1 i DOCUMENTATION AND CONTEMPORIZING THE ETHNIC COSTUMES OF CONSERVATIVE SOCIETIES INHABITED IN KARNATAKA SHWETA MARIYAPPANAVAR DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE AND APPAREL DESIGNING COLLEGE OF RURAL HOME SCIENCE, DHARWAD UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, DHARWAD JUNE, 2014
2 ii DOCUMENTATION AND CONTEMPORIZING THE ETHNIC COSTUMES OF CONSERVATIVE SOCIETIES INHABITED IN KARNATAKA Thesis submitted to the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Textile and Apparel Designing By SHWETA MARIYAPPANAVAR DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE AND APPAREL DESIGNING COLLEGE OF RURAL HOME SCIENCE, DHARWAD UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, DHARWAD JUNE, 2014
3 iii DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE AND APPAREL DESIGNING COLLEGE OF RURAL HOME SCIENCE, DHARWAD UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, DHARWAD CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the thesis entitled DOCUMENTATION AND CONTEMPORIZING THE ETHNIC COSTUMES OF CONSERVATIVE SOCIETIES INHABITED IN KARNATAKA submitted by Ms. SHWETA MARIYAPPANAVAR, for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in TEXTILE AND APPAREL DESIGNING, to the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, is a record of bonafide research work carried out by her during the period of her study in this University, under my guidance and supervision, and the thesis has not previously formed the basis of the award of any degree, diploma, associateship, fellowship or other similar titles. DHARWAD JUNE, 2014 (SHAILAJA D. NAIK) CHAIRMAN Approved by: Chairman: (SHAILAJA D. NAIK) Members: 1 (SADHANA D. KULLOLI) 2 (JYOTI V. VASTRAD) 3 4 (L. B. KUNNAL) (SUMA M. HASALKAR)
4 Affectionately Dedicated to my Beloved Parents Sri. Hanumanthagoudar, Smt. Leelavati, Sisters Dr. Smita and neeta iv
5 v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT With Cheerful evergreen memories I take this auspicious occasion for look back on the path traversed the academic professional course of strive and remember the advising faces behind the task with a sense of gratitude. At this moment, I praise God who has redeemed me and strengthened me to do all things. I take this opportunity with great pleasure and privilege to express my deep sense of gratitude to Dr. (Mrs.) Shailaja D. Naik Professor and University Head, Department of Textile and Apparel Designing, College of Rural Home Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad and the esteemed chairman of advisory committee for her inspiring and peerless guidance, scholarly advice throughout the course of investigation. She helped me to get through my programme and to overcome all my problems and helped me to complete my work in time. I feel immense pleasure in expressing my deepest sense of regards to my Advisory Committee members, Dr. (Mrs.) Sadhana D. Kulloli, Associate Professor, Department of Textile and Apparel Designing, College of Rural Home Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Dr. (Mrs.) Jyoti V. Vastrad, Senior Scientist, (AICRP), Department of Textile and Apparel Designing, College of Rural Home Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Dr. L. B. Kunnal, Professor, Department of Agricultural Economic, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Dr. (Mrs.) Suma M. Hasalkar Professor and Seniors Scientist (AICRP) Department of Family Resource Management, College of Rural Home Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, for timely help, suggestions, guidance, and encouragement during the course of research work. I avail this opportunity to express sincere gratitude to the teaching and non-teaching staff of Dept. of Textile and Apparel Designing, College of Rural Home Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. Dharwad JUNE, 2014 (SHWETA MARIYAPPANAVAR)
6 vi CONTENTS Sl. No. Chapter Particulars CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF PLATES LIST OF APPENDICES 1 INTRODUCTION 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Historical background and evolution of conservative societies 2.2 Rituals and customs of conservative societies 2.3 Costumes of tribal folk 2.4 Surface ornamentation on tribal costumes 2.5 Tribal accessories: Jewellery, Headgear and Footwear 2.6 Adoption of contemporary costumes by tribal folk 2.7 Contemporizing the tribal folklore 3 MATERIAL AND METHODS 3.1 Research design 3.2 Survey method 3.3 Documentation on historical background, culture and traditional costumes of conservative societies 3.4 Designing and development of contemporary ethnic outfits 3.5 Statistical methods used for data analysis 3.6 Hypotheses 4 RESULTS 4.1 Survey results 4.2 Documentation on historical background, culture and traditional costumes of conservative societies 4.3 Designing and development of contemporary ethnic outfits
7 vii 5 DISCUSSION 5.1 Survey results 5.2 Documentation on historical background, culture and traditional costumes of conservative societies 5.3 Designing and development of contemporary ethnic outfits 6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES APPENDICES
8 viii LIST OF TABLES Table No. 1a 1b 1c 1d 1e Title Demographic information of Goulis Demographic information of Halakkis Demographic information of Kunbis Demographic information of Lambanis Demographic information of Siddis 2 The Deity worshiped by conservative societies 3 Frequency of migration among conservative societies 4 Reasons for migration of conservatives societies 5 Shift of occupation among conservative societies after migration 6 Common fairs and festivals celebrated by conservative societies 7 Traditional fairs and festivals celebrated by conservative societies 8 Functions and rituals performed by conservative societies 9 Decision maker in the family of conservative societies to purchase family clothing 10 Items in the budget of conservative societies Factors considered while preplanning the purchase of family clothing by conservative societies Clothing and household textiles purchasing practices by conservative societies Consumption pattern of common household textiles among conservative societies Preference for readymade, tailor-made and homemade clothing among conservative societies 15 Factors considered while purchasing family clothing by conservative societies Factors influence purchase of family clothing among conservative societies Preference for the purchase of seasonal clothes by conservation societies Types of fibre material preferred for various end uses by conservative societies Sources of information about textile materials among conservative societies Sources of income to purchase family clothing among conservative societies
9 ix Table No. Title 21 Sources of loan to purchase family clothing Influence of sales promotion technique on the purchasing behavior of conservative societies Types of shop preferred while purchasing clothes by conservation societies Factors influencing selection of patent readymade shop by the conservative societies Problems faced by conservative societies while purchasing family clothing Traditional and contemporary costume worn by men folk of conservative societies across three generation Traditional style of draping langoti and dhoti by Halakki, Lambani and Siddi men Traditional and contemporary costume worn by women folk of conservative societies across three generations Traditional style of draping saree by Gouli, Halakki and Kunbi women 30 Traditional costume worn by Lambani and Siddi women 31 Constructional details of Lambani costume worn by women folk 32 Cost of production of Lambani women costume 33 Traditional dance costume of Gouli, Halakki and Kunbi men 34a 34b Traditional jewellery worn by Gouli, Halakki and Kunbi men Details of traditional jewellery worn by Gouli, Halakki and Kunbi men 35a 35b Traditional jewelleries of conservative society s women Details of traditional jewellery worn by women of conservative societies Traditional draping style of headgear by Gouli, Kunbi and Lambani men Cost sheet of Contemporary ethnic outfits: Overlapped Dhoti Pant with Cowl Top 38 Cost sheet of Contemporary ethnic outfits: Single Shoulder Kurta 39 Cost sheet of Contemporary ethnic outfits: Off Shoulder Kurta Cost sheet of Contemporary ethnic outfits: Anarkali Kurta with Halter Jacket Cost sheet of Contemporary ethnic outfits: Skirt with Strapped Bodice 42 Respondents opinion on contemporary ethnic outfits 43 Concept of contemporary ethnic outfits 44 Resemblance of contemporary ethnic outfits with traditional costumes
10 x Table No Title Resemblance of style features of Contemporary ethnic outfits with traditional costumes Suitability of colour combination of contemporary ethnic outfits with corresponding traditional costumes Suitability of Contemporary ethnic outfits with corresponding accessories 48 Preference for value addition on contemporary ethnic outfits 49 Ease and comfort of the contemporary ethnic outfits 50 Cost of production of contemporary ethnic outfits 51 Overall appearances of contemporary ethnic outfits
11 xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title 1 Research Design: Phase I 2 Research Design: Phase II 3 Research Design: Phase III 4 Dwelling areas of Goulis, Lambanis and Siddis in Dharwad district 5. Dwelling areas of Lambanis in Haveri district 6. Dwelling areas of Goulis, Halakkis, Kunbis and Siddis in Uttara Kannada districts 7 Decision maker in the family of Conservative Societies to purchase family clothing 8 Factors influence purchase of family clothing among conservative societies 9 Sources of information about textile materials among conservative societies 10 Problems faced by conservative societies while purchasing family clothing 11 Draping langoti by Halakki and Siddi men 12 Draping Dhoti by Lambani men 13 Draping Kachi saree by Gouli women 14 Draping saree by Halakki women 15 Draping saree by Kunabi women 16 Lambani embroidery sketches 17 Wrapping turban by Gouli, Kunbi and Lambani men 18 Spec sheet of Overlapped Dhoti Pant and Cowl Top 19 Spec sheet of Single Shoulder Kurta 20 Spec sheet of Off Shoulder Kurta 21a 21b Spec sheet of Anarkali Kurta Spec sheet of Halter Jacket 22 Spec sheet of Skirt and Strapped Bodice
12 xii LIST OF PLATES Plate No. Title 1 Traditional costumes of Gouli men and women 2 Traditional costumes of Halakki men and women 3 Traditional costumes of Kunbi men and women 4 Traditional costumes of Lambani men and women 5 Traditional costumes of Siddi men and women 6 Traditional saree borders 7 Draping style of saree by Halakki women 8 Draping style of saree by Kunbi women 9 Gungato - A symbol of Suhag for Lambani women 10 Accessories used in Lambani embroidery 11 Traditional dance costume of Gouli men 12 Traditional dance costume of Halakki men 13 Traditional dance costume of Kunbi men 14 Traditional dance costume of Siddi men 15 Traditional jewellery of Gouli, Halakki and Kunbi men 16 Traditional Jewellery of Gouli women 17 Traditional Jewellery of Halakki women 18 Traditional Jewellery of Kunbi women 19a 19b Traditional Jewellery of Lambani women Traditional Jewellery of Lambani women 20 Traditional Jewellery of Siddi women 21 Mood board: Goulis 22 Mood board: Halakkis
13 xiii Plate No. Title 23 Mood board: Kunbis 24 Mood board: Lambanis 25 Mood board: Siddis 26 Colour and Fabric Swatch board 27 Overlapped Dhoti Pant and Cowl Top 28 Single Shoulder Kurta 29 Off Shoulder Kurta 30 Anarkali Kurta and Halter Jacket 31 Skirt and Strapped Bodice
14 xiv LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix No. I II Title Schedule to elicit information regarding historical background, fairs and festivals, rituals, clothing purchasing practices, traditional costumes, jewellery, accessories, headgear and footwear of conservative societies Preferences for the Contemporary Ethnic Outfits III Operational definitions
15 1. INTRODUCTION The population of conservative societies (tribes) is identified as the aboriginal inhabitants of our country and seen in almost every state of India. For centuries the conservative societies have been living very simple lives based on the natural environment and have developed cultural patterns congenial to their physical and social environment (Varghese, 2010) The people of India include a very large number of conservative societies who subsist on hunting, fishing or by simple form of agriculture. Various authorities described them by different names, Herbert, Lacey, and Thakar called them Aboriginals ; Grigson included them under the category of Hill Tribes or Wilder Aboriginals ; they are regarded as Animists, by Tallents, Sedgwick, Martin whereas Hutton called them as Primitive Tribes ; Baines described them as Jungle people, Forest Tribes or Folk ; Elwin labeled them as the Baigas, the Original owners of the Country ; Das entitled as Submerged humanity (Das, 1989). As the name implies, conservative societies (tribes) are Adivasi or original dwellers, living in the subcontinent from unrecorded time and possibly driven into the forests by more aggressive settlers Aryans being the earliest one to socially subjugate them. In order to resist complete domination, conservative societies evolved their distinct identity through life style, endogamy, occupation, spirituality, their festivals, rituals, customs and beliefs, cropping pattern, hunting, food gathering as well as ethnic costumes, jewellery, accessories, head gear, and foot wear. Above all, their intense personal relationship with the jungle around them, built perfectly balanced rhythms which can best be described as symbiotic (Varghese, 2010). The term Adivasi (Adi = original and Vasi = inhabitant) has become current to designate these groups. The International Labour Organization (ILO) has classified such groups of people as indigenous. The ILO convention has defined aboriginals as the tribals or semi tribal groups of the independent countries deprived socially or economically who follow their own set of customs, traditions and traits or they have their own special customary laws and conventions (Varghese, 2010).
16 2 The origin of Indian conservative societies is evident from ancient times, in the epics of Ramayana and the Mahabharata as literature. Conservative societies have been traced to such races as the Proto-Australoids, who at one time practically covered the whole of India; secondly, the Mongoloids who are still located mostly in Assam and North East India and finally to a limited extent to the Negrito s strain as indicated by frizzy hair, among the Andamanese and the Siddis of the South India (Das, 1989). The conservative societies of India are the earliest inhabitants or indigenous people of the country, who were unable to defend themselves and were gradually forced to recede before the invading hoards of such people, viz., Dravidians, Indo- Aryans and Mongolians coming from the West, North West and North East respectively, who were not only superior in numerical strength but also in mechanical equipment. The indigenous people thus took shelter in the mountain depths and thick jungles, where a considerable number of them are still found and have been estimated to be about ten million. Those who were left behind on the plains gradually disappeared either by absorption or by acculturalization (Mohanty, 2004). Though these original conservative societies in India have been divided and sub-divided into a large number of sub tribes, all mutually exclusive, each having the endogamous and exogamous clans with their own names, culture, customs, locational practice and life-styles ( To understand the main currents in Indian culture, one has to probe the colourful world of the tribal people across the country who are generally considered the original inhabitants of the land. The legends, literature, customs and traditions speak volumes about the wealth of splendor and creativity of these people in the vicinity who have chosen to don the grab of sophistication (Das, 1989). There are apparent cultural differences and locational practices between the life styles of the tribal people of India, but historically there is a basic unity brought up in environment of diversity through the length and breadth of the country. No doubt Adivasi culture is intrinsically linked to the economic, social and environmental aspects of Adivasi life. There is a clear evidence of changing trends in Adivasi art forms. Some have retained the purity of the originality, mainly because of
17 3 isolated existence, but however there was an influence of urban culture was evident in the costumes, dance and social comments of many others (Vijayalakshmi, 2003). India is known for its unity and deep rooted culture at global level reflected diversified communities. Every community is known for its rich heritage, culture, tradition as well as costume; India occupies second position next to Africa in tribe s percentage. According to 2001 census, there are about 573 tribes with 84.3 million population constituting 8.2 per cent of the country s population. The conservative societies reside in about 15 per cent of the country s areas, viz., North-east India, Eastern India, Central and Western Ghats of India and Southern India. In the Southern India the conservative societies generally seen in Hilly regions of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, (Devi and Hemasrikumar, 2011). The total population of Karnataka is 6.11crore as per the provisional results of the Census of India Karnataka is now the ninth most populous state of India and accounts for 5.05 per cent of country s population, situated on a tableland where the coverage of Western and Eastern Ghat ranges converge into the Nilgiri hill complete. The state is bounded by Maharashtra and Goa in the North and North West; by Arabian Sea in the West; by Kerala and Tamil Nadu in the South and by the state of Andhra Pradesh in the East (Census of India, Primary Census Abstract, Karnataka-2011). Karnataka is enclosed by chain of mountains to its West, East and South. The state is blessed with the bounty of nature which is manifested in the splendid "Topography" of the region. Principally, the beautiful state of Karnataka is divided into three distinct geographical regions of the Sahyadris, the Coastal plains and the Deccan plateau. The Sahyadris are covered with ever green forests which is a natural beauty of the Karnataka state. The Sahyadris are home to many wild animals and migratory birds which add to the rich bio- diversity of the state. They drop abruptly towards the Arabian Sea, thus forming a natural barrier between the plateau and the coastal regions. The four paths provide accesses to the coast are the Subrahmanya Ghat, the Charmudi Ghat, the Shiradi Ghat and the famous Agumbe Ghat. The Western Ghats slope gently towards the drains of two principal rivers Krishan and the Kaveri and other rivers viz., Godavari, North Pennar, South Pennar, Palar and West Flowing Rivers (Ababu, 2004).
18 4 The flora and fauna of Karnataka is like a multi-cuisine platter. The wide range of flora and fauna in Karnataka are indeed a source of delight for the tourists. Spread across its length and breadth. One can find many varieties of mammals, birds, a wide range of insects, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, etc. Some of the important mammals that constitute the flora and fauna of Karnataka are panther, leopard, sambar, wild pig, elephant s, bear, spotted deer, common langur, bonnet macaque, porcupine, leopard cat, rusty spotted cat, Asiatic wild dog and some more. Karnataka is a house for as many as 25% of elephants and about 10% of tigers found in India. In fact, the mountains of the Western Ghats are the biodiversity hot-spot, Moreover, two subsections of these Western Ghats, namely Talacauvery and Kudremukh are the tentative world heritage site. The state animal of Karnataka is Indian Elephant the state bird is Indian Roller, the state tree is Sandalwood (Santallum album); whereas the state flower is Lotus (Ababu, 2004). Kannada is the main language of the region. The other languages spoken are Hindi, Telugu, Urdu, Tamil, Tulu, Konkani, Coorgi, and other tribal language along with the foreign language viz., English, Persian and Tibetan. Kannada script is derived from the Asoka script, found identical to that of Telugu. Most of the people are employed in agriculture, more than fifty per cent of the land in the state is diverted for cultivation and a agriculture contributes to half the state s income. Although, there is not much variation in soil type, there is diversity in cultivation and cropping system. The plains of the West coast are intensively cultivated, where rice is the main food crop, other food crops being maize, millet and pulses. However sugarcane and cotton are the main cash crops (Ababu, 2004). Conservative societies in Karnataka are amazingly enormous in number, with the count exceeding a base minimum. Karnataka itself being a state of literacy, the conservative societies of Karnataka are also not lagging far behind. Hinduism is the most prevalent religion; however other religions do have their existence in India. Though Kannada is the regional language even, Malayalam and Hindi are found to be spoken by conservative societies. Cultural performances in the form of theatrical representations, dances, dramas, art and music are quite popular among Karnataka conservative societies (Ababu, 2004).
19 5 In Karnataka state, fifty two conservative societies are currently identified of which majority belonged to bedar, gouli, gond, halakki, kuruba, konda kapur, lambani, malaikud, siddi, toda, valmiki and others. According to the census report 2011, the percentage population of conservative society is 2.75 per cent, literacy per cent, about 85 per cent fall under below poverty line, and about 52 per cent have no permanent employment in this state. The population of the conservative societies has increased from 34,63,986 in 2001 Census to 42,48,987 in 2011, registering a decennial growth rate of per cent. The proportion of the population of conservative societies to the total population of the state is 6.95 per cent (Census of India, Primary Census Abstract, Karnataka-2011). The conservative societies are the societies notified under Article 342 of the constitution, which makes special provision for conservative (tribal) societies, parts of or groups within which the president may so notify. There is no definition of a conservative society in the constitution but one may distinguish some characteristics that are generally accepted viz., self-identification, language, distinctive social and cultural organization, economic development, geographic location and isolation, which has been initially steady, but in some cases traumatically eroded. Today many conservative societies still live in hilly and / or forest areas, somewhat remote from settlements. Stereotypes flourish about the conservative society s persona and people are undeniably economically under-developed, and the process of their marginalization can be traced to the intrusion of British colonialism, which quickly detected in the forest that was home to conservative societies, great potential for appropriation of resources. Exploitation of forest-lands by both the British and the Zamindars (Landlords) resulted in the clearing of huge tracts for commercial crops such as tea, coffee and rubber and allowing contractors to fall trees which are the heart of the forest. These actions deprived the livelihood of conservative societies because many of them were hunters and gatherers of forest produces. The interaction with the outside world brought the conservative societies face to face with problems they were not equipped to cope with, such as alcoholism and many communicable diseases (Karnataka Human Development Report, 2005).
20 6 In the post-independence period, while the constitution protected the rights of the conservative societies and accorded them reservation in the legislature, educations institutions and Government jobs, other developmental activities such as the construction of large dams or the sale of timber, led to the further marginalization of some conservative societies. The scenario is therefore a mixed one. It may be necessary to use natural resources to improve the living conditions of people of the state; meanwhile it must be done in a manner that is sensitive to ensuring the protection of the environment, which provides a livelihood to conservative society s people (Karnataka Human Development Report, 2005). Apart from the conservative societies, there are 75 indigenous groups in India known as Primitive Tribal Groups. It was observed that these vulnerable communities have experienced a decline in their sustenance base and resultant food insecurity, mal-nutrition and ill-health which have forced them to live in the most fragile living conditions and some of them are even under the threat of getting extinct. In Karnataka, the Koragas of Dakshina Kannada district, Jenu Kurubas who are concentrated in the district of Mysore, Chamarajnagar and Kodagu are classified as Primitive tribes (Karnataka Human Development Report, 2005). It is a well-accepted fact that access to knowledge is crucial to improving the human development status. Conservative societies have fallen victims to the exploitation of the middlemen, merchants and moneylenders on account of their illiteracy and ignorance. Improvements in literacy levels have positive spin-off effects, viz., better health indicators and increase in productivity, which in turn increase the income levels of poor people significantly. In all, the conservative societies in the state have markedly lower literacy rates than other groups. They neither have 12 month employment nor regular employment in the dwelling area; thus migration to cities in search of jobs for livelihood is inevitable among conservative societies. Like any other second man even tribal people wished to get recognized by the contemporary society thus, wants to be one among urban community (Karnataka Human Development Report, 2005). They are also been influenced by other societies in the urban areas. Education is the important element in development of any community; Need for the social
21 7 identity, psychological acceptance among others, to acquire better jobs to earn wages shifting of primitive occupation and many more. Some of the learned sections of the conservative societies are slowly influenced by the fashion trends especially the younger generation and eventually shown inclination towards adaptation of trendy clothes leaving behind their traditional gorgeous costume and jewellery. Thus, it is found necessary to conserve the rich heritage of tribal costume through documentation on tribal indigenous costumes and folklore. The scholar is focusing, highlighting and conducting the research in the state of Karnataka on five different conservative society s viz., Gouli, Halakki, Kunbi, Lambani and Siddi of Dharwad, Haveri and Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka. These conservative societies are migrants from states like Rajasthan, Maharashtra and African descendants. The important features of the tribes are: The tribe lives away from the civilized world in the inaccessible part such as forests and hills They speak their own conservative society (tribal) dialect These people follow primitive occupation They are found to be largely carnivorous They are either nude or semi-clad (semi-dressed) They have nomadic habits and love for elicit liquor and folk dance They confess primitive religious known as Animism in which the folk worships ghosts and spirits as the most important element (Das, 1989) The present study paying attention on the conservative societies of Goulis, Halakkis, Kunbis, Lambanis and Siddis of Dharwad, Haveri and Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state in south India. These groups have unique historical past as most of them are migrants. This study aims to explore and document the historical
22 8 background and evolution of the conservative societies, fairs, festivals, and rituals, clothing purchasing practices, traditional costumes of men and women, along with traditional jewelleries, headgear and footwear of conservative societies. The specific information regarding; historical background, origin, migration frequency, reason, factors considered and change of occupation after migration, rituals and festivals celebrated, costumes worn during dance, rituals and marriages, constructional details of traditional tribal costumes together with the details like fibre content, yarn type, fabric, garment pattern, silhouette and style features, colour, motifs, social significance, cost and mode of draping and finally care and maintenance; traditional jewellery, accessories, headgear and footwear with the significance. The traditional textiles and costume of each conservative societies of the region, strengthens communal solidarity and beliefs. The tribal costume has its own charm with its traditional textiles which shine in their highest glory of beauty. Gradually due to competition and rapid development, metamorphosis of the tribal social setup, handicrafts of the tribes has lost much of its market, and is almost nonexistent and reached the verge of extinction in the name of change. Preoccupied with the survival, the study was to touch upon the futuristic vision of the traditional textiles, their status and strength of survival. In this view, the specific objectives were to study the distinctive features of the traditional textiles in terms of yarns used, looms, colour, motifs and their symbolism and to document the traditional costume of men and women worn for different occasions. An attempt of the scholar for preserving and conserving the age old traditional tribal costumes and documentation shall be useful for the present and future generation, students, faculties, theater artists, scholars focusing on cultural studies, anthropology, tribal heritage last but not least fashion designers. An endeavor is been made by the scholar to design and develop the contemporary ethnic outfits by incorporating the unique style features of each selected conservative societies for the younger generation. These fashion apparels would appear incomplete without the glimpses of rich Indian traditional craftsmanship. The present day textile tradition of India is not simply the reflection of our rich past but also caters to the modern day requirements of the common man. Designers are introducing contemporary craft lore of India from rural and traditional ethos to meet
23 9 the challenges of modern times. Along with earning valuable foreign exchange, traditional craft of surface embellishment on textiles has achieved the status of a highly organized small and medium scale industry. A shot to preserve the traditional features in the contemporary ethnic outfits; production of such outfits may form a sources of income generation for the tribal community in future and ultimately earning the livelihood. Thus, the present study on Documentation and Contemporizing the Ethnic Costumes of Conservative Societies Inhabited in Karnataka is taken up with the following objectives: 1. To study the historical background and evolution of traditional costumes of selected conservative societies 2. To explore the constructional details of men and women attire of selected societies 3. To examine the traditional folk headgears and footwear of selected societies 4. To investigate on the jewellery and accessories used by the societies 5. To design and develop the contemporary ethnic outfits and assess the acceptance
24 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE The relevant research articles pertaining to the present investigation on Documentation and Contemporizing the Ethnic Costumes of Conservative Societies Inhabited in Karnataka were reviewed and presented under the following sub headings: 2.1 Historical background and evolution of conservative societies 2.2 Rituals and customs of conservative societies 2.3 Costumes of tribal folk 2.4 Surface ornamentation on tribal costumes 2.5 Tribal accessories: Jewellery, Headgear and Footwear 2.6 Adoption of contemporary costumes by tribal folk 2.7 Contemporizing the tribal folklore 2.1 Historical background and evolution of conservative societies Yadav and Albal (2002) documented a study on Lifestyle and economic changes among the Chiru tribe of Manipur. The state of Manipur in north eastern India provides shelter to a number of tribes and tribal communities. One of the popular Manipur tribes is the Chiru tribe, Steeped in History and Mythology. This tribe inhabit in various districts of Manipur viz., Senapati, Tamenglong and Bishnupur. The word Chiru means the seed of the plant. The lifestyle and culture of Chiru tribe is similar to Naga tribe to some extent, however the former were identified on their distinguished physical features. Chirus have contributed to greater per cent to Manipur culture. These tribes have their own customs and traditions both in dance and musical recitals. In this tribal community, bachelors and unmarried women are provided with separate quarters. Most of the people have adopted farming as their major profession. The rugged terrains of the mountains prove to be just perfect for doing shifting and wet farming. They are also involved in growing and trading of fruits like bananas, oranges, lemon and papaya to meet their food requirement and earn livelihood. Chiru tribes are
25 11 specialized in cottage industries, preparing a range of household product from cane and great craftsmanship in the field of weaving and carpentry. In a nutshell Chiru tribe has greatly contributed in enriching the cultural ethnicity of whole of a Manipur in North eastern India. Das (2005) conducted research on A study on socio-cultural lifestyle of Missing tribe of Assam. The Missing, an Indo-Mongoloid group formerly referred as Miris, are the second largest ethnic group in Assam. With a population approaching nearly one million the tribe slowly scattered over to eight far eastern districts of Assam. Missing is an originally a hill tribe from North West China, Tibet and Mongolia. The Missing is one of Assam s aboriginal communities, travelled down from Manasa Sarovar, the highest fresh water lake in the world and an ancient holy site considered by pilgrims to be the source of the four greatest rivers of Asia (Barhmaputra, Karnali, Indus and Sutlej) and settled in Arunachal Pradesh around 8 th century. About 700 or more years ago the tribe migrated from Arunachal Pradesh down to tributaries feeding into the Brahmaputra to the Assam plains in search of a less hostile more economically viable life but as comparative late comers found the best lands were already been taken. Therefore the tribe settled on the river banks where the land was rich and fertile as well gave them protection against their enemies. After building up such a close affinity with rivers over the centuries it was not surprising that many Missing communities accomplished Boat and Fishermen community, however some of the villagers were being forced to evacuate and relocate away from the rivers due to soil erosion. A folktale narrates that although the Missing learnt the alphabets given to them by their God of Learning on a sheet of deer-skin; over time it slipped their mind and they ate the deer-skin, losing the scrip forever. Therefore the tribe speaks their tribal language, but has no script, thus there is no authentic written record and therefore the story of their exodus is simple expressed verbally. The main source of livelihood is agriculture for men and weaving for women of Missing tribe. Sharma (2008) carried out a study on Bhils tribe of Rajasthan. Bhils tribe of India is the third largest tribe in India, after Gonds and Santhals. This old and once flourishing tribe obviously has a vast cultural profile, whose ideologies are simple and traditional. Bhils comprising 39 per cent of the total population of Rajasthan. This Indian tribe has a mention even in epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana. Going by
26 12 legends Bhil women offered ber to Lord Rama, when he was in the jungle of Dhandaka, searching Sita. In the history this tribes of India were regarded as the fighters who were in a war against the Mughals, Marathas and the Britishers. Bhils tribe of Rajasthan is classified into two group s viz., the central or pure Bhils and Estern or Rajput Bhils. The central category of these Indian tribes are found in mountain regions in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and North Eastern part of Tripura. The prime language spoken by Bhils tribe of India is Bhil, which is an Indo Aryan language. The source of income for Bhil is agriculture and the animal husbandry, poultry, farming and agriculture labour also form the source of income. Bhils posses knowledge of manufacturing agricultural equipment. The staple food of Bhil tribe is Maize, but wheat is used on special occasions and hospitality. Sandeep and Vinod (2009) documented a study on Lifestyle of Aimol tribe of Manipur. Aimol tribes of India inhabit mainly in two district viz., Chandel and Churachandanpur of Manipur state. The name Aimol has been derived from a word roots. Ai is a small ginger like plant which is found in the areas of mol. This area is located in the hills of Aizawal, the capital city of Mizoram. Aimol tribes of Manipur live in their traditionally made houses of bamboo, wood and mud. The roof is made of thatch in a slanting style. Most of the Aimol families are nuclear and comprises parents and children. These tribal societies generally follow monogamous and patriarchal system. These tribes mainly depend upon agriculture and allied activities and involved is growing Paddy, Maize, Soybean, Pumpkin and Chilly. Further the community does depend on live stock rearing and wearing to earn their livelihood. Buffalo, pig, ox and hen are some of the animals domesticated. Most of the Aimol tribes of India have adopted Christianity. But before adopting Christianity around three decades ago, the tribe used to believe in spirits and worshiped many deities for several reasons like Bonglei as protector of the village; and expectant mothers worshiped Arkum Pathian who is considered to be Goddess of fertility. Sandya and Dasharath (2009) documented a study on Jarawa tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Jarawa is one of the tribal communities inhibiting in south and west coast of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is believed that the ancestors of Jarawa tribes were part of the migrated people from Africa. This tribe of Andaman still hunts pigs and lizards with bows and arrows to make their livelihood and also
27 13 gather berries, seeds and honey from the forests. They mostly restrict themselves to their jungle dwelling but some have now started mingling with the people of nearby villages and towns. The populations of Jarawa tribes of Andaman are dwindling with the passage of time and are left with only 400 people in their community. Construction of roads inside their territory in forests became the greatest threat for their survival as many people started encroaching their land. People from other parts of Andaman and Nicobar Islands started inhabiting areas near to Jarawas settlements in the forests. Poaching of honey and other forest fruits like bananas and others thus lead to nomadic life in forests. The tribe living in temporary huts is built by wood and leaves found in the forests. Crude crafts are used by them to cross streams and creeks. Basically the tribal people speak Jarawa language but some having contact with other communities have also picked up few Hindi words, as no prominent influence of any other languages of the region is seen in Jarawa language, it can be one of the reasons that these tribes remained secluded for a very long periods. Anshu (2010) revealed a study on Traditional weaving units and looms of Garo tribe of Meghalaya. Meghalaya is one of the seven sister states of North Eastern region. It is the homeland of three ancient hill communities, the Khasi, Jaintias and Garos. Weaving is the traditional occupation of Garo women and is currently pursed by almost every family. The Garos beside agriculture consider weaving another means of livelihood. Spinning and weaving in Meghalaya is the exclusive monopoly of women. Weaving is one of the most important vocations in the economic life of the Garos and is known for their exquisite weaving skills. The principal products still are the Dakmanda and Daksaria (Traditional dress of Garos). On interviewing it was found that Garo women still work on most primitive style back strap loom as well on throw shuttle and fly shuttle looms which indicates their rich weaving culture. They weave quality handloom products incorporating traditional motifs. However, the author indicated that there is a need to revive this weaving technology by switching over to latest machineries to enhance the speed of production as well introduces new designs to compete in Today s world of fashion. Dogan et al. (2010) documented a study on Plant pattern of silk based needle work, a traditional hand craft of Turkey tribes. Author gave a brief description on ethnobotany; a multi-disciplinary science examines the relationship between human
28 14 populations and cultural values. The ethno-botanical knowledge, transmitted orally from generation to generation, is disappearing very fast. Ethno-botanical survey can be very helpful in rescuing and preserving the precious indigenous knowledge. The author indicated that when tribal culture and annotated knowledge such as the traditional crafts, framing and ethno botanical usage of plants is lost on exposure to other communities. Plants always have had a great historical impact on human civilization. Plant based motifs have been used extensively in Turkish tribal culture. The motifs are traditionally used in carpet, kilim, rug, runner, tapestry, embroidery, textile, ceramic, pottery, decoration, wood carving, jewelry, ornamentation of metal, mineral or leather articles as well as in architecture. One of the most intricate and delicate uses can be seen in traditional handicrafts of crocheting, shuttle and needlework. Among these crafts, needle work has a special place. Needle work is interesting in many ways, only silk is used to make fine patterns on scarves, bed spreads, coverlets, pillow cover, table and tri-pot covers etc. Singh (2010) documented a study on Toda tribe Habitats of Nilgiri hills. Toda tribe is the most ancient and unusual tribe of Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu. Todas mostly have large herd of buffaloes, their livelihood is mainly by producing milk products. However, they are also experts in silver-smith works. Toda tribe has a rich art heritage that is highly collectible. Some claims that Toda are the direct descendants of the remnants, of Alexander the Great Macedonian army, which invaded India in about 327 B.C. Toda tribe is casteless and costless society where all are equal. This tribe called their villages as Munds, which consist of five house or huts, out of which three are used for dwellings, one for dairy and other as cow shed. The Todas are known as great poets and singers. The only musical instrument play is flute made of bamboo is called as Pooheeri, played without finger stops. Shalim (2012) documented a study on Society and culture of the Garo s in Meghalaya. The history and origin of Garos is very little. Before British occupation, their history is a sickening series of raids on the plains and feud among themselves. The Garos, ethnically and linguistically belong to the great Bode family, which at one time occupied a larger parts of the Brahmaptra valley and were most probably driven from the plains into the hills by Hindu invaders. They are a section of Tibeto-Burman race of the Tibeto-Chinese family. However Garos claims them to be from a province of
29 15 Tibet; and then migrated from this homeland because of some unknown reason. Thereafter, they travelled from place to place from their settlement. During the period of wandering perhaps the Garo tribe got broken into different groups and settled in Garo Hills. The principal food of the Garos is rice; but do consume millet, maize and many other jungle roots. The solo occupation of men is agriculture and a woman is weaving their traditional textiles and clothing for their family and also for livelihood. 2.2 Rituals and customs of conservative societies Saikia (2003) worked on Threats from migration, socio-political injustice and reproductive behaviour in tribal communities a study in the Khasi tribe in Northeast India. The data was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively from a sample size of comprised of 400 married women and selective community leaders. The quantitative data collected through structured interviews, while qualitative data through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. The study revealed that the Khasi tribe is strongly influenced the insecurities associated with perception of becoming minority. This tribe has a the cultural norms of Khasi is to have a big family to prevent the entry of other people in to their homeland, they believed in the concept of power through quantity; together we stand never matter whether they have enough clothes to wear or possess luxuries commodities to live but focused exclusively on building a big family. Khasi tribal traditional norms do not support the use of any form of contraceptives and abortion is considered to be a big sin. Thus to increase their own population, the tribe created a barricade to prevents from other regions, especially neighbouring Bangladesh and Nepal and from other regions with in the national boundaries of India too. Das (2005) documented A study on socio-cultural lifestyle in Missing tribe of Assam. The author had revealed about some of the festivals performed by Missing tribe. The two chief traditional festivals performed by the Missing tribe are the Ali-Ai- Ligang and the Porag. Both are connected with the cycle of agricultural operations. Ali- Ai-Ligang is the most colourful spring festival, celebrated, every year on the first Wednesday of the month of Ginmur Polo (February) in the Missing calendar. This is performed to mother earth and the forefathers of the Missing community a well to indicate the new sowing season. Ali means root/seed, Ai means fruit and Ligang
30 16 means sow. The head of the families ceremonially sow paddy in a corner of their rice fields in the morning hours and pray for rich and wealthy crop during the year as well as for general abundance and well-being. Dancing and singing is the main feature of this festival where young boys and girls in traditional costumes and dance Gumrag Pakes Cha Nam, characterized by brisk stepping, clapping of hands and swaying of hips to indicate youthful passion, reproductive urge and general happiness, which is accompanied by drums, pipes, flutes, cymbals and gongs. The gong is played during Ali-Ai-Ligang whereas drums have a special beat for the Gumrag dance. Porag is the festival associated with post-harvest events. Harvesting of rice is now very common in autumn so Porag is observed sometimes in early winter and sometimes in early spring. Porag is celebrated involving lots of people from nearby villages, relatives and family members. Sharma (2008) carried out a study on Bhils tribe of Rajasthan. Bhil is the third largest tribe of India, after Gonds and Santhals from Uttar Pradesh. Bhils have unique religious and ritual beliefs, which differ among Bhils dwelling in different reasons. They worship local deities viz., Khandoba, Kanhoba, Bahiroba and Sitalmata; and Vaghadev (Tiger Goddesses). Having their own temples the Bhagat or Guru performs the religious rites. On important occasions Bhils do consult Badvas- the hereditary sorcerer about their origin ancestors. The major disputes of Bhils are resolved by local headmen /leaders, the trough a calling Panchayat- Bhils are very orthodox and believers of their norms and rules thus marry in their tribe only. Well-off on culture they give lots of importance to dance and music. The Gairis the religious dance drama performed by the men in highly talented on sculptures art, Bhils make beautiful horses, elephants, tigers, deities out of clay. Baneshwar fair held during the period of shivaratri (January and February) dedicated to Baneshwar Mahadev also known as lord Shivais the main festival amongst Bhils tribe. The tribe celebrates Holi and Dasshera festivals as that of Hindus. Tribal culture in India is a blend of epic word and modernity. The Kinnaur tribe of Himachal Pradesh is a brilliant example of its kind. The tribe inhabited in the borders of Kinnaur district and earned their livelihood by rearing farm animals. Their occupation focuses in raising wool, agriculture and horticulture. Kinnaurs characterize the Aryan and Mongoloid features. Their dressing sense complements their soft speaking style.
