LYNNONG-I KA KYLLA-KTIEN BAD KA LITERESHOR KHASI

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1 LYNNONG-I KA KYLLA-KTIEN BAD KA LITERESHOR KHASI La phiah ïa kane ka lynnong ha ki ar tylli ki bynta. Ka bynta banyngkong ka long halor ka jingbatai halor ka kylla-ktien bad ka bynta ba ar pat ka long halor ka jingroi ka litereshor ha ka liang ki sawangka ba la kylla sha ka Khasi. Ka Lamphrang Ka kylla-ktien 1 (translation) ka long kaba donkam bha khamtam ha kane ka juk ba mynta. Ki briew kylleng ki jaka jong ka pyrthei ki la nang їajan їajan ka jingїadei ha pdeng jong ki. Kumno kawei ka ri bad kawei pat kin lah ban sngewthuh ha ka ktien ka thylliej lada ka ktien ba ki їa kren hapdeng jong ka long kaba їapher. Dei tang lyngba ka kylla-ktien ba lah ban don ka jingїasngewthuh jingmut hapdeng jong ki la ka long ha ka їa die їa thied, ha ka jingpule, ne ha ki kam saiñ hima sima bad kiwei kiwei de. Ka Philomena Kharakor, ka ong ba ka kylla-ktien ka pynïar ïa ka jingїohi shaphang ka pyrthei bad ka ïarap ban pun jingkieng na kawei ka ri sha kawei pat. 2 Ka kylla-ktien ka long kaba donkam ym tang ha ka sobjek litereshor bad lingkwistik hynrei wat ha ka sobjek saïan, ka aiñ, ka tekhnoloji bad kiwei de ki lyngkha jingpule ruh. Ka kylla-ktien khamtam eh ka long ka bynta kaba donkam bha na ka bynta ka jingroi ha ka thoh ka pule. Ka kylla-ktien ka long ka sobjek kaba їar shibun lada pule bniah shaphang jong ka. Ki nongthoh thiori halor ka kylla-ktien naduh ki por mynshuwa ki phiah ïa ka sobjek ha ki ar tylli ki bynta ka kylla-ktien ha ka litereshor bad ka kylla-ktien ha ki jingthoh ki bym 1 B. War, Ka Kylla-Ktien: ka Jingїakynduh jong ki kolshor ki bapher, Paper presented in the seminar on The Importance Of Translation In Khasi Literature organized by KAS And Sahitya Akademi on the 10 th & 11 th September, 2003 at the Don Bosco Youth Centre Laitumkhrah. 2 Philomena Kharakor, Biblical Influence on Pre-Independence Khasi Literature, New Delhi, Scholar Publishing House, 1999, p.6. 1

2 dei ka litereshor. Ka kylla-ktien bym dei litereshor ka long kum ha ki sobjek Saïan, ka tnat pule ha ka ïoh ka kot (Economics), ka Aiñ bad kiwei kiwei kiba ban jur halor ka jingmut jong ki kyntien ban ïa ka stail jong ka ktien. Ka lah ban long kaba shu ong lane shu pyndonkam da ka ktien kata da kaba shu kren (oral translation) bad don ruh da kaba shu thoh. Kane ka wad-bniah ka long tang halor ka kylla-ktien kaba їadei bad ka litereshor, kata ruh tang ha ka liang ka sawangka ba la kylla na ka English sha ka Khasi. I. HALOR KA KYLLA-KTIEN Ka kyntien Kylla-ktien ka dei ka kyntien kaba dang shu thaw thymmai shen ha ka thoh ka tar Khasi kaba mut translation bad kaba nyngkong eh ban pyndonkam ïa kane ka kyntien ha ka thoh ka tar Khasi ka dei ka B. War. 3 Watla don kiwei pat kiba ïaleh ban wad kyntien Khasi ïa ka kyntien English translation, ha kane ka wad-bniah la sngew dei ban shim ïa ka kylla-ktien jong kane ka nongthoh kum kaba kham biang na ka bynta ka jingmut jong ka kyntien translation. Don ki nongthoh kiba sngew dei ban pynhiar dor їa kane ka sobjek kylla-ktien bad don pat kiba sngewїahab ban pynїaryngkat їa ka bad ka jingthoh mutdur. Ka jingkyrshan jong ki nongthoh ba ka kylla-ktien ka long kham hapoh ka kyrdan ban їa ka jingthoh mutdur ka long namar ba ka jingroi jong ka kylla-ktien ka long na ka daw ka jingroi ki jingthoh mutdur. Ka kylla-ktien ka long ka sobjek kaba jwat shibun. Kam da donkam ban thew haduh katno ka їaryngkat bad ka jingthoh mutdur. Hynrei ka kylla-ktien ha ka litereshor kum ka buit-thaw ka dei ban їoh ka jingithuh kum ka sobjek ba kyrpang bad pdiang їa ka ha kajuh ka kyrdan bad ka jingthoh mutdur. Ha kane ka lynnong, la tai halor ka kylla-ktien da kaba kdew na ki jingbatai jong u J. C. Catford (1965), u Theodore Savory (1968), ka H. Lakshmi (1993), N. R. Shastri (1994), u Kamakshi Balasubramanian bad u D. R. Mohan Raj (1988), u Bijay Kumar Das (1998), u T. Padma (2000), T. Vinoda (2000), B. War (2003) bad kiwei de. 3 B. War, Ka Kylla-Ktien: ka Jingїakynduh jong ki kolshor ki bapher, Paper presented in the seminar on The Importance Of Translation In Khasi Literature. 2

3 Ka kyntien ka kylla-ktien ka thew ïa ka jingpynkylla ïa kano kano ka jingthoh na kawei ka ktien sha kawei pat da kaba pynsah їa ka jingmut jong kaei kaba la їathuh ha kata ka ktien banyngkong ha kata kawei pat ka ktien. Kane ka pynsngewthuh ba ka kylla-ktien ka long ka jingwanrah ïa kano kano ka jingthoh na kawei ka ktien (Source Language) sha kawei pat ka ktien (Target Language). Ka long kaba donkam ban tip kumno ki riewstad jong ka thoh ka tar Khasi ki la leh ha ka ban thaw thymmai shuh shuh ïa ki kyntien Khasi ha kaba ïadei bad kine ar tylli ki jait ktien source language bad target language. Ha kane ka liang ka long kaba sngew dei ban bud ïa ka jingtyrwa jong ka B. War kumne: Ngi lah ban ai kyrteng ïa ka ktien ha kaba la thoh nyngkong da ka ktien tynrai lane dulir tynrai namar la shim ïa ka jingthoh ne jingkren na ka bad ïa ka ktien kaba ar da ka ktien pdiang namar kane ka pdiang ïa kata ka jingthoh kaba la don lypa ha ka ktien tynrai. 4 Katei ka jingthoh haneng ka pynshai ba ïa ka source language yn khot noh da ka ktien tynrai, ïa ka source text da ka dulir tynrai bad ïa ka ktien ha kaba la thoh ïa ka kyllaktien yn khot da ka ktien pdiang kaba ïahap bha namar ba ka dei ka ktien kaba pdiang ïa kata ka jingthoh. Kumno pat yn khot їa ka jingthoh ha ka ktien pdiang kaba ha ka English ki khot ka target text, namar ym sngew їahap hi ruh ban khot da ka dulir pdiang. Lada pynmut jubor noh ruh kan ym poi shano shano ruh bad kumta ha kane ka liang lada mut їa ka jingthoh jong ka ktien pdiang ban shim da ka jingtyrwa jong ka B. War kata, da ka dulir thymmai kaba ïahap namar ka jingthoh ba la pynkylla kan kham thymmai ban їa ka jingthoh ha ka ktien tynrai. Ka kylla-ktien la ka long ha ki jingthoh litereshor ne bym dei litereshor ka long kaba donkam ban don ka jingïabiang jingmut hapdeng ka ktien tynrai bad ka ktien pdiang, la 4 B. War, Ka Kylla-Ktien (Translation) ha ka Drama U Androklis bad u Sing, in Laiphew na Ar Jingmut by C. K. A. A. (Thup-I), Shillong, Laban Printers, 2005, p. 8. 3

