2 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY (FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO 4th-3rd CENTURY B.C) By Dr. ZEBA ISLAM DEPARTMENT OF ANCIENT HISTORY, CULTURE AND ARCHAEOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF ALLAHABAD, ALLAHABAD (U.P), INDIA 2016 International E - Publication
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4 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY iii FOREWORD The Ganga has played an important role in the making of Indian Culture right from the very beginning when the man started learning the use of tools as extra corporeal equipment. The excavations and explorations in the sub Himalayan region and in the skirting Vindhyan mountains towards the southern fringe of the Ganga Valley, the recent work in Jalaun district,and the discovery of Kalpi section amply prove the presence of man in this part of the subcontinent right from the mid-pleistocene period if not earlier. During the proto-historic period this region witnessed the transformation of man from hunting and gathering stage to domestication of flora and fauna. This region continued to be full of activities during the early Chalcolithic period and from the beginning of the Iron using cultures to the formation of janapadas in 6th. Cent B.C.In the Upper Ganga Valley a lot of work had been done by a large number of scholars from time to time but unfortunately they remained un consolidated, hence a comprehensive picture of Cultural evolution of the region was not available. M/s Zeba Islam was asked to take up this job which she has done nicely with sincerity. She studied the material herself, made detailed comparative charts and drawings to bring out her points convincingly. I am happy to note that her thesis is going to be published soon and will be available to students and scholars very soon. I wish her well. (Radha Kant Varma) Allahabad
5 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY iv OPINION Dr. Zeba Islam in her book entitled Evolution of culture in the upper Ganga Valley (from Earliest times to 4 th -3 rd Century B.C.) has analyzed and discussed in detail the available archaeological data obtained from the excavations and explorations and has presented a complete picture of cultural development in the study area. It is a commendable work throwing welcome light on the archaeology of one of the culturally rich regions of the country. Being a welcome addition to the archaeology of the Upper Ganga Plain, I hope the book would serve as reference book, both for scholars and students. J. N. Pal (Ancient history culture & Archaeology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad)
6 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY v PREFACE This work, which was originally approved for Ph.D. dissertation under the title Evolution of culture in the upper Ganga Valley (from the earliest times to 4 th 3 rd cent. B.C.) By the University of Allahabad. It presents a composite picture of the cultures presented by the different ceramic traditions in the upper Gangetic plain from the earliest times till 4 th 3 rd cent. B.C. Every year a new harvest of information is added and it is difficult to keep face with them. Explorations have brought to light a large number of sites of Late Harappan, OCP, BRW, PGW and NBPW and given a fair idea of the distribution area of these cultures. Excavations carried out at several sites have clearly established the stratigraphy and chronology of various cultures. I may be forgiveness if I have missed to mention a few of the latest work. First and foremost, I would like to express my deep faith and sense of Gratitude to Almighty God for his loving care and giving me strength, and courage to accomplish this venture. This book was worked out for the doctoral dissertation under the guidance and supervision of Prof. Radha Kant Varma (former Vice Chancellor), APSU, Rewa and chairman, Allahabad museum society. I must above all render my heartfelt thanks to him for his scholarly discussions, constant encouragement and inspiration, I feel lucky to have the opportunity to work under his tutelage. Dedicated with deep esteem to R.K. Varma a distinguished archaeologist art historian and conservator. I express my sincere gratefulness and humble regards to Prof. U.C. Chattopadhyaya Head of the Department of Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology, University of Allahabad, for his encouragement, help and constant guidance during my study. I am thankful to all my teachers in the Department, Prof. V.D. Mishra, Prof. G.K. Rai, Prof. Ranjana Bajpai, Prof. O.P. Srivastava, Prof. H.N. Dubey, Prof. A.P. Ojha, Prof. Pushpa Tiwari, Prof. Anamika Roy, Prof. Prakash Sinha, Prof. D.K. Shukla, Prof. C.D. Pandey, Prof. D.P. Dubey, Dr. M.C. Gupta, Dr. B.C. Shukla and Dr. J.P. Upadhayaya for their well considered suggestions and encouragement. I would like to extend my deep sense of gratitude and respect to Prof J.N. Pal his constant encouragement and guidance helped me at each step in preparing this book without his help it would have been impossible for me to complete this work. I very gratefully acknowledge the encouragement and moral support extended to me by Prof. Harsh Kumar liberal guidance and inspiring attitude and always willing to help me without any reservation. I express my deep sense of regards to Prof. V.N. Misra of Deccan College, Poona, Prof. U.P. Arora of M.J.P. Rohilkhand University Bareilly, Prof. D.P. Tiwari of University of Lucknow, Prof. Purushottam Singh and Prof. V.C. Srivastava of Banaras Hindu University, Varansi, for valuable information kind suggestions and help in various ways. I am grateful to the Librarians of the Department of Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology, University of Allahabad, the Ganganatha Jha Kendriya Sanskrita Vidhyapeetha, Allahabad, the Allahabad Museum, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, and Lucknow University for kind co-operation and help.
7 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY vi At the Initial stages of the present study financial assistance was provided by Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR). I take this opportunity to thank the authorities of ICHR. Likewise I am especially grateful to my esteemed colleague Dr. Jameel Ahmed. It was he who had first kindled in me the spirit of research and had further kept on the lamp of research burning by pouring the oil of encouragement. My sincere thanks are also due to my colleagues Dr. Ruchika Varma, Dr. Jitendra Singh Naulakha, and Dr. Pragya Mishra on this work. I must also express my gratitude to my friends Dr. Sabiha Jameel and Zafar Ahmad (Cyber World) for their unfailing help at every stage. Words fail to convey the deep love and affection that I feel for my parents and all the family members for their fruitful blessings and encouragement. I wish to express my heartfelt gratitude and respect to my father and mother who has been my inspiration and strength, she inculcated in me the spirit never to stop learning and to achieve the highest level in everything I do, without her blessings and sacrifices. And of course my greatest debt in all respects to my loving brother Mr. Shariq Islam, my work and thus putting pressure upon me to complete it quickly. The present work would never have been accomplished. I am also thankful to all those scholars and institutions whose published as well as unpublished materials have been utilized by me in my present work, I am greatly beholden to all of them. I very gratefully acknowledge the help rendered by Mr. Suresh Bomble Research Associate who help me in collecting material from Deccan College, Pune. Lastly but not the least I shall be failing in my duly if I do not acknowledge the help rendered by Sri Ashish Sharma who published the manuscript within the shortest period of time. Dated: 26 th Jan, 2016 Zeba Islam Place: Allahabad
8 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY vii CONTENTS Foreword iii Opinion IV Preface List of Maps List of Tables List of Figures List of Plates Abbreviations V XI XII XIII XIV XVI Chapter I Geographical Background 1-26 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Ecological Background significance of Ecology The Upper Ganga Plain The Middle Ganga Plain The Lower Ganga Plain Geological Structure Drainage Climate (viii) Soils (ix) (x) Natural Vegetation Fauna Chapter II Stone Age Culture of the Ganga Valley 27-72
9 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY viii (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) A brief survey of already work done A brief account of Prehistoric Evolution in the Vindhyan Region The Belan Sequence (Palaeolithic Period) Mesolithic Culture Neolithic Culture Settlement Patterns Subsistence Patterns Material Culture Pottery Chronology Pre-historic Evolution in the Ganga Plain (North of Ganga (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) Middle Palaeolithic Epipalaeolithic Mesolithic Tools and Ornaments Subsistence Pattern Chronology Burial System Neolithic Culture Chapter III Late Harappan and Ochre-Coloured Pottery Culture (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Late Harappan and their contact with other culture. Ochre-Coloured Pottery Stratigraphic Position of OCP Pottery Types Association of Copper Hoards with OCP
10 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY ix (vi) (vii) Copper Hoard a Main types and their Probable use Associated Objects (viii) Chronology (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) Origin and Authorship OCP and Flood Theory Settlement Patterns Conclusion Chapter IV Black and Red Ware Culture (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Technique Pottery Shapes Painting Associated Wares Relationship between BRW of the Doab and other Areas Material Culture (viii) Settlement Pattern (ix) (x) Authorship Conclusion Chapter V Painted Grey Ware Culture (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Distribution Pattern of PGW Sites Technique Shapes Associated Wares of the PGW Decoration Settlement Pattern Other Associated Object (viii) Authorship (ix) Chronology
11 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY x (x) Conclusion Chapter VI Northern Black Polished Ware Culture (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Area of Distribution Stratigraphy Technique Main Pottery Types Decorative Motifs Associated Wares Settlement and Subsistence Pattern (viii) Chronology (ix) (x) (xi) Cultural Associated finds Origin and Authorship Conclusion Conclusion Plates Bibliography
12 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY xi ILLUSTRATIONS (i) List of Maps Map No. I Map No. II Map No. III Map No. IV Map No. V Map No. VI Map No. VII Map No. VIII Map No. IX Area Map of Upper Ganga Plain Drainage Pattern of the Area of the Study Location Map of Kalpi Section Distribution of Ochre-Coloured Ware in the Upper Ganga Valley and sites with Probable Harappan Link Map Showing important OCP & Copper Hoard Sites Distribution of Black and Red Ware in Northern India Map Showing the location of PGW sites in Ganga Plain Distribution of Painted Grey Ware Regional Division Map Showing the Location of NBP Sites
13 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY xii (ii) LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Radio Carbon Dates from Mesolithic Sites of the Ganga Valley Table 2 The Sites Table 3 Human burials at Lekhahia (Misra 1977) Table 4 Human burials at Sarai Nahar Rai (After Sharma 1973b with additions) Table 5 Burials of Mahadaha Table 6 Inventory of Burials at Damdama Table 7 T.L. Dates for OCP Table 8 Numbers of Settlements PGW Site in each District Table 9 Size of Settlements in Square meters Table 10 Radiocarbon and T.L. Dates of PGW Sites Table 11 Exploration Sites of Painted Grey Ware, Gonda District Table 12 List of Crop Remains, Weeds and other Wild Taxa Table 13 Selected Bones of Painted Grey Ware of Saunphari Table 14 Radiocarbon and TL. Dates for NBP Sites
14 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY xiii (iv) LIST OF PLATES Plates No. Kalpi Section: Unificial pebbles Tools 1 Kalpi Section: A Charred bone of BOS sp. Bearing Shallow 2 Cutmarks Kalpi Section: Bone pieces, ashy in colour due to burning 3 Kalpi Section: Bone point showing bifacial retouched and fire 4 hardened point observes and reverse Mahadaha: Bone Implements 5 Mahadaha : Skull with Ear-rings 6 Five Ornaments found at Damdama 7 Mahadaha: Pit-hearth 8 Extended Human Burials at Damdama, Grave No. VII 9 Flexed Burial at Damdama, Grave No. I 10 A Double Burial Grave No. VI at Damdama 11 Multiple Burial At Damdama, Grave No. XVI 12 Jhusi Spouted Basin and other Artifacts on the Floor Neolithic Period. 13 Jhusi Neolithic-Cord Impressed Pottery 14 Haswa Copper Flat Axe and Shoulder Axe 15 Symbols at Copper Hoard Sites 16 Mirapatti Copper Shoulder Axe Ingot 17 Two Female figurines at Lal Qila 18 Terracotta Anthropomorphic figurines at Lal Qila 19 Red Ware Period II at Jakhera 20
15 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY xiv Black and Red Ware Period II at Jakhera 21 Black and Red Ware Period III at Jakhera 22 PGW from Atranjikhera 23 Proto PGW at Jakhera 24 Kausambi: Pre Painted Grey Ware 25 Abhaipur: Painted Grey Ware 26 Saupari: Painted Grey Ware 27 Hulaskhera: Fine Red-Slipped Ware 28 Thapli: Painted Grey Ware 29 A dinning set of the PGW beginning of the first millennium B.C. 30 Kausambi : Painted Northern Blacked Polished Ware 31 Saunpari: Northern Blacked Polished Ware 32 Charda: Northern Blacked Polished Ware 33 Hulaskhera from Red Ware 34
16 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY xv AP Asian Perspectives ABBREVIATIONS AS BRW BSW DSW EI EW GSI IA IAR IAS IGI IMB ISPQS JAI JASB JBORS JOI JRASB K MASI ME MI NBPW Archaeological Studies Black-and-Red Ware Black Slipped Ware Degenerate Siswal Ware Epigraphia Indica East and West Geological Survey of India The Indian Antiquary (A Journal of Orient Research) Indian Archaeology A Review Indian Archaeological Society Imperial Gazetteer of India Indian Museum Bulletin Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies Journal of the Anthropological Institute Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal Journal of Bihar Puravid Parishad Journal of the Oriental Institute Journal of Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal Kushan Period Memorial of the Archaeological Society of India. Man and Environment Man in India Northern Black Polished Ware
17 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY xvi OCP OCW PASB PGW PIAS PPS PRL PS SSA TIFR TL UP UTD WA WB Ochre Coloured Pottery Ochre Coloured Ware Proceeding of Asiatic Society of Bengal Painted Grey Ware Proceeding of Indian Academy of Science. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society London Physical Research Laboratory Police Station South Asian Archaeology. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Themoluminiscent Uttar Pradesh Union Territory of Delhi World Asian Archaeology West Bengal
18 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 1 CHAPTER 1 Geographical Background Ecological Background Significance of Ecology What moulds the life of man? The climate What makes some black and others tan? The Climate What makes the Zulu live in trees and Congo natives dress in leaves while others go in furs and freeze? The climate David M. Bates Ecology is the study of factors surrounded by man, which directly or indirectly influence the human behavior and culture. Despite the fabulous advances in modern technology, man s well being and sustenance is still utterly and completely at the mercy of climate. In the past when technology was not well developed man was more dependent on ecology which played an important role in the rise and growth of human culture. The Gang has played an important role in nourishing and making of Indian Culture. No wonder Gang is the most sacred river in the world. Morison- 1927:13 The Ganga is the only river in the world that drops from heaven upon the earth below. The land which lies in the valley of this greatest river is called Gangetic plains. The greatest plain that covers an area of 319,000 sq. km. is one of the largest of its type. It has nourished a sizeable number of people for thousand of years.
19 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 2 The vast Gangetic plains consist of alluvial plains starting from Uttaranchal and spreading into U.P., Bihar and Bengal is one of the major natural regions of India. The plain forms a 1050 km long east, west corridor between the Himalayas in north and plateau of peninsular India in South. The plain broadens towards west and narrows towards east where it is 160 km broad. The plain is bounded by the foot hills of Himalayas in the north 150 contour and the spurs of the vindhyas and chhota Nagpur plateau in the south 150 contours. The Sutlej- Yamuna divide and northern finger of the Arawali form its western boundary. While the eastern limit broadly coincides with the western boundary of Bangladesh. The Gangetic plain has always held a unique position in the history of India since the earliest times. The Ganga-Yamuna Doab, a part of ancient Madhyadesha is a densely populated northern region of the country. In earlier times the area was also part of the Antarvedi.The Ganga is a living tradition for over two thousand years? Just as all great traditions emerge from the interplay of many forces, so Ganga s fame has grown through time, enhanced by different people and cultures as they came in contact with the river adding to it their vision of reality. Ganga is an integral part of Indian Culture. Ganga River has been a source of inspiration to the Indians and has contributed in the growth of culture. For all the Indians from Himalayas to Kanya Kumari and from Gujrat to Orissa Ganga is a source of attraction. The knot of unity is so strong that no human power can break it. Indian people believe that by merely seeing the Ganga one gets salvation. (xaxs ro n'kzukr~ eqfä%). In Ancient Indian literature Ganga is personified as a goddess wearing white clothes with lotus in hand and sitting on a swan. Ganga water can remove all sins which people accumulate in course of their life. The people who die on the banks of the river Ganga are regarded lucky as they get heaven on account of the Sanctifying quality of Ganga water. According to Indian tradition Ganga was a heavenly river. It was brought an earth by the efforts of Bhagiratha to Salvage 60,000 sons of Sagara. 1 The Ganga has its source in the Gangotri glacier, nearly twenty miles long and three miles wide surrounded by peaks, twenty one thousand to twenty four thousand feet above sea level. Its two main sources The Alakananda and the Bhagirathi flow past the sacred villages of Badrinath and Gangotri long since regarded as the most revered centres of pilgrimage. 2 the town of Badrinath lies on the western bank of the Alaknanda in a mile-wide valley set between the ridges of Nar and Narayana. Further south the Alakananda River is joined by the Mandakini, a lesser source that rises near Kedarnath, another centre of pilgrimage. At Deoprayag, the Alaknanda joins the Bhagirathi, the other main source of Ganga, which rises
20 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 3 beyond centre of Gangotri. But the true source of Ganga is at Gomukh (13,500 feet) the giant ice cave, fourteen miles beyond the town. The origin of this river is due to melting of the snow from mountains besides various small rivers also join it. Till Devprayag its name is Bhagirathi. In Devprayag Bhagrirathi meets the Alaknanda River where they become the Ganga. Flowing south it passes through Rishikesh, the last point in the Himalayas, before Ganga enters the plains breaking out between the hills lies Haridwar the gate of Vishnu (Hari, a name of Vishnu, dvara, the Sanskrit word for door or gate). The length of the Ganga river is 1,557 miles 2,506 km. 3 Ganga is 39 th worlds largest river. The Great Ganga plains are geologically youngest, economically valuable and culturally most significant of all the physical division of Indian subcontinent. Ganga plain stretches from Delhi to Kolkata in the states of U.P., Bihar and West Bengal covering an area of about 3.75 lakh 3.9 km. J.N.L. Baker s 4 proposed two-division of the great plains into the Indo-Gangetic plain west and east but it has been too impractical. The limits drawn by stamp 5 and followed by Spate 6 in their six fold division of the plain from the lower Indus valley (west Pakistan) and Brahmaputra valley (Assam) is also unrealistic now this plain is divided into three division : (i) The Upper Ganga plain (ii) The Middle Ganga plain (iii) The Lower Ganga plain The Upper Ganga plain The Upper Gangetic plain is a part of the greater plain of Ganga and Yamuna. The area ( E and N) lies between the Yamuna valley in the west and 100m contour in the east covering an area of 1,49029 km 2 of Uttar Pradesh between 300 m contour in the north and the Yamuna in the south. It covers almost 51% of the area of western Uttar Pradesh 7. The region incorporates within its bounds 550 km east-west and 380 km north-south (Map No. I). The region presents an amalgam of pre-historic to present culture.
