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2 !"#! $#% Author Page Contents, Cover Description, Varangian Voice Policy 1 From the Editor 1 Melbourne Medieval Fayre and Tourney Report Stephen (Sven) Wyley 2 A Byzantine Pastime Stomachion stovmakion Peter Raftos 4 Byzantine Shield Patterns making use of primary sources Peter Raftos 6 The Sabre of Charlemagne Graeme Walker 9 A Fur Lined Rus Kaftan Jenny Baker 17 Some Possible Models For the Kavadion Graeme Anderson 21 A full suit of Korean Lamellar Armour Jeremy Draper 22 New Varangian Guard Contact List Photos from A full suit of Korean Lamellar Armour by Jeremy Draper, Page 22. The Varangian Voice is published quarterly by the New Varangian Guard Inc. It is distributed to members, as part of their membership fee or subscription, to other clubs in exchange for their quality publication, and is available to interested persons or organisations by subscription. All rights reserved. No part of the Varangian Voice may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, whether electronic, mechanical or manual, in whole or part without written permission of the Editor. Copyright for all the articles appearing is reassigned to the author of the respective article, with the exception that the Varangian Voice reserves the right to reprint articles as and when the Editor sees fit. It is preferred that submission be received electronically (including pictures), as this saves the Editor a considerable amount of time re-typing or scanning. However, submissions for the publication may-be typewritten or word-processed. Articles should include the full name and address of the author and should be received 4 weeks prior to publication date. The current typeface is Times New Roman 12 pt and using MS Word 98. However, any Word Processing format can be converted and can be submitted by Floppy Disk (IBM Format) or by . Floppy Disks will be returned with the next issue. Contributors should take steps to ensure that electronic articles are virus free. No responsibility can be taken for missing or damaged disks. Articles must include references to sources. The views, endorsements and opinions expressed in the Varangian Voice are from the individual authors and are in no way those of the New Varangian Guard Inc. in part or whole. All submissions and correspondence should be directed to: Jeremy Draper Editor Varangian Voice PO Box CP89 MILDURA VIC 3501 AUSTRALIA Welcome, Thanks to all our contributors who managed to give me lots of articles and well before the publishing date! There are some fantastic articles in this issue. The VV will soon be available over the web and the back issues will be scanned and available in.pdf format. We are yet to iron out the actual web hosting issues and produce the new VV page, but I don't think we are to far of (maybe by late this year, nothing is quick in a volunteer organisation!). Still, I think it's very exciting. Joanna Molloy (Handakas Garrison) great fully volunteered herself to update the VV index, so we will have a complete index soon! It is my plan then to create some compilations, such as the 'VV Arms and Armour Compendium', with all the past articles on the subjec so many plans so little time. Speak to you next time. Jeremy Draper - Editor 1

3 !"#! $#% Introduction 9 th November 2003 Old Cheese Factory, Berwick, Victoria, Australia By Stephen (Sven) Wyley For those that went to the Adelaide Medieval fair or did not make it to the Melbourne Medieval Fayre and Tourney (MMFAT) you missed out on great public display event. The event was sponsored by Strongbow, and the association looks like it will continue next year. The event was a success for a number of reasons: there were over 1000 people through the gate; all the store holders made a profit; the lions club did a roaring trade in sausages and drinks; the combat displays were ringed with enthusiastic crowds and good time was had by all. There was large range groups and individuals involved with this event, not just historical reenactors. The were the; City of Casey Pipe Band, Berwick and District Folk Group, Lions Club of Narre Warren, Berwick Woodworkers, Handweavers and Spinners Guild, Australian Lace Guild, Traralgon Granite and Marble, Iolair Arts, Blooming Elegance, Yoretymes. Combat The main combat display area occupied most of the open space in the centre of the facility (the Village Green). The Medieval historical re-enactment tourney consisted of two sessions (one before lunch and one after). Each of these sessions consisted of: a "last man standing' bout (no attacks from behind and no teaming up); a call out for single combat (only used for the first session); and finally group combat consisting of shield walls meeting without flanking. A wedge was used but their opponents saw it coming, spilt their forces appropriately but failed to take advantage of their position and the survivors ran like scared goats. The combat displays were relatively safe, the barrier between the combatants and the crowd was never compromised. However, twice my groin was attack, once with a sword and the other a knee, those violators of the rules were summarily chastised. It was also noted that some of the more experienced combatants went to town on each other in the heat of the tourney, and this should not be countenanced. As a reward for surviving the best during the single combats and do well in the rest of the tourney the prize ( a silver engraved mug) was presented to Craig Sitch of the Antioch Garrison. The combat field was also utilised by the combatants from the SCA (Krae Glas), three of them in fact. These knights display the form of tournament used by the SCA. And to the delight of the children, allowed the children to step on the field and hit them with the SCA legal weapons. The Agincourt re-enactment was a chance for the archers to show off their skill at hitting a moving menacing target at a variety of distances and the French advanced on foot up the hill through thigh high grass (quite reminiscent of the actual site). Hundreds of members of the public thronged the fence, avid for a better view of the field of carnage. The dozen or so archers were lined up paralleling the fence facing four infantry. As the attacks of the French advanced up the hill the cross fire was withering, An award for the best archer was presented to Cherilyn of Antioch for her accurate shots on here other half, Craig, along with the glee shown on her face as each arrow found it's target. Thanks to the archers and the brave French. 2