4 ka long ha ka liang ki kyntien, ka shynrong phreis, ka shynrong senten bad ka jingmut jong ka jingthoh baroh kawei. Kam long kaba suk ban їoh їa ki kyntien kiba їahab thik ha ka kylla-ktien hynrei kaba donkam ka long ba dei ban shim da ki kyntien kiba їa jan tam. 5 Kane ka long na ka daw ba ym baroh ki jait ktien ha ka pyrthei kin don ki kyntien kiba kit kijuh ki jingmut ne kin їahab thik ha ka jingmut. Ha ka litereshor, ka kylla-ktien ka dei ban lah ban wanrah їa ki snap ba donkam jong kata ka jait litereshor, kum ka mang-jingjia (plot), ka phang pdeng, ka seng pyrkhat bad kiwei ki buit-thaw kiba paw ha ka dulir tynrai. Hangne ka wan ka stail kum ka bynta ba donkam jong ka litereshor. Katkum ki nongthoh bapher bapher ka kylla-ktien ha ka litereshor ka dei ka kam jong ka buit-thaw kumta ka don ruh la ka jong ka stail. Namarkata, ka kylla-ktien ha ka litereshor ka ban khia halor baroh ar bynta, kata, ha ka jingmut bad ha ka stail. Ka kylla-ktien ka kham eh shuh shuh ha kaba їadei bad ki jingthoh litereshor. Ka daw ka long ba ka dei ka jingthoh mutdur; kaba shlei da ki shrong ki shrup (figures of speech) 6 bapher bapher kum ki dur shon jingmut 7 (images), shin 8 (symbol), ki simili, ki metaphor, ki dur-ïapan (allusion) bad kiwei kiwei. 9 Bad yn ym lah ban pynkylla thikna ïa kine baroh (Conenna 1981). 10 Dei ban lah ban wanrah їa kine sha ka ktien pdiang ha ka rukom kaba ïahab ne їabiang pylla bad ka jingmut kaba don ha ka dulir tynrai. Namar ka jingbymlah ban pynkylla ktien ha ka rukom kaba dei bad kaba ïahab ka pynpaw noh ïa ka jingtlot jong ka; kan kylla long ka jingthoh kaba sniewdur. 11 Ka stail jong ka dulir tynrai kam dei ban 5 Eugene Nida, Linguistics and Ethnology in Translation-Problems in Language in Culture and Society, Publishers New York, London, Evanton, 1964, p Anthony Jala, Shi Kyntien in Ki Mieng Pynpang Mynsiem by Jerome Diengdoh, Shillong, Ri Khasi Press, 1978, p.v. 7 M. B. Jyrwa, Ka Stail U H. Warmphaign Sten, Shillong, Mang Computers, 2001, p Ibid, p N. R. Shastri, Translation: Mode Of Literary Communication in Art and Science of Translation, edited by J. Venkates, D. K. Fine Art Press, Delhi, Booklinks Corporation, 1994, pp Bharati Modi, Translation And Untranslatability: A Paradox To Live With in Art and Science of Translation, p S. S. Majaw, Ka Drama Khasi Ha Ka Translation Paper presented in the seminar on The Importance Of Translation In Khasi Literature. 4

5 blad noh watla ka dulir thymmai ka don la ka jong ka stail. Namar ka thong jong ka kylla-ktien ka long ban pynlong ïa kawei pat ka ktien ban sngew kumba pule ïa ka ktien la jong. 12 Kawei pat ka bynta ba kongsan jong ka kylla-ktien ka long ba ka ktien ka dei lypa ka bynta ba kongsan jong ka kolshor kumta kan ym lah lait na ka jingïatyngkhuh jong ka kolshor ha ka kylla-ktien. Ka kylla-ktien ym tang ba ka dei ka jingpynkylliang kyntien na ka ktien tynrai sha ka ktien pdiang hynrei kumba ong ka B. War, ka long ruh ka atiar ha kaba їa ka kolshor jong ka ktien tynrai la wan kit lang sha ki nongpule jong ka ktien thmu. 13 Kumta ka kylla-ktien ka wallam ïa ka jingthoh kaba ha kawei ka kolshor sha kawei pat. Ha kaba ïadei bad ki jait kylla-ktien, ki nongthoh bapher ki la ai ïa la ki jong ki jingbatai. Bunsien la ju phiah їa ka sha ki jait bapher bapher katkum ka rukom ne ka jinglong kata ka jingthoh ba la pynkylla. Ki nuksa jong ki long kum, ki jait kylla-ktien ba u Catford u ong da ka kylla-ktien bapura (full translation) bad ka kylla-ktien lyngkhap 14 (Partial) 15, kata ka mut ka kylla-ktien ba khap lyngkot noh, kawei pat ka jait kylla-ktien ka dei kaba wad ïa ka jingitynnat bad ki jingsngew bapher bapher ba don ha ka jingthoh ne kata ka kylla-ktien poitri-itynnat (Aesthetic-poetic Translation katkum u Casagrande), ka kylla-ktien ba dapbiang (Adequate translation, Savory), ka kylla-ktien ba shi-beit (Literal translation, Newmark), ka kylla-ktien song-ryntih (Composite translation, Lefevere) bad kiwei. 16 Kiwei pat ki jingthoh ki bym dei ki jingthoh kyllaktien ki long, ka jingthaw thymmai (transcreation) bad ka pyrthuh-jngai (adaptation). Kine ki shu shim tang їa ka mynsiem jong ka dulir tynrai katba u nongthoh u lah ban leh 12 T. Padma, Translation as New Writing: A Beyonding of Linguistic Arabesques and Cultural Gaps in Studies in Translation, Prestige Books, New Delhi, Dhawan Industries Offset, 2000, p B. War, Ka Kylla-Ktien: ka Jingїakynduh jong ki kolshor ki bapher, Paper presented at the seminar on The Importance Of Translation In Khasi Literature. 14 La tyrwa da kane kyntien lyngkhap kaba mut ka kylla-ktien ha kaba la khap pynlyngkot katto katne ki bynta na ka dulir tynrai. 15 J. C. Catford, A Linguistic Theory of Translation, Longdon, Oxford University press, 1974, p H. Lakshmi, Problems of Translation, Booklins Corporation, CIEFL, Hyderabad, 1993, p. 5,6,8,10. 5

6 mon da kaba thaw thymmai shuh shuh na la ka jingmutdur la jong. Ka jingthaw thymmai ka kham їadei bad ka jingthoh ba la saiñ na ka kajuh ka ktien. Kano kano ka kylla-ktien ka don la ki jong ki jingeh bad kata ka jingeh ka long kumba ong u J. C. Catford ban wad ïa ki kyntien ba ïahab katkum ka Dulir Tynrai. 17 Bad bun ki nongthoh kum u Bharti Modi, ki kubur ba ka jingeh bakhraw tam ha ka kylla-ktien ka dei ha kaba ïadei bad ki jingthoh litereshor. 18 Ka daw ka long ba, kumba la kdew shakhmat, ka jingthoh litereshor ka dap da ki shrong ki shrup bapher bapher bad kumta ka long kaba eh ban pynkylla lut ïa kine baroh. Kawei pat ka jingeh ha ka kylla ktien ka long ha ka liang ki dak-thoh (graphology). Ka nuksa ha ka ktien Khasi kaba pyndonkam da ki dak Roman kumba long ka English hynrei ka don hi ka jingїapher ha ka rukom kynnoh ha ka liang ki sawa. Ym baroh ki alphabet English ki la rung lut ha ka kynhun alphabet Khasi. Kum u c, f, q, v, x, z. Kane ka long namar ba ka ktien Khasi kam donkam їa kine ki dak thoh. Ha kaba ïadei bad kane, hap ban thoh kumba kynnoh ha ka ktien Khasi bad ban thoh ruh ha ki dak-thoh Khasi. Donkam namarkata, їa ka jingpyntbit ha ka tnat pule lingkwistik ban lah ban peit bniah їa kine ki bynta jong ka ktien ha kaba їadei bad ka kam pynkylla ktien khnang ban їoh їa ka jingtrei kaba jop. 19 Kumta ka kylla-ktien ka dei ban lah ban wanrah їa ka khubor kaba don ha ka dulir tynrai hynrei katkum ka aiñ jong ka ktien pdiang. Ha kaba їadei bad ki shrong kyntien (figures of speech), dei ban wanrah da kiba їahab ne їabiang pylla bad kaei kaba don ha ka dulir tynrai. Ka kylla-ktien kaba bha tam ka long kata ka ym shym sngew satia kum ka kylla ktien haba pule ïa ka J. C. Catford, A Linguistic Theory of Translation, p Bharati Modi, Translation And Untranslatability: A Paradox To Live With in Art and Science of Translation, 1994, p B. War, 20 Bijay Kumar Das, The Horizon of Translation Studies, Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, Delhi, Mehra Offset Press, 1998, p