21 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 4 Map No. 1: Area Map of Upper Ganga Plain The word Doab is a Persian word consisting of Do-two, Ab-water, which means the land between two waters 8. The Ganga Yamuna Doab, therefore, is the area between the two principal rivers, namely. The Ganga and the Yamuna. Prof. Chattarjee has divided the Doab lengthwise into three tracts. The upper, middle and lower on the basis of 200m and 100m contour lies between them. According to his opinion the Upper Doab extends from Haridwar in the north to Aligarh in the south. The Middle Doab upto Kanpur and the lower Doab upto the confluence of the Ganga and the Yamuna at Allahabad. Prof. R.L. Singh divided the region into two parts one is the upper doab and the other is lower doab, based on 150m contour line which runs almost parallel to the 75 cm isohyets line between the two tracts. The dividing line roughly coincides with the western boundary of Etawah and Farrukhabad.The upper Ganga Yamuna Doab and the Lower Ganga Yamuna Doab are relative terms and any line dividing them is totally hypothetical. (i) The Upper Ganga plain according to R.L. Singh the Allahabad-Faizabad railway line which roughly concedes with the 100m contour as the demarcation between upper and middle Ganga plains. 9 in the west, it is demarcated by its counterparts the semi-arid Punjab plain and the arid Rajasthan plain. Thus the region covers more than 51% of the total area of Uttar Pradesh and incorporates within its bounds the divisions of Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Bijnore, Moradabad, Ghaziabad, Bullandshahar, Aligarh.
22 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 5 (ii) Badaun, Bareli, Pilibhit, Shajahanpur, Etah, Mathura, Agra, Rohilkhand, Lucknow, Unnao, Kanpur, Etawah, Fatehpur, Allahabad, (excluding Meja tehsil), Kaushambi, Pratapgarh, Sultanpur, Faizabad. It is a sub humid region between the dry Punjab plain and the humid middle Ganga plain. The Ganga and its tributaries, the Yamuna, the Ramganga, and the Ghaghra, Gomti area Himalayan Rivers which drain this region all round the year. A host of seasonal streams, notably Hindon, Muskara, Solani, Kaitha Nala, Krishni and Kali also drain the area originally it was covered with moist deciduous forests. The soil is by and large homogenous wheat, rice, bajra and grain are four crops in order of importance. (i) (ii) The upper Ganga plain is further sub-divided into two first order regions The Upper Ganga Plain South The Upper Ganga Plain North The Upper Ganga plain north is relatively less densely populated, urbanized and industrialized than upper Ganga plain south. Likewise rice is relatively more important crop in the former although wheat is the first ranking crop in both. It is needless to emphasize the role of Ganga not only in giving individuality to the upper Ganga plain, but also dividing it into these two regions. Archaeologically also perhaps, the Ganga has served as barrier to cause differentiation in the nature of ancient human settlement in the two regions. The earliest culture in the lower Ganga-Yamuna Doab of the Upper Ganga plain south is represented by the section of Belan (in vindhyan plateau of the District of Allahabad). This section gives us a sequence from the lower Paleolithic to the Mesolithic without any break. Several upper Paleolithic sites have been also reported in the District of Allahabad. Anthropogenic activity can strongly influence the geomorphology of alluvial plains. It is especially true for the Ganga plain where density of population is the highest in the world and there is extreme pressure on the land use. More over the fluvial landscape responds very quickly to the man induced changes in the land use. Before we evaluate the present day influence of anthropogenic activity a review of inhabitation pattern of Ganga plain during latest Pleistocene-Holocene is attempted.
23 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 6 High plateau areas south of Ganga plain in Bundelkhand and Son valley have wide spread evidence of human settlement during early late Paleolithic time. However in the Ganga plain most of the evidences for human settlement are of relatively younger time. The present study area pages: The upper Ganga plain will be discussed in somewhat greater detail in the following The upper Ganga plains are further sub-divided into two first order region: (i) The upper Ganga plain North: The upper Ganga which is further divisible into: (i) Rohailkhand plain (ii) Awadh plain (ii) The upper Ganga plain south: The upper Ganga plain south in divided into three second order region: (i) The Ganga Yamuna Doab (The Doab) upper (ii) The Yamuna Transpar plain (iii) The Lower Doab (i) The Doab upper The Ganga-Yamuna Doab includes the modern districts of Saharanpur, Meerut and Aligarh. (ii) The Yamuna par plain: It includes the modern districts of Mathura plain, Braj plain and Agra plain. (iii) The Lower Doab: It includes the modern districts of Kanpur, Fatehpur, Kausambi and Allahabad. The upper Ganga plain north and south taking the Ganga as the main dividing line, these two regions differ both physically and culturally. The upper Ganga plain north is relatively less densely populated, urbanized and industrialized than Upper Ganga plain south. The Ganga dominance and its traditional veneration are reflected in the nature of ancient human occupancy. Almost all the principal Iron Age sites are located on its bank. It also served as a barrier to cause differentiation in the nature of ancient human settlements in the two regions. In the Ganga plain south, there is heavy concentration of sites located close to each other and exhibiting marked trends towards urbanization. In the Ganga plain north, the Iron Age settlements are relatively less as well as diffused.
24 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 7 Middle Ganga Plain The middle Ganga plain extends from ( N N Latitudes and E E, Longitudes) covering an area of about 1,44,409 km 2. The area flanked by the Himalayas on the north and the peninsular ranges on the south, roughly includes eastern Uttar Pradesh and the Bihar plains lying on either side of the Ganga and the Saryu. 10 It is of immense cultural and economic significance because it at makes it forming the heart region of India. It includes marginal portions of the Siwaliks in the north and the peninsular formations in the south. 11 The major units of this plain are Ganga Ghaghara Doab, Gandak, Kosi. Some rivers join the Ganga from the south the Son River being the most important. The middle Ganga plain includes the administrative divisions of Gorakhpur and Varanasi and tehsil of Balrampur and Utraula (Gonda), Faizabad, Tanda and Sultanpur and Kadipur, Pratapgarh and Phulpur, Handia, Karchhana and Meja (Allahabad) in eastern Uttar Pradesh and division of Tirhut Bhagalpur and Patna leaving out the area above 150 m in the south. The maximum length from east to west is about 600 km while its width from north to south approximates 330 km. The average height at this place from the sea level is 170 meter 12 these are most fertile cultivated and thickly populated areas. Excepting the undifferentiated soil of the Tarai zone in Champaran district, the major part has a broad alluvial sheet divisible into Khadar and bangar, which extends over the river flood-plains and the up land tracts, respectively. The Cakareous alluvial soil in the north is a variant of the alluvial soil. On account of denudation the latter show patches of waste land (Usar) increasing towards west. The Tarai-soil extending from Champaran in the east to Basti and beyond in the most shares with Nepal-Tarai years ago this area was rich in all sorts of natural vegetation and wild animals with a moderate rainfall and fertile soil the region is a habitat of dense forest cover of Sal and other species like shisham, jamun, pipal, ber, mahua, neem 14 babul, tamarind, palmysa, dhak, senhur, bamboo, mango, Jack-fruits, guava, plums, date palm, lemons etc. it has very high density of population but with less urbanism. Rice is the most important agricultural crop. Moreover, wheat, bajra, pea, jowar, chichos, millet, cotton, jute neem, babul etc are also found in the whole area. The area was once full of wild animals. The animals that lived in the past were elephant, tiger, hyena, wolf, hog, leopard, bear, sambar, ravine deer, and hog-deer, barking
25 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 8 deer, spotted deer, antelope, nilgai, wild buffalo, jackal, wild dog and wild cat. The birds include peafowl, black, goose, duck and crane. The reptiles are: crocodiles and snakes. 15 The environmental or atmospheric condition of the Middle Ganga plain is different from the Upper Ganga plain and Lower Ganga plain. January is the typical winter month when the mean temperature fluctuates between C in the east and C in the west by march the temperature starts rising accompanied by falling humidity and pressure till may when temperature ranges from in the east and north-east to about C in the west. 16 The average rainfall more than 100%. In middle Ganga plain the western part receives less rainfall then eastern part. The entire region witnesses cm rainfall. It increase gradually towards north and east, where the area touches the per-humid zone of the lower Ganga plain. 17 Lower Ganga Plain The lower Ganga plain is regarded as the most fertile and densely populated alluvial tract of India. The region N and E) extends from the foot of Himalayas in the north to the Bay of Bengal in the south and from the edge of Chhota Nagpur plateau in the west to the boundary of Bangladesh and Assam in the east. 18 In the real sense it includes the whole 19 of West Bengal and the Kishanganj tehsil of purnea district of Bihar. The whole of this plain is now perceived as deltaic, the real delta constitutes about two-third of this plain lying to the south of the Rajmahal Garo alignment. The region embraces area of about 80,968 sq. km 2. This is the largest delta in the world. The Ganga River divides itself into several channels in the delta area. The slope of the land here is a mere 2 cm per km. Although the region is a product of fluvial action, the base was provided by tectonic activities associated with the tertiary phase of earth s orogenic epoch resulting in the simultaneous formations of the trans-eurasian mountain chains on the hand, and the Sindhu- Ganga through together with the Bay of Bengal on the other while most of the area is covered by lower Ganga plain and deltaic landscape, the western margin is occupied by Laterals and Gondwana formations. 20 The region is drained by the streams of two major drainage systems of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra and their tributaries. Some in significant rivers namely, the Mayurakshi, Kasai, Subarnarekha and Dwarkeshwar drain the south-western part of the region. 21 Gemorphologically the region, like the upper and middle Ganga plains is monotonous as the entire region is almost feature less plain except a few local reliefs of 10 to 30m rising above
26 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 9 the general surface. The region possesses a high water-table. While in coastal areas, lower Hooghly Rupnarain basins and Barind tract it remains with in 7m from surface. The depth increases from east to west (4 m 13 m) and from south to north. 22 January being the coldest month, the temperature ranges between 17 0 and 21 0 C. It starts rising gradually (4 0 to 6 0 C) from February and continues till the end of May. When the temperature fluctuates between 29 0 and 33 0 C. in the month of June, indicates the arrival of early monsoon. In the western part it rises occasionally to over 45 0 C. 23 The rainfall is fairly wide spread (120 to more than 400 cm). The northern and southern parts owing to proximity of the Himalayan ranges and the Bay of Bengal respectively experience relatively more annual rains than the central part. The area bordering the Chhota Nagpur plateau witnesses minimum rainfall. 24 The mineral deposits mostly occur in the older formations of the Duars in the north and Rash in the west. The latter is important as it yields coal, iron, copper, lead and zinc, feldspar, Kankar and morrum are also available in the area having red lateritic alluvium. 25 The soils may be grouped into the following types: (i) the infertile lateritic soil in the tract adjoining the Chhota Nagpur plateau. (ii) The infertile lateritic alluvium (red soil) in Rash plain. Barind tract and west Dinajpur (iii) the fertile coastal soils deposited by rivers and sea tides in 24 parganas and Midnapur district (iv) the fertile alluvial soil deposited river flood plains and (v) the fertile Tarai-soils in the north. 26 In ancient times animals including elephants, rhinoceroses and wild buffaloes roamed freely in the dense forests, which have long since yielded to cultivation. Now, they area confined in the most remote tracts, like Sunderbans. The large surviving game includes tiger, leopard, bear, hare, deer, wolf, hyena, tiger and wild dog, wild goose or telan, teal, duck and snakes are common. 27 In the mangrove and tidal forests in the deltaic region (Sunderbans) sundari (Heritiera Littoralis) is the most important species. Casuarinas also occurs frequently. In the tropical evergreen forests in the extreme north gurjun (Dipterocarpus) Turbinatus unknown elsewhere is noteworthy. The tropical dry deciduous forests in the western fringe have sal, teak, shisham, semal, piar, dhau, ken, bamboo, mahua etc. Besides palm, banyan, mango, moringa, tamarind, jack-plantain, Arjuna (Terminalia Arjuna) etc. also occur. 28 Geological Structure The Indo Gangetic Plain
27 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 10 Geomorphology of the Ganga plain, part of the peripheral Himalayan foreland basin is primarily shaped by the interaction of tectonics, climate change and anthropogenic activity during late quaternary. Ganga plain occupies a central position in the Indo-gangetic plain. 29 It exhibits a wide range of alluvial geomorphic features which are product of climate and tectonic changes during Late quaternary. Large scale irrigation of man about 4.3 thousand years back into the Ganga plain had pronounced effect on the landscape development. According to Edward Suess, the Indo-Gangetic plain was a Fore deep in front of the high crust-waves of the Himalayas as they were checked in their south word advance by the inflexible solid landmass of the Peninsula. 30 According to this view, the depression is of a synclinal nature a synclinorium, because of asymmetrical floors. This synclinorium was filled with the sediments brought by the Himalayan Rivers and thus the great plains came into existence. According to Suess the floor of the Fore deep was asymmetrical with gentile slope north word but steep south word slope. Thus the asymmetrical configuration of the floor of the Fore deep allowed variation in the thickness of alluvia from north to south. (increase in thickness southward). According to him the floor of the fore deep is connected with the Himalayas and the Deccan plateau through solid basal rocks. Conversely Sir Burrard postulated that during the Himalayan orogeny a rift valley was formed between the Himalayas and Deccan plateau. The great plains were formed due to sedimentation of this rift valley by the materials brought down by the rivers coming out of the Himalayas. This concept has been severely criticized on the ground that the formation of such a massive rift valley measuring 2400 km in length may not be an ordinary geological event. It is deepest in the north and goes decreasing towards the Peninsula. The Ganga plain is characterized by quaternary alluvium with varying combination of clay silt, sand and gravels. It is thus evident that lithologically the Ganga plain is monotonous except some variations in the northern part where the Bhabar of the Himalayas grade into the plains and in the southern part. The basement of alluvial deposit and their exact thickness could not be curtained as in spite of several attempts. According to Oldham the thickness of alluvium ranges between m. where as Glennie s estimate of alluvium depth comes to about 2000 m. Oldham from geological considerations, postulated the depth of the alluvium to be about 15,000 feet near its northern limit from which the floor slopes upwards to its southern edge where it merges with the Vindhyan uplands. The deposition of the debris of the newly rising mountains and sinking of the trough must have proceeded all through the tertiary up to the late-pleistocene and sub-recent times.
