DOMINIC MANN DOWNLOAD EBOOK : THINK AND GET LAID: THE 11 KEYS TO UNLOCKING Click link bellow and free register
GIACOMETTI AND MAEGHT FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE 26 JULY 2010 INFORMATIONS FONDATION MAEGHT 623, chemin des Gardettes 06570 Saint- Paul de Vence 27 June - 30 November 2010 www.fondation- maeght.com MEDIA CONTACT
Louis Vuitton in India Module Marketing Management Date: 26- Feb- 2011 A product is a physical thing... the brand has not tangible, physical nor functional properties... yet, it is as real as the product.
YOUR PERSONAL STYLE AND IMAGE STATEMENT WORKSHEET ello, I m Robin Fisher and I have loved fashion, image and style my entire life. I truly believe that any individual regardless of their size, shape or
History 1400, Spring 2017 Robert Travers, Associate Professor of History Email: email@example.com Office hours (McGraw Hall 345), Thursday 3.30-5.30pm Rudyard Kipling s India: Literature, History, and Empire
Wren Feathers Welcome Su-Jin! As always this pattern is by me (Jennie Bagrowski) and is for your personal use only, you MAY share it by linking to this blog, you may NOT sell it or upload it to any site
!"#$%&'(!#$%")!"#$%&'"#()&*" *&+",-%".)(/0(1#++%"(2#,3%45 Maggi Hambling: Painter and sculptor 1945 Born in Sudbury, Suffolk 1969 Left the Slade School of Fine Art, having previously studied at Camberwell,
SUMMER PROGRAM 2017 Course title: Paris through its Museums & Artistic Sites Meeting Times and Days: June 26 July 7, 2017 (2-week session), Monday through Friday, from 9am to 5pm (with a one-hour lunch
Women s Hairstyles: Two Canadian Women s Hairstories Rhonda Sheen Abstract: The physical appearance of women matters in contemporary North American societies. One important element of appearance is hairstyle.
August 2, 2011 Laura Levine: New York Rocker Posted by Caroline Hirsch Madonna, New York City, 1982 I d always been into music printing up fake press passes and sneaking my camera into concerts since the
Style & Beauty Focus When you meet Nupur Tron, her self confidence, panache and beauty are what catch your attention! When I first met this Indo-French jewellery designer who achieved runaway success with
INFLUENCE OF FASHION BLOGGERS ON THE PURCHASE DECISIONS OF INDIAN INTERNET USERS-AN EXPLORATORY STUDY 1 NAMESH MALAROUT, 2 DASHARATHRAJ K SHETTY 1 Scholar, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University,
IB VISUAL ARTS (HL) COMPARATIVE STUDY KYLIE KELLEHER IB CANDIDATE NUMBER: 000878-0097 RAJASTHAN, INDIA PHOTOGRAPH BY STEVE MCCURRY Steve McCurry is best known for his color photography that captures the
Economy & Culture Storybook 23. GREECE-Clothes Made from the Heart The Clothes Made from the Heart - Greece Written by Ji-yun Jang Illustrated by Svjetlan Junakovic Rewritten in English by Joy Cowley big
The Vikings (People Of The Ancient World) By Virginia Schomp READ ONLINE If searching for a book The Vikings (People of the Ancient World) by Virginia Schomp in pdf form, in that case you come on to the
2018 Florida Folk Festival Participant Guidelines Mission: The mission of the Florida Folk Festival is to provide a Florida heritage-based celebration while conserving and interpreting Florida s diverse
The Professional Photo, Film, TV & Personal Stylist s Course Image Consulting 1 The Professional Photo, Film, TV & Personal Stylist s Course Image Consulting Get into Professional Styling The Really Good
Vol. 1 October 2014 October 2014, Interviews Make art, like love Interview with Kendell Geers By Anna Savitskaya Fri, Oct 17, 2014 Broken glass and barbed wire always play a major role in describing Kendell
Born In Blood: The Lost Secrets Of Freemasonry By Robinson, John J. (1989) Hardcover By John J. Robinson If searching for a book by John J. Robinson Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry by Robinson,
Just another WordPress.com weblog Colour Catchup: SlideShare January 16, 2012 I realize I haven t been keeping up with the blogging so here is a bit of catchup. A little while ago, I posted three presentations
Honno-Hanashi, The Art Of Punk: Embroidery Artist, Junko Oki, Finally Releases Her Long Awaited Art Book, Hon Bunshun, June 2014 THE ART OF PUNK: EMBROIDERY ARTIST, JUNKO OKI, FINALLY RELEASES HER LONG
International Training Programme 2016 Final Report Barbara Vujanović, senior curator Ivan Meštrović Museums - Meštrović Atelier, Zagreb firstname.lastname@example.org Supported by the John Armitage Trust
Historic Costumes And How To Make Them (Dover Fashion And Costumes) PDF This practical and informative guidebook is a "must-have" for anyone planning to create accurate period costumes for theatrical productions
A Complete 14th/15th century Cotehardie Wardrobe Lady Medb ingen Echuid email@example.com Introduction Cotehardie has become a widely used term to describe garments from the 14th and 15th centuries.