31 17 Men highlight their muscular look with a long coat (Chubba) and woolen pyjama (Chamusutan) while women wrap their beauty with woolen sarie (Dhoru). Women adorned themselves with strings of beads and corals during special occasion; the interesting, yet surprising fact dominating this tribal community is the polyandry marriage system. Kinnaurs consider themselves as the ancestral link of the Kinnaurs tribe of Mahabharata and believe the custom of Panadava marriage codes. Accordingly one common girl gets married to the different brothers of a family. Heavy price is paid for a bride. This tribal folk believe that polyandry is the best way to joint family system and a smart way to safeguard the inherent property from division. An inspiring point lies in the system of remarriage in their society. Women after the death of her husband are allowed to marry again without and social stigma. A study entitled with The polyandry marriage system in Himachal Pradesh by Snehal and Deep (2008) Dev (2009) documented a study on Bhunda festival of Himachal Pradesh. Fairs and festivals have always been a part of the life of tribes in India. One of the festivals is Bhunda festival, celebrated in Nirmand region of Himachal Pradesh; located around 150kms from Shimla and 17km from Rampur. Famous by the name of Bhunda Narmedh (Human sacrifice) mahayajna. Bhunda is celebrated after every 12 years. It is believed that this festival makes the local deity happy and showers prosperity and goodwill to the villagers. The designated person from Beda tribe, who is supposed to perform the ritual, shall be on fast for 30 days and takes single meal a day. He starts wearing the sacred rope spun from Munji grass, on which he is going to slide on the day of the festival, which is generally around 500 meters in length. On the day of festival, after the holi bath, he worships local deity in white dress named Kafan, which he is accompanied to the site of the event with drum beats. The man has to slide from top of hill to the ground on the rope. The Beda sits on a wooden sliding saddle tied to the rope with his hands pointing upwards and slides down all along the ropeway, where his wife waits like a widow. If the Beda can survive after performing the event successfully, he and his family become rich as they are bestowed with huge amount of money and jewellery from the temple fund and he will be carried to the temple in a palanquin where hundreds of goats are scarified by the villagers in the name of celebration. But if the
32 18 person cannot perform the event successfully and fails to return alive then his family shall be taken care of by the villages. Quresh et al. (2009) documented a study on Tribal bamboo dance of India It was highlighted that India is a country of art and culture, a land of diverse community, language and demographic quality. Of the known several traditional/folk of India, a unique and special one noted is to be the Bamboo Dance of India, performed exclusive by tribal. This form of boogie is the heart and soul of tribal community and is a must to do activity for an individual in his life time. The north eastern region of India is a gateway to view Bamboo dance. The proud states include Tripura, Nagaland and Manipur, where Naga people of Nagaland are the real gems. Bamboo dance is a participatory action performed by both men and women, dressed in traditional attire. The dance involves a gentle jump over bamboo sticks, places horizontally in parallel spacing over the vertically placed bamboo sticks to form interface. Two people sit on either side of the ground and slide the sticks over the vertically placed bamboo sticks. The dance is tuned to rhythmic music hih-hoh with the help of which dancer adjusts the steps. The sliding of the bamboo strips jig the whole environment and give a perfect scene. Many tribal submerged the dance with myths and beliefs. It is believe that the rhythm of the sound made by the bamboo sticks attract a folk of multi hued insects called lebang and as such women organize themselves in group to catch them. This dance is highly enjoyed after the time of ghum cultivation and is still flattering many tribal regions. Sudha et al. (2009) documented on Tribal Bhagoria festival of Madhya Pradesh. It is a colourful festival celebrated by Bhils and Bhilalas tribe in the west Nimar Jhabua and Alirajpur districts of Madhya Pradesh. Bhagoriya is originally known as Malwa and Bhagoria haat festival. The haat is organized in the form of a Swayamvar or a marriage market. The merriment is dedicated to the worship of Bhagoradav (God of Dance) and is performed one week prior to Holi festival, in the month of March. It is one of the popular tribal festivals displays the love, romance and marriage among the tribal folk. According to the rituals of the festival, Bhil youths indulge themselves in meeting their would-be spouse. As the name of the festival indicates, bhag means to run after choosing their partners. The young people elope and are subsequently accept as husband and wife by the society through
33 19 predetermined customs. The tradition is that the boy applies gulal, a red powder, on the face of the girl whom he selects as his wife. The girl, if willing, also applies gulal on the boy s face. This may not happen immediately but the boy may pursue her and succeed eventually. Singh (2010) documented a study on Toda tribe - Habitats of Nilgiri hills. Todas of nilgiri hills have their own secretive customs and regulations. Todas worshiped buffaloes, and nature. Todas kona shasts, is the annual sacrifice of a male buffalo calf, constitutes pure religious ceremony. From the ancient times the Todas believed to be the descendants of Pandavas. True to that belief, they followed the polyandry, system; unlike Draupadi, one girl can marry all the brothers in a family, and all would be considered as her husband. In ancient time used to sacrifice number of buffalos in the belief that the spirit of buffalo would accompany the Todas after his death and he could live same way as he was on the earth but this ritual was finally stopped/ banned by the government in The Todas cremate the dead bodies. The Toda women are forbidden to walk bridges instead the need to cross the bridge by swimming in water. Shalim (2012) documented a study on Society and culture of the Garo s in Meghalaya. Garo tribe present settlement in Garo Hills of Meghalaya like all other tribes the Garo is also very rich in their tradition and followed every traditional practices with great enthusiasm, through various socio-religious of organization most of the festivals of the Garos are linked with cultivation. Opata Amua is the first religious ceremony with the agricultural cycle initiated when man decided to cut the jungle of the Jhum field. Den Bilsia festival is celebrated to mark the completion of clearing jungle of new Jhum field. Asiroka is a Jhum burning ceremony in some area it is also known as Galmak Amua. Adal Amua is a sacrifice performed just after the Asiroka ceremony. It is an act of invocation to the mother of the food grains of rice; Rokime is to come and bless the food grains of the field. Wangala is one of the most important festivals of the Garo, which is performed after harvesting of paddy. Garo cannot marry within their clan; husband and wife must belong to different motherhood. Garo has a matrilineal society, where women are the owner of the properties of the family.
34 20 Singh and Mehta (2012) documented a study on Bhil tribe: Transience of culture. The word Bhil is derived from the Bil or vil which means Bow. This is the largest tribe of south Asia and constitutes 39% of the total population of Rajasthan. Bhils are known as men of Rajasthan or the tribals of Mewar or the Archars. The Bhils belong to patriarchal society and women were treated as entities to be cared for and protected, thus kept away from the world. Bhils worship the nature, which is evident in their paintings and lifestyle. The tattoos are extremely popular since have of spiritual and social happenings. Ghoomar is the specialized form of Bhil dance performed exclusively by men. Dance and music have prime importance in the festivities such as sawang, a major entertainment event with lots of story-telling, dancing and drinking, permitted only for men. Group dancing is the most exquisite event depicts Hindu mythological stories and their relevance in the Bhil society. Girls were disallowed from participating in such expressions of celebration. The Bhils were equally innovative and charming in their garment style. Though permanent tattooing is trendy in modern times, are yet tied to orthodox ideas and superstitions. Another superstition was their belief that their holy ornament pejania, usually made of brass and worn around the hand would protect them from animals. 2.3 Costumes of tribal folk Rajlaxmi and Singh (1976) revealed A study of the changes in the traditional costumes of two different community of Kathmandu through three generation. The study was conducted at Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. A total sample comprised of 100 families belonging to two main groups Hindu and Buddhist (Parbatiya and Newar). Self structured interview schedule was used to gather information regarding traditional costume worn across three generation. Most of the respondents belong to school teachers, government worker, house wives and students who could give correct information. The finding revealed that there is no much difference in the costume worn by Hindu and Buddhist as they live in same climatic conditions, the changes were observed in terms of customs and rituals. Men s traditional costume consists of a long shirt called Tapalan, a tight fitting trousers known as Sueuwa and a coat may be worn over the shirt. This costume is worn during special occasions, official functions and festivals while it is still a casual wear for the middle and old age people. Men belonging to the third generation had higher education as compared to the first and second
35 21 generation and they can be seen wearing western men s dresses. Majority of grandmother s and mothers main occupation was housewife, business and farming, they still wear their traditional dress. A black cotton sari with red border known as Hakupatari or Patuka along with a full sleeve blouse fastened with strings called Chlol or Misalan and a shawl called Ga or Khasto. During winter they wear quilted Cholo and Khasto with lining where as their daughters started to wear sweaters, woolen and cotton shawl and coats. Agnihotri and Padhke (1980) documented A study of tribal costumes of Murias, Hill Murias, Bison Horn Murias and Dorias residing in Madhya Pradesh. The investigator visted 19 villages of Bastar district of Madhya Pradesh. A total of 60 tribal families were interviewed, 15 from each tribe. A questionnaire was prepared to obtain information regarding the men and women costume. Muria women wear mudding a loin cloth and Luga a saree, they do not wear blouse. Muria men were Lengti a loin cloth, dhoti, Gamcha and Topi. Hill Murias women wear mudding, Fatah and Gathurta or Camcha. Men s are dressed dhoti, Lengti, Bendi, Qamcha and Pagri. Bison Horn Muria women wear mudding, Gisir, i.e., a saree and Karhana. Dress of men consists of dhoti, Banian, Wasket, Kurta and Pagri. The traditional dress of Doria women consists of Gos (loin cloth), Chira (saree), Raike (blouse) and Bari. Doria men were Gos, Doyos, Kusan, Banian and Tallagudda. Children remain unclothe up to the age of 4-5 years and they take up the dress same as worn by their elders. They wear new cloths for festivals. Muria do not have any special dress for dance. Hill Muria men wear decorated Pagri and Kochi and Muyang for dance. Bison Horn Muria men were Tullugulla and dhoti whereas Doria men wear Kohkinbuttul. Pandya (1991) documented A study on traditional and existing costumes of selected tribes in the state of Gujarat. Five different tribes with the distinct style of clothing were selected for the study, namely Bhil, Halpati, Rathwa, Kotwaria and Choudhary, among all those tribal settlement two villages of each tribe one under each category-rural and semi urban from four district were selected and the data was collected personally using self-structured interview schedule. A careful study of the traditional garments in museums and with the older generation as well as tribal families were observed and interviewed respectively. Each part of the garment and the drape details garments were studied and represented in schematic drawing. Major finding of
36 22 the study revealed that, cotton fabric with varying textures was used for traditional garments worn by all the five tribes. In the past only Khakhi fabric were used by Kotwaria men for the upper and lower garments which were a distinguishing feature of the tribe, while Doti fabric was used for the lower garment by Halpati and Choudhary men who wear hand spun and hand woven. Presently tribal s use fine and smooth cotton fabric. Synthetic fabric such as nylon and polyester were also widely used by men and women of all the tribes studied. Among the five selected tribes Kotwari men and women adhered to cotton fabric only, well-to-do young men and women used polyester fabric only for the upper garment. Naik et al. (1998) conducted a study on Influence of age on clothing purchasing and laundering practices of Lambani, with the objective to know the clothing purchasing and laundering practices among Lambani women: an influence of age. Self structured questionnaire was administration on 54 Lambani women from four different Tandas of Ranebennur taluk were selected for the survey. The respondents were categorized into five age groups viz., less than 20, 20-30, 30-40, and more than 50. Correlation test was used to know the relationship between age and purchasing practices and laundering practice of Lambani. Further the result depicts those women with in the age group of 30 years of age purchase clothes during festivals tradition of wearing new cloths to celebrate festivals is still observed among older people. However, Lambani purchased cloths less frequently because the embroidery and stitching costs are much higher than the cost of the material. Elaborate hand embroidery consume a great deal of time. With respect to laundering practices Lambani washed their traditional costume once in 6 months. Embroidery in combination with applique, mirror and coin work makes the Lambani Gaghra still heavier. It is stitched with maximum flare makes it bulky too, thus causing difficulty in laundering. However, the correlation values being highly significant denote that as age increases, the number of days between two washes also increases. Naik et al. (2000) documented a study on Care and maintenance of traditional Lambani costume. It was learnt from the literature as well as group discussion while collecting data that, in olden days about four to five decades back, the Lambani costume was used as a daily wear. Care and maintenance of traditional Lambani costume is not an easy task because of its elaborate decoration, heavy weight as well
37 23 as huge amount of embellishment and embroidery. Though worn daily was not laundered after each wear but instead bimonthly or quarterly. Laundry practices prevailed in those days, the costume was made wet in running water near the stream or river. The costume was cleaned part by part, spreading on the palm and rub with sand gently. After washing the costume was spread on the bank of the river and dried. However in this study the authors observed that, there is a drastic change in the occupation from firewood cutting to agriculture labour. To carry out this activity from morning till evening it was felt necessary for the light weight costume. Thus the ensemble was the same without much decoration but simple Ghagra, sari blouse and Chunni as a daily wear. Thus, Lambani started using their traditional costume on festivals, ritual and during functions and wash them half yearly or yearly. The use of sand as a scrubbing media was noticed even Today. After cleaning and sundried they were wrapped in a old cloth and stored in trunk and wooden box. Naik et al. (2000) conducted a study on Cost of production of Lambani costume with an objective to study the cost involved in production of Lambani costume. Six Lambani Tandas of Dharwad, Shirhatti, Khalaghatagi, Haveri, Ranebennur and Hubli of Karnataka state were randomly selected. From each Tanda 25 households were interviewed to make a total sample size of 150. Self-structured questionnaire was used to elicit the information. Finally the data was analysed by using frequency table and percentages. The traditional costume of Lambani women consists of three pieces viz., Ghagra, Choli and Chunni. These pieces are called as Phetia, Kachali and Chantiya or Chaddar in their language. The cost of production of each pieces was calculated separately for five decade from 1960 s there is gradual increase in the cost of production decade wise and the probable reasons may be increase in the cost of materials, embroidery threads and embellishments. Naik et al. (2001) conducted a study on Constructional details of Lambani costume India is the country known for its unity an deep rooted culture of diversified region wise communities. Every community is known for its rich heritage, culture, tradition as well as costume. The author revealed the constructional details of Lambani costume by conducting an interview and group discussion with Lambani folk. Costume of Lambani is made up of three pieces viz., Ghagra, Choli and Chunni. These pieces are called as Phetiya, Kachali and Chantiya or Chaddar in their local language. Each
38 24 piece of costume is gorgeously embroidered, stitched and embellished in its own way and style. There is no a definite design or motifs copied from books but by their own imagination that depicted the individuality. The material required for Ghagra, Choli and Chunni is 5-6m, 1-1.5m and 3.5-4m respectively. Ghagra is the Phetiya, a lower garment that hangs from waist to calf length. It is constructed with four horizontal pieces viz., Lepo, Gero, Sadi-asther and Lavan. Each piece differs in its size, colour, embroidery and constructional details. Choli known as Kachali is a six piece backless Choli fastened with four pair of strings at the back. Chunni of Lambani is very heavy due to its yardage and embroidery. Lambanis call Chunni as Chaddar if worn daily and Chatiya if worn occasionally during functions and ceremonies. Earlier the entire costume was of Khadi or cotton but now a day they are using printed or woven designed china-silk material along with cotton. Borpujari and Pandya (2004) revealed A study on the traditional costume of Deuri Singpho and Missing tribe of Assam across three generation. A total of 50 Deuri tribal families were selected from 18 villages of Jorhat, Sibsagar and Tinsukia of Assam state. Sample was selected by multistage stratified sampling method and data was selected using self structured interview schedule. The Deuri people traditionally wore white and off-white cloths symbolizing peace. They were originally the priestly class of people and this could be related to their simple way of clothing. Traditionally Deuri old age men wore Ikun (lower garment) a variation of dhoti along with Jima (upper garment) which is a reversible tailor-made garment. The traditional costumes of the Deuri middle and old age women, mainly consists of Lngu, Jokachiba, Lugruisha (lower garment) along with Isha, Baiga and Jima (blouse). Even today a large percent of the Singpho men and women wear their traditional lower garment bake. Their men traditional upper garment was Pulong which consisted of a number of overlapping pockets. Lower garment Bukang, Bathang and Sinket along with upper garment Pulong, Kumphropulong and Ningwat completed the costume of Singpho tribal women. Traditionally Missing men of 1 st generation wear the Gonrougon or Ribigasen along with the upper garment Mibugaluk for ceremonial occasions and festivals. They draped Tongali for casual wear. Missing men belonging to 2 nd generation are seen in
39 25 dhoti and kurta. On the other hand Missing women had a variety of colourful draped upper garment such as Gasor, Ribigaseng, Birnigasor and Pere there are worn along with the lower garment age and Segrek. There are the traditional garment worn by the 1 st and 2 nd generation women, Alakaria was the unique, upper tailored garment. Borah (2009) carried out a study on Glance on traditional costumes of Khasi tribes of Meghalaya. Meghalaya is a small hilly state in the northeast region of India is the abode of three matrilineal tribes namely the Khasi, the Jaintias and the Garos. The Khasi are the people of their own religion, cultural and traditions, which form their rich heritage. Costumes whatever might be its origin serves as a symbol of the role and status of the individual in the society and it obtains for the wearer the rewards of recognition and identification. The men and women costume of Khasi tribe are; Puhsara Jainsem (lower garment), a traditional costume of Khasi women, mostly made up of cotton and silk measuring 2.5m in length and 1.5m in breadth. Dhara is a single piece traditional dress of Khasi women, mainly of mulberry or Muga silk measuring 3m in length and 1.5m in breadth. Sopti Mukhmor (top), which is always maroon in colour made up of velvet fabric. Jain Pein is a lower garment worn as wrapper by Khasi women usually hanged from waist to ankle always blue in colour which signifies the virginity of the girl. Khasi men are seen wearing a traditional jacket, dhoti and turban. A jacket is known as Jympong shad in their local language which is always blue in colour measuring 28 in length and 18 in breadth. Jainboh is a lower garment of Khasi men. This hangs from waist to ankle tied in between two legs. According to the Khasi tribe the dhoti should always be in red colour decorated with golden colous threads. Borah and Sharma (2009) documented a study on The rich traditional costumes of Garo tribe of Meghalaya. The Garo s are dominant tribal community in the entire Garo hills, who prefer to identify themselves as Achik. They are very simple by nature and most skilled weavers of the region. The Garo women drape Eking, a short cloth round the waist, while the men put in a loin cloth. Their dress is very scanty. The principal garment of men is a strip of women cloth about 6 inch wide and 6 ft long. Re-king is a cloth measuring 32 inch in length and 10 inch in breadth. Its body colour is black. All along the length of the free margins are 6 equal spaced red lines. This acts as the border. All along the margin are strings of porcelain beads 2 inch wide. During the winter or when they visit other places, they put on shawl of blue/white cotton, but
40 26 during the season, they leave upper part of the body bare as men. The Garo women go for a longer version of cotton attire in the crowded zones. A Garo women done a blouse, and wears a wrapped like mantle of unstitched cloth called Dakmanda, by fastening it round the waist, it is a hand woven cotton fabric. Its specialty is the 6-10 inch broad borders embellished with attractive motifs or floral patterns. Sharma (2009) documented a study on Costumes and jewelleries of Bhils tribal women of Rajasthan. Bhils tribe of India is the third largest tribe of South Asia comprising per cent of the total population of Rajasthan. Dance and music are given importance by Bhil due to their rich cultural history. The women of Bhil tribe wear vibrant, bright and rich colour costume. The aged women of a family are seen wearing saree and middle and young age women wear a three piece costume consisting of Ghagra, Choli and Odhni. A waist length Choli with a half sleeve and round neck which is fastened at the back using hooks. The Ghagra is made, using 5 meter cotton fabric mainly printed, gathers are found on all around the waist line of Ghagra, it is fastened using string at the waist. An Odhni is a cotton fabric of 2 meter which is draped over the head and fall on either side of shoulder. Most of their clothes have bold prints called Nandana print. Bhil bride wear turmeric colour Ghagra as a symbol of purity during wedding ceremony. Bhil men wear plain long Kurta along with Dhoti and a plain or a geometrical design printed turban. Borah and Mog (2010) documented a study on The Mog tribe and their traditional costumes the Mog or Magh are of Akranese origin. The Maghs are believed to have migrated in ancient times. From there they move on to the Chitangong hiss tracts before arriving at their present habitat Tripura. The Mog lady or girl is a most fascinating little body, possessing a very pleasing face she dressed very neatly at all times, but is particularly bright on festival occasions. The Mog women wear Thabuing, Rangjie, Rongari, Ruma, Poh-Longi-Pohruma. Thabuing is a lower garment, wrapped around the waist till calf length. The designs are only horizontal lines in colour combinations of red, black, navy blue or pink, black, blue, maroon etc., Rongari is a striped cloth of horizontal lines used to cover only the breast, measured 52.5 inch length and 10.5 inch width. Ruma is a dupatta used by Mog women folk; this is kept on shoulder while going to temple. Ruma is 56 inch in length and 27 inch in width in an average, mainly of silk or cotton. Puh-longi and Puhrama are used by the rich class of
41 27 people as wrapper, has check pattern and mostly in bright colour such as red and pink. It is expensive because is woven in Muga silk. Puh-longi is worn with a long sleeves white top or blouse, mostly popular among young lady. The men folk of Mog tribe are seen wearing a kurta, dhoti and turban as their traditional costume. Mamoni and Ukrainja (2010) documented a study on Traditional textiles and wedding costumes of Mog tribe. The author has recorded some of the traditional textiles and wedding costume of Mog tribe. Thankhoieng is a flag which is used for religious identity purpose; it is colourful with flowers prints. The entire village weaves together by taking weeks/months. Its length is 540 inch and width is 18 inch and hanged on 630 inch long bamboo. Tankhoieng is plain white colour used to carry dead body to the crematorium; it measures of 140 inch long and 20 inch wide. Tangkhoieng used in the tip of temple and is similar as national flag. A small pieces of red, yellow, blue and white colour fabric are cut and stitched accordingly like a flag this indicates the Buddism. Akhang is a men bed sheet. Chengdua is a saffron colour piece of cloth which is placed above the place where the statue or Phora of Lord Buddha is kept. Chengdua is a plain cotton embroidered fabric used as table cloth. Presently people modified their dress for wedding and wear according to their choice. Only few conservative families follow the traditional women s wedding costume. Poh thabuing is a red colour silk wrapper with a geometrical lines, Lahreh rangli is a plain red colour full sleeves top and a shawl called Shal Pohch hoh, which is red in colour with a floral and creepers motifs this is used for covering the head and face during the wedding ceremony. Swarnima (2010) conducted a study on Toda tribe A tribal costume. Toda tribe is the most ancient tribe of Nilgiri hills of Tamil Nadu. The sole occupation of Todas is cattle-herding and dairy- work. Their staple food is rice, dairy products and vegetables. Toda tribe men and women had a unique costume. In early days the womens were seen wearing a white skirt, from waist to ankle. But, now a day they wear a blouse of different colour like red, black, blue, yellow, orange and pink along with the white skirt. The men costume consists of a shirt and Lungi. Irrespective of their gender Todas Use a single piece of cloth, worn like the plaid of a Scottish Highlander over a Lungi by men and skirt by women.