28 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 11 The depth of the alluvium is at a maximum between Delhi and the Rajmahal hill, and it is shallow in Rajasthan and between Rajmahal and Assam. The floor of the Gangetic trough is thus not an even plain, but is corrugated by inequities and buried ridges. According to Wadia (1957 : p. 4) the plain is the result of the alluvial deposits of the Indo- Ganga system eroded down from the Himalayas and deposited at their base. Broadly speaking the plain area is built up of the detritus brought by the Ganga and its tributaries making the alluvial cover about 1500 m deep, thinning out gradually towards south and deposited become so that Vindhyan rocks are visible in the form of Pabhosa hill north of the Yamuna in Kausambi. Drainage The study of drainage system is very important in settlement analysis, for it is the streams which shape the topography of a region which acts like a basal platform for the organised growth of settlement. River Ganga is the life line of the alluvial agricultural plain of north India. Rivers are the life-blood of a country and its people. Nobody thinks of India without also thinking of the Ganga and Indus. The great Indian civilizations flourished in the plains of the Indus and Ganga. Ganga is the main drainage line of this vast plain. It has no rival in the world with the sanctity associated with its water. Along with its large tributaries like the Yamuna, the Ghaghara. The Gandak, the Son, and the Kosi, it has been depositing thick alluvium throughout its basin since ages about one forth of entire population of India still live in this fertile plain. The plain has been the centre of Indian civilization and several types of urban centers developed along the river banks. The religious centers like Hardwar, Varanasi, Gaya, Mathura and Ayodhya speak of the ancient glory which have inspired and mustered Hindu sages, seers, philosophers, thickness and literature who conceived and expanded the Hindu spiritual and moral thoughts which have no rival around the globe and later spread to the rest of the parts of India and also travelled Varanasi, Agra and Delhi still bear the impression of the great capitals of the Indian empire of the past. The vast mountains plain with an average depth of about 1800 m sediment mantle, slopes about 9 cm per km. gradually to the east or south east with imperceptible changes from one end to the other. The 100m contour passes through the junction of the Ganga and Yamuna from North to South.
29 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 12 After the decline of the Harappan culture, the Gangetic plain became the area of attraction for the people, though in the area of Uttar Pradesh. Harappan sites are also found, but are confined to its western area with a heavy concentration in Saharanpur district 31. These sites area generally located on the tributaries of river Yamuna. The Ganga plain is a shallow asymmetrical depression with a gentle easterly gradient. The northern part of Ganga plain has a southward slope, while the southern part has a northward slope. The topographically lowest parts of Ganga plain surface in the eastern and western parts are located close to its southern margin, where also axial rivers Yamuna, Ganga are present in the middle part of the surface is located near the Ghaghara river while the axial river. The Ganga River is present at a higher surface in the southern part of the plain. The altitude change in the axial part of the Ganga plain is from 175m near Mathura in the west to 25m near Azamgarh in the eastern most part. The cross-profile of the river varies with the region. The depth of the stream may be meters below the level of the country in the case of the Yamuna and Ganga in the Upper Ganga plain. This is widest flood plain in U.P. probably because it is related to the large mountain catchment of Ghaghara 32 and steeper gradient. The Ganga and its major tributaries viz. Yamuna, Ramganga and Ghaghara are the only perennial rivers. Several seasonal streams originating from the siwaliks e.g. Maskara, Punja, Solani, Ratmau, Pilokhar etc. irrigate the northern part of the area numerous perennial streams namely the Kali west, Sukhta, Gomti, Deoha etc. emerge from the sub-mountain region. The Kali east, Rind, Sirsa, Isan, Sasurkhaderi, etc. originate from the depressions or lakes in the tract. The Ganga although the two important tributaries the Ghaghara and the Gomti join the master stream in the middle Ganga plain. The Ganga and its major tributaries, the Yamuna, the Ramganga, and the Ghaghara are the only Himalayan Rivers which carry sufficient water all the year round though with high seasonal fluctuations. The next widest flood plain occurs along the Ganga up to its confluence with the Ramganga ranging. Generally between 8 and 15 km. in width. Below Farrukhabad the flood plain has the ordinary width of 2 to 3 km. The Ganga with its tributaries the Burhiganga, the Bangar nala, the Kali River, the Isan, the Son, and the Pandu, drain about 25% of the total area of region, whereas the Yamuna and its tributaries sengar, the Rind, the Varuna and Sasur Khaderi do the rest 75%. (Map No. II) (i) The Ganga river system: Kali River, Isan River, Son River, Pandu River.
30 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 13 (ii) The Yamuna river system: the Rind River, Senga River, Sasur Khaderi River. The Ganga River The river Ganga has the largest catchment area (8900 sq. km). The Ganga system is the principal drainage system of northern India, but its larger part is out side the boundary of the region. The Ganga, the holy river of the Hindus, makes the southern boundary of the region. The river moves freely with in the vast sand bed which is known as the Ganga flood plain. During rainy season its discharge rate of water is greatly disturbed because large number of tributaries and nalas with dirty water join it making its width about 4-8 kms. The depth various between 4 to 6 meters, but at places it is less than 2 meters. The Ganga making northern boundary of the region first touches the north western corner of Kannuaj tehsil in Farrukhabad district and then turns abruptly towards south. It travels in south and southeast to reach Bithur in Kanpur tehsil, for the rest of the course in Fatehpur and Allahabad district the river flows generally in south easterly direction while making Sangam with Yamuna at prayag it flows from north to south. It enters the Ghaghara in the extreme west corner of Kunda tehsil and leaves the region in the tehsil of Gyanpur of Varanasi in a meandering way. After joining with Yamuna it moves forward. The Ganga and
31 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 14 the Yamuna united together near Rajapur and the confluence since then been gradually shifting down stream to occupy the present site at Allahabad in modern times. The existence of flood plain oxbow lakes and ponds along the left bank of the river and high ridges along the right bank. The old course is marked by the Burhi Ganga which indicates the presence of the old Ganga. Kali River The Kali-Nadi is a tributary of Hindon of the Ganga system. At present the river has been divided into two parts i.e. west and east Kali Nadi. The Kali Nadi west represents an important drainage of the upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab, and Kali-Nadi east that of the Middle Doab. The river rises in Muzzaffarnagar district and enters near the town of Sankisha in Farrukhabad district. The Channel, after traversing the Meerut and Bulandshahar district carries perennial stream running through a valley marked by high banks it then takes a southeast direction in the districts of Aligarh, Etah, Manipuri and Farrukhabad and finally joins the Ganga near Kannauj. Isan River The river takes its origin in Aligarh district and enters the region near Daulatabad in Farrukhabad. Forming boundary between Manipuri and Farrukhabad for some distance it flows in easterly direction. After leaving the district it enters Bilhaur tehsil of Kanpur district and joins the Ganga there. (ii) The Yamuna River System The Yamuna forms the southern boundary of the region. The Yamuna differs from the Ganga in possessing steeper banks a more constant channel and a more rapid flow, it contains much less silt than the Ganga and its water is much clearer. Its length from the point it first touches the district to its confluence with the Ganga is about 101 km, average breadth being about 2.5 kms. The Ganga it has also changed its course formerly it was flowing in the northern side as is clear from the Bundelkhand type soil of Pabhosa hills situated along its northern bank. The existence of a big depression in Bhognipur tehsil shows the traces of old course of the river.
32 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 15 (i) Rind River The river originates in Aligarh district and flowing for some kms along the border between Farrukhabad and Etawah district takes south easterly direction to enter into the Kanpur district passing through Bidhuna tehsil of Etawah district. (ii) Sengar River It is the biggest of all the tributaries of Yamuna from the north. It enters the lower Ganga Yamuna Doab near Dhanuha in Etawah district and taking south eastern direction touches the Kanpur district near Chitauli it has got several ravines in its course like Yamuna. The Ghaghara System The river Ghaghara making the northern boundary of the study region receives almost no streams of any importance from the south. It is the second important river after the Ganga. It enters the Faizabad tehsil in the extreme north-west and leaves at the eastern most point of Tanda tehsil. The word Ghaghara seems to have originated from the Sanskrit word Ghaghara meaning gushing south of water which the river is supposed to produce. 33 Most probably Rig-Veda Aryans had no knowledge of the modern river Ghaghara (Sarju), therefore they identified it as Sarju. The (Ghaghara) joins the Ganga near Buxar. 34 The river Ghaghara rises in a spring called Mapchaching north-west of Thakhakot in the mountains of Kumaun and Nepal Himalayas, before entering into the alluvial plains of the district of Bahraich. The flood plain during unusual high floods is more extensive than the usual riparian tract of newer alluvium moist by capillary attraction receiving regular annual deposits of silt and sand known as Khadar. The Gomti System The river Gomti is the third largest river of the region; it originates about thirty one kilometers east of Pilibhit town from a sluggish swamp. The Gomti flows through the district of Sultanpur and Jaunpur it meets the river Ganga near Kaithi village in Banaras district. The bank is alternately abrupt and sloping the convex side being mostly low and rich with broad stretches of alluvial sandy-clay soils of varying fertility. 35 Floods are a recurring feature of the region. The Ganga a meandering river flows with regular Sinuosity and modest number of bifurcations, these no sudden change in the course of this river. The Ganga basin where the gradient is too low for the discharge of concentrated
33 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 16 heavy showers for a short period. The moist ground and high underground water table of the rainy season and it will also allow restricted runoff in the flat alluvial plain. Most of the Gangetic Rivers coming from the north as well as those of the delta region are characterised by frequent floods. The leaves are the highest points of the plains along a cross section and these dry points during the highest floods are settlement sites of cities and large villages. The term natural levee refers of ribbons of the most recent and present day deposition in the aggrading sections of the courses. Meanders are an important physiographic feature of rivers, because of the proverbial flatness of the Gangetic plain meandering is prominent in the Ganga River. Meandering is uncommon in the mountain the upland section. Other factors contributing to flooding in the Ganga basin are water logging and high water-table in the interfluvial tracts. The Ganga and its tributaries the Yamuna and Ramganga and the Ghaghara are Himalayan rivers which drain this region all around the years. A host of seasonal streams notably Hindon, Muskara, Solani, Kaithanala, Krishni and Kali also drain the area. Climate The large alluvial plains are important records of late quaternary climate change, and their study is important in reconstructing the global climate change. Fluvial systems re sand quickly to the changes in rainfall and base-level changes which are produced due to climate change and tectonic processes. Late quaternary is a time of changing climates with repeated cycles of changes in temperature and precipitation, rainfall strongly influences the sediment yield and fluvial channel patterns; it is reasonable to assume that millennium scale climate fluctuations effected fluvial processes and the land scape in the Ganga plain. Study of abandoned channel belts and associated lake has provided insight in the latest Pleistocene-Holocene climate history of the Ganga plains. 36 Recently, one of such lakes, namely the Sanai Tal is Raibareli district has been studied palynologically to document the vegetation change and infer the climate change. The vegetation history indicates that initially the lake was small, which expanded to a large lake and then started shrinking in dimensions to became the lake of the present day. The important climate events for which we have datable proxy record in the Ganga plain are: (i) (ii) Old event of high humidity indicating increased monsoon activity event of high rainfall implying high activity of monsoon rain.
34 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 17 (iii) 5 event of increased aridity. (iv) Several century scale humid climate events alternating with short lived arid events during yrs B.P. The upper Ganga plain sub-humid region between the dry Punjab plain and the humid, middle Ganga plain, with in the vast monsoonal regime of the great plains and naturally partakes the characteristics of the two adjoining region. The average weather conditions emerging out of the combined effects of the various elements lead to the recognition of four well marked seasons i.e.: (i) The hot summer (ii) The wet summer (iii) The pre-winter tradition (iv) The winter The gradual rise in temperature which starts from February exceeds 40 0 C in May/June. The average temperature ranges between 12 0 and 19 0 C, January being the coldest month. The rains have been poor since the pre-monsoon, the water level drops and the wells may run dry, under such conditions; Ganga provides the only source of water in these severe summer months. Even in the best of times, people depend on the river to see them through until the rainy season with the coming of the rains in Mid-June, the brittle earth is healed and life rises up from the waters. Rain drifting in from the Bay of Bengal, could strike the summits of the mountains and rebuffed, more slowly up the Ganga Valley. More than 70% of the yearly rainfall gathers in the months from June through September. The Arabic word mausim means simply a season but in India it is a per excellence the season of growth and of increase grass spreads across the dry earth vast stretches of the Ganga turns to swamp. The rains around the middle of June reduce the heat between 40 0 and 30 0 C which lasts till the end of September. The season comes to an end by October with a sudden fall in the temperature over 4 0 C. The winter witnesses a further fall in temperature accompanied by dry and chilly western lies. Sometimes the winters rain and cold waves reduce it below the freezing point, i.e C. 37 The average annual rainfall varies between 50 cm and 140 cm with an uneven spatial distribution. The Ganga-Yamuna Doab west of Kanpur experience less than 80 cm rain, whereas the area around Delhi receives below 60 cm. The sub-mountain belt and the
35 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 18 adjoining southern tract witness over 100 cm rainfall.the rainy season (July-August) account for over 90% of total Annual precipitate. The most typical natural vegetal cover of the monsoon region with rainfall is the tropical deciduous forests of tall trees. The agricultural activities are much dependent on the onset with-drawal, breaks and the nature of the downpours. The Late withdrawl hampers the timely sowing of the rabi crops while the late start delays the sowing of the kharif. The winter rain is only 5% of the annual rains, but the region is relatively more suitable for agriculture than the middle Ganga plain but less than the Punjab plain. The months of June-September and October when its regularity is most needed for agricultural production. Soils The Ganga plain is characterised by quaternary alluvial with varying combinations of clay, silt, sand and gravels. It is thus, evident that litho logically, The Ganga plain is monotonous except some variations in the northern part where the Bhabars of the Himalayas grade into the plains and then in the Southern part. Geologically the entire Gangetic plain is known as a trough filled with alluvium. 38 the soils grade from fine silt in the flood plain and the delta to the coarse material the upper Ganga plain. The Doab which is structurally a part of the Ganga plain has been formed by the infilling of the Indo-Ganga trough during the Pleistocene period. The main physiographical variation within the great plain is that between the upland Bangar alluvium of the Doabs and the fingers of Khadar along the main streams and their sub-parallel tributaries such as Ramganga, Sarda, and Gomti. The alluvium of the plains have undergone but little pedogenic evolution since their deposition by fluvial agency in the subrecent times. The alluvial soils vary greatly in texture and consistency, ranging from sand to loam and silts. There are certain areas with clays that are ill drained and sometimes charged with injurious accumulation of the Sodium salts, reducing a sterile condition called Usar. The soils are rich in mineral and organic plants foods required by different types of the plants. The potash, phosphoric acid etc. are also available in these soils but there is nitrogen, which may be made good by the use of compost manures and Chemical fertilizers. Chaudhary has rightly remarked these soils are generally different in nitrogen and humus and occasionally in phosphorus.
36 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 19 The alluvial deposits mainly consist of sand, silt clay with occasional gravel beds and can be divided into two principal types: (i) Khadar The recent alluvium (ii) Bhanger Older alluvium Khadar The Ganga Khadar soils that are rich in plant nutrients are found in the narrow flood plains of the river. Here the Ganga brings a new layer of alluvium every year and amount of sand is also very poor. There soils are deficient in organic materials specially phosphorus and are sandy to loam in texture. 39 Their colour from grey to yellowish brown. The Khadar is broader than that of the Yamuna and is quite extensive in the western part of the region from Farrukhabad to Kanpur. A little of Khadar can be assigned to the Upper Pleistocene and most to the recent age. The Khadar deposits are recent in nature and are confined to the vicinity of the present channels. The clays have less Kankar and the organic remains cntombed in them all belong to still living species of Genera, elephus, equus shinoceros, cervus bos bulalus, etc. The Khadar imperceptibly merges into the deltaic and other accumulations of the prehistoric times. (ii) Bhangar This alluvium is classified as bhangar the old and earlier deposit. The old one contains Kankar nodules and cakareous concretion in the flood plains and the delta is more sandy and generally freedom these nodules. It is generally believed that the old alluvium is more fertile then the new. The older alluvium or the bhangar is pale, reddish brown in colour and consists of concretions and nodules of impure Calcium Carbonate. In drier areas saline matter known as Reh is usually found. The Bhangar is mainly composed of clays loam. The Bhabar and Tarai regions contain gravel deposits comprising coarse sand pebbles and cobbles with clay and silt one distinctive character of the bhangar is the formation of Kankarpars (hardpans) in the sub-soil zone through capillary action owing to the alternating calcarcous sand and clay beds here as also else where in the zone of seasonal rainfall, which adds to soil moisture retention in the sub soil zone.