4 Living history!"#! $#% The Guard and Krae Glas had their tents and living history display set up to the south east of the Village green. It is always pleasing to me to see the current range of tents available to modern history buff. Krae Glas had a getald with thin blue stripes and a large double belled pavilion. Whereas, Craig Sitch had his decorated bell tent based on one of the bell tents from the Maciejowski Bible (1250 c.e.), notable was also the cooking implements surrounding the fire with the vegetable soup on the boil. The geteld of the Baker of Hodegon was much visited with Gary and Jenny ever busy fielding questions from the questing public. I believe the merchants of the Guard also did a brisk trade under the shade pavilion by the Village Green. Jenny Baker's Naalbinding was a hit with the ladies from the Handweavers and Spinners Guild. Trebuchet It took a joint effort to transport and set up Vlachernai's traction trebuchet. Thanks to David and Paul from the Old Cheese factor, let alone Stuart, Kristen, Andrew and Craig (bloody bolts). The crowd gathered on the other side of the fence and listened to my spiel on trebuchets. The sling was loaded and the helmeted pullers (some say tossers) grasped their ropes and with call of 'loose' they heaved downwards on the ropes, the sling started it's upward swing, only to be halted as the pivot arm supports collapsed bringing down the pivot arm, sling, missile and all. Luckily, only part of the pivot arm hit Stuart Laird on the helmet (causing a possible slight concussion), mea culpa, mea culpa. The dowelled and nailed join of the upright to the pivot arm supports failed during the first fling in two years (of sitting in the open in my back yard). The two good things that came out of this were; 1) we did not have to transport the blasted thing home, and 2) the Old Cheese factory have offered to build a replacement for use next year (plus a pair of stocks). Feast The feasters we greeted with abundant food and sweet music from much spoken of Medieval music group Carnevale. This was a smaller than expected gathering because the sponsors failed to turn up. And I think having it on a Sunday night put a lot of people off. The groans from the well fed Varangians as they left the feasting hall attested to the sumptuousness of the spread. Summation The weather was great, the site is ideal, the participants are keen to do it again next year. We need to do other displays of medieval life. Maybe next year we can have a game of Knáttleikr or Kubb. Next year The financial success of this year's event is still unsure, however, there is a great deal of enthusiasm to run a two day event next year. All those involved with this year's event will be kept informed as to developments. 3

5 !"#! $#% By Peter Raftos This construction within a square appeared in Curiosités Géométriques, by E. Fourrey, published in Paris in It is said to have been discovered in a 10th-century manuscript and is supposed to have been originally the work of Archimedes. At least three slightly different versions of it have appeared in modern puzzle books. There are two known surviving manuscripts in fragmentary form attributed to Archimedes that describe an ancient game that the Greeks called Stomachion. One of these is an Arabic translation and the other is a Constantinopolitan manuscript in Greek dating from the 10 th century and discovered in1899 Mathematical symbols were recognized and the eminent Danish philologist J.L.Heiberg, who had edited the works of Archimedes, Euclid and other Greek mathematicians was contacted. Heiberg went to Constantinople in 1906 to examine this document. What he found was a 10 th century palimpsest, a parchment containing works of Archimedes. The word palimpsest comes from a Greek term meaning "scraped again". Heiberg managed to decipher the manuscript and found that it included a text of The Method,'' a work of Archimedes previously thought lost. The Greek manuscript attributed to Archimedes is incomplete and is concerned with determining the relationships of various angles of the pieces. In the 12 th century, the text of a prayer book (horizontal) a Euchologion was written over the original Greek (vertical) See Figure 1. The Arabic manuscript provides more information, describing a construction of the Stomachion and determining the areas of its pieces. There are other references to the game in ancient literature, of which two refer to it in Latin as loculus Archimedius (Archimedes' box). The word Stomachion has as its root the Greek word for the stomach (stovmakov). This interpretation is preferred by modern scholars than ostomachion (ostovmakion) 'a battle of bones' which is how Evelyn-White translates the word in the Loeb Ausonius 1. Stomachion is technically a dissection game similar to the Chinese tangram but having 14 rather than 7 pieces. The puzzle is also referred to as "syntemachion" in Latin texts. Figure: 1 Archimedes Palimpsest - (Figure Christie s Images, New York.) In October 1998, the Greek manuscript containing some of Archimedes s works, known to scholars as the Archimedes Palimpsest, resurfaced from obscurity and sold at auction in New York for two million dollars. The private owner has agreed to make it available for research and publication. The manuscript, shown in Figure 1, is a unique source of evidence for Archimedes s thought. Among its many treasures is the only evidence we have for the treatise known as the Method, in which physics and mathematics are combined by Archimedes. 4

6 !"#! $#% Figure: 2 Stomachion pieces layed out on a 12x12 grid. Figure: 3 Stomachion pieces as they would look when cut from hard material and layed out as a square. That the Roman poet Ausonius ( B.C.) writes explicitly of this puzzle for the first time in his book, 'Liber XVII Cento nuptalis' suggests that it may have been a game of educated Romans and therefore Byzantines (See Figure 4.) The game consists of flat ivory or wooden polygonal shapes forming a square. The object of the game is to rearrange the pieces to form interesting things people, animals and objects or with the jumbled pieces to reconstruct it back into a square. Figure: 4 Stomachion pieces arranged in the form of an elephant. Ausonius compares the Stomachion to a form of poetry in which various meters are jumbled together. References: The 10 th century provenance of the Constantinopolitan manuscript sets it nicely into our period of interest. A lovely pastime for an educated Byzantine to while away the time or teach to a visitor to the City. Dijksterhuis, E. J. Archimedes, Princeton U. P. (1987). An excellent source for information on Archimedes, including evidence for and against the anecdotes and legends. Fourrey, E. Curiosités Géométriques. Paris, Heiberg, J. L. Archimedis Opera (2nd ed.), Teubner, Leipzig ( ). Lloyd, G. E. R. Demystifying Mentalities, Cambridge U. P. (1991) Netz, R. The Shaping of Deduction in Greek Mathematics, Cambridge U. P. (1999). 1 Evelyn-White, H. G. trans. Ausonii opera omnia, 1919, Loeb, London, Volume II. Book XVIII.32 Series, No. 115 / 374 pages / reprinted by Harvard University Press, ) ISBN