7 Ka kam pynkylla ktien kan ym lah ban long khlem da don mano-re-mano ba pynkylla їa ka. Ka kylla-ktien ka lah ban kham itynnat ne ban kham sniewdur, ka shong shibun ha u nongpynkylla-ktien. U dei ma-u uba jied ïa ka jingthoh ban pynkylla. Katto katne na ki kamram jong u nongkylla ktien ki long kine: 1. U Nongkylla ktien u dei ban tip bad sngewthuh bha ïa ka ktien bad ka kolshor jong baroh ar tylli ki jait ktien ka ktien tynrai bad ka ktien pdiang. 2. U dei ban long uba riewspah ha ka liang ki kyntien jong ka ktien, kaba long ka atiar ba donkam eh ha ki nongpynkylla ktien U dei ruh ban їaid katkum ka aiñ jong ka ktien pdiang. 4. U Nongkylla ktien u dei ban lah ban bat ïa ka stail jong ka jingthoh tynrai hynrei ha kajuh ka por ruh u wanrah ïa la ka jong ka stail. 5. U nongkylla ktien u dei ban pynphalang їa khubor bad ka kolshor jong ka dulir tynrai. Haba peit kyllum ka kylla-ktien ka long kaba donkam bha ha ka litereshor. Ha ka jingshisha kiba bun ki jait litereshor ki la saphriang kylleng ka pyrthei lyngba ka kyllaktien. U Bijay Kumar Das u kubur ruh ba ka kam jong ka kylla-ktien ka long ka kam ban pynriewspah ïa ka jylli jong ka litereshor ka long ka bynta kaba donkam jong ka kylla-ktien bad kaba їarap ruh ha ka ban pynriewspah ïa ka ktien. 22 U Bijay Kumar Das u ong ba ki jait jinglong bapher (trends) jong ka litereshor ki wan lyngba ka kyllaktien S. S. Majaw, Tiaw Te Ka Jwat in Kharmalki, Antoinette, U Doktor Phastos, Mawphor Offset Press, Bishop s Fall, Shillong, Lower Mawprem, Bijay Kumar Das, The Horizon of Translation Studies, p Ibid, p

8 II. KA JINGROI KI SAWANGKA KHASI HA KA KYLLA-KTIEN ( ) Ka Jingsdang Ka litereshor Khasi ha ka thoh ka pule ka la sdang na ka kylla-ktien da ka jingwan jong ki mishoneri sha kine ki lum Khasi ban pynphriang ïa ka niam Khristan. Kane ka la jia ha shuwa ka spah snem ba khatkhyndai, kata, ha u snem 1841 haba u Thomas Jones bad ka tnga jong u ki la wan poi ha ri Khasi. Shuwa kane ka la don ka kylla-ktien ha ki dakthohbengali ha ka ktien Khasi da ka jingwan ki mishoneri Serampore ban pynphriang їa ka niam Khristan. Ha u snem 1824 ka Serampore mishon ka la pyrshang ban pynkylla ïa ka Bible sha ka Khasi da kaba pyndonkam da ki dak Bengali hynrei kane kam shym la long kaba jop. Dei ha u snem 1841 lyngba ka jingwanmih jong ka Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Mission ba la sdang ban pyndonkam da ki dak Roman. U Thomas Jones u long u mishoneri banyngkong na kane ka mishon bad u la long u nongsdang ha kane ka kam haba u la sdang ïa ka kam da ka mishon bad ka skul ha Sohra. 24 U la shim ïa ka ktien Sohra kum ka ktien thoh ïa ka ktien Khasi namar u la jied ban shong ban sah ha Sohra. Kane ka jingthmu ka long ruh ban hikai їa ki briew ban nang ban pule bad ban thoh їa la ka ktien. 25 Katkum u William Pryse, u Thomas Jones u la sdang ban pyndonkam nyngkong ïa ki dak Roman ban thoh ïa ka ktien Khasi ha u snem 1841 ha ka kot lyngkdop jong u kaba pynwan sha ka Khasi ïa ka Jingduwai u Trai. Ym lah ban shem shuh ïa kine ki jingthoh banyngkong jong u lait noh katto katne na ki kiba lah ban shem ha ka kot jong u William Pryse kaba kyrteng ka Khassia Grammar ba la pynmih ha u snem Ha une u juh u snem u Thomas Jones u la pynwan na ka ktien Welsh sha ka ktien Khasi ïa ka Rhodd 24 B. War, Khasi Orthography: A Success Story in Ka Thwet Jingstad, Vol. 1. No. 3 September, 2008, p B. War, Ka Kylla-Ktien (Translation) ha ka Drama U Androklis bad u Sing, in Laiphew na Ar Jingmut, p B. War, Khasi Orthograpgy: A Success Story in Ka Thwet Jingstad, p

9 Mam (Mothers s Gift) 27 ïa kaba la tip hadien kum Ka Kot Tikir ynda la pynbha pat ïa ka da u John Roberts. Hadien kane u John Roberts u la wan mih ban pynriewspah ïa ka thoh ka tar Khasi da kaba pynkylla sha ka Khasi ïa ki poim, ki khana lyngkot bad kawei ka sawangka na ka ktien English. Hadien jong u la mih sa kiwei pat ki nongthoh kiba la bteng ïa ka kylla-ktien na ka English bad kiwei de ki jait ktien sha ka ktien Khasi. Ka Jingroi Ha kaba ïa dei bad ka thoh sawangka (drama), u John Roberts u la long uba nyngkong eh ban sdang ha kaba u la pynkylla sha ka Khasi ïa ki katto katne ki bynta jong ka sawangka u Shakespeare kaba kyrteng Julius Caesar kaba u la ai kyrteng U Julius Kaisar bad kaba u la thep ha ka kot jong u ka Khasi Fourth Reader (1894). Kane ka jingthoh, kumba ong u B. L. Swer, ka long u symbai jong ka thoh sawangka ha ka thoh ka tar Khasi. 28 Ka kylla-ktien ha kaba їadei bad ka sawangka ka la kiew irat bha ha ki snem naduh La shem ba la pynwan sha ka Khasi ha ka dur ka sawangka ïa ki katto katne ki bynta jong ka Mahabharata da ki ar ngut shipara u Hari Charan Roy bad u Dino Nath Roy kum, Ka Savitri (1910) da u Hari Charan Roy bad U Arbnai (1912), Ka Srommotimai (1912), U Tipsngi (1924) da u Dino Nath Roy. Kiba bun hi ki sawangka ba la pynkylla sha ka ktien Khasi hadien ka Jinglaitluid jong ka ri India ki dei na ka litereshor ki English. Nalor u synniang ba u la noh sha ka parom mutdur (fiction) u F. M. Pugh u la pynkylla ruh ïa ki sawangka ba donnam jong u Shakespeare kum ka The Taming Of The Shrew, kaba u la ai kyrteng pat da Ka Tem-ding Ïa Ka Shla-briew (1964), ka sawangka As You Like It (1600) kaba u la ai kyrteng Katba Phi Mon (1964) bad ka sawangka Macbeth (1606) kaba u la ai kyrteng Ka Shem-lanot U Macbeth (1965). Sa uwei de u nongthoh, u Webster Davies Jyrwa u la pynwan sha ka Khasi ha ka dur ka sawangka ïa ka khana jong u Leo Tolstoy kaba u ai kyrteng A Spark Neglected Burns 27 R. S. Lyngdoh, Ka History Ka Thoh Ka tar Bynta I, Shillong, Khasi Jaintia Press, 2004, p Bevan Lionel Swer, Khasi Drama, Shillong, Rilum Offset Printing House, 2005, p.42. 9