37 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 20 D.C. Das Sharma and S. Biswas established the following stratigraphic successions of the quaternary alluvial deposits resting over the vindhyan basement in the alluvial filled belan basin (Allahabad District) from below upward: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Gravel mottled clay formation. Red brown gravel sand formation. Yellow silt formation. Caliche formation Buried soil formation Aeolian sand formation Modern Soil horizon The sequence of older and newer alluvial is repeated throughout upper, middle and lower Ganga plains but these is conspicuous absence of older alluvium in the delta region which is quite extensive in the northern parts of the region. Though linear erosion is very limited but the areal erosion in the form of soil erosion is more wide spread in the Ganga plain. Soil erosion is the most common wide spread geoenvironmental problem of the major catchment areas of big rivers in Uttar Pradesh. During the rainy season rill and interrill erosion causes soil loss from the bhangar (older alluvial areas) and the Khadar (newer alluvial areas) and the eroded sediments are brought to the main rivers via rills, gullies, nalas and tributary streams which in due course partly deposit them in the flood plains and partly entrain the sediments from Uttar Pradesh (upper Ganga plain) to Bihar (middle Ganga plain), to foot hill zones of the Himalayas (in the north) and the foreland of the Indian peninsula (in the south) and riparian tracts of major alluvial rivers are the main sites of active and rapid rate of fluvial erosion whereas last alluvial tract is washed out through surface runoff. Rill and gully erosion is responsible for accelerated rate of soil erosion and increase in sediment discharge and sediment load factor in the major rivers. The topography features include alluvial fans and cones in the sub-mountain or piedmont zone to the north of plains, river bluffs, natural level, flood plains, meanders, meander, cutoff, oxbow, lakes, uplands or bangar lands sandy, sandy stretches or Bhurs gullied ripasion tracts of major and tributary streams broken river banks braided channels, micro-seasonal forms on river beds (e.g. Sandbars, Sand, Islands etc.) dense network of
38 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 21 gullies and badland in the Yamuna lower chambal tract and in the intervening zones between the Ganga plain and the foot-hill zones of the foreland of Indian peninsula etc. These are three really important variations in the upper Gangetic plain Bhabar, Tarai, and Bhur. The Khadar and Bangar is the sub-mountain soil where two physiographic units. The Bhabar and Tarai are bedded with texturally different soils. Tarai is the zone of sea age where fine sand-silt and clay are deposited by the emerging streams. On the whole soils of the Doab are badly affected by soil erosion that makes them less suitable for growing crops. Usar patches are also seen and if scientific techniques are applied they can turn into the most fertile soils. Natural Vegetation In ancient times the region was thickly covered with deciduous forests which were gradually cleared up for cultural colonization. Today a few small patches of woodland in the plain, but are more extensive in the sub-mountain belt comprising 4.5% of the total area of the region. Flora and fauna produce the clear picture of natural environment and the nature of the surface relief features. Tarai and Bhabar are thickly forested zones. Natural vegetation presents a picture of physical environment and the nature of topography. Due to heavy growth of population and the shortage of cultivable and natural vegetation has been cleared and large areas have been brought under cultivation in the whole doab. The upper Ganga plain originally was covered with thick forest. Bansuhda the forested area in the Ghaghara Gomti doab, in the traditional literature we have ample evidence for the doab being a dense forest. Satapatha Brahmana mentions that the area between Saraswati and the Sadanira (modern Gandak) rivers was a dense forest and Aryanisation of it was made possible only after burning the forest. It was also cultivated subsequently. According to Mahabharata Hastinapura, the capital of Kurus was situated in a forested area. The Kingdom of Panchala modern districts of Bareilly, Badaun, Pilibhit, Rampur, Furrukhabad, Etah, Etawah, Kanpur was founded in the kuru jungle. Naimisaranya famous forest covered the doab. Naimisaraya has been identified with modern Nimsar 20 km. north-west of Sitapur district. The hermitage of sage Valmiki on the bank of the Ganga in the area now a part of the Unnao district. The Kandaw of the Mahabharata and other such fragmentary references throw sufficient light on the predominance of natural forest vegetation in the past. The most typical natural vegetal cover of the monsoon region with rainfall is the tropical dessiduous forests of tall trees. In areas with rainfall below 80 cms. The natural
39 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 22 vegetal cover consists of open stunted forests shrubs and bushes. The Kalakavana, the dark forests at the eastern most limit of the Aryan Kingdom are referred to by Vashistha and Baudhayana, Ayodhyakanda of Ramayana tells us that prayag was at that time a clearing in the forest. The Mahavana in which the Pandavas had their existence is also alluded to in our literary sources. The forest cover at present is left only with in hectare in the region is bound to go down if the tarai belt is excluded. The percentage of forested area by district is rather higher in the tarai district Lakimpur (27.5), Pilibhit (30.7), Shaharanpur, Bijnor and Bahraich each over in the plain it varies from 0.1% Pratapgarh to (3.0%) Meerut. Even the existing forest covers in the plain are of poor quality and are considered to be economically weak. There are 3720 hectares of land under forest cover in the whole doab. An analysis of the table clearly shows that in four tehsils of the Doab, namely Amethi, Phulpur and Handia tehsil of Allahabad district Gyanpur tehsil of Varanasi district have no forest cover. The forests can be grouped as tropical moist deciduous, tropical wet and sub-tropical dry. Tropical moist deciduous forest is confined to the Tarai areas. The available species of the Tarai forest is Sal, but is poorer in quality as compared to the Babar Sal. The second group of the forests is a little more open and mixed with semal. The Tarai is also known for tall grasses, like the elephant grass. In sub tropical dry area especially in the western part shisham, babul, khair and semal are the main species seldom occurring in larger patches. The miscellaneous forests are sub-divided into north Indian moist Terminalia, canebrokes, tropical valley fresh water swamp, khair babul, khair sisoo, north dry mixed deciduous Aegle and Gangetic saline scrub, the grass lands belonging to the lower alluvial moist Savanah type and extending over about 37,000 acres represent the largest of the forest sub-types. It has been established that the richness of the grass in the Savanah is not due to the large number of different species in the area but due to the distribution of some species over more stable river and flats, which are subject to occasional floods and are locally known as Phantas. The forests of Bahraich district and Tarai region of Ganga-Yamuna doab in general may be classified into the following types on the basis of climatic edaphic and biotic factor 40 : Climatic (i) (ii) (iii) Moist (Gangetic) high level alluvial sal Moist (Gangetic) Low level alluvial sal Dry (Gangetic) alluvial sal
40 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 23 Edaphic (i) Khair babul (ii) Aegle (iii) Came brokes (iv) Northern Indian moist Terminalia (v) Khair Sissor (vi) Northern tropical dry deciduous forest Biotic (i) North Indian lower alluvial savannah grass land Moist Gangetic (high level) alluvial represents the best sal forest. Moist Gangetic it occurs on light grey or red soil shorea reubusta Gaestin 26m height is associated chiefly example. Brandis stores schieichera aleosa and fiscus supp in the upper storey. Moist Gangetic (low level) alluvial sal forests are similar to the high level types only its quality is inferior rarely exceeding 30 m. Dry (Gangetic) low level alluvial sal forests are subjected to periodic drought and are open and under stocked. The trees surviving in the sub-mountain region are: Sal, Semal (Bombax malabaricum) Adina cordifolia, Lagerstreemia, Lannea gradis, Cassia fistula, Ganelina arborea, Calicarpa microphyla, and Maltus phillipinensis, dhak, ber, Jhingan (Adinaiwodir), gular (Ficus glomerta), Mahua (Bassia latifolia), jamun (Syzygium jumbalana), amla (Embelica officinalis), Bamboo, cane, etc. The important trees in the plain are baniyan, neem, jamun, pakar, gular, bel, guava, Kaitha, Imli (Tarrindus indicus), Semal (Salmalia malabarica), mahua, shisham, papal, mango, Siras, ber etc. The thorn scrubs in the central plains include caparis, aphyilla, prosopis, specizera, Tecoma undulata babul, khair etc. 41 Fauna The fauna of this region is varied. It is comprised of all the major groups of the vertebrate and invertebrate animal kingdom. In the absence of the fossil recovery from the geological context our knowledge about the prehistoric fauna of the upper Gangetic plain is based only on a handful of excavated sites. The faunal recovery from Hastinapur 42 was the first to shed some light on this problem. Sarai Nahar Rai and Mahadaha are the two Mesolithic lake sites situated in the Pratapgarh district which have a rich collection of faunal remains. From the types of animals identified from archaeological excavations it is abivious
41 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 24 that the post-pleistocene period must have been rich in vegetation and fauna and must have received more rainfall than at the present times. Wild animals, elephant, tiger, lion, hyena and boar have practically disappeared. The surviving animals are antelope, deer, nilgai, fox, wolf, jackal, leopard, porcupine, hare, monkey, ceros, wild bear, Rhinoceros was extensively distributed formerly in the Gangetic plain. Today it is restricted to the parts of Nepal and west Bengal in the north and Doars in Assam. 43 Tiger, which were numerous in the Ganga Khadir have now practically disappeared, Hyaenas too are occasionally met with. Leopards are fairly common in the Khadir of the Ganges and in the ravines that frindge the edge of the uplands. Nilgai is found in the Khadir of the Ganges and the dhak jungle. The Indian gazella or chinkara is confined to a small tract in the southern part of the area. Other animals include wild cattle and pig which frequent the Khadir. In the cold weather wild fowl of every description especially goose-duck and teal are abundant. Birds are floricanduck, wader, pochard, widgeon, dove, crane, adjutant curlew, peacock, parrot, partridge, nightingale, pigeon, crow, eagle, vulture, owl, pheasant, sandgrouse, peafowl, plower etc. several varieties of dove have been recorded. The well known Saras, and the adjutant are permanent residents. The black curlew of waste headed ibis occurs in pairs or small flocks all over the area. 44 The aquatic animals include crocodile, ghariyal, tortoise and fishes. The cobra and kairait are the poisonous reptiles. 45
42 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 25 REFERENCES 1. Mahabharata Svargarohina Parvan 18/ Mackey D Ancient River Beds and Dead Cities. Antiquity 19, p Encyclopedia Britannica, ( ), Vol. 7, (William Vandan), p Baker, J.L.N Natural regions of Indian Geography, Vol. XIV, pp Stamp L.D A Regional and Economic Geography (London), pp Spate O.H.K India and Pakistan, London. 7. Singh R.L A Regional Geography of India, Varanasi, p Spate, O.H.K India and Pakistan, London, p Singh R.L Evolution of settlements in the Middle Ganga Valley, N.G.J.I., p R.L. Singh, Op.cit. p Ibid, pp Ibid, pp Ibid, pp Ibid, p I.G.I.-I, Ibid, pp Ibid, pp Ibid, pp Ibid, p Ibid, p Ibid, pp Ibid, p Ibid, pp Ibid, p Ibid, p Ibid, p Ibid, p I.G.I.-I, Ibid, pp Ibid, pp ; I.G.I. I, pp
43 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Singh, I.B. and Ghosh, D.K Geomorphology and Neolithic feature of Indo- Gangetic plain in India: Geomorphological Diversity, (eds. Dikshit K.N., Kale, V.S.; Kaul, M.N.), Jaipur, pp Wadia D.N. Geology of India (Fourth edition Tata McGraw hill publishing Co. New Delhi, pp ). 31. Deshpande, M.N., The Harappan Settlements in the Ganga Yamuna Doab, paper presented seminar on Indus civilization; problem and issues Shimla. 32. Burrard Hayden and Heron, A sketch of the Geography and Geology of the Himalaya mountains and Tibet, Part III, The Glaciers and Rivers, of the Himalaya and Tibet. 33. Pandey, M.S Historical Geography and Topography of Bihar, Varanasi, p Kalidas, Raghuvansam, pp Gazetteer of India, Uttar Pradesh, Faizabad, pp Singh, I.B Geological evolution of Ganga plain an over view Journal India Pal. Soc. India, pp Singh R.L. 1971, p Chowdhary, K.A. et.al Ancient Agriculture and Forestry in North India. 39. Puri, G.S Indian Forest Ecology, New Delhi, p Panigrahi, G., A.N. Singh, O.P. Misra, Contribution to the botany of the Tarai forest of the Bahraich district of U.P., Bulletin of Botanical Survey: India, Vol. II. Nos. 1 & 2, pp Uttar Pradesh Annual, (information and public Relation). 42. Ancient India, Nos. X & XI. 43. Prater, M.S., The Book of Indian Animals, p A Gazetteer, Vol. XX, 1906, p. 24. Uttar Pradesh Annual, , p.32; I.G.I., pp , XIII, 1908, p. 43.
44 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 27 CHAPTER 2 Stone Age Culture of the Ganga Valley The upper Gangetic plain occupies a unique position in the archaeological and historical map of India, with topographical heterogeneity marked by the fertile plains of the Ganga and Yamuna in the north and the vindhyan hills and plateau in the south. This region has witnessed the evolution of human activities since the earliest times. The plains between the Siwaliks in the north and the vindhyas in the south are relatively recent geological phenomena and have acquired the present topography only with the advent of Holocene. The rivers Ganga and Yamuna have played an important role in the formation of Gangetic plains by bringing soil and sand and depositing it in the area. The horse-shoe, oxbow lakes in Pratapgarh and adjoining tract which dominate the morphology of the plains was formed by the meander of the shifting Ganga. It is on the bank of these lakes that the earliest evidence of human settlements known fill the seventies of the last century was located in the region. But some recent discoveries indicate that the plains between and around the Ganga, Yamuna were not a human vacuum even during the Paleolithic times. Paleolithic hunters-gather was present in both the Siwaliks and Vindhyan areas. There is evidence from Kalpi 1 that the Paleolithic menintruded into the Ganga Yamuna doab. These earliest nomadic peoples must have descended into the doab in search of food and fodder. The region towards the south of the Ganga-Yamuna is known as the vindhyan plateau. It is situated as the Peninsular foreland, where the central Indian uplands fall away into the low lying alluvium of the Ganga Yamuna Doab. 2 It includes the district of Lalitpur, Jhansi, Jalaun, Hamirpur, Banda, Mirzapur and southern hilly parts of Allahabad and Varanasi district. Prehistoric investigation in Lalitpur, Jhansi area was carried out by Rameshwar Singh of Deccan College, Pune in the sixties of the last century, but in most of this area exploration were carried out by the department of Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology right from 1957 onwards. A brief Survey of the work done The region south of the Ganga is rich in prehistoric antiquities. It was put on the archaeological map as early as 1860 by Le Musurier 3. Celts or hatchets collected by him from the Tons region in Allahabad are the first recognised finds of Neolithic celts in India. W. Theobald made (1862:221) collection of a large number of Neolithic celts from Bundelkhand
45 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 28 particularly from Banda district. A few years of after Cockburn, J. (1879: ) collected stone celts from Banda district. J.H. Rivett Carnac also collected a good number of Neolithic Celts from Banda. 4 Mention may be made of two distinguished scholars Carlleyle and Cockburn who brought to light painted rock-shelters. J. Cockburn collected Paleolithic implements from Singrauli Basin 5 and from the Koravines of Mirzapur. 6 In course of his exploration near Gaharwaragaon in the same area he collected a fossil tibia and a fragment of left femur of a large Boss. J. Cockburn also collected flint implements from the Koravines south Mirzapur. In 1932 Manoranjan Ghosh 7 in his monograph has described the rock paintings of Lekhania Kohbar and Mahadaria in Mirzapur. In 1935, De Terra and Patersons emphasized the key position of southern Uttar Pradesh, expressed the need for an investigation of the fossiliferous middle Pleistocene formations lying in Mirzapur district.in 1949 Singrauli Basin was re-explored by (F.E. Zenner) and V.D. Krishna Swami and Sundarajan 1951: 40-65). Well planned and systematic work in the area however was started only in the Late fifties and early sixties of the last century by the Department of Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology, University of Allahabad, under the leadership of G.R. Sharma along with his colleagues Radha Kant Varma, V.D. Misra, B.B. Misra, J.N. Pal etc. when the river valleys were explored. Pleistocene formations were studied. Factory sites were located on different slopes of hills, rock shelters were excavated and rock paintings were analaysed. A large number of Stone Age sites ranging from the Paleolithic to Neolithic and iron using people were excavated. Lastly seasonal migration of Mesolithic and Chalcolithic people from Vindhyas to Ganga Valley was established. The first pre-historic investigation under taken by the Department of Ancient History Culture and Archaeology, under Prof. G.R. Sharma was in 1955 but it is remained confined to some parts of southern Uttar Pradesh. In 1955, a lower Paleolithic site was located at Bariatric (Lat N; Long E) Mau-subdivision of Banda district, on the bank of a seasonal tributary of the Yamuna 8. The site covers an extensive area. The artifacts collected comprises of cores, flakes, cleavers, hand axe and scrapers. It is predominantly quartzitebased assemblage. There three riverine terraces were recognised. Terraces I- yielded fresh biface tools, Terrace II flakes tools of Middle Paleolithic facies and microliths were obtained from terrace III. The importance of this discovery lies in the fact that it was located very close to the doab region. The famous Mesolithic camp-site at Siddhapur (Lat N; Long E) was also brought to light in 1955.