42 28 Sonu (2010) conducted a study on Traditional costume of Garasia women. Garsasia is the third largest tribal group of the state of Rajasthan. This tribal group is known for its colourful dress. The study was conducted in tribal sub plan area of Rajasthan, using a self-structured interview schedule 60 women of Garasia tribe were interviewed. The female costume consists of three pieces viz., Jhuki (upper garment), Ghagra and Odhni. Upper garment Jhulki has a front opening, full length up to waistline and full sleeve. The two different styles of ghagra are been worn by Garasia women viz., gathered ghagra and pleated ghagra. 8-20m and 2.5-3m of synthetic fabric material in many different colours like yellow, orange, green, blue and red are used for gathered and pleated ghagra. During the field visit is was found that odhni is the only headdress worn by Garasia women. The odhni is made up of 4m fabric, 2m is stitched width wise to another 2m fabric, and thus a square odhni is being prepared. Cotton is the only material preferred for odhni, either plain or printed with floral motifs. Regarding colour, all the bright fluorescent colours such as orange, green, yellow, purple and blue are used by the women of Garasia tribe. Tomar and Sharan (2010) conducted a study on Documentation of traditional costumes of Jat community residing in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and designing contemporary wear inspired from their culture. To fulfill the need of the study the author selected four District, two from each state Haryana and utter Pradesh. Two districts were selected purposively complying with the criteria that one district from each state should fall on the border while second should be slightly in the interiors of the state. From each district two villagers were selected and from each village three families possessing at least one member from 1, 2 and 3 generations. Self-structured interview schedule was used to collect the information regarding lifestyle, culture and costumes of Jat community. Kameez, Kurta, Achkan, Birjish, coat and Phatri were the upper garment worn by men. Dhoti, Pyjama and Chudidar-Pyjama farmed the lower garments. On the other hand Khes, Lohi, Kambal, Dutas, Dohar and Chaddan were the wrappers used by Jat men. Out of which Dohar and Chaddan were worn during summer while the remaining in winter summer made of wool and its blends. Upper garments comprised of Angi and Kameez and Ghagra was the sole lower garment worn by Jat women. Orhane, Chunni, Chundri, Pillia, Chaddar, Sopli and Khes were the wrappers draped by women. whereas, the men and women belonging to the 2 nd
43 29 and 3 rd generation have left behind their traditional costume and started wearing less expensive, light weight and comfortable modern attires. Karolia and Ladia (2012) documented a study on Traditional textiles and costumes of Karbi and Biate tribe of Meghalaya. To achieve authentic data for study, a systemic descriptive research design was planned. Personal interviews cum observation method were used to suffice the purpose. Sample selection was done by adopting purposive sampling method. Out of seven districts of Meghalaya state, two districts were selected purposively and four villages were selected with two villages from each district. The data procured from the Karbi and Biate tribal weaver families was systematically analyzed to get detailed information regarding the traditional textiles and costumes worn for different occasions. Traditional textiles used by the Karbi tribe; Rekong is one of the men s loin cloth made of cotton or sometimes eri-silk. It is of 15cm wide and 1.8m long worn to cover the private parts, Choi-hongther a traditional sleeveless jacket with full front openings in a colours like black and blue, Borkapor a thick wrapper wrapped as a shawl by men during winter season, Peselang shawl was an inseparable cloths used as the belonging of bride. The Pinilangtdong, a women s daily waist wrapper which resembles a long straight skirt, full length up to ankle in colours like black, blue and dark green. A piece of artistic cloth used by the Karbi women to cover the upper part of their body called Peko which measures 11m in length and 2m in wide, it has stripes woven in black, red and white. For daily activities a Karbi man wore simple shirt Choi, a lower garment know as Rekong, a turban called Poho and wrap a shawl called Bor-karop during winter season, Karbi women worn a short sleeve cotton blouse known as Choli then they wrapped one piece of cotton cloth across called Pekok and a lower garment known as Pini from waist to ankle. Traditional textiles of Biate tribe has a common feature i.e., 2 pieces were woven separately and then stitched together. Puanpui measures 5 m in length with 2 m in width. Rilungpuan zia a plain woven shawl with an eri silk. Another men s shawl knows as vaiphangzia made of wool of black colour measuring 3m in length and 1m in width. The common appearel of the Biate men was a plain white cotton Diarkai or dhoti, a simple white shirt called Zakua and a Lukhom or headgear. During summers, the old men wear a loin cloth to cover their private parts called Kaipereng. The women s dress consisted of a Mekhla called Puanbum, Choipuan hanging from under
44 30 the arms, Thrangvel which was a breast cover worn together with Puambum. For different occasions like marriage, socio-religious festivals and dance festivals, Biate men worn a sleeveless jacket called Zakua, a lower garment that wrapped round the waist up to the knees known as Diarkari and he draped a head cover known as Lukhom. 2.4 Surface ornamentation on tribal costumes Gogai (1985) carried out a study on A Comparative study of some historical textile design and symbolism of decorative motif in textile of north east India, the present study dealt with textile designs, motifs and their symbolism in relation to cultural influence of people of the states of north east India. The study began with the collection of the textile samples to represent the designs and motifs from the north east region of India. The designs and motifs were analyzed and documented. The motifs that reflect symbolism are natural flower and plant motif, animal motif, geometric motif and some misc motifs as well as few of them are lotus, bamboo, cypress, peacock, elephant, tiger, fish, cross or swastika which are related to the day to day life of the people dwelling in the north east India. Thus another conceded that textile designs and motifs have symbolic significance even all over the world and they indicate cultural heritage of people and their beliefs. Symbols in textile motifs play an important role as a mirror of human cultural tradition. Sejal and Vandana (1996) carried out a study on Designing and construction of garment depicting the sculpture and designs of the selected temples of Gujarat. The main aim of study was to depict the sculpture and designs of the selected temple of Gujarat on to dresses. An exclusive list of temples situated in different districts of Gujarat were collected, out of which four district namely Ahmadabad, Kheda, Mehsana and Vadodara were selected for the study by the purposive sampling method. The nine temples from four districts were considered for the study and architectural, structural and historical details of the temple were collected using the interview schedule. The three photographs of each temple were taken and sketching was done, and the designs were enlarged from which one picture was selected out of three. Further the sculptures were hand embroidered, machine embroidered and hand painted one each were done on the three sets of silk and silk blended salwar-kurta, sari and Chaniya
45 31 Choli and subjected for evaluation. Thus it was concluded that the respondents gave a positive response concerning the depiction of sculptures and designs of the selected temples of Gujarat, fabric selected, colour combination and overall aesthetic appeal of all the three sets of salwar-kurta, sari and Chaniya Choli was rated as excellent. Naik et al. (2000) documented a story Accessories in folk embroidery and their significance. India is the country known for its unity and deep rooted culture at global level and it is the reflection of diversified region wise communities. Every community is known for its rich heritage, culture, tradition as well as costume. Among such communities Lambani community is the well known tribe, because of their eye catching gorgeously Embroidered and embellished costume. Costume of Lambani woman is made up of three pieces viz., Ghagra, Choli and Chunni. Each of them are embroidered, stitched and embellished in its own way and style. There is no a definite design or motifs copied from books, but their own imagination that depict the individuality. Along with the needle craft, varieties of accessories were used of which most commonly and abundantly used ones are mirrors, coins, shells (kavaris), silver buttons and ghun Garo os. Since Lambanis wandered from place to place there was influence of art and craft of those regions, where they lived. Use of coins depicted their wealth. Use of shells narrated about their dwelling nearby sea or river. Lambani use all these embellishment to enhance the beauty of their costume. Parikh and Bhatiya (2006) conducted a study on Tattoo: Tribal art of Vadodara district, a study of its symbolic and decorative and action and its depiction on fashion clothing. In the tribal region of Gujarat where the tattooing was famous among the tribal population as tribal art, which is said to be more organic and durable than urban art, has expressed the sentiments and life experiences of countless generation. Preliminary survey was conducted in four tribal villages of Vadodara district to identify their tribal art. The primary source for collection of tattoo design was oral and visual history and was documented. Six purposively selected tattoo designs were systematically arranged to create allover, stripped and spot pattern croquies. Further, these tattoo designs were screen printed on purposively selected Tussar silk fabric using acid dyes. The fabric was then used for the construction of fashion clothing vest and bustier from six created patterned fabric. Evaluation of fashion clothing was done using audio vishyak, keeping the models, fabric and print colour constant only the
46 32 fabric designs were different. Thus the designing of tribal tattoo have been used successfully in giving garment the uniqueness which was well accepted and appreciated by the young adults, and means to preserve the tribal tattoos at least on the fabric if not on the body. Goyal and Manek (2008) conducted a study on Documentation of Gota work of Rajasthan and its production diversification. The primary and secondary data from four regions namely Raipur, Jodhpur, Ajmer and Naila of Rajasthan and from libraries, museums, books and magazines were purposively selected for data collection by interview and observation method to document different motifs used for Gota work. The nine different products like sari cover salwar suit cover, bindi cover, shoe cover, hand kerchief cover, jewellery box, bangle box, utility bag and photo album were designed in five different styles and from each product one style was selected by the panel of members for construction. Then among various documented motifs, one which was found to be appropriate and suitable with the style of the product was purposively selected, in total nine traditional motifs in each two peacock one sparrow, four different floral motif and two Kairi motifs. The nine different products were ornamented using the nine different traditional motif with the special appliqué work known as Gota work. Thus the author attained as depth knowledge of the base fabric, motifs, design, colour and stitches used in Gota work of Rajasthan keeping all there in mind traditional products were diversified in to the products of bridal trousseau line, it can be concluded that diversification of product were exclusive and all were unique piece with each having their own individuality. Borah (2009) conducted a study on Glance on traditional costumes of Khasi tribe of Meghalaya. It was observed by the author that Khasi people are very much fond of motifs designs in the traditional costumes. Woven and embroidery are the two main chief mode of ornamentation in the textile product of Khasi tribes. The ornamentation is done in loom itself using threads of silk, acrylic, wool rolex by using inserting either threads of yarns during weaving known as extra weft technique. While in embroidery method both hand and machine embroidery is carried out to decorate the costumes. The Khasi tribe use different floral, naturalistic, geometrical and decorative stylized motifs and designs. The motifs like flowers, leaves, creepers, pine tree are used on jacket by both extra weft technique and embroidery. Other motifs like
47 33 mountain ridge, lines, diamond, and head of cock are mainly seen on Dhara Jainsem and Shauds. Borah and Sharma (2009) did study on The rich traditional costumes of Garo tribe of Meghalaya. The author narrates the traditional costumes of Garo tribe are very beautiful and were embellished with beautiful intricate designs and motifs. The ornamentation is done on loom itself; the most common loom used by Garo women is throw shuttle loom. Weaving is mostly carried out by women folk only. The designs or motifs are brought out by means employing an additional layer of dyed yarns or gold and silver threads based on the ground materials. These extra yarns for designs normally and float over the main interlocking of warp and weft. This traditional technique is called extra weft technique. The designs and motifs used are floral, fruit, diamond, stripe, sword shield, human figure and pestal and mortal each motifs has a local name viz., bibal, bite, macron, salting, milamsepi, manderang and chaon and rimol respectively. Borah and Mog (2010) carried out a study on The Mog tribe and their traditional costume. The author focuses on the surface ornamentation of Mog tribal costumes the weaving is commonly practiced among all the Mog tribe. Weaving is particularly done by woman folk of Mog tribe. They weave textile items like Ruma, Gongbong, Rongai, Thabuing etc., for their domestic use. The motifs and designs used for weaving and embroidering are mostly related to nature. The most common designs used are mountain riders lines and checks and diamond shape in form of geometrical designs, floral motifs, creepers, butterflies etc., Kyonngphu is a designs of geometrical shape used in Ruma, this resembles the tip of the monastery. Dogan et al (2010) carried out a study in Plant pattern of silk based needlework, a traditional hand craft of Turkey tribes. The study was carried out in the towns of Odemis, Beydag, Kiraz and Tire of the Izmir province in western Anatolia Turkey. A total of 29 women, who were especially chosen by age (over 52 years old) were interviewed. The interviewees were chosen from different villages and special care was taken to make sure that they have produced needlework, some time in their life. Although there are many different patterns used in needlework, plant based patterns were chosen for the study. Ethno-botanical uses of plants are often lost easily in modern civilization,
48 34 due to industrial activity that substitutes traditional handicrafts. Only a small number of them use their skills for generating income in the home by using plant patterns on many textile products scarves on many textile products like scarves, pillow cover, bed spread, table and tri-pot covers etc., thus to preserve this ethno-botanical culture value the author selected 24 plants and their parts as motifs and made an effort to produce them on many different textile products. The ethno-botanical knowledge of the Anatolian people is an important part of the world culture heritage and to preserve the traditional tribal art. Sharma et al. (2010) carried out a study on Adaptation of Mandana designs on Western dresses. The most famous folk painting of India. Mandana painting are done by women of Meena tribal community of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Hindu mythology is the main theme. The main figures in Mandana paintings are adopted from nature and mythology. Mandana of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh is the famous folk painting that is restricted to only floor and wall decoration. In the present study an attempt was made to explore this art for development of various apparel items. The Mandana motifs were collected through books, literature of Meena tribal community, magazines and internet and total 15 designs; 10 for jeans and 5 for capries were developed. All the developed designs were subjected to visual evaluation for selection of 2 best designs in each category i.e., jeans and capries by a panel of 50 judges. All the selected designs were adapted by using sun face enrichment techniques such as embroidery and patch work on jeans and screen printing and fabric painting on capries. The four developed products were again evaluated by the same panel of judges. From the present study it can be concluded that all the developed articles were highly appreciated by the judges in terms of designing and cost effectiveness. Swarnima (2011) documented a study on Toda embroidery- A Tribal embroidery. Indian culture, at and traditions depict diversity and yet university. In India there are various state having theirown particular embroidery. One of which is Tamil Nadu famous for embroidery and art. The southern parts of Tamil Nadu are surrounded by very beautiful Nilgiri hills. Within these hills lives a tribal community called Toda. They are expert in embroidery called Toda embroidery which is famous in the world. It is distinct style of embroidery locally called Pugur, which means flower. This fine and intricate embroidery is done by tribal men and women on shawls. The shawl adorned with the Toda embroidery is called Poothkuli. Cotton off-white fabric is
49 35 used to do Toda embroidery. The fabric is loosely woven because the embroidery is done by counting the warp and weft yarns of the fabric. Red and black colours threads are used for embroidery on the off white colour fabric. Thus the red and black stripes are produced at the gap of 6inch. Basically all the traditional embroidery inspiration is taken from nature, day to day life activities, and mythological stories and reflects the colours of flaura and fauna of the particular region. The most important motif is the buffalo horn as they worship buffalos. Other motifs used are sun, moon, stars, flowers, snakes and rabbit. Karolia and Ladia (2012) conducted a study on Traditional textiles and costumes of Karbi and Biate tribe of Meghalaya. The author selected some weaver of Karbi and Biate tribe who had nuclear families and most of them were graduates. These weavers practically weave cloth for personal purpose and also sell their products. They weave the traditional textile and costumes using many different motif inspired by phenomena of nature like bunch of flowers, markings of snake, black and white of human eye and design on a butterfly s wing. A motif inspired from the marking of the snake was seen in borders of Biate women s textile. Flower motif known as part of the tribe symbolized festivity and merriment. Diamond motif known as Lungilse were the most common and widely used motifs found in the textile woven by the Biate. It served as a symbol of power, strength, brilliance and unparalleled beauty because of its remarkable hardness, clarity and was considered as a precious stone. The Karbi have their own traditional motifs which bear socio-psychological significance related to their tribe. Generally, the tribe focuses on motifs inspired by phenomena of nature like flowers, leaves, trees, creepers and animals. The Jambili athon was a cultural motif represents the symbolical rod with 5 branches which signifies the 5 clans of the tribe. The animal motifs used in a Karbi traditional textile were cock motif known as Voalo signifying a domestic animal which awakens the people from their sleep at dawn. Goat motif known as Betoh was another animal use as a sacrifice to a Karbi God named Peng signifying purity. Elephant and butterfly motif known as Pipli symbolizing freedom, joy and merriment. The flower motif known as Mir which was mainly used in women s afire often woven with a combination of leaf. The petals symbolized the oneness of the 5 Karbi clans united in love and happiness and the leaf symbolized spring. A dimond motif was the only geometrical motif used by the
50 36 Karbis. It symbolized auspicious things and good fortune as it was a precious stone. All these motifs are used on the traditional textiles and costumes of Karbi tribe by the means of weaving. 2.5 Tribal accessories: Jewellery, headgear and footwear Rajlaxmi and Singh (1976) carried out A study of the changes in the traditional costumes of two different community of Khatmandu through three generation. The author studied the ornament worn by the two community s viz., Hindu and Buddhist of Khatmandu, Nepal. Some of the ornaments worn by both communities are same. Changes have been observed in use of ornament. The practice of wearing very elaborate ornament on the head wear common among the grand mothers. The traditional head ornaments are Sirbandi, Sunko Phul, Manandhar, Jyapu and Luswan made up of gold and silver. Phuli and Bulaki are gold nose ornaments, Mundri, Dhungri, Maoruoha and Tuki are the ear ornaments worn all around the ear, Tilahari and Tayo is an old traditional neck ornament worn by married woman. Suduk and Jantar is the armlet made of gold and silver worn to get protected against evil. Jun is a half moon shape silver hair clip. Bunga bala and dragon are the silver round shaped hallows bracelets. Whereas, on the other hand, the daughters in family do not wear any of their traditionally jewellery except the ear ornament Tuki. A woolen hat called Topi, completes the traditional costume of men but the young boys wear western style of cowboy hats. Agnihotri and Padhke (1980) revealed on A study of tribal costumes of Murias, Hill Murias, Bison Horn Murias and Dorias residing in Madhya Pradesh. Along with the costumes of each tribe, the jewelleries, headgear and footwear were also recorded. Ornaments are the main part of the costumes. Ornaments worn by all the four tribe are same as they belong to same district. Ornaments such as Sheopur Kalan and Mathami (head), Tikamgarh (nose), Padaka and Tilaka are necklaces, Kapa (earing), Tayila and Jhabua (armlet) Kankara (wristlet), and Kada (anklet) silver ornaments are very common among them they also wear gold, aluminum, beads and cowries ornaments. The only ornament for men is head band with two horns on either side. Hair arrangement of women is artistic. Whereas, men keep their hair long and tie a knot, tattooing is most common among men and women of all the four tribes, which is done
51 37 on hands, legs, face and forehead. They wear footwear of untanned cow skin known as Arpu. Bhorpujari and Pandey (2004) revealed A study on the traditional costume of Deuri Singphoi and Missing tribe of Assam across three generation. In this study author focused on jewelleries worn by Deuri Singphoi and Missing tribe and are elaborated bellow, Deuri tribe along with its simple white or off white colour costume, Jenuma is a traditional headgear worn by men. Another headgear called Gatigi/Tokoya was a mandatory part of their costume used by both men and women while going to temple and also during marriage ceremony. Moni (neck) and Anothi (finger) are the ornaments worn by Deuri men where as Golmani and Maduli are neck ornament, Jangphai and Thuri are earrings, Gamakhoru and Guta Kharn worn on hands and Anothi is a finger ring. Khorom and Phanoti are the traditional footwear worn by men where as women folk of Deuri don t have any traditional footwear. The traditional headgear worn by Singphoi men and women is Tatot bombum and Bombum respectively. Khaichi (neck), Mantu and Midong (ear) Lekchop (finger) are the ornaments worn by both men and women of singphoi and the only ornament worn by the women on hand is Lokhon. Traditionally the singphoi men and women use to wear footwear made of animal skin only but now a day s use modern slippers of rubber and plastic. The headgear of Missing men and women are Yasunam and Aetup. The ornaments worn by Missing men are Janphati (earing), Dogne (neck chain), Harormora (wristlet) and Anothi (finger ring). The jewelleries worn by Missing women viz., Dogne, Sondorhal, Maduli, Gejera and Dugdugi are neck ornaments; Jangphai, Thuriyang and Thuri are for ear, Konge, Ansolmora, Gamkharu on hands and Anothi as a finger ring. Some of the footwear used by Missing tribe are Letak and Leuk (modern) worn by men only where as Phanoti is worn by both men and women. Naik et al. (2008) revealed a study on "Jewelleries of Lambanis". The beauty and value of any costume adorned by women is enhanced by the appropriate jewellery worn in various parts like head, ear, nose, neck, arms, fingers, waist, ankle and toe. Jewelleries are part and parcel of every costume and also have its own significance. The unique jewelleries of Lambanis women are discussed by the authors in this study.
52 38 Head ornament including Kaddi, Adisanki, Guagari and Topli, these are clipped to a small tuft of braided hair which hangs on either sides of checks. Nose ornament of Lambanis is known as Bhuria. Kania and Bhuradi are ear ornaments. Palvar har, Vankya, Hasali and Manaka are the main neck ornaments. Chudos, Gugara and Charna Pavala are worn from upper arm to wrist. Pavalar vitti is a finger ring worn on the finger of the both the hands except thumb. Kademayur, Panchanger and Sadak are the waist ornaments. Kadaga, Gugar, Pitledar kass and Tongermaikass are the four types of anklets. Angutla, Chatagi and Pilli is the toe ring worn by Lambanis women. All these ornaments are made up of metal called Hindalium and are known as Jumre silver among Lambanis. These ornaments are worn at different age group viz., puberty, adolescents and during marriage. Jewelleries may be gifted by elders, purchased either through cash or barter exchange, presented during wedding by parents of inlaws. Borah (2009) documented a study on Glance on traditional costumes of Khasi tribe of Meghalaya. The author in her study documented some of the jewellery worn by Khasi men and women. The Khasi women ornaments are mainly made up of silver, gold and precious stone. Sai khyllung is a silver ornament used to decorate and beautify the hair style, Mahu is a single ornament made of silver, circular in shape and the diameter is about 2inch only. But the two ends of its arm do not meet each other; it remains separated by a gap of 1inch. Taj Rupa is another silver ornament adorned on both the arms. Synkha is a wristlets made from pure gold for both the wrist. Lyngkyrneng ksiar is a pair of earrings. Pailaksiar is a neck ornament made up of gold and precious stone. The only ornament worn by Khasi men is Kynri Tabah which is a neck ornament made of silver and in between one red ruby stone. Khasi men and women adorn themselves with rich, gorgeous attire and head gear. A head dress or turban worn by Khasi men is usually of yellow colour with moron prints either of geometrical designs or animal motifs made of a valuable Muga silk. The turban is locally known as Jainspong. To make it more beautiful hand and machine embroidery is done. There is no restriction in using design or motif, but regarding colour it should be only yellow and marron.
53 39 Borah and Sharma (2009) revealed a study on The rich traditional costumes of Garo tribe of Meghalaya. In this study the author focused on jewellery and headgear along with the costumed of Garo tribe the Garos are fond of ornaments. Both men and women enjoy adorning themselves with verities of ornaments. Some of them are commonly used by both men and women, while some are exclusively worn by women only. These ornaments are Nadongbi or Sisha made of a brass ring worn in the lobe of the ear. Nadirong made of brass worn in the upper part of the ear. Matapsi or a string of beads and is worn in the upper part of the ear. Jaksan are bangles of different materials and size. Ripok or necklace, made of long barrel shaped beads. Penta or a small piece of ivory struck into the upper part of the ear projecting upwards parallel to the side of the head. Sengki is a waist band consisting of several rows of conch-shells worn by women. Pline or a head ornament worn during the dances only by the women. The turban is wrapped around the head keeping crown exposed (upper portion of the head open). Above the turban some decorative things were used such as beads, feathers etc., Kotip is another headgear used by both men and women of Garo tribe. This is a piece of cloth which was seemed to be like band, stitch according to the size of the head with a facility to tie the band with a small size yarn. Over the body of the Kotip (head band) it was decorated with precious stone, beads etc., of several colours. However, the Kotip have been found to be used only during any festival occasion. Earlier, it was worn by everybody among Garo community. Its importance is decreasing day by day with advent of new modern culture. Mehta and Sharma (2009) documented a study on Traditional jewellery of India. The origin of Indian jewellary is shrouded in the mist of antiquity. Earliest reference to Indian jewellery is in the Rig Veda and in the epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The Rig Veda, which was composed in the second millennium, mentions the use of head, ear and waist ornaments. In the later Puranas, head ear, neck, wrist, waist and ankle ornaments. The Nishka and Rukma (pendants), Karsna Sabhana (earring), Khadi (anklet) and Aspara or Mukuta (crown) were popular during the Vedic and Puranic periods. The new designs in jewellery that thus came into vogue were the motifs of Makarika (alligator) Garudaka (eagle), Rishbha (bull), Hatika (elephant), Sinha Bandhaka (lion) and Chakravaka Mithunika (pair of birds). Such motifs were abundant in the amulets of the proto historic period. Indian jewellery, however, may be
54 40 roughly divided into two kinds: the heavy solid silver worn in the rural areas by all classes of people; and dedicate highly sophisticated piece that adorn the urban women. Folk jewellery indicates the earliest shapes and is often copies of the first ornaments people adorned themselves with such as seeds & shells, leaves & flowers, berries and nuts, birds, insects and animals. The chief characteristic of Indian jewellery is its intricate design, gorgeous appearance and richness. Viewed in its historical perspective, it has never lost its place as a high ranking craft. Sharma (2009) documented a study on Costumes and jewelleries of Bhils tribal women of Rajasthan. The word Bhil is derived from the Bil of Vil which mean bow. They are the largest tribe of south Asia and constitute 39% of the total population of Rajasthan. Bhil tribe has a rich, vibrant traditional tribal costume and jewellery. The main ornament with the superstition belief is holy Pejania made up of brass and worn around the hand would protect them from animals. The head ornament of Bhil tribe is Tikli. Nose ornament called Nath is large ring; it can be either plain or engraved with design. Jhumka and Bali are the ear ornaments. A single neck ornament is worn by Bhil women is Hansuli which is almost semi-circular in shape. The border bangles of ivory, bone and plastic are worn in hands. A simple ring sometimes with a piece in the shape of flower, fish and betel leaf is fixed on the top of it; this is worn as a toe ring. All the above mentioned ornaments are worn regularly by the Bhil women. During festivals and rituals they deck themselves with many decorative ornaments along with newer and modern forms of jewellery. Borah and Mog (2010) conducted a study on The Mog tribe and their traditional costumes. The Mog tribe women wear gold and silver ornaments. Hruiefrucie and Haingdruhcie is the gold necklace. Changrace, Mahceing and Nydong are the gold earrings. Khalse is a silver armlet, Khayang is a silver anklet, Lahkaw is a bangle made of silver or gold depends on the wealth of the family. Chengboing is a silver hairpin and lastly khugruh is a silver waist band. The men folk of Mog usually do not use ornaments but some of the men wear a Patti is a silver earning. They are also fond of tattoo which is used for decorating as well for protection from evil spirit. Mog tribe has rich traditional costumes, men folk are seen wearing kurta, dhoti and Gangbong or Pargi. Mog men use different Pargi for different purpose, for
55 41 marriage they use 126inch long white Gangbong and for normal Gangbong white colour Ruma (a dupatta kind of fabric) is used by the men folk of Mog tribe. Sonu (2010) revealed a study on Traditional costume of Garasia women. Garasia women are very fond of jewellery they use to wear number of designs jewellery they made up of different material, their maximum jewellery is made through silver and some are of gold and small beads. The jewellery worn by the Garasia women weigh up to 800 g to 1 kg. Jhela and Bor are the head ornament, Ognia, Toti, Bali are for ear, Horki is a necklace, Viti and Hathful are finger rings, Kandora is a waist band, Kodora is an anklet, Bichhia is a toe ring all these are made out of silver. Long is the only gold ornament worn in nose. Chudi and boliyo are the plastic bangles. A special jewellery of this tribe is Haar of small beads. This Haar is prepared by the women itself and it is very decorative and fancy. It is of three types, one is tightly fitted to the neck which is of black beads with some yellow and red decoration, second is loosely fitted white bead Haar and thirdly long Haar of white bead with different colour beads for design. Garasia women are also very fond of tattoo, they compulsory tattoo their names on their hands and sometimes the motif like sun, moon and flowers are seen on their hands. These women wear rubber sleepers as their footwear. They remain bare footed at home, only when they move out from their houses they use to wear chappal. Tomar and Sharan (2010) recorded a study on Documentation of traditional costumes of Jat community residing in Harayan and Uttar Pradesh and designing contemporary wear inspired from their culture. The author made an effort to document the costume, ornaments, headgear and footwear of Jat community. The ornaments worn by women folk of Jat are Singar, Patti, Borla, Tikka, Chaikphul, Karjuda on forehead. Keel and Koka are nose rings; Bunde, Jhumke, Dande and Bali are ear ornaments. They also adorn themselves with many number of neck and hand ornament such as Hansli, Kantha, Kanthi, Haar, Mala, Hamel, and Bajubandm Bale Kadul, Kade, Dastband, Chan, Hathphul respectively. Peti ki Tagat, Palla and Guccha are for waist. Some of the anklets like Pajeb, Gadde, Murce, Kade, Kad, and Bank. All the above mentioned ornaments are made up of the silver, brass, gold and mixed metals. On the other hand, Murrkhi, Hansi, Kade and Kadi were the few ornaments worn by men. Here is a glance on headgears, ornaments and foot wears used by the
56 42 1 st generation men and women of Jat community. Pagari and safa were the two headgears worn by the men. Safa was worn by all but Pagari was meant for only elder male member of the family. Leather Jooties were worn as footwear, short hairs were maintained and having moustache was mandatory for the men of Jat community. Karolia and Ladia (2012) documented a study on Traditional textile and costumes of Karbi and Biate tribe of Meghalaya. In this study along with the textiles and costumes the author has also documented the jewellery adorn by the Karbi and Biate women. The most beautiful ornament used by the aged and married Karbi women was Nothengpi, which is a pair of very big earring made of silver. It is about 1 cm. The Karbi lady use silver bracelet called Roit Arroir which was worn during her engagement ceremony. A silver coin necklace called Lek sika. Men wore a silver necklace known as Kekruve-lekenji made of silver chains with bunch of silver coins protruding out the chain at regular intervals. On the other hand Biate women are seen wearing a flower head band made of bamboo called Ritai. The only ornament worn daily by a Biate woman was a silver ear lobe known as Toiah. A turban called Poho is worn by Karbi men. Poho is of 1.8m long and 30cm wide. It has tassels extended at the edge of the cloth for aesthetic beauty. Traditionally, it was made of Eri silk but later cotton was also used and the colours were found in black, red, white and yellow. 2.6 Adoption of contemporary costumes by tribal folk Rajlaxmi and Singh (1976) documented A study on the changes in the traditional costumes of two different community of Kathmandu through three generation. The results revealed that, men and women belonging to first and second generation still wear their traditional costumes, whereas, changes were observed in the costumes of third generation, an impact of higher education qualification and profession. Not even a single traditional item such as Tapalan, Surawa, Topi, Cholo, Patuka and Khasto was used by the third generation. Instead boys wore western dresses and girls shifted to modern saree and blouse. The traditional mode of draping saree also vanished. Today more or less a uniform pattern of dressing has been adopted by all irrespective of caste distinction. A change was also observed in the mode of dressing from first generation i.e., grand father and mother to second generation i.e., father and mother to their son and daughter. It will be appropriate to
57 43 mention here that the change was from traditional style to semi-modern style and semimodern to modern. A study on the traditional costume of Devri, Singpho and Missing tribes of Assam across three generation was the study conducted by Borpujari and Pandya (2004). It was found that irrespective of the tribe the first generation still wear their tradition costumes as casual wear, festivals and rituals wears. Men of second generation have imitated wearing Dhoti-kurta, and women saree. A complete shift is observed among third generation who have left behind their traditional costume and switched over to shirt, t-shirt, kurta along with trouser, pajama, barmuda, shorts and salwar-kameez, skirt-top, t-shirt and trouser, to get recognized by their peer group. It was inferred from the findings of the study that the tribal costumes in Assam are undergoing a rapid change. This shift is so fast and drastic that the traditional foot wear phanoti has become extinct. The use of other traditional garment, ornaments, headgears, accessories have also been reduced to a remarkable level and the present study was conducted with an earnest attempt towards the preservation before the traditionality of the tribe is entirely lost. Sarkar and Sil (2007) revealed a study on Preference of apparel and dress material by the tribal girls. The study was conducted in Ranchi district of Jharkand. 200 tribal college girls were selected through multistage stratified random sampling technique from different sample colleges. To fill the gap of information regarding the preference of apparel and dress material preferred by the college going tribal girls. However, the findings of the study is tribal college girls ranked salwar kurta, saree and chudidar kurta as their first, second and third preference respectively. Tribal people have their own social and cultural values. During social function they preferred to wear traditional dresses rather than westernized clothing. Cotton material was preferred for daily wear and silk was preferred for cultural festivals by most of the respondents. Majority of them preferred simple constructional design in their apparel along with hand embroidery. This indicates that these are the changes that are taking place with improved outlook due to education and the age of information technology. Sarkar and Sil (2007) conducted a study on Communication media and its impact on fashion adoption of tribal girls. The study was carried out in Ranchi district.
58 44 Samples of 200 tribal college girls were allocated in different sample colleges through multistage stratified random sampling technique using probability proportional to size method. Data were collected through survey method to know the fashion trend. The result revealed that 80 percent of the respondent had interest in fashionable dress and unique style of dress. Fashion is such a factor that affects almost all the college students. They are exposed to various media and watching other girls they want to be appeared modern and fashionable. Media have affected clothing patterns that have been relative stable for long. By presenting the latest work of the designers, fashion magazines, television provide new ideas to a wide audience that becomes fashion. Majority respondents considered television as the source of information regarding fashionable dress and fashion trends followed by movie and fashion magazine. On the other hand they never considered interest and fashion show as the source of information. Tribal girls are not so much aware of using internet for fashion. They are simple hearted art and craft loving people. In the fashion show models walk on ramp wearing high fashion garment which are not acceptable in all culture. May be these are the reasons for not considering internet and fashion show as the source of information. Thus, based on the findings of the study it can be concluded that communication media had positive impact on fashion adoption of the tribal girls. Sarkar and Sil (2009) revealed a study on A study of selected variables associated with clothing selection, fashion adoption and purchasing behavior of tribal girls. The present investigation was carried out in Ranchi district of Jharkand. Kanke block and Ranchi Sardar were selected purposively. A sample of 200 tribal college girls were selected through Multi staged stratified random sampling technique from five different colleges using interview schedule. The study aimed to know the sociopersonal characteristics of tribal girls and its impact on clothing selection, fashion adoption and purchasing behavior. However, an in-depth analysis of result showed non-significant correlation with clothing selection. Parents education showed highly significant correlation with clothing selection but non-significant correlation with fashion adoption of the tribal girls. Now a day due to modern media facilities, college students are exposed to various media and get the idea of fashion trend. So, residential background does not have any impact on fashion. Thus, statistically significant relation was found between age, education and fashion adoption. The media has also played a vital role in making people fashion conscious.