10 The House sha ka I Phliah Ding Ba Iehnoh Khlem Akor I Pynpluh Ïa Ka Ïng bad ka jong u Guy de Maupasant kaba u jer kyrteng The Golden necklace sha U Kpieng Mawlynnai. U la pynwan ruh sha ka Khasi ïa ka sawangka The Merchant of Venice jong u William Shakespeare bad u la ai kyrteng U Nongkhaii ka Venice. Ïa kine ki drama u la thep ha ka kot kaba u la jer kyrteng Ki Drama Lyngkot bad kaba u la pynmih ha u snem Kine ki dei tang ki pyrthuh-jngai (adaptation) namar u nongthoh u la khñiot їa ki jingkren bad ki jingjia ha la ka jong ka mon khlem da pynduh noh їa ka mynsiem jong ki dulir tynrai. Uwei pat u Nongthoh ba pawnam ha ka litereshor Khasi, u S. J. Duncan u la pynwan sha ka Khasi bad ïa ka sawangka Androcles and the Lion jong u George Bernard Shaw kaba u la ai kyrteng U Androklis Bad U Sing (1978). Kane ka dei ka sawangka biria kaba itynnat tam ha ka kylla-ktien. La shem ba ka kylla-ktien ka la їarap ruh ban saiñdur їa ki nongkylla ktien ba kin lah ban pynmih sa їa ki sawangka ba mih na ka jingmutdur jong ki. Kum ka nuksa, u F. M. Pugh u la pynmih ar tylli kum kita katba u S. J. Duncan pat u la lah ban pynmih kawei. Hadien kane ka kylla-ktien ha ka liang ka sawangka ka la sdang ban duna ha ka thoh ka tar Khasi. Dei haduh u snem 1984 ba u B. L. Swer u la pynkylla ïa ka sawangka ba donnam jong ki Greek hyndai ka Oedipus Rex jong u Sophocles bad u la ai kyrteng ïa ka U Syiem Oedipus. Ka sawangka ba la pynkylla sha ka Khasi ha ki snem ba kham hadien ka long U Doktor Phastos ba la pynkylla da ka Antoinette Kharmalki ha u snem 2003 na ka Doctor Faustus jong u Christopher Marlowe. Haba phaidien biang la shem ba ka litereshor Khasi ha ka kylla-ktien ka la nang roi nang san bad ka la nang bun ha ki jait sawangka bapher bapher kiba la kyntiew shuh shuh kham shalor їa ka kyrdan jong ka. Kam pat da bun toi ha ka jingmih hynrei ym lah ban len ba ka la kyntiew їa ka kyrdan jong ka litereshor Khasi. 10

11 Ha kane ka wad-bniah, la jied ban bishar lai tylli ki sawangka shemlanot 29 (tragedy), bad kita ki long U Syiem Oedipus ba la pynkylla sha ka Khasi da u B. L. Swer, U Doktor Phastos da ka Antoinette Kharmalki bad Ka Shem-lanot U Macbeth ba la pynkylla da u F. M. Pugh. Nangta la jied ban bishar lai tylli ki sawangka biria 30 (comedy) bad kita ki long (i) U Androklis Bad U Sing ba la pynkylla Khasi da u S. J. Duncan, (ii) Ka Temding Ïa Ka Shla-briew bad (iii) Katba Phi Mon da u F. M. Pugh. 29 H. Elias, Ka Hamsaia Ki Por, Shillong, Don Bosco Press, 1994, p Ibid, p

12 LYNNONG-II KA THEW KA WOH ÏA KI SAWANGKA SHEMLANOT HA KA KYLLA-KTIEN Ha kane ka lynnong la jied ban bishar tang ïa ki sawangka Shemlanot (Tragedy), kita ki long: U Syiem Oedipus, Ka Shem-lanot U Macbeth bad Ka Tem-ding Ïa Ka Shla-briew. Ka wad-bniah hangne ka long ban thew ban woh haduh katno kine ki la lah ban pynphalang ïa ka dor bashisha jong ka dulir tynrai jong ki. I. U SYIEM OEDIPUS Kumba la ong haneng ka sawangka U Syiem Oedipus ka dei kaba la pynkylla sha ka Khasi da u B. L. Swer na ka sawangka ba donnam jong u Sophocles (c. 496-c. 406 B.C) kaba kyrteng Oedipus Rex (kaba u la thoh la kumno kumno hapdeng ki snem 430 bad 427 Shuwa u Khrist) 31. La ñiew ïa ka kum kawei na ki sawangka badonnam jong ki Greek. Kane ka long kawei na ki sawangka shemlanot kaba la saiñdur ïa u Aristotle ban pynshong nongrim їa ka thiori jong u halor ka shemlanot. Dei na kata ka daw ba kane ka sawangka u Sophocles ka pynpaw їa ka mynsiem jong ka khana shemlanot ki Greek kaba la saiñdur la jan їa baroh ki litereshor jong ka pyrthei. 32 U Sophocles u la thoh ïa ka sawangka Oedipus Rex ha ka ktien Greek ïa kaba la pynkylla sha ki babun ki jait ktien ka pyrthei da ki nongthoh bapher bapher. U B. L. Swer hi u la ong ha Preface jong katei ka kot ba u la pynshong nongrim їa kane ka sawangka khamtam eh halor ka jong u Dudley Fitts bad u Robert Fitzgerald bad ba u la їaid ryngkat ruh na ka jong u H. D. F. Kitto bad u Gilbert Murray. Kumta ka ktien English ka kylla long ka ktien-jiar 33 (filter language) na ka bynta kane ka sawangka u B. L. Swer ha ka ktien Khasi kumjuh ruh ïa kane ka jingbishar bniah. Ka sawangka jong u Sophocles ka long ha ka dur ka poitri 31 Lee A. Jacobus, The Bedford Introduction To Drama, Bedford Books Boston, 1997, p Theodore Savory, Translating the classics in The Art of Translation, London, Cox Wyman, 1969, p B. War, Ka Kylla-Ktien (Translation) ha ka Drama U Androklis bad u Sing, in Laiphew na Ar Jingmut, p

13 kuju 34 (blank verse) kumba ka paw ha ka ktien English 35 bad u B. L. Swer u phla ha ka Preface jong u ba um lah ban ïaid thik da ka dur thoh poitri jong ka dulir tynrai namar kan ïalam bakla pynban ïa ka jingmut tynrai 36 jong ka sawangka kumta yn shem ba don hangne hangtai ka jingïapher khamtam ha ka liang ka khriang 37 (rhythm). Kum kane ka nuksa na ka jingkren u Oedipus mar ïa ïasdang ka sawangka: Khun jong nga,/ ko ki/ pateng/ kiba im/ Na ka kpoh/ u Kadmos,/ ba la/ pynheh/ pynsan/ ha ka/ rympei/ jong u:/ 38 My children,/ gene/rations/ of the/ living/ In the line/ of Kadmos,/ nursed at/ his an/cient hearth: 39 Hangne yn ïohi ba u B. L. Swer u la ïaleh ban bud ïa ka stail kuju jong ka dulir tynrai, naduh ka khup bad ka shnok, hynrei ka don ka jingïapher khyndiat; ka laiñ banyngkong ka don saw khup ka khup banyngkong ka dei ka Mastieh 40 bad ki ar tylli kiba bud pat ki ba ar pat ki don ïa ka Jiamdien 41 bad ka bakhatduh pat ka don ïa ka Jiamphang 42 katba ha ka English, ka banyngkong ka don san khup, ka khup banyngkong ka shnok ka don hapdeng bad ka khup ka baar, ka balai bad ka basan ki don ïa ka Jiamphang bad ka khup basaw ka dei ka khlem shnok. Ha ka laiñ ba ar ha ka Khasi yn shem ba ka don haduh phra khup; ka khup banyngkong bad ba ar ka don ïa ka Jiamphang bad ki hynriew tylli ki khup babud ki don ïa ka jiamdien. Ha ka English ka laiñ ka baar ka don tang san 34 H. Elias, Ka Hamsaia Ki Por, p /07/06 36 B. L. Swer, U Syiem Oedipus, Shillong, Scorpio Printers, 1988, p. (ii). 37 H. Elias, Ka Hamsaia Ki Por, p B. L. Swer, U Syiem Oedipus, p Sophocles, Oedipus Rex, translated by Duddley Fitts and Roberts Fitzerald in The Bedford Introduction To Drama, p H. Elias, Ka Hamsaia Ki Por, p Ibid, p Ibid, p