46 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 29 Regular prehistoric explorations 9 were started from , when R.K. Varma started extensive explorations in the district of Mirzapur as part of his research project and located 5 sites of Lower Paleolithic, 8 sites of Middle Paleolithic, 32 Mesolithic open air sites and 27 rock shelters. R.K. Varma excavated two rock shelters and open air settlements at Morhana pahar and Baghaikhor respectively in In all three trenches were laid, first trench in the open air to the east of shelter No.-1 at a distance of 9.15m, No. 2 in the centre of rock shelter. No. 4 both on the Shahabia pahari on the Morahana escarpment of Kaimur. He submitted the first Ph.D. thesis in prehistory in the department of Ancient History Culture and Archaeology in 1964, in 1963 V.D. Misra under the supervision of G.R. Sharma conducted excavation of rock shelters and open air settlements at Lekhunia in Mirzapur district. Two rock-shelters and three open air settlements were excavated. These excavations also confirmed the developmental sequence of microlithic industry of the Mesolithic obtained from the earlier excavations by R.K. Varma. In 1964 a Mesolithic sites Hetampur on the left bank of Chandrabha in Chakia sub-division of Varanasi district was brought to light it belonged to the ceramic non-geometric microlithic stage. 10 From intensive prehistoric studies in the valleys, the Pleistocene formations in a number of river valleys particularly in the Belan and Son Valley were studied. A sequence of stone age culture, right from the Lower Paleolithic to the Mesolithic was obtained for the first time. The position of the Upper Paleolithic in the Stone Age was established. A remarkable discovery belonging to the Upper Paleolithic was a bone mother goddess from the eroded surface of gravel III in Lo handa Nala of the Belan Valley. In 1996 Mesolithic site of Chopani-Mando 11 was located on the left bank of the old Belan. The site was occupied in the early phase of the Mesolithic and it continued in existence up to the late phase of Mesolithic on the beginning of the Neolithic. A large number of Neolithic sites were located and some were excavated. The excavations of a few sites such as Koldihwa, Mahagara, Punchoh 12 have produced good result. Koldihwa (Lat N; Long E) Mahagara, Punchoh have been excavated so far. Koldihwa and Mahagara are situated close together. Punchoh is at a distance of about 2.5 km north-west of Koldihwa. Punchoh and Mahagara are single culture sites belonging to Neolithic phase after which these were abandoned, Koldihwa is multi-culture site 13. It contained the archaeological remains of the following three cultures: (i) The Neolithic (ii) The Chalcolithic and (iii) Iron Age. Neolithic celts, righstone, microliths and handmade cord impressed pot shreds were found from Kunjun also on the right bank of the Son.
47 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 30 From the excavations at Koldihwa, Panchoh and Mahagara, all on the Belan Valley for the first time rounded celts have been found in a definite archaeological context in the area 14. Besides the celts Neolithic deposit has also yielded handmade cord impressed, rusticated ware and burnished black pottery. Main shapes are shallow and deep bowls, globular jars, platters, basin and handis. Main tool types are celts adzes and chisels, Querns and mullers are other noteworthy stone objects. The excavation has also furnished evidence of domestication of cattle, goat, sheep and horseshoe on the basis of archaeological evidence the beginning of the Neolithic culture has been placed in the six-fifth millennium B.C. 15 In the last century a large number of Mesolithic sites situated on the north of the Ganga were located over an area covering parts of Allahabad, Pratapgarh, Sultanpur, Jaunpur and Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh. The region north of the Ganga and the region south of it present a heterogeneous environment with physical barrier of different nature. The region to the south of the Ganga or the Vindhyan region is rich in stone raw materials for fashioning both microlithic tools and heavy artifacts such as food processing equipments. The archaeological evidence shows a continuity of hominid human activities in the Vindhyas from the lower Paleolithic to the present. But the region north of the Ganga is devoid of stones and the appearance of men in this region is a comparatively late phenomenon. The earliest occupation in the Ganga Valley is reported to have started around the Pleistocene, Holocene interface and is represented by only six Epipalaeolithic sites. Besides 200 Mesolithic sites have been located near various Oxbow Lakes Rivers and streams. A brief account of Prehistoric evolution in the Vindhyan region The archaeological investigations made between the Vindhyan plateau and south of the Ganga in the districts of South Allahabad, Mirzapur, Varanasi, Banda have furnished a complete sequence of cultural evolutions of man right from the mid Pleistocene to the present day. The sections of Belan standing between Daiya and Deoghat provide complete evolutionary sequence from the lower Paleolithic to the Neolithic. The Belan Sequence (Paleolithic Period) Located just above the bedrock the first gravel in the Belan Valley yielded the lower Paleolithic tools, pebble tools, cleavers, scrapers and hand axes. The succeeding deposit mottled clay, has not yielded any tools or fossil so far. The cemented gravel II has been divided into three sub units, IIA, IIB and IIC are implementiferous and fossiliferous. From sub-unit IIA artifacts of the transitional phase between the lower Paleolithic and the Middle
48 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 31 Paleolithic tools have been found. From IIB and IIC middle Paleolithic tools of blade, flake, and scraper were obtained. Deposits of redish and then yellow silt lie over the cemented gravel II. From both these deposits Middle Paleolithic artifacts have been found. From the yellow silt and gravel III blades and burin tools of the Upper Paleolithic have been found. The succeeding deposit of black soil has yielded tools of Upper Paleolithic with nongeometric microliths. The lower of the two top aeolian or sub-aerial formations of the Belan section has produced non-geometric microliths (aceramic) and the Upper aceramic geometic microliths. 16 The excavations at Mahagara site brought to light a gravel formation which seems to succeed gravel III and precede black soil formations. For the sake of convenience it has been termed as gravel IV it has yielded Epipalaeolithic tools. The last two formations provide a developmental sequence of the Mesolithic culture of the region and this can be dated to the early Holocene period. This sequence of the technological and morphological changes in the regional microlithic industry has also been observed in the excavations of rock shelters and open air settlements of the Mesolithic people. Mesolithic Culture The excavations of the sites of Morahana Pahar (Lat N; Long E) Baghai Khor (Lat N; Long E) was excavated by Varma in In the excavations at Baghaikhor 18 a human burial associated with microlithic phase was also exposed at Baghaikhor 19 (Varma R.K. 1965: 73-75) Lekhahia was excavated (Lat N; Long E) in 1963 by V.D. Misra under the supervision of G.R. Sharma. 20 Geometric and non-geometric microliths and pottery were also obtained from these rockshelters. One broken ring stone with bipolar perforation was also revealed by this pit. These evidence confirm that upper deposits are indicative of transition from Mesolithic to Neolithic culture in the Vindhyas and the site of Chopani-Mando (Lat N; Long E) which furnished further evidence of development of the microlithic industry of the Mesolithic in vindhyan area was brought in light in On the last terrace of the left bank of old Belan at a distance of 77 km east of Allahabad in Meja-subdivision of district Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh. It covers an area of 15,000 sq. in east-west and 100m north and south. The site was subjected to a trial dig in 1967 and again from for a couple of seasons. 22 Results obtained indicated that the site was occupied in the late phase of the upper Paleolithic and it continued to the late phase of the Mesolithic culture.
49 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 32 The excavations of the sites of Morahana Pahar, Baghaikhor 23 and Lekhahia 24 and Chopani-Mando 25 (Allahabad) located on the vindhyan escarpment revealed the following sequence:- (i) Epi-palaeolithic (ii) Non-geometric microlithis, aceramic (iii) Geometric microlithis, aceramic (triangle alone) (iv) Geometric microlithic with pottery (triangle & trapeze) (v) Diminutive geometric microlithic with pottery. Evidently the technique of fashioning trapeze and pottery were introduced at the same time by Mesolithic people. The excavations at the site of Chopani-Mando were important from the new point that it gave evidence for the transition for hunting-gathering to producing economy. The excavation at the Mesolithic site of Chopani-Mando provided detailed information about the life pattern of different phases. The total 1.55 m habitational deposit had been divided into ten layers (Sharma et.al. 1980:34) 26. The following culture sequence was obtained at Chopani-Mando (Sharma et.al. 1980: 36-37). (i) Phase I Epi Palaeolithic (ii) Phase IIA Early Mesolithic-Non-geometric microliths (iii) Phase IIB Early Mesolithic-Non-geometric microliths (iv) Phase III Late Mesolithic- Advanced or Proto-Neolithic Plans of several huts, hearths, etc. of Late Mesolithic phase have been exposed at the site (Sharma et. al. 1980: 36-37). (i) Epi-Palaeolithic The Lithic artifacts obtained from layer 10 comprise 20% upper Paleolithic tools and 80% early microlithis. Tool typed are parallel sided, blades, bores, blunted backs, scrapers and burins made on chert. As compared to the Mesolithic industry of subsequently periods the tools are fairly large and broad in size and bear bold retouch. (ii) A Early Mesolithic-Non Geometric Microliths These are non-geometric microliths un-associated with pottery and comprise points, borers, blunted backs, scrapers and micro burins along with flakes and cores made generally
50 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 33 on chert, but Chalcedony also constitute about 5% evidence of as many as 20 huts have been found at Chopani Mando, two belonged to phase IIA measuring approximately 3-80 m. (iii) B Early Mesolithic-Non geometric microliths The emergence of geometric shapes and the increase of chalcedony to about 10% are significant. Microlithis made on chert 90% comprise Lunates, Scrapers, points, triangle and trapezes blunted backs. On the whole the size of the tools of this phase is slightly reduced in comparison to those from the sub-phase IIA. Burnt clay lumps with reed marks, fragments of animal bones, hammer stones, anvils with batter marks and stone sling balls were also found in this sub phase. Four pit-hearths of different phases were located outside the huts. The Advanced Mesolithic As many as 21 circular or oval huts pertaining to this phase have been exposed. Mesolithic people lived in small circular (diameter) 3.50m or oval 4.70 x 3.30 m huts of wattle and doub (Sharma et. al. 1980: 39) shallow pits with post-holes were found around the perimeter of huts. The interval between two post holes ranged from 50 cm to 1 m. The floors of huts were littered with microlithic artifacts pieces of raw material. Large number of sand stone, fragments, small animal bones fragments, querns, mullers, anvils, sling ball hammer stones, ring stones (in phase III handmade pot sherds). Some of anvils are very interesting. The giant anvils with smooth surface and marked concavity were also used for grinding purposes. The microlithic tools are diminutive in size and comprise of pen knife blades, cores, flakes, blunted backs, points, arrow heads, serrated blades a few tangs, awls, lunates, triangle and trapeze fashioned on chert, Chalcedony, agate, carnelian etc. Chopani-Mando has brought to light 522, hammer stones, 19 anvil, and 12 fragmentary querns of varying shapes and sizes. (Sharma et. al. 1980:61) Hammer Stones and anvils could have been used in manufacturing microliths artifacts. Pottery There is some evidence of handmade pottery with late Mesolithic phase in the north east Vindhyas. Handmade, cord impressed pottery has been reported from Morahana Pahar, Baghaikhor, Lekhahia (Sharma 1965; Misra 1977) and Chopani-Mando. The frequency of handmade potsherds increase in upper layers at the above mentioned sites. (J.N. Pal 1983a) incised and cord impressed hand made pottery has been found at Baghaikhor and Lekhahia.