7 !"#! $#% By Peter Raftos Don t you just hate it when you spend your hard earned money on a secondary source book only to find out that the illustration you ve used from it is just bloody wrong. I know I did - until I turned it all into a game to track down the original myself. Most notorious of all are those not inexpensive things put out for wargamers and figure painters. Now let s face it, what will be a passable job for a 15 mm Byzantine, Rus or Norman contingent just doesn t pass the muster at life size. Especially when the secondary source is mistaken. The scholarship in some of these books tends to have remained frozen in the 70s. An Italian academic, Dr Enrico Zanini, who Peter Beatson is trying to contact, has recently released a work that gives an overview of the parlous state of Byzantine archaeology and calls for modern and systematic approaches to the subject. We haven't found his work on sale anywhere yet and have had to rely on a book review to find out this much. Byzantine, and most other, medieval scholarship has marched on in the past 30 years but the publishers if not the authors are happy to take our money and dish up the same old stuff. One example is found in probably the most popular wargamers guide for our period of interest The Armies of the Dark Ages by Ian Heath. He gives a nice page full of shield patterns in the book. The Norman ones as far as I can tell are straight from the Bayeaux Tapestry. (Normanophiles please correct me if I am mistaken.) Then he gives a selection of Byzantine shields - most taken from the 13 th C Skylitzes manuscript. One of these (on the left) I have christened The Flying Monkey. I don t think you ll ever see anything like it outside of the Wizard of Oz. Despite the original source for this pattern being available to the general public for years it has remained the same in Heath s book for decades. Steven Lowe, produced an excellent article for the erstwhile living history fanzine New Hedeby where he correctly reproduced the pattern from the 12 th C original (see right). Far from Heath s Flying Monkey it was something much more interesting - a big beastie attacking a smaller one. I was intrigued; Steve had bothered to go to the trouble of actually checking the primary source or at least a copy of it. After showing the source to our one of our members Angela Hein (who is also our artist in residence at Miklagard) she went out and reproduced the pattern on a shield see left. Now, compare this to the original. (The actual colours are in brilliant enamels.) We know now that the beastie is a vibrant purple/blue griffin. (The primary source is on the right.) As a result of this frustrating situation, I have to put together a small sampling of Byzantine shield patterns 6

8 !"#! $#% taken from primary sources. My intention is to give you the barest of information with the hope you ll start tracking down primary sources yourselves. Hopefully you will not have seen all of these yet. This first pattern is actually the facial skin of the giant Goliath stretched over David s shield and comes from the Leo Casket. I have only seen this 9 th C ivory clad casket in a black and white photo. The interesting thing about this casket is that it has figures of soldiers on it that Ian Heath claims are Armenians in his Osprey title Byzantine Armies (Men-at-Arms 89). Well that was one theory used in the 70 s to explain the uniqueness of the work but modern scholarship has since debunked this idea 1. The next two patterns on small circular shields are taken from the so called Menologion of Basil 2. Unfortunately, again, in black and white and sadly, very few of the over 300 illuminations of this 10 th C document - which is perfect for my interests are ever reproduced. This oval shield from a 10 th C ivory casket that is now monochrome may have once been gilt or painted. Moving to the 11 th C, on the right, is another oval shield taken from a facsimile of a Byzantine Book of Kings 3. The oval and crescent markings are coloured yellow and the background on many of these shields is usually red or blue. This final 11 th C oval shield has a blue background, the perimeter is yellow as is the central spar and circle. The two groups of five dots and the cauliflower ears are white. Two more attractive patterns, usually red on a white background, come from Octateuchs of the 11 th C. They are held by guardsmen in illuminations that depict the Gibeonites before Joshua. 7

9 !"#! $#% Those of you familiar with Graeme Walker s shield will recognize the next pattern on the left. His reverses the colour scheme of a white base with rusty reddish decorations. The other pattern is taken from a 12 th C fresco in Kastoria as is the one on the right. And there are more The following shields come from a variety of manuscripts dated between 1150 and 1250 i. These manuscripts are thought to be from a particular school of book illumination. All have red backgrounds and the decorations, text and GT stripes are white. The scripts on all but the last have been variously identified as Armenian or Georgian. The last has a circular flourish of what looks like pseudo Kufic. The two circular shields from these manuscripts are coloured the same way. At a later date I hope to provide a more complete coverage of representations of Byzantine shield patterns. What can I say. Primary sources are little goldmines. I haven t even touched the vast range of frescos, icons or enamels let alone later sources like the Skylitzes Manuscript. I hope I have given you a little inspiration to get out there and do your own research. There is so much more available than thirty year old secondary sources. 1 Cutler, Anthony Late Antique and Byzantine Ivory Carving Variorum Collected Studies Series CS617 VariorumISBN: b/w illustrations Hardback pages See chapter Codex Vat. Gr. 1613, 10th C. circa Lassus, Jean L Illustration Byzantine du Livre Des Rois: Vaticanus Graecus 333. Editions Klinchsieck, (Bibliotheque des Cahiers Archeologiques IX). Cloth, quarto, 88 pp plates (126 figures) 1 Weyl-Carr, Annemarie, Byzantine Illumination : The Study of a Provincial Tradition (University of Chicago Press, 1987) 8