14 khup; ka khup banyngkong ka don ïa ka Sohtyngkdom 43 ka khup ba ar ka shnok ka don hapdeng, ka balai ka Jiamphang bad ki ar tylli ki babud ki dei ki Jiamdien. Haba pule ïa kane ka sawangka jong u B. L. Swer yn shem ba u la lah ban ai ïa kaei kaba don ha ka dulir tynrai ka plot, ki tyngshop-puron, ka khoros, ka phangpdeng, ki jakaputa, kiwei kiwei pat ki buit-thaw. Ka mang-jingjia (plot) ha kane ka sawangka ka ïahab bad kata kaba u Aristotle u ong ka mang-jingjia babha tam (complex plot), kata, kaba don ïa ka jingkylla syndet ka nusip bad ka bud pat da ka jingkylla khongpong ki jingjia ne da ka jingithuh ïa ka jingshisha lane baroh ar. 44 Ka sohsat ka paw bha ha ka mangjingjia kaba la sdang da ka khlam ha ka shnong Thebes bad hadien pat ka jingwad ïa u nongpynïap jong u syiem Laius, uba long ka daw jong kata ka khlam. U Oedipus um tip ba u dei ma-u uta u nongpynïap; u la wad ïa ka jingshisha haduh ba un da lap ïa ka (anagnorisis) na ka jingwan ïathuh u Nongap-blang bad na ki dak ki shin, ka jingsah dak ka kjat jong u Oedipus, bad u sa tip ba u dei ma-u uba pynïap ïa la u kpa jong u u Laius bad uba la shong kurim ïa la ka jong ka kmie, ka Jacosta. Ka jingjia ka poi sha kliar (climax) 45 haba ka Jacosta ka la pynïap ïa lade bad u Oedipus u la dung ïa la jong ki khmat da u jingdeng ksiar jong ka Jacosta. Ka bakut ka long ka jinghap kyrdan (catastrophe) jong u Oedipus na ka jinglong syiem sha ka jinglong riewmadan bad u la hap ban phet noh na ka nongbah Thebes. Ka sawangka U Syiem Oedipus ka la pynphalang ruh ïa ka buit-thaw tyngshop-puron jong u Sophocles, ha kaba u la pyndonkam da ki para tyngshop-puron ban batai ïa ka dur ka dar bad ka riam ka beit ka rukom leh bad ruh ïa ka jinglong jong ki na ki kyntien ba ki ïakren. Ka nuksa, u Teiresias u ong ha u Oedipus, Ngam dei u shakri jong phi, hynrei jong u Apollo 46 bad haba ka Jacosta ka batai ha u Oedipus ïa ka dur ka dar u Laius ba u 43 Ibid, p S. H. Butcher, Aristotle s Theory of Poetry and Fine Art, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, Kalyani Printings, 1998, David Grene & Richmond Lattimore (ed.), Greek Tragedies (Vol. I), The University of Chicago, Chicago Press, 1960, B. L. Swer, U Syiem Oedipus, p

15 long uba jrong rynïeng bad u shñiuh ba la sdang thoh lieh 47, ka la ïohi ba kata kajuh ka dur ka don ruh ha u Oedipus bad ka ong, Syiem, nga khynñiuh haba nga peit ïa phi. 48 Kumba long ha ka dulir tynrai, u Oedipus ha ka ktien Khasi katkum u B. L. Swer ruh u dei u tyngshop shempap uba ïahap katkum ka thiori jong u Aristotle, uba dei u syiem uba kham halor ïa kiwei pat ki para tyngshop-puron 49 bad ka jingkyllon jong u ka wanrah ïa ka jingsngew synei bad ka jingtieng ha ki nongpule ne nongpeitkai. 50 Ka jingkyllon jong u Oedipus ka wanrah ka jingsngewsynei bad jingtieng ha ki nongpule ban pyrkhat ba u briew u lah ban ngat haduh kata ka apot ba u Oedipus u la shem. Ka Phangpdeng ha kane ka sawangka ka dei ka jingwad jong u Oedipus ïa uta u nongpynïap jong u syiem Laius. Ïa kane u B. L. Swer ruh u la lah ban pynphalang bha ha ka dulir thymmai jong u ïa kata ka phangpdeng kaba la paw naduh basdang ka sawangka, kata, ha Ka Lamkhmat ka don ka jinglyngnga ha ki tyngshop-puron namar ka khlam kaba la jia ha ka nongbah Thebes, kumta u Oedipus kum u syiem u la ïaleh ban wad ki lad ki lynti ban tip ïa ka daw jong kata ka khlam. Katkum ki jingïathuh lypa la shem ba ka daw ka dei na u nongpynïap jong u syiem Laius uba long ka byrsieh ïa ka shnong baroh kawei. U Oedipus u la wad ïa uta u nongpynïap da kaba tohkit na kito kiba lah ban ïoh jingtip, kum u Teiresias. Dei haduh ka sienpaw kaba saw da ka jingwanmih jong u Nongap-blang ba ki jingshisha baroh ki la sdang ban paw shai ba u Oedipus u dei uta u nongpynïap jong u syiem Laius. Ka sawangka U Syiem Oedipus ka la lah ruh ban ïaid katkum ka thiori jong u Aristotle ha kaba ïadei bad ki lai tylli ki jingilang ka por, ka jaka bad ki kam jingleh. Ha kane ka sawangka, ka por ka long hapoh ka arphewsaw kynta, naduh ba la sdang ban wad ïa ka daw jong ka khlam haduh ba u Oedipus u ithuh ne lap ïa lade ba dei ma u, ka la long tang hapoh ka shi tyllun sngi. Ha ka liang ka jaka, yn shem ba ki jingjia ha ka khana ki 47 Ibid, p Ibid, p S. H. Butcher, Aristotle s Theory of Poetry and Fine Art, p Ibid, p

16 sdang na ka shnong Thebes nangta sha Korinth bad hadien ki poi biang sha Thebes bad kumba long ha ka dulir tynrai u B. L. Swer u la wanrah halor rynsan tang kawei ka jaka, kata ha ïing syiem ka shnong Thebes. Ïa kita kiwei pat ki jaka kum ka Korinth, ka jaka shong jong u Polybos bad ka Merope kiba la pynheh pynsan ïa u Oedipus, bad ka lynti lai lad, kaba ki khot ka Phokis, ka jaka ba ka lynti Thebes ka lad sha Delphi bad sha Daulia 51 kaba long ka jaka ha kaba u Oedipus u la pynïap ïa u Laius la shu ïathuh halor rynsan. Ha jingilang jong ki kam bad jingleh, la shem ba u B. L. Swer u la wanrah ïa ka mang-jingjia kaba tylli mlun kawei, bad lah ban bat ha ka jingkynmaw ïa ki jingjia baroh ki la ba jia ha kane ka sawangka. Ka Khoros jong u Sophocles ka phong ïa kajuh ka dur ka dar ha ki kti jong u B. L. swer lyngba ka Khoros. Kata, u la lah ban wanrah ïa ka Khoros ha ki kyntien jingrwai kyud la jan thik kumba ki long ha ka dulir tynrai. Ka Khoros ka ïeng ha ka jaka jong ki nong Thebes kumjuh ruh ha ka liang jong ki nongpeitkai, bad la mih khmat їa ka da u Choragos. Ka shu batai ne pynsngewthuh, hynrei kam lah ban rai ei ei na lade. Ka ïaksaid lang kum ki nongpeitkai; ki lynga pisa haba ym pat ïoh ïa ka jubab. Ha kaba ïadei bad ki jingkren marwei (soliloquy) jong u Oedipus bad ka Jacosta ba ki pynpaw ïa ka jinglyngnga mynsiem jong ki kumba la leh da u Sophocles. Kum ha ka sienpar ka balai, ka Jacosta ka kren marwei ban ïathuh ïa ka jingkhih-wit ka mynsiem u Oedipus bad ka dwai ha u Apollo ban pynlait na kata ka byrsieh. Ka khana tynrai jong u Sophocles ka bun kyrhai ki siat-mynthi (irony) bad wat ki jingjia ha ka khana baroh kawei ki long kiba siat-mynthi (irony) 52. U Oedipus u tim ïa uta u nongpynïap khlem da tip ba u dei ma u uta u nongpynïap. Kane harum ka long ka nuksa jong ka siat mynthi.: Kumta nga teh ïa lade bad kane ka jingïathuhlypa Bad lang ha ka liang jong u syiem ba shah pynïap, 51 B. L. Swer, U Syiem Oedipus, p /05/08 16