51 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 34 A Chopani-mando cord impressed pottery makes it first appearance in the Last phase (Late Mesolithic) termed the Advanced Mesolithic phase (Sharma et.al. 1980: 65). The pottery assemblage has been divided into two groups:- (i) (ii) ordinary red ware brownish grey ware The pottery types are simple and lack standardization. The most common type is shallow and deep bowls with featureless rim though small vases are also met with. Small to medium sized earthen pots are used for cooking and storage of liquids by nomadic people and tribals in this part of the north-east vindhyas. The use of handmade pottery was more than a change in fashion among Mesolithic people who were themselves not makers of pottery. The ceramic industry was introduced in the Late Mesolithic period along with geometric microliths 27 though the ceramic industry is embryonic in character, but as the Mesolithic people have expressed their love for art through the paintings in the rock-shelters, and their pottery is also artistically decorated. Both the wares ordinary red ware and Khaki ware have been decorated with incised and impressed designs. Among the incised motifs mention may be made of oblique lines making angles, squares, irregular, dot-incision, linear design, horizontal or vertical lines etc. incised decoration on the external surface of the pots were found from the above sites. Impressed designs divided into two groups:- (i) Impression horizontal (ii) Tortoise shell impressed design resembling the cord impression impressed pottery is confined only to Chopani-Mando. A few shreds have also been obtained from Lekhahia. Second groups of impressed designs are similar to the cord impressed designs. Such pattern of decoration can be obtained by impressing a tortoise shell on the pots. The cord impressed design is known as one of the diagnostic traits of the Neolithic culture of the vindhyas. On the basis of the technique employed for manufacturing the pots, designs obtained by impressing tortoise shell and some other object engraved with flora, fauna and conch shell like material. In sufficient firing, the unstandardised simple types. Pottery in the Last phase of the Mesolithic culture of the Vindhyan region 28, which is also associated with querns, mullers, ring stones and wild rice, is just a beginning in ceramic industry which
52 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 35 developed and became standardised in the Neolithic period. The early independent invention of pottery combined with the evidence of collection of wild edible grains, wild rice etc., is enough to convince that the late Mesolithic phase of the Vindhyas was a period of transition from Mesolithic to Neolithic Culture. In the light of evidence the Epipalaeolithic early Mesolithic and Advanced Mesolithic cultures have been placed with in a time bracket of 17 th to 7 th millennium B.C. Neolithic Culture Sporadic discoveries of Neolithic of two type celts were brought to light from time to time of different scholars from north east vindhyas, but these were surface finds and lacked a stratigraphic context. Excavations in the valleys of the Belan and Son have resulted in the discovery of round variety of Neolithic celts and some habitation sites 29. Among the important sites mention may be made of Koldihwa (Lat N; Long E) (Mishra 1977: ), Panchoh 30 (Lat N; Long E), Mahagara 31 (Lat N; Long E) (Sharma et.al. 1980:1-67) in the Belan valley have been excavated so far. Koldihwa and Mahagara are situated close together. Kunjun 32 (Lat N; Long E) is another open air Neolithic site situated on the right bank of river Son in Madhya Pradesh and Tokwa 33 (Lat N; Long E) is a Neolithic site located on the confluence of Belan and Adwa valley in Uttar Pradesh. These sites show some affinity to the eastern Neolithic culture in Assam, but no habitation site has been discovered with the type of pointed celt which is connected with the southern Neolithic culture. In 1969 Neolithic celts made on basalt were recovered from Meja. Jamuna on the Lapari and Taradah on the Belan 34 in 1971 J.N. Pandey picked some Neolithic celts and pounders. Neolithic celts were also discovered from Punchoh on the Belan 35 in Meja subdivision of Allahabad district. Neolithic celts, ring stone microlithics and handmade potsherds were found from Kunjun on the right bank of the Son 36. Most of the Neolithic celts fashioned on basalt have been collected from the hilly tracts of Banda, Allahabad and Mirzapur and these are triangular celts confirming to the main type of south Indian group. The excavations at Koldihwa, Punchoh and Mahagara yielded rounded celts in a definite archaeological context. Koldihwa is a multi-culture site (Misra 1977: ). The site was excavated in by B.B. Misra and subsequently by D. Mandal and J.N. Pal in Habitational deposit, with a thickness of 1.90m contained the archaeological remains of the following three cultures (i) The Neolithic (ii) The Chalcolithic (iii) The Iron
53 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 36 Age (Misra 1977:108). In a Trial dig at Panchoh in A 60 cm thick habitational deposit was found which yielded Neolithic pottery and other artifacts. The site is under cultivation. The Neolithic site of Maharaja is situated on the right bank of the Belan opposite Koldihwa excavations at the site brought to light a 2.60 thick Neolithic deposit which has been divided into six structural phases. A large cattlepen irregular rectangular on plan and about 12.5 X 7.5 m in size has been discovered on the eastern fringe of the settlement. It had a number of impressions of cattles. The Cattle-pen was enclosed by 28 post-holes (Sharma et. at. 1980: 146). Tokwa is situated on the confluence of Belan and Adwa at a distance of 8 km east of Barendha. The excavation was carried out by J.N. Pal and M.C. Gupta in A habitational debris of 4 cm contained Neolithic pottery and other artifacts. With the advent of Neolithic stage human groups started a new way of life in permanent settlements. Neolithic period is a stage of development of human history when producing economy was established by plant cultivation and animal domestication around 6000 B.C. The Upper deposit of Chopani-Mando in Allahabad district has given evidence of ceramic, wild rice microliths blades etc and this represent proto-neolithic stages. These Neolithic traits started emerging in the last phases of the Mesolithic culture when we start getting, pottery, querns, mullers, and ring stones, domesticated and wild plants and animal remains, ceramic industry, first appearing in the late Mesolithic culture. Now we get many wares and shapes of pots in appreciable quantity. The Phase III of Chopani-Mando has been as proto-neolithic. The chronological evidence of Neolithic culture of this region range from 3500 BC to 1500 B.C. The characteristic features of Neolithic culture of miniature quadrangular celts have their affinity to the eastern Indian Neolithic Culture. On the basis of the excavations of the above mentioned sites the general features of the Neolithic Culture of the region may be presented in the following lines: Settlement Patterns The Neolithic settlements have been located on the banks of rivers on nalas, generally above the flood plain. Neighbouring floods plains provided fertile soil for agriculture by annual inundations, as revealed at Maharaja, in shallow basin-shaped bluff surrounded by natural ridges, is significant of safety and security against flood, cold winds, and wild animals. The ridge played the role of defense wall. As the evidence shows that the Neolithic people were not dependent on agriculture alone for their subsistence. They domesticated animals and exploited wild plants and animals in the nearby forests, very rich in wood land
54 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 37 and grass land vegetation. The rivers and nalas not only provided suitable land for agriculture, they also provide food in the form of aquatic animals like fish, tortoise snail etc. The evidence of structures has been found in the form of hut floors from the excavation at Mahagara and Jhusi. The Neolithic deposit is divisible into six structural periods demarcated mainly by floors and pot holes of huts and pits. The total area excavated so far measures about 1622 sq.m. As many as eighteen hutments have been brought to light. The floors of the huts, circular or oval plan vary from 6.70 x 6.25 to 5.0 x 3.50 m. 37 These floors post holes varying from 6 to 9 in number are also exposed. The occurrence of burnt clay lumps wattle and doub impression remains in profusion from all the habitational sites indicate that thatched hut were prepared by bamboo and wooden posts and mud-plastered screen walls. The floors are well represented by occupational debris containing pot-shreds, house hold implements bones of animals etc. The cattle pen exposed at Mahagara is one of the most remarkable discoveries of structure. The cattle pen located in the south-east sector of the Mahagara measures 12.5 x 7.5 m and is irregular rectangular in shape on plan. The cattle pen was enclosed by thatched screen walls as is evident by the discovery of 28 post holes around the pen. As there is no evidence of post-holes inside the pen. It may be pointed out that the pen was open to sky and the cattle were put inside it. At least 23 hoof imprints of cattle of different age groups have been located with in the pen. Subsistence Pattern The subsistence of the Neolithic people was based on the exploitation of plants and animals by domestication as well as by hunting and gathering. The evidence of cultivation of plants has been found in the form of rice husk used as degraissant in the pottery as well as charred grains of rice of domesticated variety. Remains of rice husk on the pot from the Neolithic deposit are one of the most significant discoveries of this site. Similar evidence of rice from Koldihwa is ascribed to the domesticated variety by Vishnu Mittre of Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow and T.T. change of international Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines; The cultivated variety of rice has been identified or Oryza sativa and wild variety and annual and perennial Oryza nivara and Oryza rufigona. 38 The wild variety of rice was also present in the last phase of the Mesolithic Culture at Chopani Mando imprints of Ischaemum rugosum also have been found from Mahagara which is a common weed grown in marshy land.wild grain was a part
55 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 38 of the diet of the Neolithic people besides Millet like grains from Koldihwa. Fragments of other botanical remains discovered include seeds of jujube and charred bamboo. The first agriculturist depended to some extent on hunting economy. The animal bones recorded from the excavations are both of wild and domesticated animal have been collected from Mahagara, Koldihwa and Jhusi. The domesticated animal from the Vindhyan area have been identified by Alur (1980) 39 as cattle (Bos indicus), sheep, goat and wild animals. Such as deer (cervidae) horse (Equidae) and boar (susscrofa). A good number of bones of tortoise, fish and bird also have been found from almost all the sites and these supplemented the diet of Neolithic people. Material Culture The artifacts recorded from the habitational sites give ample evidence of the life pattern of the first farming communities of the region. The artifacts connected with food producing, food processing and hunting-gathering include celts, querns, mullers, bored stones, microliths, bone tools, pottery etc. The Neolithic celt is conspicuous by its absence at Jhusi. The most characteristic component of the tools and weapons of Neolithic man has been the ground stone axe; only three numbers of rounded celts with flat sided and rectangular cross-section made of basalt and granite have been recorded from Koldihwa. The early agrarian society of the Vindhyas used fully ground celt and adze of rounded variety with rectangular or oval cross-section. No pices evincing the employment of crested ridges technique has been found. The main types of ground artifacts are celt, chisel, adze. The celts predominate in the assemblage. Many of the beautiful small celts and adzes have used marks on their working edges. Nearly 75% of the Neoliths are made on basalt. Some are also made on granite 20-45% and quartzite 4.54%. The source of igneous rocks, used as raw material for manufacturing the Neoliths could not be located in the Vindhyas, but to the south of the Son there are granite formations in Semari series of Lower Vindhyan formation. The querns, mullers, rubber stone, hammer, anvil, Sharpeners, stone discs, bored stones, sling balls most by used as food processing equipment are made of sand stone or quartzite. The querns are divisible into two groups: (i) basin shaped (ii) Flat Basin shaped querns are heavily used. The mullers are marked with pitted surface and have unifaced or multifaceted working surface. Most of the stone objects have been fashioned by pecking and grinding hammer anvils and sling balls also have pitted surface on their working edges. The sharpeners and rubber stones have heavily rubbed use-marks, querns and mullers also
56 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 39 indicate that people had started cultivation and there was a surplus economy as would be inferred from the occurrence of big storage jars. The Microlithic industries are an integral part of the Neolithic cultural assemblage. An analysis of Mesolithic tools recovered from the excavation of Mahagara shows that Chalcedony (56.45%), Chert (21.19%), Carnelian (1.41%) agate (19.88%) and quartz and crystal (1.82%) were the raw material used for manufacturing microliths. The Microlithic artifacts may broadly be divided into two groups (i) waste material and (ii) tools. The waste material (86.63%) includes cores, chips and flakes. The tools (13.32%) typo-technological have been grouped into refurbished blades (32%) backed and truncated blades (2.17%) Serrated blades (`1.45%) backed blades (6.19%) awls(2.17%), points(3.62%) trapezes (1.45%) lunates (1.09%) and tranchets (0.72%) some of the blades having shining gloss on their working edges were used for cutting green vegetation. There are a good number of large sized flakes made of grey cherts. Having a sharp working edge. These flakes played the role of heavy duty tools and were used for cutting and scraping. The bone tools, though in appreciable number in the chalcolithic phase at the site are also conspicuous by their absence. This may be due to the limited nature of excavations at Mahagara have brought to light bone arrowheads. Bone arrowheads marked with a single tang are the tools other, than microliths used hunting by the Neolithic people but the evidence of bone tools is available only from Mahagara and Jhusi. Pottery Ceramic industry is one of the most diagnostic traits of the Neolithic culture of the region. The entire Neolithic ceramic assemblage can be divided into three groups on the basis of surface treatment. These are the cord impressed ware (ii) Rusticated ware (iii) Burnished red ware (iv) Burnished black ware. 40 The clay used for shaping the pottery is not well levigated and contains calcium and iron nodules in the body of pots but the pottery is well tempered by rice husk and chopped straw which have resulted in cavities on the pot surface after firing. The core colour of the pots is smoky grey to blackish due to organic temper fixed in the pots and illfiring. The pottery is hand made. The wall of pots is uneven having been made by pressing palm and fingers on both sides. The fabric varies from coarse to medium. The functional pottery types are very simple but to some extent standardized. These include straight or tapering sided deep and shallow bowls, convex, tubular, spouted bowls
57 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 40 straight concave or carinated necked jars, basins, handis and a few platters were also noticed. The carrinated neck of jars and the tubular spout were luted to the jars and bowls made separately. The decoration of pottery is confined only to appliqué and incised designs. Cord Impressed Ware The corded ware, characteristic features of the Neolithic culture of the northern vindhyas appears to have been dominant ware at these sites. The pots are pot fired in high temperature and are of coarse fabric vegetation temper has produced porous core the section of the pots vary from thick to medium. A few thin sectioned sherds are also found. The ware is represented by (56.64%) at Koldihwa. The functional types in this ware include convex sided shallow and deep bowls with everted thinned thickened and featureless rim, jars are with straight or concave neck having featureless rim. The ceramic industry of Mahagara (17.54%) presenting the fossil types of the Neolithic culture throws welcome light on the technique type and decoration patterns of the Neolithic pottery. The cord decoration is multi-directional straight vertical, horizontal or oblique, without forming any objectively recognized pattern. The preliminary experiment at the site of Koldihwa demonstrated convincingly that the pattern of cord decoration can be obtained by impressing the tortoise shell on the wet clay. It is quite possible that the complete plates of tortoise shell were used as dabber by Neolithic potters and thus they created the corded ware. This hypothesis got support at Mahagara where some sherds were obtained having dotting pattern instead of cordings. The functional pottery shapes show food habits of the Neolithic potter. Deep or Shallow bowls with straight, tapering or convex sides, and featureless sharpened, thickened everted squared or bevelled rim (Figure 1.). Flat bowls or platters, tubular spouted bowls and straight necked jars and handis are main functional types in the corded ware at Mahagara. The Neolithic pottery of Puchoh the percentage of cord impressed ware (30%). Rusticated Ware The rusticated ware is marked by roughened external surface of the pots. The rustication has been done by clay solution mixed with husk, chopped straw, gritts, calcium granules and leaves. The solution was applied to the surface when the pot was dried to the leather hard condition. In this connection some sherds of cord impressed and also of burnished red ware having the evidence of rustication are interesting. The clay
58 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 41 solution, on the external surface was applied by shrub burash. The ware is represented by (22.63%) at Koldihwa. The types are deep and shallow bowls platters, spouted bowl and jars.in the case of corded ware and rusticated ware also neck portion of jar is devoid of rustication. We get the rustication on bowls, platters and basins on the whole outer surface, but in jars it is below the shoulder, statistical analysis indicates that the rusticated ware is dominant at Mahagara representing (62.96%) of the total yield of pottery in the index trench. In a few cases broken fragments of shells are also mixed in the clay as degraissant. The basins are also provided appliqué band on the shoulder having incised decoration. The motifs are criss-cross and diamond patterns incised on the appliqué evidence of incised slash design has also been found on the neck portion of a jar. Pottery forms of this ware are more varied than those of the cord impressed ware, one pedestalled bowls is also recorded at Mahagara. Tubular spouted bowls and flat bowls or plotters are also present in this ware. The neck portion in tapering and straight necked jars are luted to the shoulder prepared separately and are invariably marked with the carination at the joint wide mouthed handis some with soot marks and miniature vases are also encountered in this ware and this ware is found at Panchoh (40%). The types are deep and shallow bowls common at Mahagara. Burnished Red Ware The burnished red ware, represented by (17.63%) at Koldihwa. The pot was leather hard it was treated with a thick red. Ochrous slip and subsequently it was burnished. The bowls have been slipped and burnished on both the surface. The jars have this treatment only on outer surface. Among the functional types of burnished red ware mention may be made of bowls lipped, bowls, handis, spouts jars. The entire pottery assemblage on the basis at Mahagara (16.41%) and 22% at Panchoh. The Main pottery in this ware consist of convex tapering and straight sided bowls with feature less. Basins with tapering sides occasionally bear appliqué bands on the shoulder. Medium and big sized jars with concave neck and globular body. Evidentally vases range from small to big in size. The incised motifs on the raised bands of basins crosses oblique parallel lines occasionally bordered by two parallel lines. Instances of finger tipped and nail impressed decoration on appliqué band making rope and chain pattern are also met with.
59 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 42 Burnished Black Ware The burnished black ware marked by black slip and burnishing has same features. It is represented by (3.78%) at Koldihwa (3.09%) at Mahagara and 8% at Panchoh. Among the ceramic industries of Mahagara the burnished black ware is superior. A few corded pots also have been burnished after getting black-slip. The heavy duty pots such as the cooking or storage vessels are absent. Among the ceramics industries, the cord impressed ware has much archaeological importance as it denotes the cultural contact of vindhyas with other regions. The cord impressed ware was introduced in the area the last phase of the Mesolithic culture, though it became a popular ware only in the Neolithic culture. The cord impressed were has been found in Neolithic context at Chirand 41, Chehchar Kutubpur, 42 Taradhih, 43 Sohagura, 44 Jhusi 45 and Lahuradeva 46 in the middle Gangetic plain that has techno-typological similarity with that of the vindhyas. The vindhyan Neolithic pottery has influenced to a considerable extent the Neolithic pottery of the Middle Gangetic plain 47. The cord impressed pottery is also considered as a distinctive ware of the eastern Asiatic Neolithic complex 48. Thus been found at Daojali Hading and Sarutaru in Assam, but in different colour and in the range of decorative patterns from that the Vindhyas. 49 The other aretfacts associated with the Neolithic culture of the Vindhyas include perforated pottery disc, terracotta, dabber, spherical, beads of terracotta and a shell pendent. 50 The diagnostic traits of the assemblage of Neolithic culture of the Vindhyas mainly represented by cord impressed pottery and the rounded form of Neoliths have no comparison with any Neolithic culture of the sub continent 51 ; but in the light of new evidence the ceramic industry of chirand and Chechar Kutubpur in Bihar, Taradih in Gaya and Sohgaura in Gorakhpur, Jhusi in Allahaabad and Lauhradeva in Sant Kabit Nagar in Uttar Pradesh. Chronology The Neolithic deposit at Koldihwa has yielded radiocarbon dates reading 5440± 240 B.C. (PRL 100) 6570±210 B.C. (PRL 224) and 4530±185 B.C. (PRL 101). The absolute dates obtained from Mahagara also indicate two TL dates 2265 BC and 1616 B.C. and four C 14 dates 1440±100 B.C. (PRL 409), 1330±120 B.C. (PRL 408) 1440±100 B.C. (PRL 407) and 1480±110 B.C. from Mahagara. In the light of C 14 dates obtained from Kunjhun 4600±80 B.C. Chronology of the Neolithic culture of the region has been proposed to 4 th millennium B.C. Recent excavation at Lahuradeva in Sant Kabir Nagar in the middle Gangetic plain have
60 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 43 given early dates (422, 4161, 5298 B.C.) like those of Koldihwa which indicate that the earliest phase of the Neolithic culture may be dated to 6 th, 5 th millennium B.C. Pre-Historic Evolution in the Ganga plain (North of the Ganga) Till about three decades back it was thought that the Ganga plain (north of the Ganga) was unsuitable for stone age man; but a survey of the Department of Ancient History Culture and Archaeology, University of Allahabad, during seventies of the last century brought to light sites which have been put under the epi-palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. It was proposed by Prof. G.R. Sharma that the people south of the Ganga were the first people who gradually inhabited the region north of the Ganga also. More that 200 sites were located from Varanasi to Pratapgarh district towards the north of the Ganga out of which three major sites Sarai Nahar Rai, Mahadaha and Damdama were excavated. In the recent years at Kalpi in the Yamuna valley district Jalaun have been discovered human artifacts in the form of stone and bone tools and charred bones. These have been assigned to the Middle Palaeolithic period (45000 yrs. B.P.). These horizons have yielded rich assemblage of vertebrate faunal remains. This is the first record of Middle Palaeolithic human occupation of Ganga plain. It has opened an entirely new chapter in the prehistoric archaeology of the Upper Ganga plain. Middle Palaeolithic In the Upper Ganga plain, the stone age culture is reported from Kalpi on the Yamuna. The site is situated on the southern bank of Yamuna river NW-SW between the railway and road bridges near Kalpi district Jalaun (Map No. III). The meticulous field investigations were carried out by the team of Prof. I.B. Singh 52 of P.C. Pant and Rakesh Tewari. Habitational deposit of 20 m extending over 1 km and divisible into three phases was located. One of the horizon revealed skeleton parts of vertebrate animals, elephant, tuskbone pieces and molars of bovids equus. Similar fossil rich horizons were also recorded from a clalcrete conglomerate about 30m below the surface. Vertebrate faunal remains were reported from places along the axial rivers of the Ganga plain from time to time in District Banda, Jalaun, Kanpur Dehat. Allahabad and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh 53. J. Cockburn discovered mamalian remains from the older Pleistocene alluvium of the Jamna in Banda District. Further discoveries were reported from fossilli fierous formation in Mau on the right bank of Yamuna pilgrim reported mid pleistocene fauna near the Ganga at Phaphamau near Allahabad.