10 !"#! $#% By Graeme Walker Occasionally I have come across images of a golden handled sabre, which tradition asserts was that of the Frankish king, and later emperor, Charlemagne. This seemed odd, as his late 8 th early 9 th century, western European situation didn t really fit with sabres, though he had campaigned as far east as Austria. About the start of 1995, I came across a cryptic reference to where this artefact, completely intact and with scabbard, was located, and decided to ask the custodians, the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, about it. Historical background Information about the sabre is minimal. Nicolle, in Arms and armour of the Crusading era, dates it to c ad, and thought it was most likely made in southern Russia, or less likely, Hungary. He thought that it may have been sent to the German Empire from Russia in 1075AD. The guide to the collections, at the Kunsthistorisches museum suggests that it was most probably created in the first half of the 10 th century. It says the decoration is similar to finds from southern Russia, but also to those from post conquest Hungary, the Carpathian basin, and the east European steppes. Associations of the weapon with Attila the Hun, Haroun el Rashid, or Charlemagne, are unfounded. According to Anthony North, in Swords and Hilted Weapons, the sabre was probably made in Russia or east Europe, during the 9 th century. It has features in common with near eastern, Islamic swords dating to the early 9 th century. He also records the story that the sabre may have been given to a German prince by the widow of King Andras of Hungary, for helping her son to regain the throne in The exhibition catalogue, "The ancient Hungarians", suggests that the sabre was most probably made in the early 10 th century, in a Hungarian workshop. Arguments for an alternate Keiv/Russian/Viking origin are based on the animal fight decoration, found on the inlaid blade, which appears to contain Scandinavian influence. However, at this time, swords not sabres, were the dominant weapon in Kiev. The sabre conforms to numerous other sabre finds within Hungary, and the interlace and palmette decoration of the handle, cross guard and scabbard are all within the Hungarian native style. Dr Trnek, of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, advised that, for its subsequent history, it is not known when the sabre became a part of the regalia of the Holy Roman Emperor. The earliest positive identification is a painting dated to This is a portrait of Charlemagne by Adam Bommert, which shows the sabre on his belt. It is not known how much earlier the sabre may have been associated with Charlemagne. It was in the cathedral of Aachen, with other regalia, from at least 1654 to 1798, was hidden from troops of the French revolution, and since 1800 has been held in the Viennese World Treasure room. 9

11 !"#! $#% Contact with Vienna From the book Swords and Hilted Weapons, came the all important information about the sabre s location, and some cataloguing detail that could be used to identify it. Full address details came from a directory at the State Library. Not knowing anything about the Kunsthistorisches collection, I sent a letter, identified from where my information had come, enclosed a photocopy of the sabre, and asked for any assistance or information that the museum could supply me about the artefact. I was particularly keen to know how the cross guard was constructed, and already a little suspicious that the blade form was unusual for its type. After several weeks, a small bundle of papers from Dr Trnek in Vienna turned up in my letterbox. They included some very detailed photocopies of the weapon, a page of sketches showing how the cross guard was constructed, a description of the artefact in English, from the illustrated guide to the treasuries, and a personal letter in a language I couldn t read. Fortunately a work colleague, who understood German, agreed to translate. However he found the combination of medieval German terms, used to describe technical components and concepts, too difficult, and passed the letter on to a specialist, whose name I unfortunately no longer have. When translated, the letter gave some history of the artefact, together with answers to my questions on dimensions, the cross guard, and further examples of sabres. The artefact The length of the sabre is 90.5cm, and its weight is 730 grams. The blade is steel with partially gilded copper inlay. The handle is of wood, covered in fish skin, with gold cladding over the ends. 10

12 !"#! $#% Across the middle of the handle are three rings, made of gilt silver and containing precious stones. They are said to be late medieval repairs to the handle. The cross guard is of iron, and is covered by gold cladding. The cross guard Dr Trnek s sketches indicate an iron cross guard, something akin to a frame. Two long sides are bent around the handle, and secured by two short bars, that keep all rigid. The two long bars continue beyond, and probably join at the end of the cross guard where a knob is formed. This is not certain, as the frame is obscured by the gold cladding and some red sealing wax, which also makes it impossible to see how the cross guard is connected to the handle and blade. The cross guard is covered by decorated gold sheet, held in place by small gold rivets. The gold is loose, through age, and pivots around one of the rivets for about 2mm, on the centre of the right side. The cladding is open or slightly damaged on the face of the cross guard closest to the blade, allowing a partial view of construction. It is apparently more intact on the face towards the pommel, though the view looking down the handle towards the blade appears to show an open work construction with gaps between the handle and the cladding that covers the cross guard. In common with a number of other sabres, this one has a slight, diamond or 4 leaf shaped projection on the centre left of the cross guard. A join in the gold cladding is obvious across the centre of the right face. The cross guard is decorated in palmettes and interlace. The handle This extends from within the cross guard, to the pommel. The wooden core is covered by fish skin. The broad, flattened area in contact with the cross guard, is covered in gold sheet. It is decorated with palmettes and interlace, and a large rivet secures it, and the wooden core, to the tang. 11

13 !"#! $#% The end of the handle towards the pommel, remains flat, and narrows. Abruptly, it widens in several directions, producing an almost egg shaped pommel. This is most likely wood with gold cladding, rather than anything weightier. It also, is secured through the handle, by a large rivet. Along the two narrow sides of the handle, joining the cladding at both ends of the handle, are two thin strips of gold. As with the rest of the handle, they are visibly decorated with interlace, and possibly palmettes. The three rings bound around the handle at a later date are said to be repairs. When this was done, and what damage was repaired, is unknown, but they are not part of the original weapon. 12