17 Ïa uta u nongkam bymman, nga duwai h u Blei Wat lada u dei u nongtuh nonglute, ne uwei na ngi, Ngi duwai ba ka sniew ka smeh bad ka lanot khop kan bam ïa u. 53 U B. L. Swer u la lah ruh ban wanrah ïa ka seng pyrkhat jong ki Greek kaba paw ha kane ka sawangka bad kata ka long ban pyrkhat hato ka kupar jong u briew ka dei kaba la buh da ki blei ne kaba u briew hi u thaw ïalade. Ha ka jong u Sophocles, ki nia ki long kiba khlaiñ na baroh ar liang bad ka la long kumjuh ruh ha ka dulir thymmai jong u B. L. Swer uba pynpaw ba ki blei ki don ka bynta ha ka ban saiñdur ïa ka jingim u briew, kumba ong u Oedipus, Katno, a, u Blei u la shna ka jingriamїa nga! 54 bad kawei pat ka long ba u briew u thaw hi ïa la ka jong ka kupar ka nusip da kaba u ong pat, Ban pyrkhat ba nga la wanrah hi la jingtim/da ka ain bym tip jong nga. 55 U B. L. Swer u la wanrah ïa kata ka jinglong sarong jong u Oedipus 56 kaba la long ka daw jong ka jinghiar kyrdan jong u. Ha kaba ïadei bad ka kolshor, u B. L. Swer u la wanrah ïa ka kolshor ki Greek hyndai kumba ka paw ha ka dulir tynrai, kum ka jingngeit ha ki blei bapher bapher, ki jingïathuhlypa, ka jingleit dem dwai ki lyngdoh bad ki samla shynrang ha khmat ki maw duwan kiba don ha khmat ïing syiem ka Thebes, kaba paw shynna bha ha kane ka sawangka. U B. L. Swer namarkata, u la leh ïa kaei kaba donkam ha ka kylla-ktien, 57 kata, ban wanrah ïa ka kolshor jong ka dulir tynrai ha ka ktien pdiang. Ha kaba ïadei bad ki shrong ki shrup bapher bapher kiba don ha ka dulir tynrai la shem ba u B. L. Swer ym tang ba u la lah ban wanrah hynrei pynban ban pynroi ruh ïa ki ha ka dulir thymmai ban ïa kaba ha ka dulir tynrai. Ki nuksa jong ki simili: Ka jingïap hi/ka 53 B. L. Swer, U Syiem Oedipus, p Bevan Lionel Swer, U Syiem Oedipus, p Ibid, p /05/08 57 B. War, Ka Kylla-Ktien: ka Jingїakynduh jong ki kolshor ki bapher, Paper presented in the seminar on The Importance Of Translation In Khasi Literature. 17

18 plung kum mangkariang (Death alone/battens upon), ka miet kum ka jainsop krong! (night like a shroud!). Ki metaphor: thei-troh-briew (hellcat), u mawmon ka lanot khop (weight of monstrous doom), Pihuiñ mrad (savage envy). Na kitei ki nuksa haneng lah ban shem ïa ka jingtbit u B. L. Swer ha kaba wanrah bad pynroi ïa ki shrong ha ka ktien Khasi bad ba u la lah ban leh kham bha da ka pynkylla simili mangkariang ïa ka kyntien bym dei ka simili khlem da ïaid lait na ka jingmut tynrai. Ki dur-ïapan ba lah ban shem ha ka dulir thymmai jong u B. L. Swer ki long kum u Zeus, u Apollo, u Agenor, ka Artemis bad kiwei hynrei ïa kine baroh u la wanrah da ka jingbatai hadien ka bakut jong ka jingthoh. U B. L. Swer u la lah ruh ban pynphalang їa ka kolshor jong ka dulir tynrai bad don kiba u la bujli da ki kyntien ka kolshor Khasi kiba biang pylla bad ka dulir tynrai. kum kane ka nuksa, Ko ryngkew-basa jong ka jaitbynriew 58 (O mountain guard of a noble race) 59. Ha ka thew ka woh ïa ka sawangka U Syiem Oedipus jong u B. L. Swer yn shem ba ka dei ka kylla-ktien kaba ban khia halor ka jingmut kaba don ha ka dulir tynrai bad ym katkum ka shynrong senten jong ka dulir tynrai. Kane ka kylla-ktien ka hap ha ka kyllaktien dapbiang (Adequate translation). U nongkylla ktien hangne u la ïaid katkum ki aiñ kramar ha kaba ïadei bad ka shynrong senten bad ka shynrong phreis jong ka ktien pdiang, kata, ka ktien Khasi. Na ka liang ka jingpyndonkam їa ki kyntien, u B. L. Swer u la wanrah da ki kyntien kiba khia thew, kumba ong u Aristotle ba ka shemlanot ka longkajingpyrthuhbud їa ki jingjia kiba khia-thew ha ki kyntien kiba khia-thew. Kumba la ïohi haneng u la lah ban wanrah sha ka ktien Khasi ïa ka mang-jingjia, ka buit-thaw tyngshop-puron, ka phangpdeng, ki jaka-puta, ka Khoros bad kiwei pat ki buit-thaw bad ruh ïa ka stail kaba don ha ka sawangka jong u Sophocles. 58 B. L. Swer, U Syiem Oedipus, p Sophocles, Oedipus Rex, translated by Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald in The Bedford Introduction To Drama, p

19 Hynrei ka don ka jingduna ha ka liang ka graphology um shym la wanrah katkum ka rukom spel Khasi ha kaba ïadei bad katto katne ka kyrteng jong ki tyngshop-puron, kum u Oedipus, ka Jocasta, u Creon, u Charagos, ka Antigone watla u la pyrshang ban wanrah da u k ha ka jaka u c na ka bynta ka shnong Corinth u la spel Korinth hynrei ka jingdon bun ki sawa Kosonan ha ka bakut jong ka kyntien kam ïahab bad ka kyndon jong ka rukom kynnoh ka ktien Khasi. 60 U la leh kumjuh ha kaba ïadei bad ki kyrteng jong ki blei ne ki ksuid Greek um shym la spel Khasi ïa ki, kum ka Sphinx, ki Fury, bad kiwei de. Ïa ka Prologue u ai da Ka Lamkhmat, katba ïa ka Parados, ka Exodos bad ïa ki jingrwai Kyud 61 (Ode) u la wanrah beit kumba ki long ha ka dulir tynrai khlem da pynkylla Khasi ïa ki. Nangta um shym la pynkylla Khasi ïa ka kyntien Scene kumba la leh da kiwei pat ki nongthoh sawangka Khasi. Ka don sa kawei ka jingbakla ha kane ka kylla-ktien ha kaba la thoh KA SCENE BASAN 62 ha ka jaka jong ka Basaw. Nalor kane don katto katne ki daïalok kiba la jah noh ha ka kylla-ktien kum ka nuksa, ka jingjah noh ar tylli ki jingïakren hapdeng u Teiresias bad u Oedipus ha Ka Scene Banyngkong. Watla kane kam shym la khate noh ïa ka dor jong ka sawangka hynrei ka pynpaw ïa ka jingduna ha ka kylla-ktien. Don iwei ar ki jingbakla ha ka rukom pynkylla-ktien, kum kane harum ka long kawei na ki: Teiresias: Kam dei na nga ba kupar jong phi kan wan. 63 (It is not from you my fate will come) B. War, Ki Sawa Bad Ki Dur Kyntien Jong Ka Ktien Khasi, Shillong, Rilum Offset Printing House, 2009, p H. Elias, Ka Hamsaia Ki Por, p Bevan Lionel Swer, U Syiem Oedipus, p Ibid, p Christopher Marlowe, The Tragical History Of Doctor Faustus, p

20 Ki jingeh ba u nongkylla ktien u ïakynduh ha kane ka sawangka kim da bun lait tang ha kaba ïadei bad ki kyntien kolshor ki Greek. Ka nuksa, kum ki Fury 65 (kiba u shñiuh jong ki u dei da ki bseiñ) namar ym shym don ka kyntien Khasi kaba ïahab bad kane ka kyntien. Bad kawei pat ka dei ka Oracle kaba kham shem jingeh ban pynkylla beit ïa ka jingmut jong ka ha ka ktien Khasi. Kum kine ki khep ym lah lait ha ka kano kano ka kylla-ktien. 66 Ha kine ki khep u Nongthoh um shym la pyrshang ban saiñ kyntien thymmai. Hynrei haba bishar bha ïa kine ki jingbakla bad ki jingeh yn shem ba kim shym la pynthut ne ktah ïa kano kano ka bynta ba kongsan jong ka sawangka. Haba bishar kyllum, ka sawangka U Syiem Oedipus ka la long u synñiang bakhraw sha ka thoh ka tar Khasi. Ka la long ka poitri-sawangka kaba kham itynnat ban ïa kito kiba la mih ha shuwa jong ka. U B. L. Swer u pynpaw ba u long u nongkylla ktien uba tbit, uba sngewthuh bha ïa ka jingmut kaba don ha ka dulir tynrai bad ban wanrah ïa ka sha ka Khasi khlem da pynduh noh ïa ka jingmut tynrai. Kumta u B. L. Swer u kyntiew bad pynriewspah їa ka thoh ka tar Khasi da kaba pynkylla їa ka sawangka ba donnam jong u Sophocles sha ka ktien Khasi. 65 Ha ka jingngeit jong ki nong Greek bad roman, la ju ngeit ba ki dei ki suid-ïap jong kito ki ba ïap mynsaw da ka ba shu shah pynïap. 66 Bharti Modi, Translation And Untranslatability: A Paradox To Live With in Art and Science of Translation, p