Name: Date: Per: Fashion Design Review 1. Lines can be more than horizontal or vertical. They can also be,,. 2. Positive space is? Negative space is? 3. What is 2D? What is 3D? 4. Formal balance is. 5.
BASIC COSMETOLOGY OPERATOR COURSE CURRICULUM & OUTLINE COURSE DESCRIPTION: A study of the basic principles of cosmetology that include a basic understanding of the skin and hair and the products and procedures
Training Programme Vocational Certificate Jewellery Making The jeweller creates, transforms and repairs jewellery in precious metal (gold, silver, platinum). The jeweller fabricates the jewellery piece
Case :0-cv-00-RCL Document Filed 0// Page of UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ROGER HALL, et al.,.. Plaintiffs,.. v... CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY,.. Defendant..................
CONSTANT WITNESS RE-FRAMING IMAGES OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR We had wanted to show you truth, but truth photographs badly. We had wanted to show you hope, but we could not find it. (Brown 1945, p. 8) HELEN
Problem of Micro Enterprises in India- A Case Study of Firozabad Bangle Gargi Kulshreshtha 1, Dr. M. K. Kulshreshtha 2 1 Research Scholar, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan 2 Research Supervisor Department
Early Medieval Art and Architecture in the West Lecture by Ivy C. Dally South Suburban College South Holland, IL What are the Middle Ages? The term Middle Ages dubbed in the Renaissance. Considered the
Gloria Jeans Gloria Jeans Company is a vertically integrated retailer, a leader of the fast fashion segment in Russia and Ukraine. Gloria Jeans designs, produces and sells fashion apparel, footwear and
THE YORUBA PEOPLE OF SOUTH WEST NIGERIA, AFRICA People: Yoruba Location: SW Nigeria Population: Perhaps 20,000,000 Arts: Yoruba beliefs and rituals, gods and spirits, with their blithering array of cults
THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART ORAL HISTORY PROGRAM INTERVIEW WITH: INTERVIEWER: LOCATION: MALU EDWARDS (ME) SHARON ZANE (SZ) THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART DATE: NOVEMBER 4, 1998 BEGIN TAPE 1, SIDE 1 Just tell me,
WHITEWALL 93 12 Barry McGee V2.indd 2 11/10/13 5:21 PM When we met with Barry McGee in New York, on an unseasonably hot fall day, he seemed relieved to have his recent retrospective at the ICA behind him.
TOURING EXHIBITION for children TRANSFORMATIONS A GRAPHIC AND CHOREGRAPHIC WORKSHOP www.centrepompidou.fr TRANSFORMATIONS A GRAPHIC AND CHOREGRAPHIC WORKSHOP CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION page 3 2 BIOGRAPHICAL
Reading Practice Preserving Britain s cultural heritage: to restore a legendary theatrical dress An astonishingly intricate project is being undertaken to restore a legendary theatrical dress, Angela Wintle
FASHION MERCHANDISING COURSE DESCRIPTION The Fashion Merchandising course is an introductory course that teaches the concepts of entry-level business and fashion fundamentals. The following list of skill
DUO Contents A reflection of twoness, and a sense of making room for someone else 2 Abstract 3 Background and Idea 4 The Designer 6 The Beginning 8 Finding a Way 10 Creating My Own Material 10 The Method
Robert Burns Public Memorials Missing, Destroyed or Undiscovered. During the period following Burns s death in 1796 and up until the 150 th anniversary of his birth in 1909, many hundreds of public memorial
Setting the mood The stage set design combines with sound and light to give the atmosphere or mood for a production. The costumes work with this to enhance the overall effect. The examples below show how
www.breaking News English.com Ready-to-use ESL / EFL Lessons The Breaking News English.com Resource Book 1,000 Ideas & Activities For Language Teachers http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/book.html Michael
FREEHOLD REGIONAL HIGH SCHOOL DISTRICT OFFICE OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION 21 st CENTURY LIFE AND CAREERS FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES DEPARTMENT HONORS FASHION DESIGN IV COURSE PHILOSOPHY Honors Fashion
SPARE MORNING OR AFTERNOON? If you ve already made a reconnaissance walk of the Albert Dock, you ll know to head straight to Tate Liverpool. As well as permanent displays of contemporary art, check out