14 !"#! $#% The blade The blade is c. 76 cm long. It narrows to a square shouldered tang abruptly, at the cross guard. It has a single curved cutting edge, and an extensive back blade covering two thirds of the total blade length. A fuller extends to within a few centimetres of the point, and is filled with applied gold decoration. The background of this decoration is filled with punch marks, as is the gold on the handle and the cross guard, but the decorative motifs are quite different. They are described in The Ancient Hungarians, as animal fights. The scabbard The scabbard is 86.5 cm long, and at 650 grams, approaches the weight of the sabre itself. It is made of leather covered wood. The lower half of the scabbard has been enclosed in undecorated gold sheet. Possibly another repair. The tip of the scabbard is formed by an egg shaped expansion, complementing the pommel of the weapon. The tip is covered in gold cladding, with the same decorative theme as the handle, and extends c. 10cm up the scabbard and over the plain gold sheeting. There are two mounting points, for attachment to a belt or suspension harness. Each of these are clad in gold, and continue the decorative theme of the handle, cross guard and scabbard tip. A border of punched dots, not obvious on any of the other gold decorated areas, has been introduced as a part of the design. The mount nearest the mouth of the scabbard has been extended to reinforce the mouth. At some stage this has been damaged, and the gold cladding has been squashed down by the cross guard. The mounting points take the form of sheets that wrap around the scabbard in a large loop, and rejoin at the upper side. Two rivets through each mount are presumably where they would join the suspension straps. From other examples of these mounting points, we know that the metal sheeting doesn t carry all the way around. It only covers the surface facing away from the wearer of the scabbard. 13

15 !"#! $#% Re creating the sabre There was no way of knowing how successful my application to the museum would be, so even before the receipt of a reply, I had determined to create a sabre, based on the information I possessed. I cross checked Nicolle's line drawing against several photos of the artefact, and found it accurate. I then photographically enlarged the drawing to about life size. As this was to be an interpretation rather than an exact replica, it was more important to make the weapon conform to my hand size and height. As it turned out, both the weight and the total length of the new sabre were almost exactly the same as the original. The curved blade was cut from spring steel as a curve, rather than cold forged into shape. As it was to be used in re enactment combat, the tip and cutting edges had to be rounded. About 35mm came off the tip of the template to achieve this, so my template must have been slightly larger than life sized, but the result did not spoil the visual appeal of the blade shape. I made one other change. The template indicated a waisted blade, from the cross guard down to the back blade. This was a third of the entire blade, and reduced the width of the blade to c.20 mm in an area where maximum strength was needed. It was likely that the original weapon had been created from thicker steel than the gauge I was using. I was also concerned about the sharp corner formed where the waisted blade met the back blade. While its inclusion would be accurate, it posed a possible safety problem for re enactors. At that point in time, I had not seen many pictures of early sabres, so referred again to Nicolle's line drawings. Most of the sabres had no waisted mid section. The blades were almost parallel sided, narrowing very gradually, and curving more at the point. A number of them had the back of the blade sharpened for a short distance, extending to the point, but the cutting edge did not rise out of the body of the blade. These examples provided the solution. 14

16 !"#! $#% A fuller was cut into the blade using a hand held grinder, very carefully, and the resultant gouges were hand filed until smooth. A semi pistol grip handle was carved from wood, using the Charlemagne sabre's handle as a guide. Soft leather was soaked in water, then smoothed and shaped onto the wood to give a close fit. The part of the handle under the cross guard was carefully designed as a series of wedges. As it widened to meet the blade in one plane, it narrowed in the other. The narrow plane widened as it stretched back to the pommel, while the wide plane narrowed. This was important for attaching the cross guard. The handle was attached to the blade with 3 rivets. The cross guard was made of two small, steel plates. Riveted at the two extremities, these plates sandwiched the lower handle. The tension in the two flat plates, being compressed over the handle, was sufficient to hold the cross guard in place, and because the handle expanded in two different directions, the cross guard was prevented from slipping up or down the handle. It did not need a rivet to hold it to the handle and blade, but did tilt occasionally, when it was knocked. Eventually the handle, and cross guard assembly, was replaced with a professional job. No attempt was made to reproduce the lavish decoration of the sabre. In use, I have found the light weight and shaped handle very comfortable. The balance point is probably closer to the handle than on the original, due to the modifications made to the blade. 15

17 !"#! $#% Conclusion From examples in more recent books, and those photographed by friends overseas, it is apparent that the Charlemagne sabre conforms to a general type. It is the most ornate, and best preserved, example of a light sabre that was common to eastern Europe towards the close of the first millennium. I would like to thank Dr H. Trnek of the Kunsthistorisches Museum for his assistance with detailed information, and Gary O Connell for providing the translation from the original German. Bibliography Swords and hilted weapons, by M. Coe and others. NMB Multimedia Books:London The ancient Hungarians; exhibition catalogue. Ed. I. Fodor. Hungarian National Museum:Budapest Correspondence with Dr. H. Trnek, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna Nicolle, D. Arms and armour.of the crusading era; Kraus International:White Plains, N.Y

18 !"#! $#% By Jenny Baker General reconstruction notes: For a long time I had wanted to reconstruct a Fur Lined Rus Kaftan and when I fortunate to get a Mink Coat at the reasonable sum of $2.00, I decided to attempt it. For the style of Kaftan, I used the research information that Peter Beatson has written on his Rus Kaftan and the pattern that he used in producing it, as this lent itself to an easy adaptation of the mink coat. For documented examples of original Fur Lined Kaftans I have included the following examples: 8th 10th century, Caucasus Kaftan, Caucasus Mountain regions made of Silk, linen, and fur; in the Met Museum 16th century Fur lined Kaftan Palace attire and garments: The costumes of the Sultans 2nd Half of 16th century Fur-lined Kaftan The Ottoman Period AD Topkapi Palace Museum 13/35 Reconstruction Materials: Mink Coat Blue Wool Bronze buttons 12 originals found in a 10th cent. grave at Välsgärde, Sweden. Obtained from Birka Traders. 17