61 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 44 Map No. III. Location Map of Kalpi Section The occurrence of Stegodon Molar from older Gangetic alluvium of the Upper pliestocene age near Prahaladpur district Varanasi and a mandiable of palaeoxodam namadicus from Tundiary nala south of Allahabad, and a molar stegodom insignia near Jamna at Naini in Allahabad. During the last five years the team have found not only numerous fossilized bones but also some small pebble tools, flakes, and chips, as well as a number of bone tools partially burned. This assemblage include an elephant tusk and
62 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 45 numerous fossilized bones of bovids, equids etc. The presence of worked angular pebbles, other stone artefacts and bone bearing cutmarks have been found. Sporadic occurrence of stone artefacts belonging to the lower and middle Palaeolithic phases had been reported from a few sites located in the alluvial plains of Uttar Pradesh. Among them mention may be made of the site on Yamuna at Mau District. Banda (present Chitrakoot I.A.R : 34). Besides mention may be made of a site named Lachchura, located on tri-junction of Hamirpur and Jhansi district of U.P. is the nearest site in Vindhayan hills. Both lower and middle Palaeolithic industries of Lachchura 54 are pebble tools and comparable with the assemblage of Kalpi. In the last decades the southern part of the Ganga plain designated as Marginal alluvial plain, exhibits deep entrenchment of the river and evidence of neotectonic activity. The three phases of identified along whole of section:- Phase-I : having an average thickness of 5m yielded a few centimetre size quartzite pebble rounded edges and corners and many show broken surface human artefacts. Phase-II : with an average thickness of 4cm yielded a 3.5 m long elephant tusk, a 1m long shoulder blade of elephant molars of bovids equids, crocodile and other vertebrate bones. The quartzite pebbles and large bone seen to be brought by human. out the phases. Phase-III : having an average thickness of 10-12m Nodules clcrete is present through The artefact are mostly made on quartzite. Most of the flakes and chips also appear from quartzite pebbles. A few flakes of chert also occur. The assemblage include pebble tools (Plates No. 1) cores, unretouched pebbles, broken atipical points, quartzite bassed assemblage. There are three terraces; Terrace I yielded freseh bifaces. Terrace II - yielded flakes and flake tools of middle Palaeolithic (Plates No. 2). Microlithic tools were obtained from terrace III. All the unificial and bifacial tools are made on quartzite. Most of the tools have concave or convex working edge. The artefacts are made mostly 2.4 cm size. Some of the bone pieces have been found ashy in colour most probably due to burning (Plates No. 3). Several bones bear cutmarks and working edges. The bone artefacts are end scraper, point notched tools, burins, atypical end scraper. Special mention may be made here of a large mammal vertebra and animal skull showing cutmarks used as anvil and a tringular point with a fire hardened tip (Plates No. 4), with the bone artefacts have been recorded a large number of bone pices and teeth of vertebrates, 3.54 m long elephant tusk and a long elephant shoulder blade.
63 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 46 On the basis of the above evidence we may place the Kalpi evidence as the earliest in the Ganga plain. The Archaeological investigations carried out by the Department of Ancient History Culture and Archaeology, University of Allahabad, during the last four decades have reported more than 200 sites ranging from Epi-palaeolithic to the Mesolithic period in the junctional region of the upper and middle Gangetic plain having an average elevation of 91m with a gentle slope from north west to south-east. The entire region is drained by the Ganga and its tributries, the Varuna, Sai, Gomati and Ghaghara etc. The type section of Ganga showing geological formations of the Late Pleistocene and early Holocene is represented near phaphamau in Allahabad district. These formations having a thickness of 8 to 10m are composed of four distinct layers. The earliest horizon has been equated with the gravel III of Belan section. The artefacts of the Epipalaeolithic period have been found in this formation. On the basis of the type-technological consideration Mesolithic assemblage of the Ganga Valley have been divided into three groups: (i) Epi-palaeolithic (ii) Non-geometric (early Mesolithic) (iii) Geometric (Late Mesolithic) The six sites belong to epipalaeolithic have been discovered of the middle Ganga plain 172 to the early Mesolithic and only 21 sites to the Late Mesolithic. Some of sites which are occupied for a short period of time, while there are some other sites which were occupied more than once. The sites of the epipalaeolithic and early Mesolithic phases are marked by the scatter of surface of stone artefacts on the surface and represent temporary camp sites. The early and Late Mesolithic is based on the presence of non-geometric and geometric microliths, the cultural context viz. wild animal bones, wild floral remains, absence of pottery etc. indicate that the Mesolithic sites with geometric microliths also represent early phases of Mesolithic culture. The new discovery of stone age culture in the mid-ganga Valley demonstrate the cultural context of hill and plain right from epipalaeolithic period which continued upto early historical period. Epi-palaeolithic It represents a transitional phase from the Late Upper Palaeolithic to the early Mesolithic. This phase is represented only by six sites. Mandah (Lat N; Long. 82 0
64 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY E), Salhipur Suleman Prabatpur (Lat N; Long E) in Pratapgarh district Kurha and Ahiri in Allahabad district and Garhwa 55 ((Lat N; Long E) in Varanasi district is also situated on the bank of dry horse-shoe lakes. There is an internal of about 48 km between Baira Damuha 56 (Lat N; Long E) the Southerly site on the Karmanasa and Garhwa the nearest site on the northern side of Ganga in the same district. This is clear from a comparison of the both these Mesolithic assemblage consist of parallel side blades, blunted blades points, scrapers and burin. Tools on both the sites are fashioned on chert. It may be noted that chert of three colours grey, black and white are found in the vindhyas sites. These sites were probably temporary camp or seasonal habitational sites. The pressure of the growing population and growing scarcity of food and water in the vindhyas region due to dry climate in the Pleistocene early Holocene period prompted the stone age men from the vindhyas to migrate to the Ganga plains. The migration might have been seasonal in the beginning but later on the people started making semi permanent basis. The aretfacts of the epipalaeolithic are mostly made on chert of varying shades of grey, black, red yellow and white. A few artefacts are fashioned on Chalcedony. The finished tools include retouched blades (1.63%) backed blades (4.65%) notched (01.5%) points drills (1.63%) burins (0.38%), Scraper (2.01%) and lunates (1.51%). The modified waste is divisible into blades (10.15%) flakes (11.55%), Cores (5.15%), Chips (59.30%) occur in high frequency. Very small, irregular flake pieces, less than 10m in length and without retouch have been classified as chips. The majority of 172 sites have been identified as belonging to the non-geometric Mesolithic phase. The sites are marked by scattered of microlithis on the exposed surface. The predominant raw material is chalcedony and other semi-precious stones are chert, banded, agate, Carnelian and jasper etc. None of these sites have yielded biological remains. Geometric Microliths This phase is represents at 21 sites. Majority of sites are temporary settlements yielding only modified waste and finished artefacts. Among all the sites located towards the north of the Ganga river. Sarai Nahar Rai 57 (Lat N; Long E), Mahadaha 58 (Lat N; Long E), Damdama 59 (Lat N; Long E) all the three sites are located in Pratapgarh district. A number of human burials have also been exposed at these sites.
65 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 48 The first Mesolithic site discovered by K.C. Ojha in 1969 in the upper Plain was Sarai Nahar Rai, is located on the bank of dried up horse-shoe lake in Pratapgarh district at a distance of about 15 km, to the south-west of Pratapgarh. Sarai Nahar Rai was excavated between and During and the area lying between the Ganga and Gomti was extensively explored. The total area at Sarai Nahar Rai measures 1,800 sq. m. Mahadaha (Lat N; Long E) is situated at a distance of about 5 km. north of Patti town in sub-division of Pratapgarh district to the east of village of Mahadaha. The site lies on the eastern bank of an ancient lake. It was excavated for two session in and by V.D. Misra and J.N. Pal. The site cover an area of approximately 8,000 sq. m. The third Mesolithic site of Damdama (Lat N; Long E) the most excavated sited situated in Wari Kalan revenue village of Patti subdivision of Pratapgarh district 5 km north-west of Mahadaha was located in It has been excavated for two sessions in and by R.K. Varma, V.D. Misra, J.N. Pal and J. N. Pandey. The site which is roughly circular in shape and cover an area of 8,750 sq.m. it is situated at a slightly elevated ground on the confluence of two arms of Tambura Nala a seasonal tributary rivulet of the Pili Nadi which discharge itself in the Sai river, a perennial tributary of the Gomti. These nallah are remnants of ancient horse-shoe lake, which have now almost completely silted up due to natural and human activities. The middle Ganga plain is an area of high fertile alluvial soil. Polynological evidence from the middle Ganga valley indicates that grass lands or open wood lands would have been wide spread in the region during Mesolithic period. All the three sites belong to Late Mesolithic phase and were more or less contemporaneous in time. All the sites are located on elevated usar land and are away from the reach of annual floods. Mesolithic settlement pattern in part of their exclusive territories would have supplied most of the subsistence needs except certain things such as raw material (stone) which probably came either from the north east vindhyas or from the Pabhosa hills. Dense occupation of Pratapgarh district is indicate through a more dispersed pattern of numerous sites dotting its length and width, scattered settlements might have been summer sites. Agglomerated or nucleated settlement here means clustering of community groups and in a site Late Mesolithic sites were in the form of compact or agglomerated settlements. The sites contained microlithic artefacts animal bone fragments, graves and hearths. Between and large parts of Sarai Nahar Rai were excavated. It revealed 27 cm thick habitational deposit. Eleven burials were excavated and from four were located. As many as
66 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 49 eleven hearths have been excavated. The head were buried on the habitation site itself. One hut floor made of rammed, burnt clay lumps is another feature. The maximum length and width of the floor measured 5.66 by 4.02 metres. 61 It has four post holes on the four corners. Mahadaha is situated on the western margins of a horse-shoe lake. Much of the discarded animal bones and other found their way into water logged deposit. No complete animal bone has been found in this complex. The area lying between habitation-cum-burial complex in the west and western margin of the horse shoe lake in the east has been designated as butchering complex. 62 Animal bone fragments consist of horn cores, antlers, skull, mandibls, teeth, scapulae, palellae vertebrate, ribs, netacarpals and metatarasals. Excavations in the Lake area situated on the eastern side of site a large number of animal bones have been recorded from the upper layers of the lake. Bones of wild gaures, cervids and rhino have been found in the area. (Alur 1980) No evidence relating to structure has been found at Mahadaha. At Mahadaha there is a 60 cm thick habitational deposit, divisible into four layers. As many as 35 Oval or circular, hearths have been discovered in the habitation cum burial complex at Mahadaha, 8 hearth were located in Maximum number of hearths were of phase IV Circular shape of hearths became more popular during the last phase. The longer and shorter axes of oval ranged from 60 cm to 80 cm and 40 cm to 70 cm, respectively. The maximum depth was 19 cm to 23 cm. 64 The hearths contained burnt clay lumps, ash, charred, animal fragments etc. It seems that the hearths were used for roasting meat of bird, tortoise, fish and others. In one of the hearths in a bison skull with horns was found. The next side Damdama has revealed a 1.50 m thick habitational deposit is divisible into 10 layers and six phase, seems that central and western sectors constituted the main focus of settlements at the site. A few hearths have also been found in this area. Central area also yielded a number of pit hearths and floors. So far no structural evidence have been found at the site. Much more fragment of charred and uncharred animal bones and burnt clay lumps. Another evidence is the discovery of four floors in sq. J-2 and one in sq. N-8 in central sector. The floors were very close to some of the graves. The floors were plastered with 3 cm to 3.50 cm thick paste of clay. The floor debris comprises lumps of burnt clay animal bone fragments and in one case fragment of a quern. A large number of Mesolithic sites apparently existed in the region despite the fact that raw material does not occur locally. There are certain distinctive features at Mahadaha that are different from these at Sarai Nahar Rai. The microlithic tools viz. retouched blades, backed blades, lunates, scraper, points and triangle are found at both the sites but trapezes
67 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 50 that are found at Mahadaha are absent at Sarai Nahar Rai. Most of retouched bladelets are broken, particularly either at proximal or at distal end. Tools and Ornaments As there is no primary source of rock (raw material) in the Gangetic plain, it was imported from the Vindhyas and Pabhosa hills. This is the reason that the tools in the Gangetic plain are comparatively smaller to those of the Vindhyas and cores are extremely exhausted. Bone tools an important segment among the excavated antiquities at the Mesolithic sites in the Middle Gangetic plain. There is a great deal of cultural information regarding the technology of the Late Mesolithic phase. Microlithic stone industry still dominated material equipment, but bone tools and ornaments also occupied an important place. Two long bone arrowheads were found in Grave VII at Damdama is of considerable interest. (Varma et. al. 1985: 56) The other bone arrowheads measures 10.3 cm in length and 0.8 cm in thickness. A large number of bone points of triangular cross section have been found at Mahadaha and Damdama. One of the bone arrowheads is engraved with 6-7 lines. These lines were probably purely artistic. As many as 113 bone tools have been found at Damdama. These are divisible into bone arrowheads, both long and small pendent segmented, bone objects, bangles etc. It is intresting to note that Sarai Nahar Rai, one of the two arrowheads measures 13 cm in length and 1 cm in thickness. At Mahadaha forty five bone implements have been found (Plates No. 5), the bone tools comprise arrowheads, points, blade, chisel, knives, scraper and saw. Arrow heads are generally made of split long bone or horn core. Arrowheads and points are two dominant tool types in the tools collection of Mahadaha. These are generally made from small sized horn cores of deer antelope and stag. Another discovery of interest is twenty six bone ornaments found at Mahadaha and Damdama. These ornaments were found in the form of ear-ring and necklace. A necklace of 11 small rings (Plates No. 6) was also found around the neck of an individual. Bone ornaments have been found in three burials at Mahadaha and in one burial at Damdama. Earring and necklace have been discovered from three graves at the site. One antler specimen with grooved marks and incision found at Mahadaha (Plates No. 7) is also of considerable interest. At Damdama five ornaments have been found from surface. These were fashioned on bone and ivory piece measuring 5.6 x 2x 1 cm, have been found in Grave VII. It has black shining gloss on it. At Damdama most of the bone objects are made of charred or semicharred bone pieces. The two pendents are made on thick flat pieces of bone. Seven circular marks on a bone ornament found at Damdama is of special interest.