21 II. U DOKTOR PHASTOS Ka Sawangka U Doktor Phastos jong ka Antoinette Kharmalki ka long kaba la pynkylla sha ka Khasi na ka sawangka The Tragical History Of The Life And Death Of Doctor Faustus ba la ju tip kyllum da ka Doctor Faustus ba la thoh hapdeng u snem 1588 bad Ka khana tynrai shaphang u Doctor Faustus ka long kaba la shim na ka puriskam jong ki nong Germany kaba kyrteng German Histria von D. Johann Faustus bad kaba la pynmih ha Frankfurt ha ka snem 1587 kaba їathuh shaphang ka kam jadu-myntor jong uwei u nong German uba la die noh їa la ka mynsiem ha u ksuid. Katei ka sawangka ba la pynshong nongrim na ka jingthoh Faust Book ha ka ktien English, ka la mih nyngkong eh ha ka snem Ka sawangka U Doktor Phastos ka dei kaba la thoh ha kito ki por ba ka la don ka jingkylla kaba khraw ha ka thoh ka tar English ha kaba ki nongthoh litereshor ki la pyrshang ban kdat noh sha kiwei pat ki phang kiba pher bapher ym kum ha ka juk ba shuwa ne kata ka Romantic. Lyngba jong ka ka thoh ka tar Khasi ka la ïohmad ïa kawei na ki sawangka jong ka juk Jingkylla (Renaissance) ha ka litereshor English. La ong ba u Marlowe u la thaw ïa ki kuju jong u kiba la ju khot ruh ki laiñ bakhraw ( the mighty line ) kiba la siang nongrim na ka bynta ka thoh sawangka jong ki English. 69 U Marlowe u la thoh ïa kane ka sawangka ha ka dur ka poitri kuju bad khleh lang bad ka pros (prose); ki daïalok jong ki tyngshop pawkhmat ha ka dur ka kuju katba ïa ki nongleh phulia ha ka dur ka pros. 70 Ka A. Kharmalki ka la pyrshang ban thoh kumba la leh da u Marlowe hynrei ka phla shai ha ka lamkhmat ba ka la thoh ha ka dur ka laitluid (free verse). Kum kane harum ka long ka nuksa na ka jingrwai Khoros: Klet shuwa/ ïa ma/dan thma/ Thrasy/mene/ 67 Lee A. Jacobus, The Bedford Introduction To Drama, p J. C. Maxwell, The plays of Christopher Marlowe in Ford, Boris, The Pelican Guide of English Literature, 2 the Age of Shakespeare, Penguin Books, p Gassner, John and Quinn, Edward (et.al), The Readers Encyclopedia of World Drama, London, Methuen and Co., 1970, p /03/11 21

22 Ba u Mars/ u pynjop/ ïa ki Kar/thejinian;/ 71 Not march/ing in/ the fields/ of Tra/simene/ Where Mars/ did mate/ the war/like Car/thagens,/ 72 Ha katei haneng lah ban ïohi ba ka A. Kharmalki la pyrshang ban wanrah ïa ka dur thoh kuju jong u Christopher Marlowe. Ka laiñ banyngkong kumba ka long ha ka dulir tynrai, ka dei ka jiamdien san khup 73 kaba dei ka jingthew jong ka poitri kuju, katba ha ka laiñ ba ar ka la don tang saw kamra bad lai kynnoh shi kamra, ha ka dur jong ka Sohtyngkdom kam long shuh thik kum ha ka dulir tynrai. La shem ba ki laiñ poitri kim ïaid ryntih da kajuh ka jingthew; don ki laiñ kiba don tang phra kynnoh bad saw kamra lane don pat kiba don tang saw kynnoh ha ka shi laiñ. Ka rukom mang-jingjia jong u Marlowe ka pher na ka thiori jong u Aristotle halor ka shempap. Kumba ong u J. C. Maxwell, ka mang-jingjia ha u Doctor Faustus ka duna ha ka dor jong ka kum ka shemlanot katkum ka thiori jong u Aristotle, hynrei kaba biang ha la ka jong ka jinglong bad kaba don ïa ka jinghikai babha. 74 Ka mang-jingjia ka long halor ka jingim u Faustus uba la die noh ïa la ka mynsiem na ka bynta ka jingstad bad ka bor (knowledge and power) kaba la paw shai ha ka kylla-ktien jong ka Antoinette Kharmalki lyngba ki kyntien jong u Phastos uba ong kumne: Hei, kine ki dei kito kiba u Phastos u thrang eh O, ka pyrthei aïu kaba kwah ka ïohnong bad ka sngewbha Ka bor, ka nam, ban tam ïa baroh, A. Kharmalki, U Doktor Phastos, p Christopher Marlowe, The Tragical History Of The Life And Death Of Doctor Faustus in Lee A. Jacobus, The Bedford Introduction To Drama, p /03/11 74 J. C. Maxwell, The plays of Christopher Marlowe in The Pelican Guide of English Literature, 2 the Age of Shakespeare, p A. Kharmalki, U Doktor Phastos, p

23 U Phastos u la duh noh ïa la ka jingim bymjukut jong ka bneng da kaba soi da la ka snam ïa ka dulir ba un ai ïa la ka met bad mynsiem ha u Lusipher hadien arphewsaw snem lada u Lusipher un ai ha u ïa kita ki jingsngewbha baroh. U la kwah ban nang ïa ki kam leh byrtong bad ban khot ksuid. U la kwah ban synshar hapoh jong u ïa ka pyrthei, ïa ki met bneng ha bneng. 76 Kumta u soi da la ka jong ka snam ban thoh ha ka dulir ïateh jutang bad u Lusipher ha khmat u ksuid rangbah u Mephistophilis u da ong kumne: Nga la otїa ka ksangti, bad da snam ba shisha La pynskhem ba mynsiem jong nga kan long ka jong u Lusipher, U kynrad bad u syiem ka dujok! Peit shane ka snam kaba jaw na ksangti jong nga, Kan long ka dak na ka bynta jingangnud jong nga. 77 U Mephistophilis u la ïaleh katba lah ban pynhun ïa u Phastos bad ban ai ha u kat kaba u ang. Kumta u Phastos u la lah ban her sawdong pyrthei; u la kiew shaduh kliar Olympus ha ka kali kulai baphyrnai; ha ki thapniang u ksuid ramhah (dragon) ban tawiar ïa ka pyrthei baroh kawei. U la leit rung haduh ka kamra jong u Pope ban pynsngewbha ïa lade da kaba pynthut ïa u. Ha ka jingïaid lynti lyngba kita ki arphewsaw snem, u Phastos u la shem ïa lade ha pdeng ar tylli bor ka bor Blei na ka liang u Angel Bha bad u Riewtymmen bad ka bor ksuid na ka liang u Angel Sniew bad u Mephistophilis. U Phastos um treh ban kylla ka bamut. U la dang ïai pynhun ïa lade da kaba phah wan ïa ka Helen bad u la doh ïa ka. Kaba kut ka long ka jingjot kumba la rwai lypa naduh basdang da ka Khoros kumne: U la um noh, namar ki bneng ki la kyntait Namar u la ngam ha ki kam leh ksuid John D. Jump (ed.), Doctor Faustus, B. I. Publications, New Delhi, Skylark Printers, 1975, A. Kharmalki, U Doktor Phastos, p Ibid, p