59 45 Borah and Mog (2010) revealed a study on The Mog tribe and their traditional costumes. The author described the Mog girl to be the most beautiful girl with figure and pleasing face. She is very particular about dressing and spends ample time in dressing neatly especially during festivals. Traditional costume of Mog women are Thabuing, Rangai and Ruma whereas, Mog men wear Kurta, dhoti and turban. However, during the field visit, the author observed that contemporary attires have replaced the traditional tribal costumes of both Mog men and women. Presently the Mog women uses sari blouse as an upper garment in place of Rongai (piece of cloth covering the breast) and Ruma (a long piece). Along with contemporary attire the tribal folk has introduced new designs and patterns of floral, foliages and geometrical in their costume too. The wrapper lower garment used by the young girls them is different from old traditional wrapper. A study on Traditional costume of Garasia was carried out by Sonu (2010). A self-structured interview schedule was administrated on 60 Garasia women belonging to young, middle and old age group are fond of jewellery and colorful dress. Their costumes are very rich and few changes have been observed and recorded by the author. The Garasia women costume consisted of Jhulki, Ghagra (gathered or pleated) and Odhni. The young girls of the tribe brought change in the elaborate costume of their tribe i.e., the simple blouse replaced the Jhulki, heavy Ghagra of 8-20m is replaced by simple ghagra with few pleats and Odhni of 4m to 2m yardage. However, these changes were observed in turn to get status symbol, social identity in the modern society and specially to be comfortable in light weight garment. On the other hand middle and older Garasia women still wear their traditional costumes, as a social identity and significance. Tomar and Sharan (2010) worked on Documentation of traditional costumes of Jat community residing in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and designing contemporary wear inspired from their culture. The author recorded the changes in the lifestyle and costume among the three generations of the family. It was found that, there was slight variation observed in the traditional and current attires of men of first generation. The reasons for this may be decaying of economic condition where in the priority were not given to the clothing and adornment. The cap (Topi) replaced the Pagadi and Safa in Uttar Pradesh because of convenience and easy to handle and wear. Education and
60 46 exposure to urban culture brought several changes in the costume of both men and women of second generation onwards in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The costumes of third generation were completely modernized making them almost one among the urban mass, and breaking the linkage of their identity as tribal community. The modern attires adopted by men were shirt, t-shirt, kurta along with trouser and jeans pant. On the other hand women adopted saree-blouse, salwar-kameez and skirt-top. Although the orthodox nature of Jats and their deeply rooted faith in tradition have lead to the persistence of little traditional jewellary, objects of clothing and other forms of adornments. The present study Textiles preference among women of West Garo Hills, by Borah (2011) deals with the textiles preference among Garo women dwelling in Garo Hills. An effort was made by the author to find out the preference for the different attires than their tribal costume. The result revealed that majority of the Garo women preferred to wear their traditional dress Dakmanda followed by skirt/top, pant/top and salwar-kameez. Also Garo women preferred frock, skirt/top and midi for the girl child and half pant, shirt/pant and t-shirt for the boy child. Hence author concluded that clothing play an important role in social interaction. Economic condition, education, income and society were the main factors which influenced the Garo women in preferring the contemporary attire for their family, leaving behind their tribal costumes. 2.7 Contemporizing the tribal folklore Girija and Jacob (2004) conducted a study on Design development from Kandapalli toys. Most of Indians folk arts have been a great source of inspiration and ideas for the textile as well as fashion designers. The consumer is interested to have new, innovative and latest traditional designs. The Indian folk art and embroidery play an important role in creating many designs in fashion world. Commercial use of folk designs id gradually gaining popularity among the Indian traditional folk arts, the Kandapalli toys of Andhra Pradesh is one of the lesser known tribal folk art which finds place only during festival like Dussera and Dewali. To keep a pace with changing behavior of consumer and fashion wear, a need to diversify the use of Kandapalli toy figures was been felt. Therefore, the study was undertaken to diversify the use of Kondapalli toy design on different textile and clothing products with the view to meet
61 47 the large potential of ever growing consumer market for the latest and folk design. A attempt to bring out the versatility and diversity of the Kondapalli toy figures as motifs and suggested a wide range of textile applications to different textile items using pigment dyes and screen printing technique. In total 8 motifs of toys were adapted on 3 saree with blouse, 3 salwar suits and 2 bed sheets with pillow cover using and screen printing technique. The result reveled that first preference was given to sarees where human figures were imparted followed by Ambari elephant and cock-hen motifs on salwar-suits finally the motifs of toddy tree and hut were brought on to bed sheets and pillow covers. The study concluded that the developed designs will have a good market potentiality and can be popularized and produced on large scale basis. Parikh and Bhatia (2006) revealed the study on Tattoo: Tribal art of Vadodara district, a study of its symbolic and decorative function and its depiction on fashion clothing. Tribes have rich culture and tradition and traditional norms and beliefs. Tribes, though well known for their art and craft, but tattooing is the most famous art of tribes that expressed the sentiments and life experiences of countless generation. In the present study survey was conducted in four tribal villages of Vadodara district to collect tribal tattoo designs. Six tattoo designs were selected and arranged systematically to create allover striped and spot patterns. Further, these designs were screen printed with acid dyes on Tussar silk. The 6 printed Tussar silk fabrics were used to construct fashionable clothes viz., vest and bustier. These constructed vest and bustier were evaluated by the panel of judges. The results concluded that the designs of tribal tattoo gave a unique appearance to the garment which is well accepted and appreciable by the young adults who are fashion conscious and always search for a new style and design. It is a unique attempt to preserve the tribal tattoo art on clothing if not on cuticle. In fact the younger generations of tribal community are leaving behind the rich art of tattoo may be due to advancement in education and knowledge. On the other hand, these tattoos with modification and modernization are gaining popularity and making a way in the fashion world. Sharma et al. (2010) revealed a study on Adaption of Mandana designs on western dresses. India has always been known as the land that portrayed cultural and traditional vibrancy through its conventional arts and crafts. The state union territories sprawled across the country, have distinct cultural and traditional identities, displayed
62 48 through various forms of are prevalent there at every region in India has its own style and pattern of art which is known as folk art. The rural folk paintings of India bear distinctive colorful designs which are associated with religious and mystical outfits. The most famous folk Mandana paintings of India represented the socio cultural ambience style. The significance of Mandana paintings is that they are not only used as decorative articles to embellish walls and floors but also illustrates the religious indications of the devout. These paintings are basically religious in nature made by Meena tribe of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. In the present study an attempt was made to explore this art for development of various apparel items. Designs were collected through various sources and sketches of apparel items were developed applying these collected designs. Selected designs were applied on jeans on cotton caprie by means of embroidery and patch work and screen printing and fabric printing respectively. However the developed articles using Mandana designs were highly appreciated and accepted in terms of design and cost. Hence, Mandana designs can be applied successfully for development of fashion products to fulfill the ever changing demands of consumers. They can also be adopted on tops, skirts, salwar-kurta and saree. Tomar and Sharan (2010) conducted a study on Documentation of traditional costumes of JAT community residing in Haryana and Uttar pradesh and designing contemporary wear inspired from their culture. The author elicited information on life style, culture, architecture and costume of JAT community. Methodology followed for data collection as explained in 3.3. The researcher observed the culture of the community, simultaneously while collecting the data and captured the village scenes, old architecture, clothing and routine activities of the rural folks through photographs. This folklore was the main source of inspiration while designing contemporary patterns, however the researcher restricted to only three aspects of culture i.e., architecture, lifestyle and clothing. Two categories of outfits were designed where the first set comprised of saree blouse or kameez and second focused on kurta and a stole. Three styles of patterns were developed under each set. In the set one Design A was designed taking inspiration from ghagra, the features of the kameez written separately were incorporated in the blouse and floor
63 49 design found in the JAT house were hand screen printed on pallav and skirting of the saree. Design B was designed taking constructional details of kameez and orhna floral prints in traditional costumes of JAT was made use of to design saree while the kameez/shirt was designed of checkered fabric. Design C was designed taking inspiration from the kurta of men; the length was reduced to waste length. Lifestyle of JAT peasantry has been depicted on saree by means of weaving. In set 2 kurta pattern was developed by using bushirt however the length was till knee. The stole from orhna and religious graffiti as evident on walls and floors were hand printed to give extra raw look, Pattern B was the kurta which was designed from the flared paneled ghagra, were as stole was designed by using traditional trimmings of JATs. Finally pattern C, the kurta was inspired by traditional kalidar kurta and Nehru jacket and the stole depicted simple peasantry lifestyle. All the sin contemporary attires were evaluated and inferred as innovative, aesthetically appealing and acceptable. It can therefore, be concluded that designing can prove to be a successful means to preserve and popularizes the traditional heritage of India. Swarnima (2011) conducted a study on, Toda embroidery- A tribal embroidery. India is a country which has rich culture, tradition, art, music, literature and sculpture and Exhibit University in diversity through various charms of festivals, rituals, art music, costume and language. Embroidery is not an exception since the Vedic literature of 5000 B.C. makes reference to embroidery work. Toda tribe of Nilgiri hills of Tamil Nadu is famous for Toda embroidery on shawals. The author maid an effort to adopt this unique Toda embroidery on many other items like traditional drapes, Puthukulis, dupattas, table cloth, stoles, kurtis, pyjamas, shirts and salwar-kurta. Embroidery is basically an expression of beauty, aesthetics which an artist portrays with a needle and thread. This tribal embroidery of Tamil Nadu is very distinctive and it should be preserved and can be used on many articles like purse, pouches bags etc to revive and save the rich cultural heritage of India.
64 50 3. MATERIAL AND METHODS The endeavor of the present study is Documentation and Contemporizing the Ethnic Costumes of Conservative Societies Inhabited in Karnataka. To achieve this aim, descriptive cum exploratory study comprised of field study and literature survey was carried out. Methods and techniques of data collection and its execution were planned, keeping in mind the nature of investigation chosen, purpose and objectives formulated. The present study is divided into three phases viz., firstly the survey, secondly the documentation of traditional costumes of selected conservative societies and lastly focuses on designing and development of contemporary ethnic wear inspired from the style features, ornamentation of costumes and culture of the conservative societies. It is evident from 2001 Censes of Government of Karnataka that highest number of conservative societies (tribal) of Karnataka dwells in the districts viz., Dharwad, Haveri and Uttara Kannada. On the basis of density of the population the sample of the study was restricted to Karnataka alone. Information about conservative societies and their settlement were gathered from both primary and secondary sources. Survey was conducted in the selected locale, to document on historical background, festivals and rituals celebrated, clothing purchasing practices, traditional costumes, jewelleries, accessories, headgear and footwear of conservative societies. Further, inspired by the culture, life style and style features of traditional ethnic wear, trendy contemporary outfits were designed and developed. This process involved design forecasting, sourcing materials, sketching, drafting, sewing and finishing the garments. Finally these contemporary ethnic outfits were assessed for acceptance by different categories of consumers followed by cost estimation of each outfit. The material and methods adopted in the present study to fulfill the aims and objectives of the study is presented below:
65 Research design Phase I Phase II Phase III 3.2 Survey method Selection of locale Sample selection Criteria for selection of sample Preparation of tool Pilot study Collection of data Primary data Interview Community Nayakas Elderly member/s of each conservative society Panchayat Development Officers Panchayat members Families of Conservative societies Observation Photography
66 Secondary data Written Records Census Historical records Library references Museum/s Taluk and Gram Panchayat of selected conservative societies Tribal Thanda Association/s Photography Analysis and interpretation of the data Variables included for the study Classification of the data collected 3.3 Documentation on historical background, culture and traditional costumes of conservative societies Historical background Fairs and Festivals celebrated Functions and Rituals performed Clothing purchasing practices Traditional costumes of men and women Traditional wedding costumes of men and women Traditional dance costumes of men and women Traditional jewellery Headgear and footwear
67 Designing and development of contemporary ethnic outfits Design forecasting Preparation of mood board Preparation of colour and fabric swatch board Preparation of specification sheets (spec. sheet) and cost sheet Design / Pattern sheet Constructional detail sheet Cost sheet Pattern sketching Sourcing the material Drafting Adaptation Preparation of markers Marker plan and cutting Sewing and finishing Surface embellishment Cost estimation Evaluation and acceptance of outfits 3.5 Statistical methods used for data analysis 3.6 Hypotheses 3.1 Research Design Research design describes the actual mechanics of the present research. It provides an illustrious account of the procedure followed for sampling, data collection and data analysis for the purpose of documentation of the costumes.
68 Fig. 1: Research Design - Phase I 54
69 Fig. 2: Research Design: Phase II 55
70 Fig. 3: Research Design: Phase - III 56
71 57 Further steps involved in designing and development of products, (Fig. 1: Phase-I, Fig. 2: Phase-II and Fig. 3: Phase-III). 3.2 Survey method Selection of locale for the study The selection of the locale for data collection in the present study is based on the density of the conservative societies, population and accessibility by the investigator in terms of mobility and safety. Accordingly Dharwad, Haveri and Uttara Kannada districts of Karnataka were selected for the present study, following the purposive sampling method Sample selection The present study was undertaken during the year in Dharwad, Haveri and Uttara Kannada districts of Karnataka. The respondents in this study are drawn from five different conservative society s viz., Goulis, Halakkis, Kunbis, Lambanis and Siddis. A total of 250 conservative (tribal) families, 50 families form each conservative societies were selected following random sampling method. However, two villages from each Taluk of Dharwad, Haveri and Uttara Kannada district were selected through lottery method. Fig. 4 to 6 explains in detail about the villages, taluks and districts selected for the study Criteria for selection of the sample The criteria set for selecting samples were 1. Densely populated conservative societies in selected locale 2. Highest per cent of population 3. At least one lady member in the family wears/possess traditional costume 4. Minimum one member belongs to 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd generations in the joint family
72 Fig. 4: Dwelling areas of Goulis, Lambanis and Siddis in Dharwad district 58
73 Fig. 5: Dwelling areas of Lambanis in Haveri district 59
74 Fig. 6: Dwelling areas of Goulis, Halakkis, Kunbis and Siddis in Uttara Kannada district 60
75 Preparation of the tool Interview coupled with observation method was used in view of the objectives of the study for the collection of pertinent data. The schedule was fabricated with a set of open and close ended questions accomplishing the objectives. The interview schedule for the conservative families contain detailed questions such as name, age, family size and family income of the respondent, historical background, meaning, origin, original dwelling locality, migrated place, frequency of migration, reason for migration, profession, occupation, festivals and rituals celebrated along with corresponding traditional significance. All the conservative societies differ in their life style, rituals, dance, wedding and costumes. Thus, an effort was made to formulate an interview schedule to explore and elicit information regarding fibre content, yarn, fabric, garment pattern, design, style features, colour, motifs, socio-psychological, cultural, political and economical significance and cost of traditional costumes. Further focus is made on constructional details, draping style, care and maintenance of traditional costumes. Observation technique was used to identify the weave of the base fabric, draping style of saree, thread details in embroidery, understanding the design configuration and related aspects. An effort was made on photographic documentation on traditional costume, wedding and dance costume along with the jewelleries, accessories, headgear and footwear. A video and audio recording was employed to record the process of garment stitching and decoration, festivals and rituals celebrated, dance and dance costumes, embroidery and accessories as narrated by the men and women of conservative societies.
76 Pilot study The tool was validated for its reliability on a sample size of ten families of conservative societies in order to identify and solve unforeseen problems in the administration of interview schedule. A few modifications and changes were made in terms of clarity of language and addition of some more questions after pretesting to improve the validity of the schedule Collection of data The data collection for the study was done through primary as well as secondary sources Primary data collection The major part of data was collected from the head of the family, elderly and experienced members of conservative societies, women folk of 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd generations of each family of all the selected conservative societies. The data was collected through personal visit to the families in order to get the first hand information with respect to the listed objectives. Panchayat members of the villages, Community Nayakas and Panchayat Development Officers were interviewed in group to elicit the pertinent data regarding the number of households, population, origin, fairs and festivals. The primary data was successfully collected through interview, observation and photographic methods Secondary data collection The theoretical literature and related researches were gathered from various secondary sources like Census, Historical records, Libraries, Museum, Taluk and Gram Panchayat records, Tribal Tanda Association and Photographs. 1. Census 2001 Census, Government of Karnataka 2. Historical records Karnataka State Archives, Bangalore
77 63 3. Library University of Agricultural Sciences library, Dharwad Karnatak University library, Dharwad Karnataka Folklore University library, Haveri Rani Channamma University library, Belgaum Kannada University library, Hampi Hansa Mehta library, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara 4. Museum Tribal Cultural Heritage in India, Honnavar, Uttara Kannada Tribal Tanda Association Karnataka Tanda Development Corporation Limited, Bangalore Analysis and interpretation of data The data procured and findings retrieved through literature survey and field surveys were qualitatively and quantitively analyzed. The collected data was coded, analyzed and tabulated in terms of frequencies and percentages. The results were represented in form of tables, graph and supported by photographic evidences Variables included for the study Following are the dependent and independent variables included in the study for the survey of each conservative society: Dependent variables: Usage of traditional costume Clothing preferences Purchasing practices
78 64 Independent variables: Age Education Family Size Family type Income Occupation of the respondent Classification of the data collected Age of the respondents The age of the respondents was categories on the basis of mean ± standard deviation for conservative societies. Categories Mothers Age categories Younger Middle age Old age Gouli < > 61 Halakki < > 63 Kunbi < > 60 Lambani < > 60 Siddi < > Education of the respondents Based on the education level the respondents were classified as, illiterate, primary, secondary, intermediate and graduates Family size The number of members in a family ranged from 3 to 10. For the convenience the size of the families were divided into three categories such as small, medium and large. The classification was done on the basis of mean ± standard deviation.
79 65 Categories Size of family Mothers Small Medium Large Gouli < > 11 Halakki < > 11 Kunbi < > 8 Lambani < > 9 Siddi < > Family type The families interviewed were only joint families to accomplish the criteria set for the study Income of the family The families were grouped into three income levels based on their annual income. Grouping of the families was made by the annual income of the total sample based on mean ± standard deviation. Categories Annual income Mothers Low Middle High Gouli < 40,113 40,113 56,286 > 56,286 Halakki < 58,762 58,762 83,827 > 83,827 Kunbi < 42,528 42,528 66,271 > 66,271 Lambani < 47,225 47,225 69,574 > 69,574 Siddi < 46,698 46,698 64,101 > 64,101
80 Occupation of the respondents Based on the occupation the respondents were grouped into two categories i.e. Employed and Unemployed. 3.3 Documentation on historical background, culture and traditional costumes of conservative societies This phase includes the documentation of historical background, fairs and festivals celebrated, rituals performed, clothing purchasing practices, traditional costumes of men and women, wedding and dance costume along with their jewellery, headgear and footwear Historical background The documentation on historical background consists of virtual meaning of the tribe, deity, origin, migration and frequency of migration of each conservative societies. Further it also included mode of travelling, reasons, factors considered during migration, shifting of occupation during and after migration and finally the professional occupation Fairs and Festivals celebrated Each conservative society has its own record of celebrating various fairs and festivals. Number of festivals celebrated by all the societies is different. The documentation under this encompases the month of celebration, costume worn, involvement of family members and the significance during celebration of fairs and festivals Functions and Rituals performed There are various rituals carried out at every stage of life from birth till death of an individual. These rituals vary for boys and girls, and some are common for both. The procedure and custom followed in performing each ritual differ from one society to another; thus the detail about functions and rituals is recorded under this heading.
81 Clothing purchasing practices It involves the clothing consumption pattern of families of each conservative society. Under this heading information on income, budgeting, mode of purchase, frequency of purchase, knowledge regarding fibre content, seasonal clothes, reasons and factors considered while selection, preference for readymade, tailor made, self made clothes, types of shop preferred, importance of care labels and brand name along with the care and maintenance of clothing is generated Traditional costumes of men and women Costumes worn by men and women of each conservative societies are different and are discussed in detail. Documentation on the origin, significance, garment components, local and English name, fibre content, colour, weave, motifs, constructional details, draping style, surface embellishments and other related aspects is made Traditional wedding costumes of men and women A detail description on wedding costume including fibre content, garment style, garment components, draping styles and significance of both men and women, is dealt under this heading Traditional dance costumes of men and women Every conservative society has an exclusive dance costume and information on dance costume of men and women is generated Traditional jewellery The traditional jewellery worn by both men and women either daily or occasionally during the fairs, festivals, rituals, wedding and dance are documented with respect to metal, sources of jewellery, inherited or purchased, style of jewellery (traditional or contemporary) of each conservative society.
82 Headgear and footwear An elaborate description of headgear used by men and women of each conservative society is made with respect to fibre content, style mode of wearing the headgear by men. Similarly information on type of foot wears used by the folklore is documented. 3.4 Designing and development of contemporary ethnic outfits Although fashion is about global markets, it s also about local cultures. In today s age, it s really about bringing the two together (Femina, 2011) Today domestic designers are working with exotic cultural expressions of India. The designer have chosen country life, folk and gypsy styles as the sources of inspiration in costume designing and apply the touch of Indian sensibility to International trends. The investigator in the present study who was keen upon designing has thus made an attempt to rediscover the almost forgotten past of subjects bring it to the fore front of the mass in forms of patterns keeping in mind the future forecast. The designing and development procedure encompassed design forecasting i.e., preparation of mood, fabric swatch and colour board, specification sheets (spec. sheet) and cost sheet; pattern sketching, sourcing material, drafting, adaptation, cutting, sewing the outfits, surface decoration and assessment for acceptance Design forecasting A constant quest for the new describes the frenetic rate at which the fashion industry operates today. This newness is driven by certain key elements bringing in a rust of excitement every season. The fashion calendar is divided into two seasons- spring summer and fall winter categorically, the first six month of fashion year constitute spring summer and the remaining six months fall winter break up. It is equally important to realize that season break up is regulated by either topographical situation or geographical situation or the geographical position of a particular place. Fashion today is defined as an exhaustive methodological process that produces utility clothing. To understand this process, it is very essential to know the
83 69 concept of line planning. This term primarily indicates a range of collection of garments falling in a predetermined category viz., casual wear, formal wear, bridal wear, lingerie, ethnic and so on. Fashion has attained a global appeal, means it has attained a mass produced uniformity. Thus, for the process of line planning to initiate, the fashion designers follow varied sources of forecasting to arrive at a range of garments with global appeal. Thus, the designer in the present study has forecasted designing of contemporary ethnic outfits for summer season as occasional wears Preparation of mood board Mood board is a visual form of expression. It is basically collages of items such as photographs, sketches, clippings, magazine pictures, fabric swatches and colour samples. A fashion mood board usually has sketches of garments as the main focus of the board. A mood board can be actual or virtual, usually planned and developed by designers working in fashion field and interior designing. The board highlights trimming details where ribbon could also be on the fashion mood board. The mood board is a gateway for designers to present their taste on a theme to clients. In the present study the researcher has focused on occasional wear for summer season (first 6 month of fashion year i.e., January to June) and clients are young adults. The theme of the mood board focuses as activities of each selected conservative societies ; the photographs and sketches of traditional costumes, clippings focusing their life style, folk habited, women involved in floor painting, routine household activities, dancing, singing, working in fields with domestic animals and so on were sourced and collaged. It was observed by the researcher that the women folk belonging to the 1 st and 2 nd generation were in the habit of wearing their traditional costumes, where as the ladies of 3 rd generation wear trendy clothes while going to college, market, and other social gatherings. Thus keeping these aspects in view efforts were made by the researcher to bring the style features of the traditional costumes in to the newly developed contemporary ethnic outfits Preparation of colour and fabric swatch board The colours were pre decided by the designer based on the survey results, keeping the common traditional colours in view, several fabric swatches shall be sourced; swatches are the cuttings of fabrics indicate style of garment to be
84 70 constructed. Swatches may be small snipping or may be large enough as desired by the designer to reflect a print repeat, embroidery detail or trims Preparation of specification sheets (spec. sheet) and cost sheet The spec sheet is a sheet that provides complete information about construction or manufacturing process of garment. It encompasses details about technical diagrams, construction notes, measurements, fabric information and trims. Further, provides instructions to follow when designing the clothing or fashion accessories Design / pattern sheet On the design sheet, it is important to indicate flats or 2D specification drawings. Flats are miniature drawings of garment pieces drawn flat on table. Specification drawing or specs is small proportionate drawings developed according to scale of the style furnished. Illustration boards give details on the fashion drawings of human forms (women, men and kids) with garments rendered on it to give 3D image. Illustration could be hand rendered or worked with software system. Sketches assist to the manufacture to view a complete rendering of the intended garment. The file may also include brand label and care label requirements for the product Constructional sheet Constructional details sheet is the short document which includes stepwise manufacturing process and also the details of the style of the garment, value addition and accessories used in designing the contemporary ethnic outfits by the researcher Cost sheet Cost sheet is a one-page simple document that provide detail information about the raw material cost, trimming cost, constructional and value addition cost for which 30 per cent profit margin is added to get the selling price Pattern sketching In this study, efforts were made to set style features of traditional costumes of Goulis, Halakkis, Kunbis, Lambanis and Siddis into contemporary ethnic outfits. Five contemporary patterns were sketched adopting unique style features of conventional costumes of five selected conservative societies.
85 Sourcing the material On the basis of the survey results the material was sourced from local market as well as the appropriate accessories. Special care was taken to retain the fibre content, colour, weave, texture of the fabric used traditionally Drafting The client of contemporary ethnic outfits is young adults (17-25 years) who fall in the category of medium size (M); the measurements for medium size were taken from the book titled Techniques of drafting and pattern making (Padmavati, B., 1999). Initially the basic blocks were developed for each outfit and necessary adaptations were made to incorporate the style features. However, the details about measurements, draft pattern and drafting procedure of five contemporary ethnic outfits are presented here under. Sl. No. Standard Measurements (M) I Girth Measurements (cms) 1 Round neck Round chest Round waist Round hips Round arm II Lengthwise Measurements (cms) 1 Scye depth Neck to waist Waist to hip Waist to knee III Widthwise Measurements (cms) 1 Across shoulder Across back Adaptation The pattern was adapted with the help of basic block by slash and spread method. These patterns were developed for the young women adults for summer season as occasional wears.
86 72 Adaptation of Cowl Top Drafting procedure 1 2: Full length = 40 cm (on fold) 1 3: ½ across back = 14.2 cm 1 4: ¼ round chest 2cm = 14.5 cm 1 5: 1/12 round chest = 7.5 cm 1 6: Neck depth = 3 cm Join: 5 6 (for front and back necklines) 3 7 = 1.5 cm. Join: 5 7 (for shoulder) 3 8: Same as : ¼ round chest = 16.5 cm 2 12: Same as is the midpoint of 7 8. Join for back armhole curve = 1 cm. Join for front armhole curve Cowl neck Draw slash line from center front to the bust point Mark A between the center front neck and bust level Mark B at mid-shoulder and draw a line to A Draw a slash line from shoulder tip to bust level as required Cutting line: (Back) (Front) Adaptation of Overlapped Dhoti Pant Drafting procedure 0-1: Full length (on fold) 0-2: Round waist 2-5: inner leg length 5-6: inside leg length 6-7: ½ round bottom width Draw curve from and 7 Cutting line:
87 73 Adaptation of Single Shoulder Kurta Drafting procedure 0-1: Full length (open width) 0-2: Shoulder width 2-3: Same as : ¼ round chest- 2cm 2-4 same as : ½ round chest 0-6: Waist length 2-6 : Same as 0-6 Take midpoint of 6-6 and mark 5-5 = ½ round waist Join and for waist line curve Mark 7, midpoint of : ½ round arm Mark 9, midpoint of 0-7 Join 9-8 for armhole curve 2-10: same as : same as is a midpoint of 4-4 Mark 12, midpoint of 7-11 Join for front neckline 5-13: 5 inch 13-14: same as same as 13-6 Note: cut and separate to add pleats Cutting line: and 3 (Front) and 3 (Back) Pleats 0-1: 28 inch (open width) 0-2: 32 inch as required 1-3 same as 0-2
88 74 Drafting procedure Adaptation of Off Shoulder Kurta 0-1: Full length (open width) 0-2: Shoulder width 2-3: Same as : ¼ round chest- 2cm 2-4 same as : ½ round chest 0-6: Waist length 2-6 : Same as 0-6 Take midpoint of 6-6 and mark 5-5 = ½ round waist Join and for waist line curve Mark 7, midpoint of : ½ round arm Mark 9, midpoint of 0-7 Join 9-8 for armhole curve 2-10: same as : same as is a midpoint of 4-4 Mark 12, midpoint of 7-11 Join for front neckline 5-13: 5 inch 13-14: same as same as 13-6 Note: cut and separate to add pleats Cutting line: and 3 (Front) and 3 (Back) Pleats 0-1: 28 inch (open width) 0-2: 32 inch as required 1-3 same as 0-2 Additional drape attachment 0-1: 40 inch (on fold) 0-2: 51 inch 1-3 same as o-2
89 75 Adaptation of Anarkali Kurta Drafting procedure 0-1: Full length + 3 inch (on fold) 0-2: ½ across back 0-4: 1/12 round chest 0-6: Front neck depth 0-6 : Back neck depth Join 5-6, 5-6 (front and back neckline) 2-7: 1.5 cm 2-8: same as : ¼ round bust 1-3: same as is the midpoint of is 1cm from 10 Join for back armhole curve Join for front armhole curve 3-12: 4 inch extension for panels Divide the pattern equally into 5 panels as required Cutting line: (back) (Front) Sleeve 1-2: Full length 1 3: 1/8 round bust + 6 cm 1-2 = : 1/8 Round bust, 1-6: Join with Straight line 7: midpoint of 1 6 and 7 8: 2 cm, 6 9: 5 cm or as required 2-9: ½ Round bust + 1 cm
90 76 Adaptation of Halter Jacket Drafting procedure Front 0-1: full length up to waist (on fold) 0-2: ½ across back 2-3: same as : neck depth 0-5: 1/12 round chest 5-5 : 2 inch Mark A and B extension for back neck band 0-6: ¼ round chest 2cm 6-7: ¼ round bust 1-3: same as midpoint of 1-3 Draw curve from 5-7 and 8 Cutting line: 4-5-A-B Back 0-1: full length (open width) 0-2: ¼ round chest 2-3: same as : 2 inch raised to give curve shape Cutting line:
91 77 Drafting procedure Front 1 2: Full length (on fold) 1 3: Half round chest 1 5: ¼ round waist 1 8: shoulder width 7 8: strap length as required 7 9: 1 inch 5 6, 2 4 same as same as 1 5 Back same as front Adaptation of Strapped Bodice Adaptation of Skirt Drafting procedure 1 2: Full length minus waist band (on fold) 1 3: Half round waist 2 4: Extend as per the flare require Join 3 4 Cutting line:
92 Marker making The markers were developed separately for each outfit keeping the basic block as base. The necessary information viz., name of the marker, cut, grain, on fold, notches etc. were indicated for better understanding of marker plan Marker plan and cutting The markers were planned on the crease free flat fabric with appropriate seam allowance. Special care was taken to minimize fabric wastage. The garment components were cut with at most care, cutting efficiency and economically without wasting the fabric; followed by bundling for further sewing Sewing and finishing The outfits were sewn by bespoke methods employing quality thread on double stitch machine. The side seams were finished by pinking, necklines with fitted facing, piping which ever found appropriate. Suitable trimming were adopted to add value to the outfits Surface embellishment Both embellishment and trimmings have come a long way to form an integral part of textile to enrich the fabrics and garments giving it an elegant look. The surface embellishment was decided keeping in mind the suitability, quality, weight of the embellishment, durability, care and maintenance of the contemporary ethnic outfits Cost estimation The cost of production shall be calculated separately for each contemporary ethnic outfits, encompassing the cost of cloth, sewing materials like thread, fasteners, value addition, accessories, sewing charges and profit (30%) Evaluation and acceptance for contemporary ethnic outfits A self structured questionnaire was developed to assess the contemporary ethnic outfits. These outfits were assessed by two categories of respondent s viz. Young adults, Home scientists and Textile experts. The respondents were
93 79 administered using questionnaire which consisted of two parts, part-a encompassed questions related to general information part-b consisted questions on specific information about the fabric, weave, print, style features, colour combination, value addition, comfort, appearance and cost. The garments were rated as excellent, good and fair with the score of 3, 2 and 1 respectively. However, information enumerated in part-b will be presented in the Results and Discussion chapters Acceptance by young adults Thirty young adults were randomly selected to assess the contemporary ethnic outfits and indicate their preference by filling the questionnaire Acceptance by home scientists The contemporary ethnic outfits were displayed in the experiential laboratory of department of Textile and Apparel Designing. A total of thirty home scientists randomly selected, assessed the outfits and indicated the preference by filling the questionnaire Acceptance by textile experts A panel of 30 textile experts evaluated the contemporary ethnic outfits. 3.5 Statistical methods used for data analysis The data shall be analyzed by using the following statistical methods: Frequency tables and percentages shall be calculated for all the variables Weighted Average Ranking (WAR) was calculated by using the following formula: Σ Ri Fi Weighted Average Ranking = Σ Fi Where, Ri = Ranks given by the respondents Fi = The frequency
94 80 Ranking shall be given in an ascending order i.e. for the least value, first rank and for highest value last rank was given and is presented at the end of frequency and percentage tables. 3.6 Hypotheses The traditional costumes of conservative societies are available in the local market. The style features of contemporary ethnic outfits wholly resemble the traditional costume of conservative societies. The conventional embellishments do not furnish trendy appearance to contemporary ethnic outfits. The cost of production of contemporary ethnic outfits is higher than readymade occasional wears.