19 Method of Construction:!"#! $#% The Mink Coat had its lining removed and the side seams where undone to allow the side gores to be inserted The Blue wool outer covering was hand sewn together, then sewn to the mink coat at every seam working from the inner most seams out to outer seams The Braiding has been hand done on a Snodgafl (Lucet) Hand sewed on the Buttons The Style of the Kaftan Research Info and Pattern Used : Peter Beatson's Kaftan pattern Numerous grave finds show that fashions in clothing and jewellery were transmitted from steppe nomad cultures (eg. Khazars) to Eastern Scandinavia, via the Russian principality centered in Kiev, during the Viking period (Jansson 1986; 1988). These include metal buttons, appliques, and braids presumed to come from a front-opening coat or kaftan (perhaps ultimately derived from a Persian riding coat like those found in Antiné, Egypt: Gervers 1983), sometimes found in association with belts of the type familiar from nomadic art and archaeological finds. It has been suggested that garments of these types were awarded by the Russian prince to persons of rank (Hägg 1983a; Roesdahl and Wilson 1992). The costume was based almost entirely on archaeological finds from Scandinavia and 'Varangian' settlements in Russia. All seams were hand sewn, the types of seams used are those known from surviving Viking Age garments and fragments (Fentz 1987a; Hägg 1974; Hald 1980; Walton 1989). Fabrics and threads of natural fibre (silk, wool or linen) were chosen to match the archaeological finds as best as possible. Metal items were made by cire perdue casting (from wax models). 18

20 !"#! $#% The collar has been mounted as a 'standing collar' similar to those of surviving intact garments of Alan burials of the 8-9th centuries from Mostchevaya Balka, in the Caucasus (Ierusalimskaja 1996). Graham-Campbell (1980) considered the collar to be a cloak trimming, though no supporting evidence is provided for this conclusion- perhaps as no buttons were recovered from grave 15 However, kaftans without buttons were proposed in some Birka graves (Hägg 1986), and the Mostchevaya Balka kaftans had loop and buttons made entirely of fabric. Twelve cast bronze buttons were found in grave 12. Identical or similar buttons have been found in numerous male graves, notably in Birka, Sweden (Arbman ; Avdusin and Puskina 1988; Geijer 1938; Hägg 1986; Jansson 1988). They are usually found in a row (4-24 buttons) down the centre of the chest to the waist. Apparently, apart from the cuffs, no metal braids or appliques like those found on the Birka kaftans were present in the Välsgarde 12 grave, therefore the buttons have been mounted on a strip of silk, as known from the 10th century chamber grave Dn-4 at Gnezdovo, Ukraine (Avdusin and Puskina 1988). The basic material of the kaftan was usually wool of various weaves, including twills (Hägg 1986). Viking Age woolen fabrics were usually worsted, ie. the fabric was not fulled (a process similar to felting) and the nap was not raised, giving a smooth appearance with a visible weave. The buttons were based on those of the Valsgärde 12 find (opcit.: pers. obs. 1994). Buttons Hand Made by Birka Traders Description: Bronze button, 12 originals found in a 10th cent. grave at Välsgärde, Sweden. From 4 up to 45 buttons were used to fasten the kaftan adopted by eastward - travelling Swedes and Rus'. Size: Diameter 10 mm Examples of Original Fur Lined Kaftans Caftan, 8th 10th century Caucasus Mountain regions Silk, linen, and fur; Coat: H. 56 in. (142.2 cm), W. 60 in. (152.4 cm); Leggings: H. 32 in. (81.3 cm) Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1996 ( ) The original linen coat (caftan), preserved in part from the neck to the bottom of the hem, is made of finely woven linen. A decorative strip of large-patterned silk is sewn along the exterior and interior edges of the caftan. A minute fragment of lambskin preserved as the caftan's interior attests to its fur lining. The woven patterns on the silk borders of the caftan include motifs such as the rosettes and stylised animal patterns enclosed within beaded roundels, which were 19

21 !"#! $#% widespread in Iranian and Central Asian textiles of the sixth to ninth century. The colours used in the textile include a now-faded dark blue, yellow, red, and white on a dark brown ground. The decorated silk fabrics are a compound twill weave (samit in modern classification) and the body of the garment is plain-weave linen. Two slits running up the back of the caftan make it particularly suitable as a riding costume. Fur lined kaftan 16th century Palace attire and garments The costumes of the Sultans Fur-lined Kaftan 2nd Half of 16th century The Ottoman Period AD Topkapi Palace Museum 13/35 References: Peter Beatson's Rus Kaftan Peter Beatson's Kaftan pattern The Metropolitan Museum of Art's collection of Ancient Near Eastern Art Birka Traders - Rus Jewellery Catalogue Palace attire and garments: The costumes of the Sultans Interactive Museum of Turkey 20