24 Ka jingkut jong u Phastos ka long kaba sngewshyrkhei bad sngewtriem haba u ïohi ïa ka dujok kaba ang bad u Lusipher u wan sha u. U Phastos ha ka ktien Khasi, kumba long u Faustus jong u Marlowe, u dei uba la kha, na ka longïing u thap u dap 79 hynrei uba la kiew ha ka jingim jong u bad u la dep ban pule haduh ka kyrdan kyrdan divinity kaba long kawei na ki jinglong jong ki tyngshop shempap katkum ka thiori jong u Aristotle. 80 Hynrei u don ka jingduna ha u bad kata ka long ba u kwah ban kiew shuh shuh ban nang ban leh sa ki kam byrtong. Ka dei kane ka jingangnud palat jong u kaba la pynlong ïa u ba un aiti ïa lade ha u ksuid bad ha kaba khatduh u la babe kylla da kaba ong, O lada ngam shym la ïohi ïa ka Wittenberg, lada ngam shym la pule ïa ki kot. 81 Uwei pat u tyngshop paw khmat u dei u Mephistophilis, u nongmih khmat jong u Lusipher, uba don ha kti ha kjat jong u Phastos. Nalor ki angel bad u Riewtymmen, kiwei pat ki tyngshop-puron kiba paw ha kane ka sawangka ki long kum, u Baldes, u Waknar, u Bintnar, u Kornelius, ki Skolar, u Pope, u Kardinal ka Lorraine, u Patsha, bad kiwei kiwei. Ka phangpdeng ha ka dulir tynrai ka long ka jingleh pop jong u Faustus pyrshah ïa u Blei, ka jingpynlaitim bad ka jingshah tim sha bymjukut kaba long katkum ka jingngeit Khristan. Kunjuh ruh yn shem ba u Phastos ha ka dulir thymmai u la leh pop da kaba die noh ïa la ka mynsiem ha u ksuid. U Phastos u tip ba ka nong ka pop ka dei ka jingïap 82 hynrei u la leh ïa kata ka pop. Ka la don ka jingtyrwa ïa u ban ïoh ka jinglaitim hynrei um treh bad ha kaba khatduh u la duh noh ïa ka jingim bymjukut. Ka sengpyrkhat jong kane ka sawangka ka long kata kaba u Leo Kirschbaum u ong, ka nongkynti ba kordor tam jong u briew ka long ka mynsiem bym їap shuh jong u, bad ba u їoh їa ka bneng ne ka dujok lyngba ka kam bad jingleh jong u ha pyrthei 83 bad shuh shuh shaphang ka jingngeit ha kaba ïadei bad ka jingdap lut ha ka pyrthei, ka jingdon bor, bad ka 79 Ibid, p S. H. Butcher, Aristotle s Theory of Poetry and Fine Art, p A. Kharmalki, U Doktor Phastos, p A. Kharmalki, U Doktor Phastos, p Leo Kirschbaum, Dr. Faustus: A Reconsideration in Critics on Marlowe, edited by Judith O Neil, George Allen, London, Union, 1979, p

25 jingshisha ba shyrkhei jong u bymman bad ka Dujok kiba long ki jinglong kiba synshar їa ka drama. 84 Kine ki paw shai ruh ha ka sawangka ba la pynwan sha ka ktien Khasi. Da ka jingdon jong ka bor bamaïa ha kane ka sawangka, kata, ka bor blei bad ka bor ksuid kiba tan ïa u Phastos, kumba ong ki kritik, ka long kaei kaei kaba ïadei bad ka jingïatiplem (Lily B. Cambell s essay of 1952) 85 jong u tyngshop pdeng. Ka sawangka ba la pynwan sha ka Khasi da ka A. Kharmalki ka la lah bha ban pynpaw ïa kata ka jinglong bakynja mynsiem katkum ka jingngeit Khristan ha kane ka sawangka. Kumba ong u W. R. Goodman, ka dur ka dar jong ka sawangka bad ka jingdon tang ar ngut ki tyngshop pawkhmat, ka daw ka long, khnang ban ban jur halor ka jingshisha ba ka jingeh ka long ha kiei kiei kiba kynja mynsiem. 86 Ïa kane lah ban pynskhem da ka jingdon jong u Angel Bha bad u Angel Sniew, u Riewtymmen bahok, ki hynñiew tylli ki Pop (ka Sarong, ka Rhah, ka Bitar, ka Pihuiñ, ka Lalot, ka Jaipdeh bad ka Dakaid), u ksuid Lusipher bad u ksuid Mephistophilis bad kumno kine ki ïaleh ban khring ïa u Phastos sha lade. Haba u Angel Bha u wan ban pynsngewthuh ïa u Phastos ba u dei ban iehnoh ïa kata ka kam bymman jong u hynrei u Angel Sniew u wan ban pynshoi ïa u ban un ïaid shaphrang ha ki kam byrtong jong u. Hangne ka wan ka jingïaleh ha ka mynsiem u Phastos, ba ïano un bud ïa ka bor Blei ne bor ksuid. Hateng hateng u la kwah ban kylla ka bamut noh u da khot kyrpad ïa u Blei hynrei u ksuid Mephistophilis u wan ban pyntieng ïa u bad kumta u Phastos u la pyndem biang ha u Lusipher. Ka jingkut bashyrkhei jong ka jingim u Phastos ka long kata ka daw namar u la leh palat ïa kaba ki bneng ki shah 87 kaba long katkum ka jingngeit Khristan. Ka jingkren beiñ-blei ruh ka paw ha kane ka sawangka lyngba ki kyntien jong u Phastos haba u ong kumne: Lada u Mephistophilis un kyrshanїa nga, 84 Ibid, p Judith O Neill (ed.), Critics On Marlowe, p W. R. Goodman, A History of English Literature, Vol I, Doaba House Booksellers, Delhi, p A. Kharmalki, U Doktor Phastos, p

26 U Blei aiu u ba lah ban pynthutїa u phastos? 88 Ha kaba ïadei bad ki Khoros lah ban ïohi ba ka long katkum ka dulir tynrai. Ki Khoros ki la wan mih naduh basdang ka sawangka ban batai ïa ka jingim jong u Phastos naduh nyngkong, ha ka bynta III ban ïathuh shuh shuh pat haduh katno u la shang kylleng pyrthei lyngba ki sahit bneng bad ha ka bakut ban ïathuh ïa ka jingkyllon jong u. Ha kaba ïadei bad ka jingkren marwei (soliloquy) ka nongkylla ktien ka la wanrah kumba ki long ha ka dulir tynrai, kata ban pynpaw ïa ki jingthrang jingangnud bad jingsngew jong u Phastos. Ha kaba ïadei bad ka jingilang jong ka por u Marlowe u la ïaid lait na ka thiori halor ka shemlanot jong u Aristotle namar ki jingjia ki shim por jan arphewsaw snem bad ki jingpyni ki long ha kiba bun ki jaka jong ka dewbah Europe. 89 Ka A. Kharmalki ruh ka la leh kumjuh ha U Doktor Phastos. Ki jingjia ki long naduh Shuwa ba u Phastos un ïateh jutang bad u ksuid bad haduh ba un da pyndep ïa kita ki arphewsaw snem kiba pynlong ïa u Phastos ban babe pat hadien. U Phastos u la ïaid bun tylli ki jaka bad u la ïashem bun jait ki briew ha kata ka jingïaid jong u; bun na ki la shu ïathuh ki Khoros halor rynsan. Ki shin (symbol) kiba lah ban shem ha ka sawangka jong u Marlowe ki long kum, ka snam, ka miet, ka ding kiba ym pep ruh ban paw ha ka Khasi. Ka A. Kharmalki ka la lah ruh ban wanrah sha ka Khasi ïa ki simili, ki metaphor bad ki dur-ïapan kiba don ha ka dulir tynrai. Ki nuksa jong ki simili kiba la shem ha ka dulir thymmai ki long kine: U Waknar u sin ïa ka Klaw da U sang pap, u raitoi, ha ka duk kum u mraw 90 (Alas, poor slave!), ka ïingmane u Markos bakhuid/ka jingjrong jong ka, i kum ban suh sha ki khlur. 91 (a sumptuous temple stands/that threats the stars with her aspiring top) 92. Ki nuksa jong ki 88 Ibid, p D. J. Palmer, Majic and Poetry in Doctor Faustus in Christopher Marlowe s Doctor Faustus by Irving Ribner (ed.), The Bobbs-Merrill Company, United States of America, The Odyssey Press, p Kharmalki, Antoinette, U Doktor Phastos, p Ibid, p Christopher Marlowe, The Tragical History Of Doctor Faustus, p

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