C H A P T E R T H I R T E E N THE CRINOLINE PERIOD Check for updates on the web now! Click anywhere in the slide to view the next item on the slide or to advance to the next slide. Use the buttons below
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. Brief Description of item(s) What is it? A figurine of a man wearing a hooded cloak What is it made of? Copper alloy What are its measurements? 65 mm high, 48mm wide and 17 mm thick,
While reading Chapter 1 1 Put the words in the right place to make a sentence. a tall Conklin his about man age saw a own.. b eyes in anger the his look had man a of. c large to people table thirty enough
P ford residence southampton, ny Body painting photos bike ride Aug 26, 2015. The streets of Philadelphia will soon be awash in a cavalcade of thousands of nude and near-nude bodiesmany adorned with glitter,
Lab Coats And Werewolves (Gay Werewolf Shifter Erotica) By Alara Branwen;Christie Sims Werewolf and Shifter Romance (809 books) - - Werewolf and Shifter Romance Books If the book is part of a series, please
OVERVIEW 2015 4-H Fashion Storyboard General Rules and Guidelines The 4-H Fashion Storyboard is an industry-inspired method of displaying original designs. The best storyboards create vivid visual images
Current calls for papers and announcements The craft + design enquiry blog site Further information about craft + design enquiry is available online on the c+de blog at craftdesignenquiry.blogspot.com.au
Laser Technician Jobs & Market Analysis Where will I work as a Certified Laser Technician? There are numerous possibilities for employment in this booming and ever-changing industry. Our graduates have
Cruchley s Collection Diana Cruchley is an award-winning educator and author, who has taught at elementary and secondary levels. Her workshops are practical, include detailed handouts, and are always enthusiastically
INTERVIEW // NIR HOD: THE LIFE AND DEATH OF A STAR BY ALISON HUGILL; PHOTOS BY MAIKE WAGNER IN BERLIN Nir Hod at Michael Fuchs Galerie, Berlin; Photo by Maike Wagner On the opening night of Nir Hod s solo
SPECIAL REPORT What Every Woman Needs To Know About Breast Augmentation Here s your chance to finally get some straight talk about breast augmentation. Find out all the risks and benefits of the procedure
SCRIPT: Communication in Egypt: a Journey of Letters and Beyond Karima Ragab December, 2015 From telegrams to cellphones, the communication means have strongly evolved in the past decade, paving the way
An Patterned History of Ta Moko Stephanie Ip 23406051 Karl Fousek Art History 100 Section 06 As we have seen thus far in our course on Art History, there is almost always a deeper meaning behind a culture
MEDIA ANALYSIS ESSAY #2 Chevalier 1 Coco Mademoiselle An Analysis of Chanel Advertising in Cosmopolitan Magazine Introduction to Journalism and Mass Communications Professor Christopher Wells April 14,
ANDY WARHOL. Research & Analysis Who is he? Andy Warhol, born Andrew Warhola was an American artist who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship
Photographs by Sanlé Sory April 16-29, 2018 https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2017/01/09/a-witness-to-youth-culture-in-burkina-faso-sory-sanle/?mcubz=3 Sory Sanlé's best photograph: the studio where dreams
Altars Catalog August 2017 Gothic Title of Reredos Window Set KRALTAR-1303 Dimensions: H= 16.5 from floor to top of cross W=14 8 edge to edge D=5.5 KRALTAR-1303: Gothic Reredos with marble base. See matching
YOUR LECTURERS: JEAN MARIE ARDU, CESARE MARIA CUNACCIA, DAVIDE DALLOMO, RODOLFO DEL CHIARO, ANDREA DILETTO, MICHEL LUND, MARCO PANCONESI, CHRISTIAN PELLIZZARI, SERGIO SALERNI, ANDREA TREMOLADA. RAFFLES
Tattoos: Telling a Story of Selfesteem? About 20 percent of U.S. adults sport at least one tattoo, according to a 2012 poll. MARIE KILLEN/GETTY by John Donovan December 2, 2015 Tattoos have become so commonplace,
Altars Catalog August 2017 Gothic Title of Reredos Window Set KRALTAR-1303 Dimensions: H= 16.5 from floor to top of cross W=14 8 edge to edge D=5.5 KRALTAR-1303: Gothic Reredos with marble base. See matching
Maison Close EROTIC LINGERIE made by monsieur le français Despite the sensual and intimate nature of Maison Close lingerie, the flirty lace details and delicate materials which embrace every curve have