22 !"#! $#% By Graeme Anderson This article provides some more insights following on from Steven Lowe's 'The Byzantine Kavadion' in the last issue, Two forms of armour from areas of Turkish, Mongol and Arab influence fit the appearance of the Kavadion: The Jazerant, in one of the older senses, with small overlapping plates riveted between two layers of quilted fabric, this would explain the use of pteruges and other protection for the arms and legs. A diamond quilt pattern with gilt rivet heads in the centre is not unusual in existing examples (not much older than the 17 th century). The look and 'cut' of the Kavadion is very like the British 'Jackof-Plates' cuirass, with it's short sleeves or skirts. These are first mentioned in the 14 th century. The difference between the Jazerant and 'Jacks' is the form of attachment of the plates. On the Jazerant, the plates are sewn in place by a trellis pattern of cords through the hole in each plate and the cords also from the quilting. Jacks are described as 2-3 layers of quilted cloth, between which were sewn small crudely cut, overlapping iron plates of 3-4 cm and pierced with a hole in the centre for cord stiching. They are usually faced with a dense material such as canvas or leather. With the Jazerant of course, the quilting and plate attachments are independent. 16 th C Scots border 'Jack of Plates', gives a comparison of the general look. As Steven Lowe says that in India and the Middle East, thick quilted armour studded with 'gilt nails' (actually rivets?) was common in the 18 th - 19 th centuries. The simplest pattern was a diamond trellis with nails at the centre of each. Minatures of Mughal/Timurid times and central Asian Turkish minatures from the 15 th century on, seem to depict fully developed brigandine (plates riveted between textile, but no quilting) much like that of Western Europe. These could also depict other sorts of armour, such as discussed, which would look the same from the outside. All of these examples are more modern than the Kavadion, but methods were already spread across Eurasia from the Mediterranean to China by the late Middle Ages. From an Archaeological point of view the actual textile would need to survive to be able distinguish earlier Jazerant from scale armour. Collections of small plates, with one or two hols in the middle, have been found from the eastern migration period and are quite reasonably described as scale. Though some of the early Bulgar and Turkic art suggests a pattern for the 'Kavadion' style of armour. 21

23 !"#! $#% By Jeremy Draper When I was in South Korea in August 2003, I visited quite a few of the National Museums. I found it very interesting to note, not the differences of Korean arms and armour, but the similarity of the arms and armour to its European & Middle Eastern equivalents. The most stunning of the suits of armour I saw was on display in the National War Memorial, Seoul. This suit dates from around the 4 th or 5 th Century in the Three Kingdom Period and is probably of Baekje Kingdom origin. The Koreans divide their historical past into four major periods: Three Kingdom Period (18BC 668AD), when Korea was divided into three major kingdoms: Baekje, Silla and Goguryeo Unified Silla (pronounced Shilla) Kingdom ( ) Goryeo Kingdom ( ) Joseon (or Choseon) Kingdom ( ) Whilst influenced by it s trading relationships with China and Japan, the Korean Peninsula developed in it s own quite unique way. Not until the successful Japanese invasion in the early 16 th C, was Korea forced to adopt foreign customs. Even under the short rule of the Mongols in the 12 th C, the Koreans were self-governing (such as occurred in many parts of Russia during the same period). When the Japanese were again expelled, Korea quickly reasserted it s own customs and ways. The museums in Korea provide a small amount of information in English, there is usually a plaque with a small essay in Korean and a note in English (in this case Three Kingdom Period (82BC 660AD). Probably 4 th C or 5 th C. Made of Iron ). Even so a lot can be gathered from the detail of the actual display. The entire suit of iron lames is laced with leather thronging to leather backing. It is interesting to note that all of the lames have been stamped with a borderline. The pattern for the lames is exactly the same as for many of the Middle Eastern and European finds. Square at one end with a single hole, rounded at the opposite end with two small holes vertically aligned and two sets of vertically aligned holes on the middle edges. A later find, from the Anapji Pond in the ancient Silla capital of Kyongju (Gyongju), shows very similar construction. However in this find (around 8 th -9 th C) the plates are roughly cut, rather than rounded at the ends and use considerably more lacing holes. The variance in the shape of the lames (some are straight, some taper towards the point and some taper away from the point) is probably to enable tailoring of the suit, to achieve a more comfortable or tighter fit. The presence of hole in the centre of the lames suggests that these were of the hanging type. As the Anapji Pond was part of a Royal Palace, one can surmise that the lames belonged to a member of the Royal Guard or the Royal Household and are thus representative of armour belonging to the wealthy. 22

24 !"#! $#% The high metal collar on this suit suggests that it is for the use of a cavalryman. This type of collar would be to stop spears and other pole arms used by foot soldiers, from skipping of the armour and going into the face. If this is a footman's outfit, the collar would stop cuts to the neck and head. This collar, which is revetted together, also has leather thronging laced laterally through its entire width. Despite the clear gap between the two collars, it appears that the lamellar collar beneath should be attached via this lacing to the bottom of high collar, although this does not explain the other three rows of lacing. The reconstruction of the horseman right shows no gap at all. The generally accepted wisdom regarding lamellar is that if it were constructed for a cavalryman, it would be laced with the lames overlapping the opposite way up. This then suggests that the suit may be for a footman. Interestingly though, the lames on the reconstruction are overlapping in the same manner as the Baekje suit. The plaque attached to this reconstruction said Three Kingdom or Early Silla Period, putting it at the late 7 th or early 8 th C, a couple of hundred years after the Baekje suit. One can assume that the lamellar collar is tied or buckled behind the neck and floats freely over the torso protection. The high collar is a solid construction (demonstrated by the folded metal edging around the top). The helm is a four-piece construction, with the pieces directly riveted together. The top of the helm has a spike, much like those of the Rus. The leather backed lamellar aventail is laced to the helm. A slightly fancier quartered helm from the Palhae Kingdom (698 AD 926 AD, the area in the very north of North Korea), shows a similar type of construction. Both these helms look incredibly similar, both is style and method of construction, to the various Eastern European and Middle Eastern finds. 23