95 81 4. RESULTS The results of the present study entitled Documentation and Contemporizing the Ethnic Costumes of Conservative Societies Inhabited in Karnataka are presented under the following headings: 4.1 Survey results Demographic information of conservative societies 4.2 Documentation on historical background, culture and traditional costumes of conservative societies Historical background of conservative societies Fairs and festivals celebrated by conservative societies Functions and rituals performed by conservative societies Clothing purchasing practices of conservative societies Constructional details of men and women traditional costumes Traditional wedding costumes of men and women Traditional dance costumes of men and women Traditional jewellery Headgear and footwear 4.3 Designing and development of contemporary ethnic outfits Design forecasting Construction of contemporary ethnic outfits Preference for exclusive contemporary ethnic outfits
96 Survey results Demographic information of conservative societies The demographic information reveals about the family background i.e. family type, number of family members, their education level, family income and occupation of the women folk of each conservative societies, who are the respondents in the present investigation. This information is useful to know the impact of demographic information on preference and clothing purchasing practices of the families. Age Table 1a(i) records that majority of the Gouli women belonged to middle age (62.00%), followed by old age (22.00%) and younger age (16.00%). Table 1b(i) gives an account that, each per cent of Halakki women belong to old age and younger age whereas per cent belong to middle age. Table 1c(i) presents that, majority of the Kunbi women folk belong to middle age (46.00%) followed by old age (36.00%) and younger age (18.00%). Lambani women folk are classified as young age (33.00%), old age (34.00%) and middle age (28.00%) as presented in Table 1d(i). it is clear from Table 1e(i) Siddis belong to middle age (52.00%) followed by young age (26.00%) and old age (22.00%). Education of the women folk of conservative societies Table 1a(ii), 1b(ii), 1c(ii), 1d(ii) and 1e(ii) explains about the educational background of the Gouli, Halakki, Kunbi, Lambani and Siddi women respectively per cent Gouli and per cent Lambani women are illiterate whereas cent per cent illiteracy can be observed among Halakki, Kunbi and Siddi women. However, very meager per cent i.e., per cent and per cent Lambani and Gouli women had education up to primary level. Family size The distribution of Gouli, Halakki, Kunbi, Lambani and Siddi women according to the size of family is presented in Table 1a(iii), 1b(iii), 1c(iii), 1d(iii) and 1e(iii) respectively. The result depicts that Gouli (42.00%) and Halakki (52.00%) families
97 83 have medium family size with 9-11 members followed by small family less that 9 (38.00%) and (26.00%) and large family with more than 11 (20.00%) and (22.00%) respectively. Where as, per cent Kunbis have family size of 6-8 family members followed by family size of more than 8 family members (22.00%) and less than 6 family members (18.00%). Lambanis have medium family size of 7-9, small family less than 7 and large family more than 9 with 48.00, and per cent. However, per cent Siddis have medium family size followed by per cent Siddis belong to small family less than 8 and per cent Siddis have large family size of more than 10 family members. Family type An appraisal of Table 1a(iv), 1b(iv), 1c(iv), 1d(iv) and 1e(iv) show that cent per cent of Gouli, Halakki, Kunbi, Lambani and Siddi families belonged to joint family system respectively. Annual family income (Rs.) The annual income of the Gouli, Halakki, Kunbi, Lambani and Siddi families is presented in Table 1a(v), 1b(v), 1c(v), 1d(v) and 1e(v) respectively. Majority of the Gouli families belong to low income (< Rs. 40,113/-) group followed by per cent of them to middle income (Rs. 40,113-56,286/-) group and per cent of them to high income (Rs. 56,286/-) per cent of Halakkis belong to low income (< Rs. 58,762/-) followed by per cent of each to middle income (Rs. 58,762-83,827/-) and high income (> Rs. 83,827/-) groups. Whereas, majority of Kunbis belong to middle income (Rs. 42,528-66,271/-) followed by and per cent belong to low and high income group having annual income less than Rs. 42,528/- and more than Rs. 66,271/- respectively. On the other hand per cent Lambani belong to middle income (Rs. 47,225-69,574/-) group followed by each per cent of low and high income having annual income Rs. 47,225/- and Rs. 69,574/- respectively. However, majority Siddis have middle income (Rs. 46,698-64,101/-) group followed by per cent of them to low income group having annual income less than Rs. 46,498/- and per cent belong to high income (> Rs. 64,101/-) group.
98 84 Table 1a. Demographic information of Goulis n= 50 Sl. No. Demographic variables Percentage of respondents (i) Age (years) 1 Young age (< 54) 08 (16.00) 2 Middle age (54-61) 31 (62.00) 3 Old age (>61) 11 (22.00) (ii) Education 1 Illiterate (unable to read and write) 44 (88.00) 2 Primary (I VII standard) 06 (12.00) 3 Secondary (VIII X standard) -- 4 Intermediate (PUC I and II) -- 5 Graduate -- (iii) Family size (No. of members) 1 Small (< 9) 19 (38.00) 2 Medium (9-11) 21 (42.00) 3 Large (> 11) 10 (20.00) (iv) Family type 2 Joint 50 (100.00) (v) Annual Income of the family (Rs.) 1 Low Income (<40,113) 20 (40.00) 2 Middle Income (40,113 56,286) 17 (34.00) 3 High Income (>56,286) 13 (26.00) (vi) Occupation 1 Employed 33 (66.00) 2 Unemployed 17 (34.00) Figures in parentheses indicate percentages
99 85 Table 1b. Demographic information of Halakkis n= 50 Sl. No. Demographic variables Percentage of respondents (i) Age (years) 1 Young age (< 55) 17 (34.00) 2 Middle age (55-63) 16 (32.00) 3 Old age (>63) 17 (34.00) (ii) Education 1 Illiterate (unable to read and write) 50 (100.00) 2 Primary (I VII standard) -- 3 Secondary (VIII X standard) -- 4 Intermediate (PUC I and II) -- 5 Graduate -- (iii) Family size (No. of members) 1 Small (< 9) 13 (26.00) 2 Medium (9-11) 26 (52.00) 3 Large (> 11) 11 (22.00) (iv) Family type 2 Joint 50 (100.00) (v) Annual Income of the family (Rs.) 1 Low Income (<58,762) 22 (44.00) 2 Middle Income (58,762 83,827) 14 (28.00) 3 High Income (>83,827) 14 (28.00) (vi) Occupation 1 Employed 31 (62.00) 2 Unemployed 19 (38.00) Figures in parentheses indicate percentages
100 86 Table 1c. Demographic information of Kunbis n= 50 Sl. No. Demographic variables Percentage of respondents (i) Age (years) 1 Young age (< 53) 09 (18.00) 2 Middle age (53-60) 23 (46.00) 3 Old age (>60) 18 (36.00) (ii) Education 1 Illiterate (unable to read and write) 50 (100.00) 2 Primary (I VII standard) -- 3 Secondary (VIII X standard) -- 4 Intermediate (PUC I and II) -- 5 Graduate -- (iii) Family size (No. of members) 1 Small (< 6) 09 (18.00) 2 Medium (6-8) 30 (60.00) 3 Large (> 8) 11 (22.00) (iv) Family type 2 Joint 50 (100.00) (v) Annual Income of the family (Rs.) 1 Low Income (<42,528) 17 (34.00) 2 Middle Income (42,528 66,271) 24 (48.00) 3 High Income (>66,271) 09 (18.00) (vi) Occupation 1 Employed -- 2 Unemployed 50 (100.00) Figures in parentheses indicate percentages
101 87 Table 1d. Demographic information of Lambanis n= 50 Sl. No. Demographic variables Percentage of respondents (i) Age (years) 1 Young age (< 50) 19 (38.00) 2 Middle age (50-60) 14 (28.00) 3 Old age (>60) 17 (34.00) (ii) Education 1 Illiterate (unable to read and write) 38 (76.00) 2 Primary (I VII standard) 12 (24.00) 3 Secondary (VIII X standard) -- 4 Intermediate (PUC I and II) -- 5 Graduate -- (iii) Family size (No. of members) 1 Small (< 7) 14 (28.00) 2 Medium (7-9) 24 (48.00) 3 Large (> 9) 12 (24.00) (iv) Family type 2 Joint 50 (100.00) (v) Annual Income of the family (Rs.) 1 Low Income (<47,225) 16 (32.00) 2 Middle Income (47,225 69,574) 18 (36.00) 3 High Income (>69,574) 16 (32.00) (vi) Occupation 1 Employed 34 (68.00) 2 Unemployed 16 (32.00) Figures in parentheses indicate percentages
102 88 Table 1e. Demographic information of Siddis n= 50 Sl. No. Demographic variables Percentage of respondents (i) Age (years) 1 Young age (< 54) 13 (26.00) 2 Middle age (54-62) 26 (52.00) 3 Old age (>62) 11 (22.00) (ii) Education 1 Illiterate (unable to read and write) 50 (100.00) 2 Primary (I VII standard) -- 3 Secondary (VIII X standard) -- 4 Intermediate (PUC I and II) -- 5 Graduate -- (iii) Family size (No. of members) 1 Small (< 8) 21 (42.00) 2 Medium (8-10) 23 (46.00) 3 Large (> 10) 06 (12.00) (iv) Family type 2 Joint 50 (100.00) (v) Annual Income of the family (Rs.) 1 Low Income (<46,698) 15 (30.00) 2 Middle Income (46,698 64,101) 21 (42.00) 3 High Income (>64,101) 14 (28.00) (vi) Occupation 1 Employed 35 (70.00) 2 Unemployed 15 (30.00) Figures in parentheses indicate percentages
103 89 Occupation of the women folk of conservative societies From Table 1a(vi), 1b(vi), 1c(vi), 1d(vi) and 1e(vi), the occupation of Gouli, Halakki, Kunbi, Lambani and Siddi women can be analyses as majority of the Gouli (66.00%), Halakki (62.00%), Lambani (68.00%) and Siddi (70.00%) are employed and rests of the per cent are unemployed. Whereas cent per cent of Kunbi women are unemployed. 4.2 Documentation on historical background, culture and traditional costumes of conservative societies Historical background of conservative societies The historical background consists of fundamental meaning of the tribe, deity, origin, migration and frequency of migration, reasons for migration and occupation of each conservative society Meaning of conservative societies Goulis The word Goulis may be associated with a term Cattle wealth, also called as Dhangar. Dhangar is derived from the hills in which they lived in ancient time. Dhangar is derived from the Sanskrit Dhenugar means Cattle herder. The word Gouli means a milkman or herdsmen in the Marathi language. There are many alternate spellings include Gouli, Giwli, Gouti, Gawali, Gavadi, Gopa and Godla Halakki Vokkaligas The word Halakki Vokkaliga has several meaning given by well known authors. Some among them are quoted in the present study. Halakki people used to play an important role in the marriages of Havyaka Brahmins, and were assigned the work of sprinkling milk and rice all through the marriage procession. Halakki people took this activity as a pride and performed it with complete dedication, faith and joy. Thus were considered as pure people and it was
104 90 Hanyaka Brahmins called them as Halakki where Hal means Milk and Akki means Rice (Bhat, 1982) As already noted the Halu means Milk and Akki means Rice in Kannada; which narrates about the profession of this community i.e., rice cultivation and milk sellers. Halakki Vokkalu (Agriculturists) wished to be distinguished from other Vokkaligas, who were simply agriculturists (Naik, 1982) As per Bombay Gazetteer 1884, it was mentioned that Halakki people cultivated rice, which was milk white in colour, thus the name Halakki. The Halakki Vokkaligas are simple, economically poor, sober and mild people who used to work as agriculture labour in the field own by the Brahmins. As wages the labourers used to get spoilt rice, which is unfit to use rather consume. In Kannada Hal means Spoilt and Akki is Rice; hence the name Halakki (Naik, 1986) In fact Halakki Vokkaliga is a caste, by itself comprised of group of Vokkaligas in Karnataka, and is locally known as Grama Vokkaligas in Uttara Kannada district Kunbis There are many versions regarding the derivation of the name Kunbi. The term Kunbi has various forms namely Kulambi in Bombay Kulwadi in the south Konkan, Kunbi in Gujarat and Karnataka and Kulbi in Belgaum (Russell 1975) According to Kunbis of Uttara Kannada, the word Kunbi is derived from the Sanskrit word Kutumbin that means one possessing a family or a home. The term Kunbi has been derived from the word Kun means Who and Bi means Seed. Hence Kunbi are those people who germinate seeds and are none other than farmers Lambanis The word Lambani is derived from the original Sanskrit word Vanaj or Banaj the meaning of which is trader. Lambani are also called as Banjaras, the Banjaras the term may be split into Ban and Jaru. Ban means Jungle and Jaru means Mover i.e., the one who moves or wanders in the jungle. The three appellations Lambadi,
105 91 Sugali and Banjari are derived from Lam (Luskar) army or Lavana salt, su-gwala good-cowherd and Banjar traders respectively (Arya, 2001) The Banjaras or Vanajaris were anciently carriers of food grains on the back of animals. After the development of the regional language viz., Gujarati, Rajasthani and Hindi the word Banjara was pronounced in Gujarati as Vanjara, in Rajasthani as Banjara, in Hindi as Banzara. The term Vanjara or Banjara does not indicate only particular caste. It denotes the profession of transporting of the food grains. The hereditary occupation of this tribe was to carry merchandise, chiefly grains, salt and other eatables like coconut, dry fruits, dates, dry fish etc., from one part of the country to another on the back of bullocks. They were also called Laman a word derived from the Sanskrit word Lavan meaning Salt, depicted salt traders Siddis The word Siddi is derived from the Arabic saiyid or Saydi meaning leader or master. North African s call each other as Sidi, a title of respect. All people from African origin dwelling in India were however, called Siddi even though all were not from North Africa. The Siddis of Karnataka is a tribe of African descent who has made Karnataka their home since last 400 years. There are about 50,000 strong Siddi populations across India, of which more than a 30,000 dwell in Karnataka. Nevertheless this tribe has concentrated around Yellapur, Haliyal, Ankola, Joida, and Sirsi taluks of Uttara Kannada and in Kalaghatagi taluk of Dharwad District Origin, place and migration of conservative societies Goulis Goulis is pastoral community found in the states of Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat in India. Gouli community practice pastoralism, derived from a Latinic term pastor and refer to raising livestock. Goulis dwelling in Haliyal, Yallapur and Mundgod talukas of Uttara Kannada and Kalghati of Dharwad districts. Goulis primary located in the Indian state of Maharashtra, this conservative society is one of older existing community of India. Tracing it is history back to Mahabharata times. It is believed that Lord Krishan belong to Goulis, their original home is said to
106 92 be Gokul, Vrindavan near Mathura, from Gokul they are said to have moved into Mewar and from Mewar spread into Gujarat and Maharashtra. Goulis dwelling Uttara Kannada and Dharwad Districts are migrants of Maharashtra during 19 th century, Goulis narrate that they migrated to Karnataka in search of ground covered with grass or herbage, suitable for the grazing of their livestock on natural pastures as pastoralism, Goulis lived a socially isolated life due to their occupation, wondering mainly in forest, hills and mountains of Uttara Kannda and Dharwad district of Karnataka Halakki Vokkaligas There are many different views regarding the origin of Halakki community given by different authors. According to Shanti (1971), in a Kannada weekly magazine called Sudha narrates a story on the origin of Halakkis. The story flows as: once upon a time there lived a farmer named Narayanswami, was ploughing in his field. His wife Laxmidevi was bringing Halanna (i.e., rice mixed with milk) for her husband. On her way unfortunately she fell on the ground and the food spill out from the basket and get mixed with the soil. She collects the Halanna mixed with soil and prepares two dolls, a male and a female. No sooner she kept them on the ground both the dolls got life, and started walking along with Laxmidevi. Looking at the beautiful kids Narasimaswami named them as Halakki Maga (Halakki Son) and Halakki Magalu (Halakki Daughter) as they were born from Halanna mixed with soil. Thus, the Halakkis believe that their ancestor were born from Halu (milk) and Akki (rice) and called as Halakki Vokkliga. The folk literature, tradition and language spoken by Halakkis resemble the styles followed in Andhra Pradesh. Similar to Telagu people, Halakki do worship Balaji, as a token of respect, they visit Tirupati at least once in a lifetime to take blessings. Further Halakki widow believes to have the soul of her husband at the feet of lord Tirupati and as a mark of respect and faith she sacrifices and offers her hair (Bhat, 1982)
107 93 Halakkis are the Vokkaligas of Mysore region who migrated towards Uttara Kannada costal region. But, tradition, culture, custom, costume and language practiced by costal Halakkis are totally different from the Vokkaligas at Mysore (Bombay Gazetteer, 1884) In the beginning of the Western Ghats and were known to practice as Kumbri system of agriculture similar to that of the Thodas of the Nilgiris. The communities depended on forest produce and were even aware of hunting. When a ban was imposed on hunting and their traditional system of agriculture the society began to migrate from forest to flatlands, seashores and riversides of Uttara Kannada district in Karnataka (Venkatesh, 2011) Halakki Vokkaligas are confined to the four coastal taluks of Uttara Kannada district viz., Karwar, Ankola, Kumta and Honnavar. The profession being farming decided to live on farm lands located at the outskirts of towns that are sandwiched between the mighty Western Ghats in the East and the expanse of the Arabian Sea on the West Kunbis It is believed that Kunbi community entered the provinces of Khandesh of Maharashtra state from Gujarat in 11 th century, since they were forced and thrown out by the Rajput tribes. There after Kunbis moved from Gujarat and spread into the adjoining places like Wardha, Nagpur, Berar, Maharashtra and Goa, (Kamat 1985). It is recorded that in 1510 A.D., Goa was captured by the Portuguese General Alfonso Albuquerque from the Adil Shah Dynasty of Bijapur and Portuguese rule was established. St. Francis Xavier, in a letter to John III of Portugal during 1545 requested for an inquisition to be installed in Goa. The inquisitor s first act was to forbid any open practice of the Hindu faith on pain of death. The Portuguese colonial administration enacted anti-hindu laws to encourage conversions to Christianity. Prohibition was laid on rituals of Hindu marriages and ceremony. An order was issued for suppressing the Konkani language and to compulsorily follow Portugal dialect as their mother tongue. The law provided for dealing toughly with people using the local language. By implementing this law all the non-christian cultural symbols and the books written in local languages were destroyed. In the first hundred years (1545-
108 ), the inquisition burnt the people alive and various other punishments. The Kunbis were forced to migrate from Goa following religious persecution by the Portuguese during Goa inquisition. The Kunbis along with other tribes who wanted to preserve their religious and cultural identity migrated from Goa all along the West coast of India, primarily through Arabian Sea voyages. That s how the Kunbi group from Goa landed in costal districts of Karnataka state i.e., Uttara Kannada, Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts and some groups voyaged further to Kerala Lambanis History as the story of the past is essentially a narration of change. Over the periods not only ways of life of the human beings, but also the patterns of their thought, beliefs, language, customs and costume have been constantly subjected to change. Detailed information recorded on these colourful versatile Lambanis tribes through available in History; there are facts which, to some extent, draw the origin and occupation of Lambanis. It appeared to be a mixed race and to owe its origin and organization to the wars of the Delhi emperors in southern India. Lambani community was engaged in the trade of salt, grain and other commodities in remote villages. Because of the fact that they were nomadic tribes, used to travel a long distances for merchandise. They did go to battlefields as warriors alongside English Military personnel in their war against the Sultan of Mysore. Lambani's in Mysore State, as per records in the Mysore Census Report 1891, involved in transporting grain and other commodities on pack of bullocks, especially on the hill and forest tracts. It has been noted in the Madras Census Report of 1891 that Lambanis and Sugalis are one and the same. In fact there is no legend that would illustrate the event or exact place from where Lambani tribe migrated to other areas. Lambanis are found in southern parts of India; generally believe to have migrated from north western parts of India during the regime of Mughals, with the fear of conversion to Islam. Presently Lambanis are found in the southern states of India, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Goa. They were wandering type and were originally roaming all over southern parts, but in recent time they are found to be
109 95 settling in other states. No evidences available regarding the period or year since Lambanis began to settle down in these areas, but it is assumed that this tribe existed in these areas since 17 th century onwards. They are formed interspersed tribal and non tribal population and tenaciously maintaining their culture and ethnic identity. Generally they live in exclusive settlement of their own called Tandas named after headman of the group but there social status varies from state to state. They are notified as scheduled tribes in Andhra Pradesh and scheduled castes in Karnataka (Arya, 2001). In Karnataka Lambanis have settled in the districts viz., Bijapur, Bagalkot, Bellary, Gulbarga, Belgaum, Koppal, Gadag and districts; however, the present study is focused on Lambanis of Dharwad and Haveri district, since 19 th century. As indicated in the history some Lambanis still migrate and wander and this practice is still in vogue Siddis Contemporary African Indians are descendants from various dispersed Africans who arrived in India as a part of ancient trading patterns across the Arabian and Red seas and the Indian Ocean, as early as the seventh century to the early twentieth century. The Siddis are not part of the original Negrito s of India but are descendants of Africans from North-East and East Africa, who were brought to India as slaves, soldiers, bodyguards and servants. These Siddis were mostly transported by ships and boats. Africans were sold as slaves by the Muslims Arab traders from the Eastern seaboard of Africa to Hindu Indian princes on the West coast and Central India. A significant portion of this African Siddis worked as slaves since centuries before the Portuguese, Dutch, British, French and American trading companies came to India. Siddis of Karnataka are the slaves sold by Arab tradesmen to Catholic Portuguese sea farmers who then handed over them to Goa and other Portuguese possessions on the West Coast of India. But the Siddis of Uttara Kannada believe that they came from Goa, who were bought to Goa from Africa by the Portuguese as slaves and fifteenth century, whereas history of Africans immigration to India shows
110 96 that Siddis had contact with Coastal area of India, including Western Ghats of Uttar Kannada in Karnataka, and that they were already numerous in India in the Medieval Period. However undoubtedly the Portuguese added some African slaves wherever they ventured India. Afro-Indians are not homogenous group as they are separated by geographical distances and religious differences. Africans lived either in or around Indian states viz., Andhra Pradesh, Bengal, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, were known as Siddi, Habsi, Kaffir, Kafira, African and Negro, but the tribe wished to be identifying as Siddi. The tribe mostly do not identify themselves as African but as Indians; however the Indians in Uttara Kannada do not consider Siddis as Indians. In fact Siddis have lost complete knowledge on African languages and place of origin. The only remnant Siddis retain of their African lineage is their music and dance Deity worshiped by conservative societies From Table 2 depicts the deity worshiped by conservative societies, it can be inferred that, cent per cent of Goulis dwelling in Uttara Kannada and Dharwad districts worship Lord Vithoba of Pandharpur, Mahalaxmi of Kolhapur and Tulja Bhavani of Maharashtra. Cent per cent of the Halakkis worshiped the holi plant Tulsi (Ocimum Tenuiflorum) an aromatic plant, worshiped in variably by all the members of the family in the morning. The unique feature of an every Halakki family has a Tulsi Vrundavan built in front at the house and small temple of Lord Venkateshwara on the left side of the house. Lord Venkatesha was worshiped by per cent of the sample. Where as, only per cent of them residing in Ankola taluk worshiped Lord Hanumanth. Mean while it was learnt that this society does worship Lord Shiva with a strong belief that Lord Shiva has created and nurtured their community. The Kunbis are divided into many clans where people belonging to each clan believed in distinct God and Goddesses and worshiped accordingly. Thickly populated Kunbi families from all the three taluk viz., Joida, Yellapur and Ankola worshipped the Deity Canacona Devi of Goa. Kunbis have strong belief that their fore father might have originally belonged to the Goa territory. And with blessings of their Deity these
111 97 families have settle in Uttara Kannada vary close to Canacona Devi. Every year Kunbis of each hamlet visit Canacona Devi of Goa and perform pooja with faith and Bhakti and return with blessings. Kunbi and Atte Kunbi people do worship the God and Goddesses acceding to their ancestral system and beliefs. From Table 2 it is interesting to note that per cent of Kunbis worship Mahadev followed by Bhavani mata of Tuljapur (28.00%), Nagdev and Wagdevi (16.00%), Naag daiwat and Sangwi of Maharashtra (10.00%) worship Mao Ganga Jamuna (06.00%) and worship Renuka Mata (04.00%). However, it is customary for Kunbi family to visit their God and Goddesses compulsorily before or after the marriage ceremony of their children. It is interesting to note that the Lambanis basically worship nature. Cent per cent of Lambanis worship Sevalal, most powerful prime deity. Lambanis do worship Lord Balaji (56.00%), shiva (34.00%), Krishna (20.00%) and Hanuman (18.00%) and Goddess Shakti Devi in various forms the Seetala / Mathral (100.00%), the Goddess for the welfare of the cattle on either Tuesdays / Thursdays during Dasara and sacrifice goats as a mark of respect. Meanwhile per cent worship Goddess Maryamma and believe that the Goddess protects their women and children and preserve the fertility of their lands. Lambanis do worship Tulja Bhavani (46.00%), Durga (44.00%) and Amba Bhavani (28.00%). Irrespective festivals and rituals they visit the temples located in their Tanda or villages and worship the deities. The factor which binds the Hindu, Muslim and Christian Siddis is the deity they worship. The Siddis worship Hiriyar (ancestor) and Hasbi God located in Kuntgani village of Ankola taluk. The ancestors after death are believed to be nearby and around them in the form of spirits (They are regarded as witnessed to be consulted by a family in all its concerns). Siddis worship two coconuts one being the father and the other mother, on occasions like births, marriages and deaths in the family, the ancestors are invoked. It indicates the remembrance of the parents and thanking them for their care over several years and also entreating them to keep a vigil over the family in future. It is obligatory for all relatives to attend the function, thus renewing kinship relations. Twice in a year i.e., during November and April, the head of the family performs Hiriyar pooja. Habsi God of Siddis is the forest land 4 kms away from
113 99 the Kuntagani village of Ankola taluk. Habsi God is just a stone like any other folk gods from this region. Once in a year Siddis worship this deity by offering chickens. It is important to note that Habsi God is not supposed to have a built in structure or a temple around the statue Frequency of migration among conservative societies From Table 3 it is clear that, cent per cent of Gouli families are migrants. They migrate as and when felt necessary by them, since from 19 th century they are dwelling in Uttara Kannada and Dharwad districts of Karnataka. Cent per cent of the Kunbis have migrated as and when felt necessary. There is a record of migrating since 500 years and finally settled in Uttara Kannada districts of Karnataka. It is clearly observed from Table that, all the Lambani families are migrants who have settled in Karnataka since 200 years (19 th century). It is found that 24 per cent of Lambanis migrate once in a year whereas and per cent, as and when it was necessary. Mean while the others have settled permanently in Haveri and Dharwad districts. It is learnt that Afro-Indian settlements were established at least in the early 16 th century onwards. Borders of Karnataka are African origin, which were brought to India by Portuguese as slaves through Arabian Sea. Since 16 th century Siddis are seen in the hillocks of Western Ghats, and gradually migrated towards the interiors of forest in Uttara Kannada district until the early 20 th century. There after the Siddis migrated to other villages of Haliyal, Yallapur, Ankola, Joida, and Sirsi taluks of Uttara Kannada district in search of livelihood. Presently the Siddis do migrate from one place to place only when it is necessary (100.00%) within Uttara Kannada and Kalaghatagi taluk of Dharwad district Reasons for migration among conservatives societies Table 4 presents the reasons for the Gouli families to migrate, cent per cent of Goulis migrated for rearing and grazing of cattle s followed by per cent Goulis wanted to earn better wages.
114 100 Table 3. Frequency of migration among conservative societies n=200 Sl. No. Frequency of migration Gouli (n 1 =50) Conservative societies Kunbi (n 3 =50) Lambani (n 4 =50) Siddi (n 5 =50) 1 Once in a year (24.00) - 2 Twice in a year As and when necessary 50 (100.00) 50 (100.00) 08 (16.00) 50 (100.00) 4 Duration of stay in a settlement Figures in parentheses indicate percentages 200 Years 500 Year 200 Year 10 years Table 4. Reasons for migration of conservatives societies n=200 Sl. No Reasons Gouli (n 1 =50) Conservative societies Kunbi (n 3 =50) Lambani (n 4 =50) Siddi (n 5 =50) 1 To earn better wages 32 (64.00) (84.00) 38 (76.00) 2 For better standard of living (28.00) 30 (60.00) 3 Non-availability of job work (34.00) 07 (14.00) 4 Unfavorable climatic condition Unfavorable dwelling condition Cattle raring and grazing 50 (100.00) To acquire a permanent occupation (12.00) -- 8 For education of the children (36.00) 15 (30.00) 9 To change over to a new occupation (32.00) 10 (20.00) 10 Job on contract basis (22.00) Job for 12 months To preserve their religion, culture and tradition Figures in parentheses indicate percentages Multiple responses possible (100.00) -- --
115 101 It is interesting to know that the reasons quoted for migration from place to place by the Kunbis are much different from the reasons mentioned in the Table 4. The reasons mentioned to migrate from Rajasthan and Gujarat to Maharashtra and Goa and then further to Karnataka are caste discretion, bounded labour system, torture from Rajputs, insecurity and disrespect for tradition, culture and spilling custom and life threatening act imposed by Portuguese to adapt Christianity. It is very interesting to know the reasons quoted by the respondents, presented in Table 4. To earn better wages was the prime reason mentioned by almost per cent of the Lambanis. The next reasons followed by are education of children (36.00%), non-availability of job (34.00%), to change over to a new occupation (32.00%), better standard of living (28.00%), job on contract basis (22.00%) and lastly was to acquire a permanent occupation (12.00%). However it is clear that Lambanis did not bother much about the unfavorable dwelling / climate conditions. The reasons quoted by Siddis for Migration from place to place are, to earn better wages (76.00%), better standard of living (60.00%), education of children (30.00%), change over to new occupation (20.00%) and none availability of job (14.00%) Shift of occupation among conservative societies after migration Table 5 depicts that, per cent of Gouli families continued their occupation i.e., cattle rearing and grazing, meanwhile per cent got engaged in civil labour followed by agriculture labour (32.00%), private job (16.00%) and firewood selling from their ancestral cattle rearing occupation. It is perceived from Table that per cent of the Kunbi families continued to be agriculturists even after migrating from their original place. Meanwhile per cent of the respondents got engaged into private jobs, where as rest of them shifted their occupation from agriculture to business (20.00%), government jobs (10.00%) and civil contractors (06.00%). Lambani families continued their previous occupation i.e., agriculture labour (34.00%), mean while per cent got engaged into agricultural labour from fire
116 102 Table 5. Shift of occupation among conservative societies after migration n= 200 Sl. No Change in occupation No. of Family Gouli (n 1 =50) 1 From cattle raring to agriculture 16 (32.00) 2 From cattle raring to civil labour 21 (42.00) 3 From cattle raring to fire wood seller 07 (14.00) 4 From cattle rearing to private job 08 (16.00) 5 Continuation of previous occupation (cattle rearing) 34 (68.00) Kunbi (n 3 =50) 1 From Agriculture to contractor 03 (06.00) 2 From Agriculture to private job 12 (24.00) 3 From Agriculture to government job 05 (10.00) 4 From Agriculture to Business 10 (20.00) 5 Continuation of previous occupation (Agriculture) 33 (66.00) Lambani (n 4 =50) 1 From Agriculture labour to Agriculturist 04 (08.00) 2 From Agriculture to building construction 03 (06.00) 3 From Agriculture to private job 05 (10.00) 4 From Agriculture to government job 02 (04.00) 5 From fire wood seller to agriculture labour 12 (24.00) 6 From stone cutter to agriculture labour 07 (14.00) 7 Continuation of previous occupation (Agriculture) 17 (34.00) Siddi (n 5 =50) 1 From Agriculture labour to Agriculturist 04 (08.00) 2 From Agriculture labour to watchman 03 (06.00) 3 From Agriculture labour to civil labour 12 (24.00) 4 From Agriculture labour to business 02 (04.00) 5 From wood cutter to Agriculture labour 11 (22.00) 6 From hunting to gathering non-timber forest produce 40 (80.00) 7 From maid to agriculture labour 13 (26.00) 8 Continuation of previous occupation (Agriculture labour) 08 (16.00) Figures in parentheses indicate percentages Multiple responses possible
117 103 wood seller. Whereas rest of them shifted their occupation from stone cutting to agricultural labour (14.00%), agricultural labour to private jobs (10.00%), agricultural labour to agriculturist (08.00%), agricultural labour to building construction (06.00%) and agricultural labour to Government jobs (04.00%). Siddis are involved in the gathering of non-timber forest products (80.00%) after the ban on hunting of animals by the Government. Rest of the responded shifted their occupation from maid to agriculture labour (26.00%), wood cutter to agriculture labour (22.00%), agriculture labour to civil work labour (26.00%), agriculture (08.00%), watchmen (06.00%) and business (04.00%). Meanwhile per cent of them continued with previous occupation i.e., agriculture labour even on migration from place to place Fairs and Festivals celebrated by conservative societies Common festivals celebrated by conservative societies Gathering opinion from conservative societies on the concept of commonly celebrated festivals, it was found that some of the festivals celebrated by the people of Karnataka are also been celebrated by these conservative societies other than their traditional festivals. The festivals viz., Sankranti, Shivaratri, Holi, Ugadi, Nagar panchami, Ganesh festival, Dasara and Deepawali are celebrated in the month of January, February, March, April, August, September, October and November respectively, (Table 6). These festivals are celebrated since 16 th century by Knubis and Siddis, 17 th century by Halakkis and 19 th century by Goulis and Lambanis. The entire family members of each conservative societies involved in celebrating these festivals. However Holi festival among Goulis, Halakkis and Kunbis is celebrated by only men, young boys and girls, women are not a part of Holi celebration. The Gouli and Halakki women along with young girls celebrate Nagar Panchami and Kunbi women folk celebrate Deepawali. The traditional costumes worn by men and women of conservative societies during the festivals varied from one, in fact the societies are very particular about the
118 104 Table 6. Common fairs and festivals celebrated by conservative societies Sl. No. I Name of the festival Month of celebration 1 Sankranti January Celebration of festival since (year) 19 th Century Involvement of family member Entire family 2 Shivaratri February Entire family 3 Holi March 4 Ugadi (Gudi padav) April Gouli Men, young boys and girls Entire family 5 Nagar panchami August Women and girls 6 Deepawali November Entire family 7 Ganesh festival Do not celebrate II 1 Sankranti January 17 th Century Entire family 2 Shivaratri February Entire family 3 Holi March 4 Ugadi (Gudi padav) April Halakki Men, young boys and girls Entire family 5 Nagarpanchami August Women and girls 6 Ganesh festival September Entire family 7 Dasara October Entire family 8 Deepawali November Entire family Traditional costume Men Shirt, half pant and turban Women Kachi style saree (Band) with blouse Men Langoti Women Saree (Band) without blouse Colour Modern costume Significance Green and yellow Green, red, dark pink, blue, purple and yellow Men - Shirt and half pant or Trousers Women Indian style saree and salwarkameez, skirt-topper and frock Men - Shirt and trousers Women Indian style saree and salwarkameez Worshiping of Deity, joy and happiness Worshiping of Deity to get his graces Contd
119 105 Sl. No. III Name of the festival Month of celebration Celebration of festival since (year) Involvement of family member Kunbi Traditional costume Colour Modern costume Significance 1 Sankranti January Entire family 2 Shivaratri February Entire family 3 Holi March Men, young boys and girls 4 Ugadi (Gudi padav) April 16 th Century Entire family 5 Nagarpanchami August Entire family 6 Ganesh festival September Entire family 7 Dasara October Entire family 8 Deepawali November Entire family IV lambani 1 Sankranti January 2 Shivaratri February 3 Holi March 4 Ugadi (Gudi padav) April 5 Nagarpanchami August 19 th Century Entire family 6 Ganesh festival September 7 Dasara October 8 Deepawali November V Siddi 1 Sankranti January 2 Shivaratri February 3 Holi March 4 Ugadi (Gudi padav) April 5 Nagarpanchami August 16 th Century Entire family 6 Ganesh festival September 7 Dasara October 8 Deepawali November Men Shirt and half pant Women Saree (Band) without blouse Men Dhoti, kurta and turban Women Ghagra, choli and chunni Men Langoti Women Bodice with skirt Green, red, blue, yellow and purple Red, maroon and black Black Men - Shirt and half pant or trousers Women Indian style saree, langacholi,and salwarkameez Men Shirt and formal trousers or jeans Women Indian style saree, salwarkameez, chudidar, skirt-top and jeans-top Men - Shirt and half pant or formal trousers or jeans Women Indian style Saree, salwarkameez, langa-choli, chudidar, skirt-top and jeans-top Worshiping of Deity for the safety and security of life Worship of Deity Worship of ancestors
120 106 colours of their traditional costumes. The younger generation of all the five conservative societies irrespective of their gender has shifted over to modern costumes as that of urban societies, to indicate one among them. All the festivals have mythological, social, cultural, spiritual and psychological significance like worshiping of deity and ancestors to protect and safe guard them, to preserve their culture, to collect together and inherited the culture to next generation, to solve the disputes and enjoy the festivals Traditional festivals celebrated by conservative societies The entire community of Goulis is collectively involved in celebrating Gouri Habba, Dasara and Govu hubba in the months of September, October and November respectively; during these festivals the Goulis worship deity and cattle. On the other hand the young boys and girls along with elderly men in the family involved in celebration of Sigma in March. During these festivals men and women are seen in their traditional costumes i.e., men in shirt, half pant and white turban and women in 9 yard sari draped in Kachi with simple blouse. The traditional colours of saree are nature green and turmeric yellow. Halakkis of Uttara Kannada are found of celebrating their traditional festivals since 17 th century. Hari dina habba is celebrated when a person belonging to Halakki man comes back home after worshiping Lord Venkateshwar at Tirupati, Gaddi habba is celebrated during October and November to worship paddy crop, the pack of cattle is worshiped in November and it is called Govu habba, Huli habba is celebrated on a convenient day suitable for the entire community in a forest and Hannu habba is celebrated in the name of their ancestors in the month of May. All the above four festivals where the entire community is involved. Suggi festival is celebrated for a weeks time before the festival of Holi in the month of March, where only men, young boys and girls are involved. Tulsi pooja is the only traditional festival celebrated by Halakki women and girls in the month of November, when Goddess Tulsi is worshiped and prayed for the safety and security of their husband and family. The traditional costume worn by Halakki men and women during these festivals is Langoti by men and saree (Band) without choli by women. The dominant colours of saree found to be Green, red, dark pink, blue, purple and yellow.