25 !"#! $#% The arm pieces are separate to the torso protection and laced to the shoulders along the entire width of the piece. I was unfortunately unable to see the construction of the shoulder area of the torso protection. I would suggest that the construction of this suit is an interpretation by the staff of the museum. Considering the date of the suit, it is likely that it was only the metal scales that had survived. This may explain the problems with the gap in the collar and the choice of the scales overlapping downwards. Without seeing pictures of the actual dig, one can only assume that they have constructed the suit in the correct manner. The presence the metal scale belt around the waist area, suggests that there is an unarmoured section below. These scales are much larger than the lames, which fits with needing to cover a reasonably wide section of plain leather. One can fairly safely assume that this is where the belt is worn. A suit this heavy would need to distribute the weight as evenly as possible, additionally if the wearer is to have any mobility at the waist there needs to be an area of pliable material at the waist. It is hard to tell if the torso and skirt are integral or separate, however considering how the suit sits (a very similar manner to my leather lamellar, on which the skirt is integral) I would suggest it is integral. It is also worth noting that the lames just above the belt have been reversed (overlapping up), so that the belt can move smoothly over the torso section when bending at the waist. It is the full lamellar legs that make this suit so different to any finds or pictures I have seen out of Europe or the Middle East. It can only be assumed that the leggings are attached to a belt around the waist, presumably buy ties or buckles. Considering the weight that would be involved, you would expect the attachment to be fairly substantial. It is the construction of the leggings and the lack of a split in the front/back of the skirt, that suggests most strongly that this is the armour of a foot soldier. The lamellar wraps almost entirely around the leg, leaving only an ~5cm or so gap on the inside of the leg. The lamellar is tied together in three places, first up near the to of the thigh. You can see this just under the hem of the skirt, you can also see that the leggings are shaped to fit in this area, by the tapering lames. The second place is near the top of the knee and the third, just above the ankle. Anyone who has ridden a horse would be able to tell you that these leggings would be a very poor design for a horseman. If they were designed to ride a horse the gap on the inside of the legs would be much larger (~15 ~20 cm). 24

26 !"#! $#% The reconstruction of the horseman earlier shows the use of greaves rather than leggings. The leg greaves on the left are from the Three Kingdom Period, probably 5 th C (about the same time period as the lamellar suit). They do up around the ankle and are hinged. The hinges can bee seen clearly on the pair of sheet silver leg greaves from Hwangnamdaechong (5 th C) (below, right). A pair of vambraces, would likely have been worn as part of the lamellar suit, as shown in the suit to the right. The.vambraces to the left are of similar construction to the greaves, but have longer enclosure to go around the forearm. Like the greaves, this section is hinged and buckles on the inside of the forearm The lamellar suit to the right (in the National Museum of Korea, Seoul) is from around the same period as the one in the National War Memorial. The lames on this suit are of the hanging type and overlap upwards. This suit is definitely a footman s outfit and it is worth noting that the collar is still present. The high metal collar seems to be attached to the lame collar by a leather strip. The leggings on this suit are of two-piece construction and the skirt is separate from the torso protection. When you consider the weight of this style armour, it s hard to imagine how the horses managed when you add barding. The suit to the left is from around the 4 th C. This suit is iron scales sewn to a leather backing. The faceplate is beaten from a single sheet of iron. Although these suits of armour are from much earlier than many of the same styles from Europe and the Middle East, the similarities with them is unmistakable. It goes to show that when making war, we all find the best way to protect ourselves. Bibliography: National Museum of Korea, Spleandors of Korean Culture, Yemaek Publishing Co., 2001 Gyeongju National Museum, Archeology Hall, Tongcheon Publishing Co., 2002 Gyeongju National Museum, Anapji Hall, Tongcheon Publishing Company, 2002 Time & Space Tech Co. Ltd, Korean Cultural Heritage 2 Seen through Pictures and Names, Park Ki-seok,

27 !"#! $#% &!"#! '$!(%(#( NVG Inc. National Executive Committee SECRETARY: Cherilyn Fulbohm PO Box 27, Redan, VIC, 3350 (03) TREASURER: Kristen Pincott PO Box 238, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, PUBLIC OFFICER: Chris Morgan 19 Knocklayde St, Ashfield, NSW, 2131 (02) EDITOR: Jeremy Draper PO Box CP89, Mildura, VIC, (03) ANTIOCH: Ballarat, Victoria Correspondence: PO Box 27, Redan, VIC, 3350 Council Rep: Craig Sitch (03) Council of Representatives - Australia DUBH LINN: Geelong, Victoria Correspondence: 8 Tayler Street, Geelong West, VIC, 3218 Jarl & Council Rep: Kerry Dagge (03) HANDAKAS: Adelaide, South Australia Correspondence: 12 Berringa Street, Hallett Cove, SA, 5158 President & Council Rep: Gary David (08) or MIKLIGARD: Sydney, New South Wales Correspondence: PO Box 3003, Marrickville, NSW, 2204 Tsar and Council Rep: Christopher Morgan RUSLAND: Brisbane, Queensland Correspondence: 10 Bromar Street, The Gap, Queensland, 4061 President & Council Rep: Patrick Urquhart (07) HODEGON: Belgrave Heights, Victoria Correspondence: 2 Lockwood Road, Belgrave Heights, Vic, 3160 Council Rep: Jenny Baker (03) MOUNTAINS: Blue Mountains, New South Wales Correspondence: 91 Russell Ave, Valley Heights. NSW Despoina and Council Rep: Kim Walker (02) THESSALONIKA: Mildura, Victoria Correspondence: PO Box CP708, Mildura, VIC, 3501 President and Council Rep: Jeremy Draper (03) VLACHERNAI: Melbourne, Victoria Correspondence: PO Box 238, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, 3086 President and Council Rep: Andrew Straffon KASTORIA: Missouri, USA Contact person: Robert L.Schuster CHERSON: London, UK Contact person: Peter James NVG International Sister Garrisons BARI: Torino, Italy - KATEPANATOS THES ITALIAS Contact person: Raphail Argyros (Raffaele D'Amato) Address: Strada Antica di Pinerolo, 6/ FROSSASCO, ITALY Phone or 26

28 !"#! $#%