121 107 The Kunbis have settled in Uttara Kannada since 16 th Century, and the traditional festivals celebrated by Kunbis are Hiriyar habba either in the month of May or June celebrated to worship their ancestors to get protection from evil spirits; Huli habba is celebrated according to the connivance of the entire community where tiger is worshiped to protect their families and domestic animals. Sigma festival is celebrated during March by men, young boys and girls and Tulsi pooja is performed by women and girls. The traditional costume worn by Kunbi men are shirt and half pant, whereas women in saree, however women do not use blouse. The traditional colours of the saree are green, blue, red and purple. The Lambani conservative societies of Haveri and Dharwad district celebrate Seetala (Koli hubba) in the month of August since 19 th Century. Where as the entire community of Lambani celebrated in their respective Thanda and villages. This conservative society worships their Deity to protect their Thanda from diseases and disorders. The traditional costume worn by men is composed of Dhoti, Kurta and Turban and women used Ghagra, Choli and Chunni respectively. The traditional colours of women costume is red, maroon and black. Hiriyar habba is celebrated in the months of April and November, the only traditional festival celebrated by Siddis since 16 th Century. The entire community gets together and worships their ancestors; pray them to be with them forever to safeguard their families and community. The traditional costume worn by men was Langoti and bodice and skirt by women. However, their traditional colour is black. Presently siddis have left behind their traditional costume but are seen wearing modern costumes (Table 7). Irrespective of the conservative societies the younger generation preferred to wear some of the modern costumes during their traditional festivals. Young boys wear shirt, kurta, half pant, trousers and jeans whereas young girls appear in Indian saree, salwar-kameez, skirt-top, frock and jeans-top Functions and rituals preformed by conservative societies There is no country or community wherein customs are not found, customs play an important part in personality building from birth to death man is under the influence
122 108 Table 7. Traditional fairs and festivals celebrated by conservative societies Sl. No. Name of the festival Month of celebration Celebration of festival since (year) Involvement of family member I 1 Sigma March Men, young boys and girls 2 Gouri festival September Entire family 3 Dasara October 19 th Century Entire community 4 Gouri hunnime November Women and girls Traditional costume Gouli Men Shirt and half pant and turban Women Kachi style saree (Band) with blouse Halakki Colour Modern costume Significance Green and yellow Men - Shirt and half pant or Trousers Women Indian style saree and salwar-kameez, skirt-topper and frock Worship of Deity 5 Govu habba November Entire community Worshiping cattle II 1 Suggi March Men, young boys and girls 2 Hari dina -- Entire community 3 Gadde habba October - (Harvesting November festival) Entire community 17 th Century 4 Tulsi pooja November Women and girls Men Langoti Women Saree (Band) without blouse Green, red, dark pink, blue, purple and yellow Men - Shirt and trousers Women Indian style saree and salwar-kameez Worship of Deity and ancestors Worship of paddy crop Women worship Goddess Tulsi to keep their husband safety and life security 5 Govu habba November Entire community Worshiping cattle 6 Huli habba -- Entire community 7 Worshiping tiger, pray to safeguard their domestic animals Hannu habba May Entire community Worship of ancestor Contd
123 109 Sl. No. III Name of the festival 1 Sigma March Month of celebration Celebration of festival since (year) 16 th Century Involvement of family member Men, young boys and girls 2 Tulsi pooja November Women and girls 3 Harriyar habba (Ancestor) May / June Entire community 4 Huli habba -- Entire community Traditional costume Kunbi Men Shirt and half pant Women Saree (Band) without blouse Colour Modern costume Significance Green, red, blue, yellow and purple Men - Shirt and half pant or trousers Women Indian style saree, langacholi,and salwarkameez Worship of Deity to protect their families and community from evil sprit Worship of tiger to safeguard their domestic animals IV 1 V 1 Seetala (koli habba ) Hiriyar habba (Ancestor) August 19 th Century Entire community April and November 16 th Century Entire community Lambani Men Dhoti, kurta and turban Women Ghagra, choli and chunni Siddi Men Langoti Women Bodice with skirt Red, maroon and black Black Men - Shirt and half pant or formal trousers and jeans Women Indian style saree, salwarkameez, chudidar, skirt-top and jeanstop Men - Shirt and half pant or formal trousers and jeans Women Indian style saree, salwarkameez, langa-choli, chudidar, skirt-top and jeans-top Worship of God asking to protect their Tanda from diseases and disorders Worship of ancestor and ask them to stay along and safeguard their community
124 110 of customs. If customs is taken as the repository of our social heritage the let us discuss the heritage of the conservative societies. In order to know this social heritage, let us take up the cycle rituals of conservative societies. A life cycle ritual starts with birth of a child and end with death of a person. An attempt is made here to illustrate the rituals in Table 8. All the conservative societies have their own way of performing the rituals for both the genders. But only Siddis do not have any evidence of their ancestral rituals instead they perform the rituals by imitating the other communities surrounding them. However, irrespective of the conservative societies do not perform any ritual at the birth of a child. Naming ceremony is performed by Goulis, Halakkis and Kunbis after 13 th day of birth wherein Lambani perform after 1 month. Javala (hair cutting) is performed at 5 th, 7 th, 11 th and 9 th month after birth by Goulis, Halakkis, Kunbis and Lambanis respectively. Goulis, Halakkis and Lambanis perform thread ceremony at 5 th month of birth whereas; Kunbis perform after 3 rd month of birth this ritual is done only for a baby boy. The ritual performed on girl attaining puberty is may be between years of age, kunbis do not perform any ritual on attaining puberty. Engagement and marriage is performed after 18 years of age for both boys and girls. Sheemant (pregnancy) ritual is celebrated at 8 th month by Gouli and Halakki and 7 th month among Lambani, whereas Kunbi do not perform this ceremony. Death ceremony is performed after 9 th day among Goulis, 11 th day by Halakkis, after 1 year by Kunbis and after 13 th day by Lambani irrespective of their gender. All most all the rituals are celebrated by involving the entire family and community among conservative societies. Earlier they use to wear their traditional costume but now in the 21 st century a shift towards modern outfits can be observed among conservative societies. There is no restriction to the usage of any colour with respect to modern costume Clothing purchasing practices of conservative societies The survey was conducted among five selected conservative societies to elicit information regarding decision maker in the family, items included in budget, factors considered, clothing and household textiles, source of income, source of loan, seasonal clothes, source of information and many more preferred by conservative societies for their families.
125 111 Table 8. Functions and rituals performed by conservative societies Sl. No. I Gouli Name of the rituals Time of celebration Gender (Boy/Girl) Involvement of family member Costume- Modern attire 1 At birth Entire family Girl- Indian saree with 2 Naming ceremony 13 th day after birth Both blouse and Salwar- Kameez 3 Javala (hair cutting) ceremony 5 th month after birth Both Boy- Shirt, kurta with half 4 5 Thread ceremony Function of menarche 5 rd month 12 to 16 years Boy Girl pant or formal trousers and jeans 6 Engagement and Marriage After 18 years Both 7 Sheemant (Pregnancy) function 8 th month Girl 8 Death ceremony 9 days Both II Halakki 1 At birth -- Both Entire family Girl- Indian saree with 2 Naming ceremony 13 th day after birth Both blouse and Salwar- Kameez 3 Javala (hair cutting) ceremony 7 rd month after birth Both Boy- Shirt, kurta with half 4 5 Thread ceremony Function of menarche 5 th month after birth 12 to 16 years Boy Girl pant or formal trousers and jeans 6 Engagement and Marriage After 20 years Both 7 Sheemant (Pregnancy) function 8 th month Girl 8 Death ceremony 11 days after death Both Colour All colours All colours Contd
126 112 III Kunbi 1 At birth -- Both Entire family Girl- Indian saree with 2 Naming ceremony 13 th day after birth Both blouse, Langa-Choli and Salwar-Kameez 3 Javala (hair cutting) ceremony 11 th month after birth Both Boy- Shirt, kurta with half 4 5 Thread ceremony Function of menarche 3 rd month -- Boy Girl pant or formal trousers and jeans 6 Engagement and Marriage After 18 years Both 7 Sheemant (Pregnancy) function -- Girl 8 Death ceremony 1 year after death Both IV Lambani 1 At birth -- Both Entire family Girl- Ghagra, choli and 2 Naming ceremony 1 month after birth Both chunni, Indian saree with blouse, Chudidar, 3 Javala (hair cutting)ceremony 9 th month Both Skirt-Top, 4 Thread ceremony 5 th month Boy Jeans-Top and Salwar- 5 Function of menarche years Girl Kameez 6 Engagement and Marriage 18 years 7 Sheemant (Pregnancy) function 7 th month Girl 8 Death ceremony 13 th day Both Boy- Shirt, kurta with half pant or formal trousers and jeans All colours All colours
127 Decision maker in the family of conservative societies to purchase family clothing It is clearly seen in Table 9 and Fig. 7, that irrespective of the conservative societies majority of the respondents opined that the head of the family (80.00%) followed by both husband and wife (23.60%) and altogether (22.40%) are involved in decision making while purchasing family clothing. However, the involvement of elders and wives of head of the family is quite less (20.80% and 20.40% respectively). The choice and decision of children is given due respect among Halakki and Lambani communities (14.00% and 32.00% respectively) while purchasing clothing. On the contrary Goulis, Kunbis and Siddis neither consider nor involve the children in any decision making Items in the budget of conservative societies It is revealed from Table 10 that greater per cent of the conservative families (68.80%) did always prefer clothing as an important item of the budget followed by food (43.60%), whereas education transportation / logistics and medical are least preferred (08.00%, 05.60% and 04.40% respectively). Housing and recreation are never considered while making the family budget. On the other hand the conservative societies sometimes did consider housing (28.00%) and medical aid (19.60%) while making the budget Factors considered while preplanning the purchase of family clothing by conservative societies Sometimes it is observed that the families plan to purchase before actual buying and the factors usually thought of are amount to be spent, pattern/style, fibre content, quality and quantity, place and location of purchase, climate and brand are the factors considered while pre planning the purchase of family clothing by conservative societies. However, the order of preference given by the conservative societies is found to be amount to be spent, fibre content, climate and place of purchase as I, II, III and IV respectively. On the other hand the least preference is given to factors like brand (VIII), quality (VII) and quantity (VI), (Table 11).
128 114 Table 9. Decision maker in the family of conservative societies to purchase family clothing n=250 No. of families Sl. No. Decision maker Gouli (n 1 =50) Halakki (n 2 =50) Kunbi (n 3 =50) Lambani (n 4 =50) Siddi (n 5 =50) Total 1 Head of the family 40 (80.00) 46 (92.00) 37 (74.00) 41 (82.00) 36 (72.00) 200 (80.00) 2 Elders in the family 07 (14.00) 28 (56.00) 13 (26.00) 04 (08.00) (20.80) 3 Wife 11 (22.00) 05 (10.00) (38.00) 16 (32.00) 51 (20.40) 4 Children (14.00) (32.00) (09.20) 5 Both husband and wife 14 (28.00) 04 (08.00) 04 (08.00) 26 (52.00) 11 (22.00) 59 (23.60) 6 All together 08 (16.00) 09 (18.00) 04 (08.00) 22 (44.00) 13 (26.00) 56 (22.40) Figures in parentheses indicate percentages Multiple responses possible
130 116 Table 10: Items in the budget of conservative societies n=250 Number of families Sl. No. Items Gouli (n 1 =50) Halakki (n 2 =50) Kunbi (n 3 =50) Lambani (n 4 =50) Siddi (n 5 =50) Total A S N A S N A S N A S N A S N A S N 1 Food 41 (82.0) 09 (18.0) (34.0) 33 (66.0) (100.0) 38 (76.0) 12 (24.0) - 30 (60.0) 20 (40.0) (43.6) 58 (23.2) 83 (33.2) 2 Housing - 20 (40.0) 30 (60.0) (100.0) - 13 (26.0) 37 (94.0) - 21 (72.0) 29 (58.0) - 17 (34.0) 33 (66.0) - 71 (28.4) 179 (71.6) 3 Clothing 37 (74.0) 13 (26.0) - 39 (78.0) 06 (12.0) 05 (10.0) 33 (66.0) 17 (34.0) - 25 (50.0) 16 (32.0) 09 (18.0) 38 (76.0) 12 (24.0) (68.8) 64 (25.6) 14 (05.6) 4 Education - 09 (18.0) 41 (82.0) - 14 ( (72.0) - 22 (44.0) 28 (56.0) 20 (40.0) 12 (24.0) 18 (36.0) - 11 (22.0) 39 (78.0) 20 (08.0) 68 (27.2) 162 (64.8) 5 Medical aid - 28 (56.0) 22 (44.0) - 13 (26.0) 37 (74.0) (100.0) 11 (22.0) 08 (16.0) 31 (62.0) (100.0) 11 (04.4) 49 (19.6) 190 (76.0) 6 Transport (100.0) - 08 (16.0) 48 (84.0) - 14 (28.0) 36 (72.0) 14 (28.0) - 36 (72.0) - 08 (16.0) 42 (84.0) 14 (05.6) 30 (12.0) 206 (82.4) 7 Recreation (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) A Always S Sometimes N Never Figures in parenthesis indicate percentage
131 117 Table 11. Factors considered while preplanning the purchase of family clothing by conservative societies n=250 No. of families Sl. No. Factors considered Gouli (n 1 =50) Halakki (n 2 =50) Kunbi (n 3 =50) Lambani (n 4 =50) Siddi (n 5 =50) Average Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank 1 Amount to be spent I 2 Pattern V 3 Fibre content II 4 Quality VII 5 Quantity VI 6 Place of purchase IV 7 Climate III 8 Brand VIII WAR Weighted Average Ranking Lower the WAR greater is the preference
132 Clothing and household textile purchasing practices by conservative societies Clothing purchasing practice is a obscure task, which entirely depends on consumer behavior, among the conservative society it mainly depend on socioeconomic aspects and socio psychological aspects is considered very least, the trunk or wardrobe may/may not consists of categories of clothes and household textiles and there are purchased at a same time but throughout the year at different times. An attempt is made to find out how often there categories are purchased. Table 12 disclosed the clothing and household textile purchasing practices by conservative society. It is evident from this table that none of the family purchase clothes and household textiles either monthly or quarterly. More than per cent of families belonging to conservative societies, purchase clothes and household textiles whenever meager per cent of the family preferred to purchase clothes and household textiles, half year and yearly, irrespective of the conservative societies Consumption pattern of common textiles by conservative societies The purchasing power of the families ultimately depends on the annual income of the family. Therefore, the expenditure or consumption of common textiles varies between conservative society as well among the families of conservative societies with respect to low, middle and high income groups. It is evident from Table 13 that cent per cent families very commonly consume bed sheet, pillow cases and towels followed by quilt (70.80%), blanket (55.20%), napkins (27.00%) and table mat (22.00) whereas, very meager per cent families use table cover (17.60%) dwin set (08.00%) and floor mat (04.00%) Preference for readymade, tailor made and homemade clothing among conservative societies Several garment style of readymade and tailor-mades are available for everyone in the market and ultimately, it is either individual choice or a family choice influence the purchase of readymade, tailor-made or homemade garments. Table 14 depicts the preference for ready-made, tailor-made and homemade garments by the families. Irrespective of conservative societies per cent and per cent families
133 119 Table 12: Clothing and household textiles purchasing practices by conservative societies n=250 Number of families Sl. No. Frequency Gouli (n 1 =50) Halakki (n 2 =50) Kunbi (n 3 =50) Lambani (n 4 =50) Siddi (n 5 =50) Total C HT C HT C HT C HT C HT C HT 1 Monthly Quarterly Half yearly 05 (10.00) 08 (16.00) 09 (18.00) 09 (18.00) 07 (14.00) - 12 (24.00) 07 (14.00) 05 (10.00) - 38 (15.20) 24 (09.60) 4 Yearly 11 (22.00) 15 (30.00) 15 (30.00) 12 (24.00) 10 (20.00) 09 (18.00) 08 (16.00) 06 (12.00) 04 (08.00) 13 (26.00) 48 (19.20) 55 (22.00) 5 Whenever needed 34 (68.00) 27 (54.00) 26 (52.00) 29 (58.00) 33 (66.00) 21 (42.00) 30 (60.00) 37 (74.00) 41 (82.00) 37 (74.00) 164 (65.60) 151 (60.40) C Clothing HT Household textile Figures in parenthesis indicate percentage
135 121 Table 14: Preference for readymade, tailor-made and homemade clothing among conservative societies n=250 Number of families Sl. No. Types of garments Gouli (n 1 =50) Halakki (n 2 =50) Kunbi (n 3 =50) Lambani (n 4 =50) Siddi (n 5 =50) Total A S N A S N A S N A S N A S N A S N 1 Ready made 23 (46.0) 16 (32.0) 11 (22.0) 43 (86.0) 07 (14.0) - 27 (54.0) 21 (42.0) 02 (04.0) 20 (40.0) 12 (24.0) 18 (36.0) 32 (64.0) 18 (36.0) (58.0) 74 (29.6) 31 (12.4) 2 Tailor made 17 (34.0) 14 (28.0) 19 (38.0) 03 (06.0) 08 (16.0) 39 (78.0) 11 (22.0) 14 (28.0) 25 (50.0) - 12 (24.0) 38 (76.0) 06 (12.0) 11 (22.0) 33 (66.0) 37 (14.8) 59 (23.6) 154 (61.6) 3 Home made - 06 (12.0) 44 (88.0) (100.0) 02 (04.0) - 48 (96.0) 45 (90.0) 05 (10.0) - 04 (08.0) - 46 (92.0) 51 (20.4) 11 (04.4) 188 (75.2) A Always S Sometimes N Never Figures in parenthesis indicate percentage
136 122 preferred readymade always and sometimes respectively. On the other hand about per cent sometimes preferred tailor-made whereas per cent, always. Mean while, per cent and per cent of the families never preferred homemade and tailormade garments Factors considered while purchasing family clothing by conservative societies There is a gap between what one prefers and what actual purchase. Preference gives an idea about the opinion of conservative families towards what clothes they want. But purchasing is an action oriented task where the clothes are actually bought, in other words it depicts the practical approach. The factors influencing preference and purchasing clothes may sometimes be same, but not always. Hence, an effect is made to understand the factors actually influenced the purchase of family clothing. It is evident from Table 15 that irrespective of conservative societies do purchase clothes for their families and the descending order of factors that influenced the purchasing practice, are cost (1), durability (2), easy to care (3), comfort (4) and family conformity, where as the factors least influence much were design/print (8), fibre content (7) and colour combination (6) Factors influence purchase of family clothing among conservative societies There are several factors that influence the purchasing behavior of the consumers and are presented in Table 16 and Fig. 8. Irrespective of the conservative societies, greater per cent of the families were influenced by elders in the family (41.60%), where as other families were carried away by the opinion of relatives (36.40%), friends (33.20%) and neighbours (32.40%. mean while vary merger per cent of them were influenced by salesman in the shop (12.80%) and advertisements (18.80%) Preference for the purchase of seasonal clothes by conservative societies Season wise selection of clothes or textile materials is important for everyone. Seasonal clothes provide comfort, confidence and self-reliance. Irrespective of the conservative societies preferred cotton (52.80%) followed by blends (33.60%) synthetic (29.20%) and wool (08.40%) was least preferred for summer season. Whereas, the fiber
137 123 Table 15. Factors considered while purchasing family clothing by conservative societies n=250 No. of families Sl. No. Factors considered Gouli (n 1 =50) Halakki (n 2 =50) Kunbi (n 3 =50) Lambani (n 4 =50) Siddi (n 5 =50) Average Rank 1 Colour combination WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank VI 2 Comfort IV 3 Cost I 4 Design / print VIII 5 Durability II 6 Easy to care III 7 Family conformity V 8 Fibre content VII Lesser the value higher the rank Lower the WAR greater is the preference
140 126 content used during racing season are blends (32.80%), wool (30.80%), synthetic (22.80%) and cotton (19.20%). Meanwhile, during winter season the fiber content preferred were wool (43.60%), blends (29.20%), cotton (20.00%) and lastly synthetic (19.60%), (Table 17) Type of fabric material preferred for various end uses by conservative societies Interesting results are evolved from Table 18 where per cent families, irrespective of conservative societies prefer cotton followed by synthetic (26.40%) and blends (25.20%) for daily wear whereas, none of them preferred wool for daily wear. However, cotton (49.20%) followed by synthetic (34.40%) and blends (25.20%) were preferred for occasional wear. Home textiles refers to the usage of bed linens, table linens and furnishings, irrespective of the conservative societies preferred wool (48.00%), synthetic (37.60%), cotton (31.20%) and blends (18.80%) Sources of information about textile materials among conservative societies Advertisement is the most effective and widely spread mass media for dissemination of information to the public. There are several print and telecast media that reach the public and spread the information much faster than any other media. As the families of conservative society purchase textile materials it becomes imperative to find out the source from where the information on readymade clothes and textile material is obtained. Conservative society families opined that friend s relatives (60.40%) is the main source of information followed by television advertisement (17.20%). whereas, window display (10.80%), movies and newspaper bills (05.20%), pamphlets (04.40%) and door to door advertisement, (Table 19 and Fig. 9).
141 127 Table 17: Preference for the purchase of seasonal clothes by conservation societies n=250 Sl. No. Fibre content Number of families Gouli (N=50) Halakki (N=50) Kunbi (N=50) Lambani (N=50) Siddi (N=50) Total S R W S R W S R W S R W S R W S R W 1 Blends 12 (24.0) 28 (56.0) 13 (26.0) 26 (52.0) 11 (22.0) 17 (32.0) 13 (26.0) 14 (28.0) 21 (42.0) 16 (32.0) 22 (44.0) 19 (38.0) 17 (34.0) 07 (14.0) 03 (06.0) 74 (33.6) 82 (32.8) 73 (29.2) 2 Cotton 30 (60.0) 07 (14.0) 10 (20.0) 16 (32.0) 15 (30.0) 11 (22.0) 26 (52.0) 07 (14.0) 12 (24.0) 42 (84.0) 08 (16.0) 07 (14.0) 18 (36.0) 4 (22.0) 10 (20.0) 132 (52.8) 48 (19.2) 50 (20.0) 3 Rayon Silk Synthetic 10 (20.0) 17 (34.0) 08 (16.0) 11 (22.0) 08 (16.0) 08 (16.0) 14 (28.0) 09 (18.0) 10 (20.0) 20 (40.0) 14 (28.0) 11 (22.0) 18 (36.0) 09 (18.0) 12 (24.0) 73 (29.2) 57 (22.8) 49 (19.6) 6 Wool - 18 (36.0) 31 (62.0) - 16 (32.0) 11 (22.0) - 17 (34.0) 21 (42.0) 17 (34.0) 14 (22.0) 30 (60.0) 04 (08.0) 12 (24.0) 16 (32.0) 21 (08.4) 77 (30.8) 109 (43.6) S Summer R Rainy W Winter Figures in parenthesis indicate percentage
143 129 Table 19. Sources of information about textile materials among conservative societies n=250 Sl. No. Sources of information Gouli (n 1 =50) Halakki (n 2 =50) No. of families Kunbi (n 3 =50) Lambani (n 4 =50) Siddi (n 5 =50) Total 1 Door to door advertisements (12.00) (02.40) 2 Friends and relatives 38 (76.00) 33 (66.00) 26 (52.00) 11 (22.00) 43 (86.00) 151 (60.40) 3 Movies (16.00) 05 (10.00) 13 (05.20) 4 Bills (14.00) (12.00) (05.20) 5 Pamphlets (08.00) 07 (14.00) 11 (04.40) 6 Radio advertisement 09 (18.00) 02 (04.00) 22 (44.00) (20.00) 43 (17.20) 7 Sales Hoardings 12 (24.00) 08 (16.00) (20.00) 15 (30.00) 45 (18.00) 8 Television advertisement 11 (22.00) 10 (20.00) 14 (28.00) 22 (44.00) 17 (34.00) 74 (29.60) 9 Window display (10.00) (26.00) 09 (18.00) 27 (10.80) Figures in parentheses indicate percentages Multiple responses possible
145 Sources of income to purchase family clothing among conservative societies As already known, the families of conservative societies do not earn extra to make provision for savings nor emergency needs. But their wages is just enough to meet day to day expenses. It is found that many times the families take loan, or go in for credit or installment or even forgo some items to purchase family clothing. It is evident from Table 20, that many families try to meet out the clothing expenditure in their family income (I rank), whereas others go in for credit purchase (II rank), forgoing some items (III rank); very rarely installments (V rank) and taking loans (V rank) Sources of loan to purchase family clothing It is evident from Table 21 that the families of conservative societies do take loan from different sources to purchase clothes, if necessary. Irrespective of the societies greater per cent of the families took loan from friends (I rank), or relatives (II rank) or taking pledge (III rank) or even money lenders (IV rank). On the other hand very few took loan from bank Influence of sales promotion technique on the purchasing behavior of conservative societies The descending order of sales promotion technique that influenced the clothing purchasing behaviour of conservative of societies is whole sale purchase (68.40%), installment sales (58.00%), credit sales (52.80%) and discount sale (38.40%). However, in general the sales promotion techniques that had less impact on purchase behaviour were gift sale (10.00%) and clearance sale (14.80%). These results are presented in Table Types of shop preferred while purchasing clothes by conservation societies An attempt was made to find out the most preferred shops while purchasing of clothes by the families of conservative societies and the results are presented Table 23. Of the given opinions, majority of the families belonging to conservative societies opt for the city footpath (50.80%) and whole sale shops (50.40%) followed by pavement shop (46.80%), petty shop (41.60%) and shops in the by town/city (41.60%). Whereas, least
146 132 Table 20. Sources of income to purchase family clothing among conservative societies n=250 No. of families Sl. No. Source of income Gouli (n 1 =50) Halakki (n 2 =50) Kunbi (n 3 =50) Lambani (n 4 =50) Siddi (n 5 =50) Average Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank 1 Family income I 2 By taking loans V 3 By forgoing some items III 4 Credit basis II 5 Installments IV Lesser the value higher the rank Lower the WAR greater is the preference
147 133 Table 21. Sources of loan to purchase family clothing n=250 No. of families Sl. No. Source of loan Gouli (n 1 =50) Halakki (n 2 =50) Kunbi (n 3 =50) Lambani (n 4 =50) Siddi (n 5 =50) Average Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank 1 Bank VI 2 Barter exchange V 3 Friends I 4 Money lenders IV 5 Pledge III 6 Relatives II Lesser the value higher the rank Lower the WAR greater is the preference
148 134 Table 22. Influence of sales promotion technique on the purchasing behavior of conservative societies n=250 No. of families Sl. No. Sale promotion technique Gouli (n 1 =50) Halakki (n 2 =50) Kunbi (n 3 =50) Lambani (n 4 =50) Siddi (n 5 =50) Total 1 Clearance sale 04 (08.00) 08 (16.00) 08 (16.00) 12 (24.00) 05 (10.00) 37 (14.80) 2 Credit sale 32 (64.00) 24 (48.00) 20 (40.00) 30 (60.00) 26 (52.00) 132 (52.80) 3 Discount sale 11 (22.00) 19 (38.00) 17 (34.00) 30 (60.00) 19 (38.00) 96 (38.40) 4 Gift sale 03 (06.00) 09 (18.00) 07 (14.00) 06 (12.00) (10.00) 5 Installment sale 28 (56.00) 41 (82.00) 24 (48.00) 23 (46.00) 29 (58.00) 145 (58.00) 6 Seasonal sale 05 (10.00) 04 (08.00) (04.00) (04.40) 7 Whole sale 23 (46.00) 27 (54.00) 40 (80.00) 44 (88.00) 37 (74.00) 171 (68.40) Figures in parentheses indicate percentages Multiple responses possible
150 136 preference was given to the retail shop (25.20%), doors to doors selling (06.40%) and government shop (06.00%). Co-operative shop and show rooms were not at all preferred for the purchase of clothes by conservative societies Factors influencing selection of patent readymade shop by the conservative societies It is human phenomena that each individual will have their patent shop may be for the purchase of commodities or assets for the family. The choice of patent shop is based on many factors like reasonable price, good quality, stock/variety, less distance to travel, provision for necessary to find out the factors influencing the selection of patent shop by conservative societies. Table 24 depicts that result of the factors influencing the selection of patent shop. The most preferred factors by the by the families of conservative societies are price (1), credit (2), installment (3), less distance to travel (4) and provision for bargaining (5). Where as, the least influencing factors are stock/variety (8), hospitality of the salesman/owner (7) and quality of material (6) Problems faced by conservative societies while purchasing family clothing Gathering the opinion of the respondents regarding the problem faced while purchasing cloths. There are many associated problems an individual need to face while purchasing clothes. The problems like illiteracy, lack of knowledge about fibre and fabric, language, time, money, non-cooperative salesman, far from dwelling area and money more. Thus, it was felt necessary to know the problems faced by the families of conservative society, (Table 25 and Fig. 10). Irrespective of the conservative societies faced the major problems of our country i.e., illiteracy (50.40%) followed by scarcity of money (44.40%) inability to identity the material and transportation (43.20%) and noncooperation from the salesman (32.80%). Whereas the least faced problem were language problem (26.80%) and time scarcity (03.60%).
151 137 Table 24. Factors influencing selection of patent readymade shop by the conservative societies n=250 No. of families Sl. No. Factors Gouli (n 1 =50) Halakki (n 2 =50) Kunbi (n 3 =50) Lambani (n 4 =50) Siddi (n 5 =50) Average Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank WAR Rank 1 Credit II 2 Hospitality of the owner and salesman VII 3 Installment facility III 4 Less distance to travel IV 5 Provision for bargaining V 6 Price I 7 Quality of material VI 8 Stock / variety VIII Lesser the value higher the rank Lower the WAR greater is the preference
152 138 Table 25. Problems faced by conservative societies while purchasing family clothing n=250 No. of families Sl. No. Problem faced Gouli (n 1 =50) Halakki (n 2 =50) Kunbi (n 3 =50) Lambani (n 4 =50) Siddi (n 5 =50) Total 1 Illiteracy problem 19 (38.00) 28 (56.00) 39 (78.00) 14 (28.00) 26 (52.00) 126 (50.40) 2 Inability to identify the material 21 (42.00) 15 (30.00) 31 (62.00) 18 (36.00) 23 (46.00) 108 (43.20) 3 Language problem 12 (24.00) (86.00) 06 (12.00) 06 (12.00) 67 (26.80) 4 Scarcity of money 26 (52.00) 14 (28.00) 23 (46.00) 17 (34.00) 31 (62.00) 111 (44.40) 5 Non co-operation from the salesman 14 (28.00) 11 (22.00) 18 (36.00) 21 (42.00) 18 (36.00) 82 (32.80) 6 Time scarcity 04 (08.00) (04.00) 03 (06.00) (03.60) 7 Transportation 20 (40.00) 19 (38.00) 30 (60.00) 10 (20.00) 29 (58.00) 108 (43.20) Figures in parentheses indicate percentages Multiple responses possible
154 Constructional details of men and women traditional costumes Men costume of conservative societies Traditional and contemporary costume worn by men folk of conservative societies across three generation Gouli men of 1 st generation wear shirt or kurta with half pant and turban, Halakki and Siddi men wear langoti, Kunbi men are seen in shirt with half pant and Lambani men wear dhoti with kurta ad turban. On other hand men belongs to 2 nd generation of Gouli wear shirt kurta with half pant and turban, Halakkis wear shirt with trousers, Kunbi wear shirt with half pant or trousers, Lambani and Siddi men wear shirt with half pant, formal trousers or jeans. In contrast to 1 st and 2 nd generation, the men of 3 rd generation irrespective of conservative society wear shirt with half pant, formal trousers, jeans, (Table 26), (Plate 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) Traditional style of draping langoti and dhoti by Halakki, Siddi and Lambani men From Table 27 it is revealed that, the drape costume of Halakki and Siddi men is longoti where as Lambani men wear dhoti. Langoti is also called as loin cloth which is plain woven cotton fabric without designs, colour of langoti ranges from white to off white. It is a one of piece of measuring meter long and 20 inch wide and it is kept in position at waist by a string, langoti covers the genitals and at least partially the buttocks. Fabric especially for langoti was rarely purchased from the market, instead many a times dhoti was cut and utilized for langoti. Earlier this was only lower garment used by all men of conservative society but now very rarely we seen men in langoti. Where as, the Halakki men belonging to 1 st generation still wear langoti as their daily wear. Dhoti is called as Dhothra in Kannada language which is a plain woven cotton fabric of white and off white colour. The length of the dhoti is 4 meter and 44 width and worn up to below calf length. The dhoti is still prevailing among Lambani men and its price ranges from Rs /-.
155 141 Table 26. Traditional and contemporary costume worn by men folk of conservative societies across three generation Sl. No. Men categories Conservative Societies Gouli Halakki Kunbi Lambani Siddi 1 I st Generation: Old age (60 years & above) Shirt, kurta with half pant and turban Langoti Shirt with half pant Dhoti, kurta and turban Langoti 2 Generation: Middle age (29 to 59 years) II nd Shirt, kurta with half pant and turban Shirt with trousers Shirt with half pant or trousers Shirt with half pant or formal trousers and jeans Shirt with half pant, formal trousers and jeans 3 III rd Generation: Young age (18 to 28 years) Shirt, kurta with half pant or formal trousers and jeans Shirt with trousers Shirt with formal trousers Shirt with half pant or formal trousers and jeans Shirt with half pant, formal trousers and jeans
156 142 Table 27. Traditional style of draping langoti and dhoti by Halakki, Lambani and Siddi men Conservative societies Sl. No. Particulars Halakki and Siddi Lambani Langoti Dhoti 1 Local name Langoti Dhothra 2 English name Loin cloth Dhoti 3 Fibre content Cotton Cotton 4 Weave structure Plain Plain 5 Design / Pattern Plain Plain 6 Colour White and off white White and off white Dimension 7 1. Length (meter) Width (inch) Length -- Below calf 9 Prevailing / Extinct Prevailing Prevailing 10 Cost (Rs.) /-
157 Plate 1 Traditional costumes of Gouli men and women 143
158 Plate 2 Traditional costumes of Halakki men and women 144
159 Plate 3 Traditional costumes of Kunbi men and women 145
160 Plate 4 Traditional costumes of Lambani men and women 146
161 Plate 5 Traditional costumes of Siddis men and women 147
162 Draping style of Langoti by Halakki and Siddi men Langoti or loin cloth is a one piece fabric worn by the folk of Halakki and Siddi, the steps in draping of langoti. 1. A string is tied around the waist which is an essential accessory to wear the langoti. 2. The fabric was folded in to 2 to 3 folds with wise. 3. The fabric was then passed between the legs and under the string from both center front and back then allowed to full loose over string both in front and back. 4. The fabric hanging in front is longer than back and string was visible only on the left and right side at waist (Fig. 11) Draping style of Dhoti by Lambani men Dhoti is a cotton fabric measuring 4 meter in length and 44 width and worn up to below calf length. 1. Hold the dhoti in the left hand leaving 3 feet of fabric and pass it from left hip to right hip to the center front. 2. Tie at the center front, snugly to the waist. 3. Take the bottom edge of the left end and form pleats and pass the pleats between the legs and tuck the pleats at center back loosely. 4. The surplus fabric at the right is taken and pleated, then tucked at the center front. 5. The pleats are pressed flat and bottom end of the above or top pleat is tucked at the waist or hold it in the left hand, (Fig. 12) Women costume of conservative societies Traditional and contemporary costume worn by women folk of conservative societies across the generations The conservative societies of India have a unique style of costumes. Each conservative society described in the present study follows the inimitable culture, custom, tradition and costume. Some have two or three piece of garment components and others
163 Fig. 11: Draping langoti by Halakki and Siddi men 149
164 (5) (6) (7) (8) 150
165 Fig. 12. Draping Dhoti by Lambani men 151
167 153 can be seen in different style of draping saree; vicissitudes can be observed in the costume worn by each conservative society across the generations. The women belonging to the 1 st generation of Gouli wear kachi style saree (Band) with blouse, Halakkis and Kunbis wear saree (Band) without blouse, Lambanis wear ghagra, choli and chunni and Siddis wear Indian style saree but the traditional costume of the society is knee length skirt and bodice. On the other hand the 2 nd generation women folk of Gouli and Halakki have retained the traditionality and wear traditional costume. Meanwhile Kunbis have adopted Indian style saree with blouse. The Lambanis do wear their traditional costume and sometimes Indian style saree too. Siddi women drape saree in Indian style, salwar-kameez and chudidar. In contrast to I and II generations the women of 3 rd generation irrespective of conservative societies wear Indian saree, salwar-kameez, langa-choli, half saree, chudidar, skirt-top, and jeans-top, (Table 28), (Plate 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) Traditional style of draping saree by Gouli, Halakki and Kunbi women Table 29 indicates the details and distinctive style of draping saree by the three conservative society s viz., Goulis, Halakkis and Kunbis. Uniqueness is observed with respect to draping style of saree, colour, traditional motifs and length of saree when draped. The cotton saree woven in plain weave without butta is commonly used by Gouli women and draped in Kachchi style. The length of the saree is 8.3 meter (9 yards) with 42 inch width comprising borders on each side, measuring 2-3 inch. The motifs in the border is either geometrical or naturalistic (floral and foliages) and sometimes traditional paras peth pattern. Pallav is plain comprised of horizontal broad stripes (called patti). The saree is always draped upto knee length and not ankle as that of common Indian lady. Halakkis and Kunbis have an exclusive style of draping saree, almost same except for the style of the pallav that is been knotted. Women of both societies use plain woven cotton saree without print or woven patterns. The most popular colours preferred by Halakkis are nature green, red, dark pink, blue, purple and yellow whereas Kunbi women prefer same colours except dark pink. The saree measured about 5-5 to 6.2 meter in length and 42 to 45 inch in width with 2-3inch border on either sides; geometric and
168 154 Table 28. Traditional and contemporary costume worn by women folk of conservative societies across three generations Sl. No. Women s categories Conservative Societies Gouli Halakki Kunbi Lambani Siddi 1 I st Generation: Old age (60 years & above) Kachi style saree (Band) with blouse Saree (Band) without blouse Saree (Band) without blouse Ghagra-choli knee length Skirt 2 Generation: Middle age (29 to 59 years) Kachi style saree with blouse II nd Saree (Band) without blouse Indian style saree with blouse Ghagra-choli Indian style saree with blouse Indian style saree with blouse Salwar-Kameez Chudidar Indian style saree with blouse Indian style saree with blouse Indian style saree with blouse Indian style saree with blouse Indian style saree with blouse 3 III rd Generation: Young age (18 to 28 years) Salwar-Kameez Salwar-Kameez Langa-Choli Salwar-Kameez Salwar-Kameez Salwar-Kameez Chudidar Chudidar Skirt-Top Skirt-Top Jeans-Top Jeans-Top
169 155 Table 29. Traditional style of draping saree by Gouli, Halakki and Kunbi women Sl. No. Particulars Conservative societies Gouli Halakki Kunbi 1 Local name Kachi / Nauvari Saree Saree 2 English name Saree Saree Saree 3 Fibre content Cotton Cotton Cotton 4 Weave structure Plain Plain Plain 5 Design / Pattern Plain Plain Plain 6 Colour Green and yellow 7 8 Dimensions Green, red, dark pink, blue, purple and yellow 1.Length (Meter) Width (Inch) Border width (Inch) Motif 1. Saree Body Butta Butta Butta 2. Saree Border Geometric, naturalistic design and Paras peth Geometric, naturalistic design, Gomi, Gaddi, Chiki paras, temple boarder and Paras peth Green, blue, yellow and purple Geometric, naturalistic design, Gomi, Gaddi, Chiki paras and Paras peth 3. Saree Pallu Geometric and naturalistic Geometric and naturalistic Geometric and naturalistic 9 Length Knee length Calf length Below calf 10 Prevailing / Extinct Prevailing Prevailing Prevailing 11 Cost (Rs.)
170 156 naturalistic design, floral border with Bugudi Gomi, Gaddi, Chiki Paras, Goda Paras, Vanki Paras, Double Rudraksha, temple border and Paras Peth borders are commonly seen band, the coarser type of saree. The body of the saree consists of small floral buttas and pallav has geometric and naturalistic motifs. Halakki women wear the saree up to calf length and Kunbis bellow calf length, (Plate 6 gives an account of traditional borders). Saree is one of the most graceful wear of unstitched length of fabric draped round the body of Indian women. Indian Women very often consider this graceful decoration of female form as more precious than even a piece of jewellery. Tradition of wearing saree goes back thousands of years in our country. The word Saree is anglicized from Sadi, which existed in Prakrit language as Sadia and originated from Sanskrit Sati, meaning a strip of cloth. However the quality of saree and style of wearing varied geographically. In general the marital status, of Indian women could be easily visualized by the traditional community she belongs to by the style of draping the saree Draping saree in Kachi style by Gouli women This style looks great with classic, rich 9 yard saree with wide or narrow borders and traditional patti pallav always nature green and turmeric yellow. This draping style is a modification Maharashtrian Kachi style. In this style the pleats formed are drawn between the legs and tucked in the back waist hence the petticoat is not used. The steps in draping Kachi style saree, (Fig. 13). 1. About 2 yards of saree from one end is folded lengthwise making into 1 meter width 2. Wrap the saree starting from left hip towards right 3. Rest of the surplus is worn in the simple style of Indian saree by drawing the pallav on the left shoulder 4. The pleats made are very neat, even width, pressed flat manually and tucked in the front at waist simply
171 Plate 6 Traditional saree borders 157
172 Fig. 13: Draping Kachi saree by Gouli women 158
175 Then grasp the bottom border of the pleats, pass between the legs and tuck in the waist at center back, snugly; the border covers the layer of pleats. 6. The pleats are drawn tightly, in such way that the saree gets raised up to knee level 7. The free ends hanging in right and left legs, from the inner layer (step 1) are tucked in the front at right and left sides of the center pleats at the waist respectively, to rise up to knee length Saree draping style of Halakki and Kunbi women The saree worn by both Halakki and Kunbi women is similar with the following dimensions, length of the saree ranges from 5.5 to 6.2 meters and 42 to 45 inch width including 2-3 inch border. This saree is locally called as Band which has plain weave cotton always dark in colour with traditional borders, rarely it has got buttas in the body of the saree and pallav is has broad traditional strips. This saree is worn up to calf length by Halakki women and Kunbi women wear it up to below calf. This saree is worn without petticoat. Halakki women prefer to wear sari always of cotton which is plain woven and commonly used colours are nature green, red, dark pink, blue, purple and yellow whereas Kunbi women wear saree with the colours like nature green, red, blue, and yellow. The steps of saree draping style by Halakki and Kunbi women are as follows, (Fig. 14 and 15, Plate 7 and 8 present the saree draping details of Halakki and Kunbi. 1. The inner end of the saree is taken around the waist and knotted at the right side of the waist. 2. Then the surplus amount of saree is taken from the knotted side around the waist for the second time up to the left side of the waist. 3. Then the extension of saree is pleated into 5 to 6 pleats and tucked at the left side of the waist, allowed to fall in a graceful folds 4. Among Halakki women the surplus amount of saree i.e., pallav is drawn from the back across the torso and passed below the left arm and coiled like a rope drawn from back and knotted at the right shoulder or a string is tied to the pallav corner, coiled and tied at right shoulder along with the border of saree which is taken across the chest.
176 Fig. 14: Draping saree by Halakki women
178 Plate 7 Draping style of saree by Halakki women 164
179 Fig. 15: Draping saree by Kunabi women 165
181 Plate 8 Draping style of saree by Kunbi women 167
182 Whereas among Kunbi women Surplus amount of saree i.e., pallav is drawn from the back across the torso and passed below the left arm and tip of the pallav is tied or knotted at the right shoulder along with the border of saree which is taken across the chest Traditional costume worn by Lambani and Siddi women Table 30 describes about traditional costume of Lambani and Siddi conservative societies. Women costume of Lambani consists of three pieces i.e., Ghagra, choli and chunni which is called as phetia, kachali and chaddar in their local language. Their costume is inimitable and heavy with gorgeous embroidery; Lambanis are identified by their unique costume embellished with traditional tribal embroidery. The costume is constructed with plain and printed cotton and synthetic materials usually in dark colours i.e., Red, maroon and black. The material required for ghagra, choli and chunni is 5-6- meters meters and meters respectively. All the three components of the ensemble are decorated with hand embroidery. The calf length ghagra is fastened with a string at waist, the backless choli fastened with strings laced through the four pairs of the loops and chunni is decorated with Gungato which is a symbol of suhagan. Various accessories like coins, shells, mirrors, beads, buttons, tufts, cloth patch and ghunghroos are used to decorate Lambani costume. The Lambani costume is prevailing among the women belonging to 1 st and 2 nd generation where as the 3 rd generations do not prefer to wear their tradition costume since, being easily identified as Lambani in the society which makes them feel isolated or separated. Furthermore the 3 rd generation has lost interest in embroidering and stitching the costume. Siddis, the people of African origin residing in Uttara Kannada and Dharwad districts of Karnataka narrated that, the traditional costume worn by their ancestors consisted of only the lower garment i.e., plain cotton knee length A line skirt primarily black in colour. There was no practice of covering the upper half of the body (i.e., above waist) but only form waist till knee was covered using a piece of cloth, constructed into a skirt. Later on passing of centuries Siddi women started to cover the
183 169 Table 30. Traditional costume worn by Lambani and Siddi women Sl. No. Particulars Lambani Conservative societies Siddi 1 Local name Phetiya, Kachali and Chaddar -- 2 English name Ghagra, Choli and veil Skirt with bodice 3 Fibre content Cotton and chinasilk Cotton 4 Weave structure Plain Plain 5 Design / Pattern Plain / printed Plain 6 No. of Garment components Three Two 7 Colour Red, maroon and black Black 8 Surface ornamentation Hand embroidery Beads 9 Fasteners Strings and loops Accessories Shells, Mirror, Bead, Coin, Button, Tufts, Cloth patch, Ghungaroos Primary and secondary colour beads 11 Prevailing / Extinct Prevailing Extinct 12 Cost (Rs.) 4000/- to 6000/- 400/- to 450/-
184 170 bosom with the piece of cloth, tied at the back. It was said that Siddis were very fond of using colourful beads than clothes to decorate/adorn themselves. These beads were made in chaplet and hang around the waist over the skirt. The use of their traditional costume and beaded accessories is extinct among Siddis of 21 st century Constructional details of Lambani costume worn by women folk Ghagra (Phetiya) Phetiya is the lower garment of worn by Lambani women that hangs from waist to calf length, it is constructed with five horizontal pieces viz., lepo, kalagero, ratadgero, sadi-asther and lavan with different size, colour, embroidery and constructional detail, (Table 31). Lepo (waist band) Lepo is a rectangular waist band of length 4-6 inch and width inch. This is the first and topmost band positioned from waist to below waist. The mainly used colours for lepo are red and maroon. This piece contains maximum exclusive embroidery on it with the mirrors. The hand work is so fine that the ground fabric is not visible. Lepo is completely covered with mirrors and different embroidery stitches viz., chain stitch, couching stitch, satin stitch and fly stitch. The border of lepo is completed with blanket stitch to prevent raveling of threads. Lepo has a placket opening at the left side with a string made up of cloth material. Gero (Kalagero and Ratadgero) Geros are the second and third panel on the ghagra that is stitched next to lepo. Gero is a horizontal panel positioned at hip to above knee portion. There are two geros viz., kalagero and ratadgero with moderate embroidery. The name of these geros simply follows the colour being used for geros i.e., the traditional colour of kalagero is black (kala-black) and ratadgero is red (ratad-lal-red). The dimension of kalagero and ratadgero ranges from is 6-8 inch in length and inch in width. Two or three rows of mirrors are attached on geros and those mirrors are connected to each other using herringbone stitch (relo) which looks like a bridge between every two consecutive mirrors. In between the rows of mirrors chain stitch (vele) and running stitch (bhukiya)
185 171 Table 31. Constructional details of Lambani costume worn by women folk Sl. No. Traditional name of garment components 1 Phetiya (Ghagra) : 5-6 meters Dimension Position Colour 1. Lepo (inch) 4-6 x Waist band Red / Maroon 2. Kalagero (inch) 6-8 x Hip to thigh Red / Maroon 3. Ratadgero (inch) 6-8 x Thigh to above knee Black / Red / Maroon / Navy blue 4. Sadi-asther (inch) x Above knee to below knee Red / Orange / Yellow 5. Lavan (inch) 4-5 x Calf Black / Red 2 Kachali (Choli) : meters 1. Chati (inch) 8-10 x Chest piece Red / Maroon / Green 2. Kadapa (inch) x 4-5 Shoulder piece Red / Yellow 3. Baya (inch) 10 x Sleeves Maroon / Red / Blue / Yellow 4. Peti (inch) 6 x 6 Belly piece Red / Yellow 5. Khavia (inch) 4-5 x 4-5 Extra piece over sleeve Red / Maroon 6. Katli (inch) 2-3 x 3-4 Extra piece over bust Red / Yellow 3 Chatiya / Chaddar / Chunni : 4 meters x 48 inch 1. Pato (inch) 2 x 3 Border Maroon / Red 2. Gungato (inch) x 4 Head piece Maroon
186 172 are used to enhance the overall appearance of the gero and also white voile material of 1 inch length is patched all along the bottom edge of the gero in triangle folds pointing upward. Kalagero is hand stitched to lepo with knife pleats. These knife pleats are held in position by hemming with white thread which adds beauty to the kalagero. This mode of working is known as chinbhandhero i.e., joining two pieces together. However the other end of kalagero is joined to ratadgero. The metal buttons of silver colour are attached on either edges of kalagero making the gero pleasing to the eye. Sadi-asther The forth layer in the Lambani ghagra is called as sasi-asther or phetiya khadi positioned from above knee to below knee. The length of the sadi-asther varies from inch in length and inch in width and the traditional colours used are either red or maroon cotton, sometimes a chinasilk either plain or jacquard are used in place of cotton may be due to its rich and striking appearance. Sadi-asther is a part of ghagra with minimum embroidery compared to all other panels of ghagra. However, the main attraction of sadi-asther is its patchwork called kampli. Fabric used for kampli is left over pieces of old or new cloth of contract colour. Usually kampli is a triangular pieces patched on either sides of sadi-asther. Apart from kampli, metal buttons and tufts are used these tufts are called as phunda if made out of cotton thread and jundhi of Deccani wool, in local language. Metal buttons and tufts are attached with running stitch and then the sadi-asther is joined to gero manually. Lavan Lavan is the last horizontal panel having a dimension of 4-5 inch in length and inch in width and stitched to the lower edge of the sadi-asther. Ground material is a combination of red and black cloth, the upper and lower portion of the lavan. It is heavily embroidered with patchwork and mirrors, triangle patch work can be seen on both the edges with white colour fabric and a row of small mirrors are worked in the center. Tufts, metal buttons, gungroos and shells are other embellishments employed to decorate the lavan. Commonly seen stitches are herring bone, chain and running stitch.
187 Choli (Kachali) Lambani call choli as kachali the upper garment of Lambani costume kachali is the six piece backless choli fastened with strings laced through four pair of loops. Kachali is the loose bodice without any darts. Cotton material is chiefly used for kachali since the time of its origin. Recently, along with cotton a printed and woven designed chinasilk material is used abundantly. Dark colours viz., red, maroon, blue and yellow are the dominant colours used. Lining material is not used for kachali. Kachali as mentioned earlier is backless, covers only the front part from shoulder to belly. This choli though covers only the front part, it is made out of six pieces viz., Chati, kadapa, baya, peti, khavia and katli. Chati (Chest piece) Chati is single largest piece of kachali covering the bust/bosom portion of the body, joins kadapa, the shoulder Piece on top side and sideways and peti on bottom side. The v shaped neckline from the kadapa extends up to chati. Approximately the length of chati ranges from 8 to 10 inch and width inch and size of chati varies from person to person depending upon their figure type. The woman self measures the length and width of chati not by a measuring tape but with hand, directly on the body. It is one of the heavily embroidered pieces among the six choli pieces. Large mirrors, silver buttons and embroidery stitches like couching, herring bone, and chain stitch were employed to fill the plain cloth either red or maroon cotton. Kadapa (Shoulder piece) Kadapa is a rectangular piece with length ranging from inch and width 4-5 inch covering shoulder on either side extending a small portion at the back and peti on sideways. It is on fold the shoulder line. A slight curve in the shape of 'V forms the neck on the neckline edge where as the other edge of kadapa is stitched to baya. However this measurement varies for heavier and lighter figures. Kadapa is moderately embroidered at shoulder with more of mirrors and slight embroidery at the backside with embroidery stitches like chain, herringbone and running stitches.
188 174 Baya (Sleeves) Baya is the Lambani name for sleeves. The construction details of this type of sleeve differ from the regular sleeve. In the Lambani attire, sleeve is not set-in type, but is a rectangular piece of approximately 10 inch length and inch width. The sleeve is joined to kadapa. The measurement for the length of sleeve is taken from tip of the shoulder to the required length with fingers. As far as embroidery is considered it is heavily embroidered and embellished with mirrors and tufts. In earlier days plain cotton material of either red or maroon colour was most commonly used. However, recently dark coloured chinasilk material is widely employed. Peti (Belly piece) Peti is the smallest piece of the kachaii Peti on its topside join to chati and on its sideways to kadapa. Bottom of peti is hemmed and finished. Peti is a square piece of the size 6x6 inch to 7x7 inch. One can see minimal amount of embroidery on peti compared to chati. Though peti is small in its size covers the tummy portion of the wearer along with kadapa. Presently chinasilk material is widely used over which metal buttons of silver colour are attached in geometrical shape and embellished with tufts. Khavia Khavia is hanging piece of 4x4 inch to 5x5 inch on left shoulder only it is beautifully and heavily embroidered piece like lepo. One edge of khavia is stitched along kadapa and baya at sleeve cap portion and opposite edge is left hanging on the sleeve. Presence of this hanging piece of kachali indicates marital status of the woman, a symbol of suhag. The widow is not supposed to wear the choli with khavia. As mentioned earlier it is embroidered heavily with mirrors, shells, metal buttons and embroidery stitches like couching and herring bone stitch. Katli Katli is also a beautifully embroidered rectangular hanging piece of 2-3 inch x 3-4 inch at bust portion. One edge of katli is joined in between kadapa and chati at chest level while the other edge is punched either with pavala (coin of 25 paise) or para. Like
189 175 khavia the absence of katli indicates widowhood, Red or maroon coloured material is used for katli and embroidered with mirrors. This piece is more decorative as well as meaningful too Chunni (Chaddar or Chatiya) Chunni of Lambanis is very heavy due to its yardage and embroidery. Lambanis call chunni as chaddar' if worn daily and chatiya' if worn occasionally during functions and ceremonies. Naturally the latter is more elaborate and heavy than the former. In the earlier days plain cotton material of either red or maroon was most commonly used. However in recent years synthetic material like dark coloured china silk either printed or self designed is most common may be due to its shine, durability texture and rich appearance. The length of chunni varies from 3 ½ - 4 meters and width from inch However it is a continuous long piece. All over the body, embroidery stitches viz., running stitch is very commonly used along with various embellishments like metal buttons and tufts worked in geometrical shapes. These geometrical designs like diamond and square are worked in such a way that when worn, it falls exactly on the centre back of lady. Such geometrical designs are called as `chandya' or' phule' by Lambanis. An embroidered continuous strip of 2-3 inch wide resembling lavan is patched all along the selvedge of chunni. This strip is known as 'pato' among Lambanis. This strip is traditionally made of red and black coloured material. The red coloured strip should face the outer edge of chunni and black edge face the body of chunni. The compulsion behind this alignment indicates her married life and of course wealth of her family. On the other hand this alignment is vice-versa in lavan, patched to the lower edge, the sadi-asther of phetiya. Pato is also an embroidered strip same as that of lavan with mirrors, buttons and tufts and embroidery stitch like close herring bone. Another attractive piece of chunni is Gungato' a symbol of prestige and suhag of a Lambani woman Gungato is a rectangle piece of inch long and 4 inch wide. It is a heavily embroidered piece where the background is hardly visible. Work of medium and large mirrors in three horizontal rows, blanket stitch, couching stitch, pavalas, phundas, buttons and shells make the gungto elegant, rich, beautiful and heavy. One
190 176 edge of the gungato is punched with a series of pavala indicating her suhag as well as wealth while the other edge is attached to pato. There is a definite and fixed place for the gungto to be attached and mode of wearing chunni. Gungato comes exactly on the head and usually covers the fore head and hangs up to the neck on either side. It is attached to the chunni leaving inch of length from right side. The mode of wearing of chunni is as follows: The fall of chunni is only about inch on the right hand side of the women, while the gungato comes on the head, where as rest of the surplus material falls on the left side of the wearer. This extra yardage on the left hand side is taken over the belly and tucked inside the phetiya at the right side. The heavy weight of gungato prevents the chunni falling off from the head, (Plate 9). Adacheda' is another significant piece attached to the chatiya at the right side corner. The significance of adacheda is associated with marriage ceremony. After the marriage the bride before going to the bridegroom's place/village, she weeps, recollecting and praising her family as well as tanda, by way of singing traditional songs, wearing `gajara,' holding adacheda' in her right hand. Adacheda is oval in shape, cushioned with scraps the outer layer of which is decorated with small sized mirrors, shells, glass, bangle pieces, phundas, jundis and kapali are attached with embroidery stitches like herring bone, darning and chain stitch. The adacheda is detached from the chatiya after the ceremony and will be reused in the future occasion Body measurements taken by Lambanis Garment construction completely depends upon taking body measurements. Body measurements influence a lot in the construction of garment. Lambanis do take body measurements before constructing, but in a peculiar way. While constructing, their attire the measurements are taken not by measuring tape but by fingers and sometimes from old costumes. Length wise measurements are taken with the help of Veth where as widthwise by Mola and girth measurements by Chit. Veth is a distance between thumb and little finger (8-10 inch). Mola is the distance from elbow to the tip of middle finger (16-17 inch) and Chit is the distance between thumb and forefinger (6-8 inch). Apart from this they also make use of nylon ribbon tapes for taking measurements.
191 Drafting, cutting and sewing of Lambani costume Drafting enhances the accuracy of cutting, stitching and fitting of the costume. It is one of the important steps in achieving good fitting of any garment. But this step is not at all prevalent among Lambanis since most of the pieces of their attire are geometrical in shape. Hence, cutting is an easiest job since their attire has more of vertical and horizontal lines than curved lines and thus the choli is of limply fitted. Probably this might be the reasons for not following the pre shrinking of cloth before stitching. The other reason may be, occasional or never laundering the costume. Cotton and blended sewing threads are prominent used by Lambanis. Flat and fell side seam gives a neat finish and look. Kachali is fastened with strings laced through four pairs of loops. However, about inch opening from lepo to kalagero acts as a placket opening for ghagra and pair of string is used to tie the ghagra in place around waist Tribal (Lambani) hand embroidery Something that attracts the viewer is tribal hand embroidery. The gorgeous and attractive embroidery make them unique and can be identified from any distance by a lay man. Components of gaghra viz., lepo, geros, sadiasther and lavan are embroidered separately and later joined in a sequence to form an ensemble, the phetiya. On the other hand, kachali and chatiya are stitched and then embroidered. There is no a definite design or motifs copied from books but in their own imagination that depict the individuality. However different types of embroidery stitches used in the whole attire are listed in Fig. 16. Lambani embroidery is commonly mistaken as Kutchi (Kachhi) embroidery because of mirror work, but shells and coins are unique to this type of embroidery. Also, the stitches used are different. There are 17 types of stitches used in Lambani embroidery are Vele, Gadare, Gomi, Relo, Bhakia, Maki, Gomi, Pote, Kaleni, Kilan, Dosui Kaleni, Yeksui kaleni, Katta, Phul bhakai, Chin banderol, vegar, and Bhuria. Products made with such embroidery have wonderful textures and a bohemian style, making them very popular. The overall appearance of the embroidery depends on the selection of embroidery thread, colour, texture, luster and suitability are the prime
192 Fig. 16: Lambani embroidery sketches Contd
194 180 factors considered while selecting the thread. However, strength and colour fastness were least considered Accessories used in Tribal (Lambani) hand embroidery Apart from the needlecraft, varieties of accessories were used viz., coins, buttons, shells, different shape of mirrors, ghungaroos and tufts. Since Lambanis wandered from place to place there was influence of art and craft of those regions, where they dwell. Use of coins depicted their wealth. Use of shells narrated about their dwelling nearby sea or river, (Plate 10) Cost of production of Lambani costume The cost of production of Lambani ensemble consists of 3 components viz., ghagra, choli and chunni all the three components are embroidered gorgeously by hand using their tribal embroidery. Thus the production cost includes fabric material, lining material, embroidery threads, accessories, stitching charges etc., and Table 32 depicts bout cost of production of whole Lambani costume. The price of complete attire is Rs. 3,821/-, whereas the price of each component is Rs.1880/- for ghagra, Rs. 988/- for choli and Rs. 953/- for chunni Traditional wedding costume of men and women The weddings among conservative societies have become more modernized these days, but the traditional regulations of marriage still prevail. The conservative societies described in the present study still practice strange rituals during the marriages, especially it the marriage is taking place between two different conservative societies. Earlier, Irrespective of the conservative societies except Siddis, perform wedding wearing their traditional costume of cotton and synthetic including bride and bride groom. But, since from late 20s, the conservative society s viz., Gouli, Halakki and Kunbi are performing the marriage, especially the bride and bride groom wear Indian saree and dhoti, Kurta and turban respectively. Whereas, Lambanis still had a practice of wearing their traditional costume ghagra, choli and chunni. However, Siddis
195 181 Table 32. Cost of production of Lambani women costume Sl. No. Particulars Traditional costume components Ghagra Cost (Rs.) Choli Cost (Rs.) Chunni Cost (Rs.) 1 Ground / Base fabric (meter) to to Lining fabric (meter) to to Sewing thread (reel) Embroidery thread (hank) Accessories 1. Mirrors (piece) Buttons (g) Coins (no.) Shells (dozen) Gungroos (piece) Embroidery charges Stitching charges Total cost Grand total of Lambani Costume 3,821.00
196 182 Plate 9 Gungato - A symbol of suhag for Lambani women Plate 10 Accessories used in Lambani embroidery
197 183 has lost the identity of the traditional costume since 17 th century and marriages are performed by wearing Indian saree for women and dhoti with kurta for man Traditional dance costumes of men and women The conservative societies taken for the study do have their own traditional dance for both men and women. The costumes worn for the dance by women are their traditional costume except for the Siddi women who wear Indian saree for dance. Whereas, men folk of Gouli, Halakki and Kunbi have a unique costume for performing their traditional dance wherein, Lambanis wear their traditional costume and Siddi men are seen tying leaves over half pant Traditional dance costume of Gouli, Halakki and Kunbi men There are many examples of the strong cultural expression in conservative societies and an important one is found in the creative, traditional dance costumes across the country. Most of the dance costumes originated at different regions among conservative societies at some times in the past. Many traditional dances along with dance costume have disappeared from their original site of origin. Fortunately, however, most of these dances and dance costume have been rescued from complete disappearance by artists also continued to perform these dances in the folkloric festivities. Table 33 gives the details account on the dance costume of conservative societies men and women of all the five conservative societies perform dance during fairs, festivals, functions, rituals, wedding etc. the women folk of all the conservative societies wear their traditional costumes while performing the dance except Siddi women who perform their tradition dance wearing Indian style saree and women of Gouli, Halakki, Kunbi, and Lambani perform their traditional dance wearing the traditional costume of their community. However, men folk of Lambani perform dance wearing their traditional costume and Siddi men perform Damam and Fugadi (a traditional dance of men and women of Siddis) tying a tree leaves at the waist over half pant and rest of the body is bare. Goulis perform Dhangari Gaja dance during the festival of Dhasara, which is performed by only men. The dance costume of men consist of 3 components viz.,
198 184 Table 33. Traditional dance costume of Gouli, Halakki and Kunbi men Sl. No. Particulars Conservative societies Gouli Halakki Kunbi 1 Title of the costume Double breasted robe, waist band and turban Pant-skirt, shirt and Turaayi Dhoti, kurta, flared skirt and turban 2 No. of components Fibre content Cotton Synthetic Synthetic 4 Colour White and red Orange Orange and green 5 Design / Pattern Plain Plain Plain 6 Motifs on cloth Floral motif on waist band Embellishments Appliqué Prevailing / extinct Prevailing Prevailing Prevailing 9 Cost 1000/ / /-
199 185 double breasted robe, waist band and turban completely of white colour cotton. Double breasted robe has full sleeve, round neckline, ankle length with full front open and fastened with strings at the right from the inner side and outer side at left. Waist band is a single piece cloth measuring 2 meter length and 36 inch wide with floral motif on all the 4 sided of the material it is folded widthwise making up to the width of 6-8 inch and tied at waist. a turban is worn on the head. The double breasted robe has been value added with appliqué work using red colour cotton fabric (Plate 11). Halakki men dance costume consists of 4 components i.e., pant-skirt, shirt and turaayi of always orange colour synthetic material. The waist to ankle length pant is attached with the gathered skirt at the waist making in to one lower garment. The upper garment is a full sleeve shirt, fastened at the center front. A headgear called turaayi is worn by the Halakki men while performing their traditional Suggi dance. Turaayi is a turban decorated with red, yellow and blue beads, glittering and plastic paper flower to add elegancy (Plate 12). The dance costume of Kunbi men is dhoti, flared skirt with kurta and turban of orange colour synthetic material. The ankle length dhoti is worn, over which a flared skirt is draped. A 6 meter saree of green colour is folded width wise making in to exact half and a string is passed at the waist, the saree flare is distributed equally all around the waist, kurta with full sleeve, stand collar, front placket opening and pleats at the hemline of kurta. The costume is worn along with kurta. To add value a shoulder strip of 2 meter and 5 inch wide is draped on either sided of the shoulder which is of multi colour and hand knitted. The strip on left shoulder from front and back is taken at right side near waist and fastened and same is done with the strip at right side (Plate 13). Dance costume of Siddi men consists of only the lower garment, different tree leaves are hang all around the waist over the half pant of a on a piece of cloth wrapped, (plate 14) Traditional jewellery of conservative societies Traditional jewellery of men Among is the jewelleries are of equal importance as costume, men wear them as a symbol of status. Men wear jewelleries in some part like ear, neck, hand, finger
200 Plate 11 Traditional dance costume of Gouli men 186
201 Plate 12 Traditional dance costume of Halakki men 187
202 Plate 13 Traditional dance costume of Kunbi men 188
203 Plate 14 Traditional dance costume of Siddi men 189
204 190 and ankle. In some of the conservative society men adorn them with a gorgeous traditional juwelleries which is present in Table 34a and 34b, Plate Gouli men 1. Ear ornament: men wear Bali on the top of the ear and a ring in the ear known as Raskade both are made up of gold. There are worn daily. 2. Wrist ornament: Kadu is a wrist ornament worn by Gouli men daily, which is of copper. 3. Anklet: Kada is a copper ornament worn during festivals, while performing dance Halakki men 1. Anklet: Kada is a silver anklet worn by Halakki men only during festivals Kunbi men 1. Ear ornament: Bali is an earring which use to be worn daily but now a days it in not prevailing. 2. Anklet: Kada is a silver anklet and Sakar is an iron anklet worn during festivals to perform dance by Kunbi men Traditional jewellery of women The beauty and the value of any costume adorned by women is enhanced by the appropriate, jewelleries worn in various parts like head, nose, ear, neck, arms, hand, finger, waist, ankle and toe. Jewelleries are the part and parcel of every costume that enhances the beauty and adornment. Jewelleries are not only decorative but significant too. Every bit of the jewellary has its own significance. Conservative societies are no exception for their unique type of jewellaries as that of costume and the same is discussed in Table 35a and 35b.
205 191 Table 34a. Traditional jewellery worn by Gouli, Halakki and Kunbi men Sl. No. Wearing area of the body Conservative societies Gouli Halakki Kunbi 1 Top of ear Bali -- Bali 2 Ear Raskade Wrist Kadu Ankle Kada Kada Kada, Sakar Table 34b. Details of traditional jewellery worn by Gouli, Halakki and Kunbi men Sl. No. Conservative societies Title of jewellery Local name English name Metal used Wearing area of the body Occasion when used Prevailing / extinct Bali Earring Gold Top of ear 1 Gouli Raskade Earring Gold Ear Kadu Wristlet Copper Wrist Daily Prevailing Kada Anklet Copper Ankle Festival Prevailing 2 Halakki Kada Anklet Silver Ankle Festival Prevailing 3 Kunbi Bali Earring Gold Top of ear Daily extinct Kada Anklet Silver Ankle Festival Prevailing Sakar Anklet Iron Ankle Festival Prevailing
206 Plate 15 Traditional jewellery of Gouli, Halakki and Kunbi men 192
207 193 Table 35a. Traditional jewelleries of conservative society s women Sl. No. Wearing area of the body Conservative societies Gouli Halakki Kunbi Lambani Siddi 1 Head -- Adhar, Akkada -- Kaniya, Topli, Gugari, Kaddi, Adisankali 2 Nose Nath Mooguti Mudi Bhuria -- 3 Top of ear Bugudi Bugudi -- Kania -- 4 Ear Kap, Phool, Kanesarpani 5 Neck 6 Arm Yeli sara, Haar Baju band 7 Hand Patli, Bilvar, glass bangles voole Mani sara, Halla-katli, Hamshi, Guntagi Naagmurg i, Tola Patti Glass bangles Kandla, Kukadi Ganthi, Haar, Dangi kap, Hansuli Yali Glass bangles 8 Wrist Bhuradi -- Kaasin sara, Pavalar har Badua, Chudo, Gugara, Kasoti Necklace -- Chudis -- 9 Fingers Angati Pavalarvitti Waist Sadak Ankle Kada -- Topi Kadaga, Pitledar kass, Kada 12 Toe Jodwe Pilli -- --
208 194 Table 35b. Details of traditional jewellery worn by women of conservative societies Sl. No. 1 Gouli Conservative societies Title of jewellery Wearing Metal English area of Local name used name the body Nath Nose ring Gold Nose Bugudi Earring Gold Top of ear Kap, Phool, Kanesarpani Earring Gold Ear Haar, Yeli sara Necklace Silver Neck Baju band Armlet Silver Arm Patli, Bilvar, glass bangles Bangle Gold Hand Angati Finger ring Silver Fingers Kada Anklet Silver Ankle Jodwe Toe ring Silver Toe Occasion when used Daily Prevailing / extinct Prevailing 2 Halakki Adhar, Akkada Head Silver ornament and gold Head Mooguti Nose ring Gold Nose Bugudi Earring Gold Top of ear voole Earring Gold Ear Mani sara, Beaded Black Necklace beads Neck Halla-katli, Hamshi, Necklace Silver Neck Guntagi Naagmurgi, Tola Patti Glass bangles Armlet Gold Arm Bangle Silver, glass Hand Daily Prevailing 3 Kunbi Mudi Nose ring Gold Nose -- Kandla, Kukadi Earring Gold Ear -- Extinct Haar Silver Necklace coins Neck Festival Prevailing Ganthi, Dangi kap, Hansuli Necklace Copper Neck Festival Prevailing Yali Armlet Silver Arm Festival Prevailing Glass bangles Bangle Glass Hand Daily Prevailing Topi Anklet Silver Ankle Daily Prevailing Contd
209 195 Sl. No. Conservative societies Title of jewellery Local name English name Metal used Wearing area of the body Occasion when used Prevailing / extinct Kaniya, Topli, Gugari, Kaddi, Adisankali Head ornaments German silver Head Bhuria Nose ring Gold Nose Kania Earring Top of ear Bhuradi Earring Ear German Kaasin sara, silver Necklace Neck Pavalar har Badua, Gugara, Armlet Arm 4 Lambani Kasoti, Armlet Shells Arm Daily Prevailing Chudo, Armlet Arm Ivory Chudis Bangle Hand Pavalarvitti Finger ring German silver Fingers Sadak Waist ornament Shells Waist Kadaga, Pitledar kass, Kada Anklet German silver Ankle Pilli Toe ring Toe -- Necklace Stone Neck 5 Siddi -- Necklace Silver Neck -- Necklace Copper Neck Festivals Prevailing -- Pendent Copper Neck
210 196 The traditional jewellary worn by conservative societies are as follows and the photograph of each jewel is presented in Plate 16 to Gouli women 1. Nose ornament: The nose ornament of Gouli women is known as Nath, always made up of gold and is worn daily. 2. Ear ornament: Bugudi is an ear ornament worn on the top of the ear, Kap and Phool are the ear studs of gold and Kanesarpani is a gold chain worn in the ear and pined in the hairs above the ear, which are adorn by Gouli women daily. 3. Neck ornament: The neck of Gouli women is beautified by silver Haar and Yeli sara and also Mangalsutra is worn as a symbol of marriage, worn daily by married women and Haar and Yeli sara are worn during festivals and rituals. 4. Armlet: Baju band is armlet worn by Goulis made up of silver, has a vive design on it and is worn daily. 5. Hand ornament: Gouli women wear Patli and Bilvar daily of gold along with glass bangles. 6. Finger ornament: Agati is a plain silver ornament worn in fingers daily. 7. Anklet: Kada is a silver ankle wear, worn occasionally by Gouli women. 8. Toe ornament: Jodwe is a toe ornament made of silver and is worn daily Halakki women 1. Nose ornament: Mooguti is a gold nose stud worn daily by Halakki women 2. Ear ornament: The ear ornament viz., Bugudi is worn on top of the ear and voole is worn as ear stud. Both the ornament is of gold worn daily. 3. Head ornament: Adhar and Akkada are the head ornament of silver and gold respectively which are adorn by Halakki women occasionally.
211 Plate 16 Traditional jewellery of Gouli women 197
212 Neck ornament: Mani sara is a 3 strings of small black beads twisted together to make in to one Mani sara. Earlier sisal fiber was used to prepare a Mani sara but now days it is replaced by cotton thread. Halakki women wear about Mani sara daily to cover their shoulder and believe that they give strength to the neck. The Mani sara is given to a girl during her manarchy by the elders and since then she starts wearing them, every year one sara is added to her neck. Guntagi is a silver neck ornament worn by Halakki as a symbol of marriage and Halkaddi and Hamshi are the silver neck ornaments. Guntagi and Halla katli are worn daily and Hamshi is worn occasionally. 5. Armlet: Tola Patti is the plain gold arm ornament worn daily; they are worn 3 4 in number. Naagmurgi is a silver armlet worn occasionally. 6. Hand: The hand of Halakki women is adorned with green glass bangles daily Kunbi women 1. Nose ornament: Mudi is a nose ring which use to be gold but its evident is extinct since 20 th century. 2. Ear ornament: Kandle and Kukadi are the ear ornament of gold but are not in use since centuries. Ganthi and Dangikar are the occasionally worn copper neck ornament and Haar is a silver coin necklace of Kunbi women. Mangalsutra is a neck ornament worn very close to neck it is made up of small black colour beads and has got a gold bead at the center and is worn daily. 3. Armlet: Yali armlet is a silver arm ornament worn occasionally by Kunbis. 4. Hand ornaments: Kunbi women adorn her hand with a glass bangle daily. 5. Anklet: Topi is an ankle worn by Kunbis daily; it is of silver metal and has a Ghungaroos at regular interval Lambani women 1. Head ornaments: Lambani women wear Kaniya, Topli, Gugari, Kaddi and Adisankali to a small tuft of braided hair, all these ornaments hangs over the checks
213 Plate 17 Traditional jewellery of Halakki women 199
214 Plate 18 Traditional jewellery of Kunbi women 200
215 201 on either sides and are made of German silver, worn daily. Gugari is a symbol of Suhagan among Lambanis. 2. Nose ornament: Bhuria is a gold ornament with a ring like structure with one pink stone. 3. Ear ornament: Kania and Bhuradi are the ear ornaments of Garman silver and are worn during festivals and weddings. 4. Neck ornaments: Kaasin sara and Pavalarhar are the necklaces made up of 25 and 50 paisa coins and are worn daily. 5. Armlet: Badua is the German silver ornament with the Ghungaroos only at the front portion, Chudo is a plastic ornament but earlier it was ivory. Gugara is made up of 2 3 rows of Ghugaroos and Karoti is a bunch of shells hanging on the thick cotton cord and is tied at the arm. 6. Hand ornaments: Lambani women adorn her hand with a series of plastic Chudis up to wrist and are worn daily. 7. Finger ornament: Pavalarvitti is of German silver worn on all the finger of both the hand. It is a 25 paisa coin Ghungaroos attaches on to it and is worn daily. 8. Waist ornament: Sadak is a beautiful ornament hanged from the waist; it is a composite of 3 rows of shells knifed compactly. One end of it is tucked at waist and the other end is left free. This is worn occasionally. 9. Anklet: Kadaga, Pitledar Kass and Kada are the silver ankle ornaments which are worn by Lambani women. 10. Toe ornament: Pilli is the German silver toe ornament, which is worn daily Siddi women Traditionally Siddi women use to wear articles made up of series of colourful beads on every part of body but this cannot be seen now a days, However, they have very few traditional ornament.
216 Plate 19a Traditional jewellery of Lambani women 202
217 Plate 19b Traditional jewellery of Lambani women 203
218 Plate 20 Traditional jewellery of Siddi women 204
219 Neck ornaments: A necklace made up of a series of big yellow and blue colour stones, a spiral shaped silver ornament passed through a braided cotton cord and necklace with knotted rough cotton cord with a copper pendent Headgear and footwear Traditional wrapping style of turban (Headgear) by Gouli, Kunbi and Lambani men Turban is a headgear mostly for males, made up from a single piece of cloth which is wrapped around the head in a wide variety of styles. Turban is the best known word in English for a large category of headgear and general head wraps traditionally worn in many parts of the world. Tables 36 record the details about the turban worn by Gouli, Kunbi and Lambani men. Turban is called as Pagadi and Peta by the conservative societies; this is of one piece plain cotton fabric worn around head gracefully by the conservative societies. Gouli and Lambani men wear it regularly and occasionally respectively. Whereas Kunbi men wear it while performing their traditional dance Sigma dance. The colour of the turban used by Goulis is white or off white, Lambani men wear red or white and Kunbis wear orange colour turban. The turban measures of 2 meter in length and 36 inch in width which is still prevailing among conservative societies and its cost ranges from Rs. 150 to 250/-. The steps of draping turban are as follows and represented in Fig To begin, hold a 2 meter long fabric diagonally making it in to a long rectangular narrow shape. 2. Drape one end of the fabric measuring about 15 inch on the left side and take the surplus in the right hand around the head, from left to right and right to left. 3. Wrap fabric smoothly at an angle around the head; twist the fabric at the front of the head to give a shape after every turn. 4. Repeat wrapping for 2 nd, 3 rd and 4 th time or until the fabric at the right side ends, the end is taken at the back and pass it underneath and tie firmly.
220 206 Table 36. Traditional draping style of headgear by Gouli, Kunbi and Lambani men Conservative societies Sl. No. Particulars Gouli, Kunbi and Lambani Headgear (Turban) 1 Local name Pagadi and peta 2 English name Turban 3 Fibre content Cotton 4 Weave structure Plain 5 Design / Pattern Plain Gouli - White or off white 6 Colour Kunbi - orange Lambani - Red or white Dimensions 7 1. Length (meter) 2 2. Width (inch) 36 8 Prevailing / Extinct Prevailing 9 Cost (Rs.) /-
221 Fig. 17: Wrapping turban by Gouli, Kunbi and Lambani men 207
224 Then the left end which is draped on the left shoulder is taken from left to right over the head by widening the fabric and again this end is taken around the head from left to right, for the second time. 6. Then take the remaining tip of the fabric, underneath at the back and tied, about 5 inch length is left free at back Footwear worn by conservative societies Footwear are the part of traditional costumes, footwear always harmonizes the costume irrespective of the wearer, with consideration for safety and injury avoidance. In some cases, the footwear may blend with the outfit so it will not draw attention to the feet but on the other hand wrong selection of footwear may spoil the look of the outfits. Thus, it was found necessary to study the footwear worn by the conservative societies. Irrespective of the conservative societies wear do not show much interest towards the selection of footwear. Irrespective of the gender and age they wear rubber and plastic footwear and very rarely they can be seen wearing leather footwear but many a times they will be on bare foot. 4.3 Designing and development of contemporary ethnic outfits Design forecasting The designer in the present study had forecasted on designing of contemporary ethnic outfits for young adults for an occasional wear for which the mood, colour and fabric swatch board (Plate 21 to 26) Designing and Construction of contemporary ethic outfits A great variety of garments with wide array of designs are in the market. Consumers always demand for newness, to look special in the fashion trendy outfits. Therefore, today the designers are spending lots of time and putting efforts to quench the customer s demand by creating trendy outfits in the fashion world. Hence, an attempt was made to design unique contemporary ethic outfits for young adult viz., overlapped dhoti pant with cowl top, single shoulder kurta, off shoulder kurta, anarkali kurta with halter jacket and skirt with strapped bodice,
225 Plate 21 Mood board Goulis 211
226 Plate 22 Mood board Halakkis 212
227 Plate 23 Mood board Kunbis 213
228 Plate 24 Mood board Lambanis 214
229 Plate 25 Mood board Siddis 215
230 Plate 26 Colour and Fabric Swatch board 216
231 217 constructed by bespoke method with a concept of incorporating the style features of the traditional costumes of Gouli, Halakki, Kunbi, Lambani and Siddi. An innovative idea of incorporating style feature was introduced as a reviving concept to develop contemporary ethic outfits for elite group who always demand change, who can mix and match the outfits according their will and wish. Further, the outfits were constructed using the basic bodice block of standard measurements, after adaptation by slash and spread method, five different sets of contemporary ethic outfits were finally constructed. Fig illustrates the spec sheet; Table shows the cost sheet and Plate presents the cnotemporary ethnic outfits developed by the researcher viz., overlapped dhoti pant with cowl top, single shoulder kurta, off shoulder kurta, anarkali kurta with halter jacket and skirt with strapped bodice respectively Constructional details of overlapped dhoti pant with cowl top Overlapped dhoti pant The overlapped dhoti pant is stitched with waist band string. The basic material sourced for overlapped dhoti pant and cowl top was synthetic, just to suit and get the drape effect of dhoti with knife pleats. The left and right sides of the pant were overlapped in the front and rear side of the pant respective. A leg wear was attached from inside at the waist and the top layer of dhoti was kept free. A traditional border as trimming was attached at the edges to add attractiveness to the outfit. Cowl top Cowl top was constructed in green colour synthetic cloth. The top is simple; v- shape neck with the cowl drape from either sides of the shoulder, cap sleeve, elastic at back, border was attached at the hem to both front and back Constructional details of single shoulder kurta Plain circular kurta with blue colour cotton fabric was constructed calf length, four pleats were added at the left side of the front panel were added at the left side of
232 218 Table 37. Cost sheet of Contemporary ethnic outfits: Overlapped Dhoti Pant with Cowl Top I. Fabric information 1 Material Synthetic fabric 2 Weave Plain weave 3 Width 42 inches 4 Colour Green 5 Price Rs. 50 / meter II. Material Cost Sl.No Particulars Quantity (meter) Price (Rs.) Total cost (Rs.) 1 Top Fabric Border Pant Fabric Border Subtotal (Rs.) II III. Trimming Cost Sl.No Particulars Quantity Price (Rs.) Total cost (Rs.) 1 Sewing thread (Nos.) Subtotal (Rs.) III 3.00 IV. Labour cost Sl. No. Particulars Total amount (Rs.) Constructional cost 1 Constructional cost of top Constructional cost of pant Subtotal (Rs.) IV
233 219 V. Production charges Sl. No. Particulars Production charges (Rs.) 1 Production cost of Overlapped dhoti pant with cowl top (II+III+IV) Subtotal (Rs.) V VI. Expected profit (30%) Sl. No. Particulars Expected profit (Rs.) 1 Profit of Overlapped dhoti pant with cowl top Subtotal (Rs.) VI VII. Selling price Sl. No. Particulars Selling price (Rs.) 1 Selling Price of Overlapped dhoti pant with cowl top (V+VI) Grand total (Rs.) VII Sl. No. Particulars Details
234 220 1 Fabric Synthetic 2 Pattern Plain 3 Fabric width 42 inches 4 Fabric colour Green Cowl Top 5 Neckline Cowl 6 Sleeve length Cap sleeve 7 Sleeve type Set-in-sleeve 8 Top length Below waist 9 Fasteners/Closures Elastic 10 Value addition Border Overlapped Dhoti Pant 11 Waist band String 12 Fasteners/Closures String with tassels 13 Fullness Knife pleats 14 Pant length Calf length 15 Value addition Border 16 Thread type Spade 17 Thread colour Green 18 Seam type Simple open seam with over locked 19 Side seam allowance 2.5 cm 20 Stitches per inch (SPI) 12 Front Back Front Back Fabric swatch Fig. 18: Spec sheet of Overlapped Dhoti Pant and Cowl Top
235 221 Plate 27: Overlapped Dhoti pant and Cowl Top Table 38. Cost sheet of Contemporary ethnic outfits: Single Shoulder Kurta
236 222 I. Fabric information 1 Material Cotton fabric 2 Weave Plain weave 3 Width 42 inches 4 Colour Blue 5 Price Rs. 80 / meter II. Material Cost Sl.No Particulars Quantity (meter) Price (Rs.) Total cost (Rs.) 1 Kurta Fabric Border Subtotal (Rs.) II III. Trimming Cost Sl.No Particulars Quantity Price (Rs.) Total cost (Rs.) 1 Sewing thread (Nos.) Press stud (Nos.) Subtotal (Rs.) III 5.00 IV. Labour cost Sl. No. Particulars Total amount (Rs.) Constructional cost 1 Constructional cost of Single shoulder kurta Subtotal (Rs.) IV V. Production charges
237 223 Sl. No. Particulars Production charges (Rs.) 1 Production cost of Single shoulder kurta (II+III+IV) Subtotal (Rs.) V VI. Expected profit (30%) Sl. No. Particulars Expected profit (Rs.) 1 Profit of Single shoulder kurta Subtotal (Rs.) VI VII. Selling price Sl. No. Particulars Selling price (Rs.) 1 Selling Price of Single shoulder kurta (V+VI) Grand total (Rs.) VII
238 224 Sl. No. Particulars Details 1 Fabric Cotton 2 Pattern Plain 3 Fabric width 42 inches 4 Fabric colour Blue 5 Neckline Single shoulder 6 Fasteners/Closures Strings and loops 7 Kurta length Knee length 8 Thread type Spade 9 Thread colour Blue 10 Seam type Simple open seam with over locked 11 Side seam allowance 2.5 cm 12 Stitches per inch (SPI) Value addition Border. Front Fabric swatch Back Fig. 19: Spec sheet of Single Shoulder Kurta
239 Plate 28: Single Shoulder Kurta 225
240 226 Table 39. Cost sheet of Contemporary ethnic outfits: Off Shoulder Kurta I. Fabric information 1 Material Cotton fabric 2 Weave Plain weave 3 Width 42 inches 4 Colour Peacock green 5 Price Rs. 82 / meter II. Material Cost Sl.No Particulars Quantity (meter) Price (Rs.) Total cost (Rs.) 1 Kurta Fabric Border Subtotal (Rs.) II III. Trimming Cost Sl.No Particulars Quantity Price (Rs.) Total cost (Rs.) 1 Sewing thread (Nos.) String (meter) Tassels (Nos.) Zipper (N0s.) Subtotal (Rs.) III IV. Labour cost Sl. No. Particulars Total amount (Rs.) Constructional cost 1 Constructional cost of Off shoulder kurta Subtotal (Rs.) IV V. Production charges Sl. No. Particulars Production charges (Rs.)
241 227 1 Production cost of Off shoulder kurta (II+III+IV) Subtotal (Rs.) V VI. Expected profit (30%) Sl. No. Particulars Expected profit (Rs.) 1 Profit of Off shoulder kurta Subtotal (Rs.) VI VII. Selling price Sl. No. Particulars Selling price (Rs.) 1 Selling Price of Off shoulder kurta (V+VI) Grand total (Rs.) VII Sl. No. Particulars Details
242 228 1 Fabric Cotton 2 Pattern Plain 3 Fabric width 42 inches 4 Fabric colour Peacock green 5 Neckline Off-shoulder 6 Fasteners/Closures 1. Zipper 2. Fabric Knot 7 Kurta length Knee length 8 Thread type Spade 9 Thread colour Peacock green 10 Seam type 11 Side seam allowance 2.5 cm 12 Stitches per inch (SPI) Value addition Simple open seam with over locked 1. Saree border 2. Ready tassels ` Front Fabric swatch Back Fig. 20: Spec sheet of Off Shoulder Kurta
243 229. Plate 29: Off Shoulder Kurta
244 230 Table 40. Cost sheet of Contemporary ethnic outfits: Anarkali Kurta with Halter Jacket I. Fabric information 1 Material Cotton fabric 2 Weave Plain weave 3 Width 42 inches 4 Colour Red, maroon and black 5 Price Rs. 80 / meter, all the three fabric II. Material Cost Sl.No Particulars Quantity (meter) Price (Rs.) Total cost (Rs.) Fabric 1 (Red) Kurta Fabric 1 (Maroon) Fabric 1 (Black) Jacket Fabric (Black) Subtotal (Rs.) II III. Trimming Cost Sl.No Particulars Quantity Price (Rs.) Total cost (Rs.) 1 Sewing thread (Nos.) Anchor thread (Nos.) Buttons (packs) ½ Mirrors (Nos.) Shells (Dozen) Coins with Ghungaroos (Nos.) Subtotal (Rs.) III IV. Labour cost
245 231 Sl. No. Particulars Total amount (Rs.) Constructional cost 1 Constructional cost of Anarkali kurta Constructional cost of Halter jacket (Couture) Value addition cost 3 Hand embroidered - Anarkali kurta Hand embroidered - Halter jacket Subtotal (Rs.) IV V. Production charges Sl. No. Particulars Production charges (Rs.) 1 Production cost of Anarkali kurta with halter jacket (II+III+IV) Subtotal (Rs.) V VI. Expected profit (30%) Sl. No. Particulars Expected profit (Rs.) 1 Profit of Anarkali kurta with halter jacket Subtotal (Rs.) VI VII. Selling price Sl. No. Particulars Selling price (Rs.) 1 Selling Price of Anarkali kurta with halter jacket (V+VI) 2, Grand total 2, Sl. Particulars Details
246 232 No. 1 Fabric Cotton 2 Pattern Plain 3 Fabric width 36 inches 4 Fabric colour Red, maroon and black 5 Neckline Pentagon 6 Sleeve length Half 7 Sleeve type Set-in-sleeve 8 Length Calf length 9 Thread type Spade 10 Thread colour Red, maroon and black 11 Seam type Simple open seam, over locked 12 Side seam allowance 2.5 cm 13 Stitches per inch (SPI) Value addition Tribal (Lambani) hand embroidery 15 Accessories Embroidery thread, shells, buttons, mirrors, tufts and coins with ghungaroos Front Fabric swatch Back Fig. 21a: Spec sheet of Anarkali Kurta Sl. Particulars Details
247 233 No. 1 Fabric Cotton 2 Pattern Plain 3 Fabric width 36 inches 4 Fabric colour Black 5 Neckline Round 6 Sleeve length Sleeveless 7 Fasteners/Closures Strings and loops 8 Length Waist length 9 Thread type Spade 10 Thread colour Black 11 Seam type Couture 12 Stitches per inch (SPI) Value addition Tribal (Lambani) hand embroidery 14 Accessories Embroidery thread, shells, buttons, mirrors, tufts and coins with ghungaroos Front Fabric swatch Back Fig. 21b: Spec sheet of Halter Jacket
248 Plate 30: Anarkali Kurta and Halter Jacket 234
249 235 Table 41. Cost sheet of Contemporary ethnic outfits: Skirt with Strapped Bodice I. Fabric information 1 Material Cotton fabric 2 Weave Plain weave 3 Width 42 inches 4 Colour Black 5 Price Rs. 80 / meter II. Material Cost Sl.No Particulars Quantity (meter) Price (Rs.) Total cost (Rs.) 1 Top Fabric Skirt Fabric Subtotal (Rs.) II III. Trimming Cost Sl.No Particulars Quantity Price (Rs.) Total cost (Rs.) 1 Sewing thread (Nos.) Jute yarn (Nos.) Beads (Dozen) Subtotal (Rs.) III IV. Labour cost Sl. No. Particulars Total amount (Rs.) Constructional cost 1 Constructional cost of top Constructional cost of skirt Constructional cost of jute beaded belt Subtotal (Rs.) IV V. Production charges
250 236 Sl. No. Particulars Production charges (Rs.) 1 Production cost of skirt with strapped bodice (II+III+IV) Subtotal (Rs.) V VI. Expected profit (30%) Sl. No. Particulars Expected profit (Rs.) 1 Profit of skirt with strapped bodice Subtotal (Rs.) VI VII. Selling price Sl. No. Particulars Selling price (Rs.) 1 Selling price of skirt with strapped bodice (V+VI) Grand total (Rs.) VII Sl. Particulars Details
251 237 No. 1 Fabric Cotton 2 Pattern Plain 3 Fabric width 42 inches 4 Fabric colour Black Strapped bodice 5 Style line Shoulder strap 6 Bodice length Above waist 7 Fasteners/Closures Elastic 8 Value addition Tassels Skirt 9 Silhouette A-line 10 Waist band String 11 Fasteners/Closures String with tassels 12 Skirt length Knee 13 Value addition Tassels 14 Thread type Spade 15 Thread colour Blue 16 Seam type 17 Side seam allowance 2.5 cm 18 Stitches per inch (SPI) 12 Simple open seam with over locked Front Fabric swatch Back Fig. 22: Spec sheet of Skirt - Strapped Bodice