68 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 51 Man had started manufacturing not only hunting and digging tools but also beads pendants etc. The available evidence that the Mesolithic people acquired in new venture, how to handle the new raw material. The use of bone tools in the middle Gangetic plain that the Mesolithic hunters and gatherer were trying to cope with new situation to a changed environment excavations at Mahadaha 191 and Damdama 141 have also brought to light fragments of querns, rubbers, hammer stones, anvils and sharpeners of sand stone, quartzite and basalt. These manufacture are indicate of aspects of technology of Mesolithic people. The muller also have been used as pounders and unvils, pasted bone pieces in the forms of classified sheet have also been found at Damdama. Subsistence Patterns The Mesolithic period witnessed sustained growth and expansion in human population, on account of innovations in technology, use of bow and arrow and greater availability of food resources. The study of subsistence patterns of Mesolithic cultures of the Vindhyas and the Middle Ganga valley can be made on the basis of artefactual, faunal Palaeozoological evidence and the study of rock paintings. The available microlithic artefactual evidence suggests that hunting was the primary source of their subsistence economy. The rock paintings too belong to a group of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. So far floral evidence is concerned carbonized remains of wild rice (Oryza sataiva) is available only from the Late phase III, of Chopani Mando in the Belan valley. (Sharma et.al. 1980:69) For vegetal food gathered by Mesolithic people one has to rely upon inference drawn from artefacts used to procure and process edible seeds etc. The attractions that drew the Mesolithic people to the Ganga Valley must have abundant terrestrial, aquatic and avian food resources. A large number of stone and bone tools, fragments of querns, rubbers have also been found on the three excavated Mesolithic sites. Animal bones make up bulk of organic remains. Butchering marks on bones and charring of bones indicate that these were used for food. Palynological and floral evidence have been found at Mahadaha and Damdama (Varma et.al. 1985) respectively. The animals represented in the faunal remains of Mahadaha are antelope deer (cervidae), boars (sus scrofa) cattle (Bos indicus) goats (Capridae) bisons (Bos gauras) and Carnivores (Carnivoridae). Besides these bones of tortoise (Chilonia), fish, rats and birds were also found.
69 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 52 Chronology More recently the Kalpi succession has been dated by luminescence method using infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) technique. Here only the estimated IRSL ages of different samples of the Kalpi section are given the basal part of phase I gives an age of 76±kyr while top of phase I is 54±12 kyr. The Basal part of phase II is 45±9 kyr. The basal part of phase III is 43±7 kyr. The stratigrphic horizon containing this tool assemblage have proved beyond doubt that human groups occupied the region around 45,000 years B.P. which makes it a Middle Palaeolithic period. The three excavated Mesolithic sites, namely, Sarai Nahar Rai, Mahadaha, and Damdama have furnished the evidence of onsite human burial practice (Sharma 1973; Sharma et.al. 1980; Varma et.al. 1985). The radiocarbon dates, particularly the AMS ones, available so far. Suggest a time span from early to middle Holocene for the Mesolithic occupation in the Ganga Valley. One radiocarbon date which 8394±110 B.C. has been obtained from Sarai-Nahar-Rai. Table No.-1 Radio Carbon Dates from Mesolithic Sites of the Ganga Valley Sites dates Laboratory Sample No. Uncalibrated TF ,050±110 Sarai Nahar Rai TF 1356 & ,860±120 BS 136 4,010±120 BS 137 2,880±250 Mahadaha BS 138 3,840±130 OXA ,320±80 GX AMS 8,640±65 Damdama GX AMS 8,865±65 A long time span from 8000 to 2000 B.C. has been proposed for these cultures on the basis of a few C 14 date and on typological considerations. Burial System The earliest physical remains of man in India have been found in Mesolithic context. Bagor in Bhilwara district of Rajasthan, Langhnaj in Mehsana district of Gujrat, Baghaikhor
70 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 53 and Lekhahia in Mirzapur district, and Sarai Nahar Rai, Mahadaha and Damdama in Pratapgarh district of Uttar Pradesh are the principal excavated Mesolithic sites which have yielded human Skeleton remains. So far 18 burials have been excavated from the northeast vindhyas and 90 burials from Middle Ganga plain adjacent to the Vindhyas. A sample representing 108 individuals have been investigated can be expected to shed light on pattern of Social orgnization in prehistoric societies. Table No.-2 The Sites S.No. No. of are Available Name of Geographical Cultural Individuals For Sites Area Periods which remains References 1 Baghaikhor North-east Late Varma, R.K. 1 Vindhyas Mesolithic Lekhahia Sharma, 1975 North-east Late 17 Lukas and Vindhyas Mesolithic Mishra, Sarai Nahar Ganga Late Sharma 1973b, Middle Valley 14 Rai Mesolithic Mahadaha Middle Valley Ganga Late Sharma et.al. 30 Mesolithic 1980, Pal 1983b Varma, et.al. 5 Damdama Middle Valley Ganga Late 1985, 46 Mesolithic Chattopadhyaya, U.C Total Many more Mesolithic burials would have been destroyed by adverse climatic conditions, acidic soils, carnivores, burrowing animals and later human activities. Some of the sites of the Ganga plain were occupied long enough to involve the need for burials. In the Vindhyan plateau burials occur in a few occupied rock shelters. Burials were excavated in the shelters of Baghaikhor and Lekhahia. Bagahikhor the Mesolithic site
71 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 54 (Lat N; Long E) is situated at a distance of about 68 km south-west of Mirzapur. Here in one of the Baghaikhor group of shelters R.K. Varma found a human skeleton buried below Layer II. It was an extended burial with west-east orientation the head lying to the west. The skeleton was in extended, supine position. The hands were placed along the body. No grave goods were found at Bagahikhor the whole skeleton was found covered with small chips. Close to Bhainsore village Lekhahia rock-shelter yielded skeleton remains of twentyseven individuals. At Lekhahia the skeleton were laid in supine position. Most of the burials were complete inhumation of extended type. In two cases the orientation was south-north the head lying to the south. Four burials yielded evidence regarding the position of hands and forearms. Skeleton 4 was a case of flexed burials. Each grave contained the skeleton remains of a single individual. Bone arrowheads bones of Bos sp. were offered to adults males. The child burials contained a pair of horns of an antelope cervicapra, a mandible of Bos sq. and molluse shell. All the burials belonged to the geometric phase of the Mesolithic (Misra 1977: 96). Table No. 3 Human burials at Lekhahia (Misra 1977) Skeleton Phase Orientation Associated find Sex Age Remarks No Animal bones Indeterminate 8) Child (7- I 2 South-north deer, molluse - shell,mandiable II 3 West-east - Male Adult - III 4 West-east - Female Adult - IV 5 West-east Bos bubalas rib Female Adult - 8 West-east Turtle bone Male Adult - 9 West-east Stone Male Adult - 11 West-east - Male Adult - V 10 West-east - Male Adult (50-55) Year - 12 South-north - Male Juvenile 14 West-east - Male Adult VI 13 West-east - Female Adult - 15 West-east - Male Adult - VII 16 West-east - Male Adult - VIII 17 West-east - Male Adult -
72 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 55 Geometric and non-geometric microliths and pottery were also obtained from this rock shelter. Bone points and bone fragments without and used mark were other finds. One pit sealed by layer 1 yielded cylindrical beads made from tubular bones. These evidences confirm that upper deposits are indicative of transition from Mesolithic to Neolithic culture in the Vindhyas. Excavations at Human skeletons remains found at Sarai Nahar Rai, Mahadaha and Damdama are extremely well preserved. The bones are generally sturdy and bear varying amount of mineral concretions on the external surface of most of the bones. Fragments of human skeletons have been reported from Harhi-Bhituli in Pratapgarh and Kurha in Allahabad district. A total number of 34 human bone fragments were in the surface collection of Dheruhi-Sarai Nahar Rai, Mahadaha and Damdama undisturbed by ploughing have been excavated so far. The excavations at these sites have thrown new light on the made of burials, rituals and beliefs and physical types. Although many Mesolithic sites are known in parts of the Middle Ganga Valley in the part attension has been concentrated on burials. In 1970, the Anthropological survey of India excavated one human skeleton from Sarai Nahar Rai. Sarai Nahar Rai (Lat N; Long E) is located at a distance of 15 km from Pratapgarh on the bank of an ancient horse-shoe lake. The site occupied an area of 1800 sq. m. In all 8 hearths (Plates No. 8) and 14 human burials in eleven graves have been excavated so far.
73 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 56 Tables No. 4 Human burials at Sarai Nahar Rai (After Shama 1973b with additions) Grave Skeleton Orienta-tion Grave goods Sex Age Year Remarks No I 1 West-east - Female Indeterm inate II 2 West-east - Indeterm- Child inate III 3 West-east - Male Adult IV 4 West-east - Male Adult V 5 West-east Shells Female Adult VI 6 West-east - Indeterm- Indeterm inate inate VII 7 West-east - Male Adult 1973 Multiple 8 West-east - Male Adult burials 9 West-east - Female Adult - 10 West-east - Female Adult - VIII 11 West-east - Indeterm- Indeterm inate inate IX 12 West-east One Shell Indeterm Skeleton No. inate IX in Sharma 1973 X 13 West-east Two shell and a Male Adult 1972 Skeleton No. number of X in Sharma microliths 1972 XI 14 West-east 7 Shell Female Adult 1973 Skeleton No. 14 microliths XII in Sharma 1973
74 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 57 The burials at Sarai Nahar Rai was only one multiple burial (Misra 1977: 100) Grave VIII is a special interest because it yielded multiple Skeleton comprising two couples of a male and a female. Barring Grave no. VII, each of the other graves contained one skeleton only. In Grave no. VII (Plates No. 9). Two males and two females skeleton were found the body was placed in extended supine position with one arm invariably on the abdomen and the other lying along the body. Microliths and shell were placed as grave goods. The graves were filled with soil and hearth material, containing ash and charcoals etc. after the burial the orientation of the skeleton was west-east the head lying to the west. Out of the 14 skeleton exposed 9 are of males and 4 are of females sex of one could not be determined. It seems that the majority of the individuals died young. The age of dead persons ranged between 16 and 30 years. Skeleton 2 was probably that of a child. The average height of males was between 1.65 and 1.80 and that of females between 1.55 and 1.70 m. At Mahadaha habitional deposit of 60 cm divisible into four phases, brought to light 28 graves, 35 hearths. Besides a good number of animal bones, tools and ornaments made of bone etc. were also excavated. Some of the graves contained fragments of charred and semicharred animal bones, burnt clay pieces and fragments of microbladelets. The excavations revealed 28 graves and 35 pit hearths of four different phases. Phase I has yielded three (3) graves and skeleton remains belonging to four individuals. Grave I (Plates No. 10) was a double burials containing one male and one female. The female was placed to the left side of male. The orientation of all the skeleton of Phase I was west-east. The head lying to the west (Sharma et.al. 1980: 87).
75 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 58 Table No. 5 Burials of Mahadaha Phase Skeleton Associated Orientation No. finds Sex Age Years Remarks West-east - Male Adult West-east - Female Young I 2 West-east - Female Adult West-east - Male Young Adult 4 West-east - Male Adult II 5 West-east - Female Young Adult West-east - Male Adult III 6 West-east Male Adult East-west A bone Female Adult pendent necklace 12 8 West-east bone rings Female Young West-east 2 bone ring 1 - West-east arrow heads West-east West-east - Male Adult West-east - - Child West-east - - Child SE-NW - Female Old Adult IV 13 SE-NW - Male Young West-east - Male Young Years 16 East- West - Female Adult
76 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY East-West - Female Old Adult 20 East-West - - Young - Adult West-east - Male Old Adult 22 West-east - Male Mid age West-east - Male Mid age West-east - Female Adult West-east - Male Adult East-west - Female Adult SE-NW - Male Adult SE-NW - Female Old Adult Two graves IV and V belonged to phase II, grave IV contained the skeleton remains of a male of about years age groups. Five bone rings were placed as grave goods. Skeleton 7 was found wearing a bone pendent in the left ear and a necklace comprising 12 bone rings in the neck. Phase III has yielded ten and nine burials, each grave containing the skeleton remains of a single individuals. (Sharma et. al. 1980: 87; Pal 1983: 3). Phase III in one case skeleton 9 was oriented (Sharma 1980: 87) east-west while in another the orientation of the skeleton 19 was east-south to west-north. The head lying in the east-south direction. The orientation of the skeletons was probably conditioned by certain beliefs and myths prevalent among a particular tribe. Froms to graves burials goods had also been obtained. Grage VII (Skeleton 9) contained two small bone rings and one bone arrowheads. This skeleton belong to a female. Grave XII (Skeleton 14) had also yielded burial goods. The available evidence indicated that the graves were for the most part shallow. Oblong pits, with average length and width ranging from 2m to 2.50m and 63 cm to 1 m respectively. No turmule was noticed on any of the graves. Most of the graves containd complete in humations with one, but occasionally two skeletons grave I and V. The body was laid in supine position. With leg extended and both hands placed along the body or one arm
77 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 60 on the abdomen grave XXVIII or on pelvic region grave XXIV and rarely on chest grave XXIX. The human bones 13 skeletons recovered from Mahadaha are highly mineralized and have acquired considerable weight. The fragmentary skeleton remains of the 13 persons are represented by long bones, Clavicles, scapulae, vertebral colume. In the graves belonging to phase IV evidence of grave goods had been noticed in three cases. In grave XVIII a small animal bones fragement was lying near the 5 th lumbar vertebra of the skeleton that belong led to a female of 40 to 50 years of age. The grave XXI skeleton 23 contained as grave goods a jaw of a carnivore with sharp pointed teeth placed on the left side of the abdomen of the skeleton near the 9 th thoracic vertebra, a bone arrowhead below the pelvic gridle a charred animal bone and a tortosie shell on the left side of the skull. Grave XXII skelton 24 one bovine tooth was found between left humerous and ribs. The age of most of the persons buried ranged between 17 to 25 years. The third excavated Mesolithic site in the Ganga valley is Damdama (Lat N; and Long E) is situated in Mari Kalan revenue village of patti sub-division of pratpagarh district.5 km north-west of Mahadaha. The excavation brought to light forty one graves out of which six revealed double burials each and one multiple burial. All the burials are oriented west-east. Burials have been found in the western and central sectors at Damdama. The graves were shallow obloing pits with tapering sides. Their length and width ranged from 1.14 m to 2.10m and 48 cm to 1.10m respectively. The grave VI (Plates No. 11), XX, XVI (Plates No. 12), XXX, XXVI and XXXVI are double burials, while grave no. XVIII is a multiple burial, contained three individuals. All the graves but one contained a single skeleton placed in extended supine positions with west-east orientations. Grave VI was a double burial in which one male and one female were found buried in north-south and south-north directions repectively. In grave I the skeleton was laid in east-west direction and not in extend but in flexed position. The skeleton in grave VIII was place in lateral cum-prone but in extended position and in grave IX it was placed in prone position with the legs extended. The practice of burying dead in prone position discovered in the Damdama appears to be novel to Mesolithic burial practices of the Middle Ganga Valley and unique to Damdama. The graves were generally filled with soil and hearth material, containing charcol and charred animal bone fragements. In the proximetly of most of the burials hearth had found (Misra 1977: 100). The hearth functioned as placed for good processing and cooking as well as for the manufactured of artifacts. The discovery of tiny fragements of charcoal at
78 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 61 Damdama indicates that wood was used as the fuel, as also grass and leaves. The placing of hands of the individuals at the time of death did not indicate any definite pattern. The hands were found placed along the body while the other was placed on the abdomen or on the hip girdle as in the cases skeletons of graves III and X. In graves I and XXVIII the skeletons have been found in a flexed position. The bone arrow heads found in graves VIII, XVI and XVIII. In grave two arrow heads and a perforated ivory pendent were found near the foot of the skeleton. In the north-east Vindhyas the head were buried in rock-shelters where they had encamped in life. At Bagahikhor and Lekhahia rock-shelters at least such evidence had been found. Excavations at open-air Mesolithic sites in the north-east vindhyan region have not yielded evidence of burial so far. In the Middle Ganga Valley at Sarai Nahar Rai, Mahadaha and Damdama the dead were commonly buried with in the open-air slettlements in prepared graves. There was perhaps growing emphasis on the exploitation of acquatic resources at these sites, by increasing semi-sedentary habits. The Gangetic plain 11 graves as Sarai Nahar Rai 26 at Mahadaha and 33 at Damdama belonging to number of phases indicated that in favourably ecological sub-zones quite large communities of hunter-gatherers could live on territories small enough to allow all their members to use common habitation cum-burial sites to bury their dead individuals and probably to each live part of year atleast in the same escarpments. Middle Ganga Valley as well as in the north-east Vindhyas shallow oblong pits with tapering sided were common features of the graves. There was no differential location of graves of adults and children males and females. The evidence of tumulus was conspicous by its absence in the graves at Mahadaha. The general features of the skeletons of Lekhahia and Baghaikhor are not comparable with those of Sarai-Nahar-Rai, Mahadaha and Damdama. The skeletons show important differences. The skeleton remains of Bagahikhor and Lekhahia were comparatively tender and fragile and not well-preserved and Sarai Nahar Rai, Mahadaha and Damdama were in the advanced stage of fossilization and had acquired considerable weight.
79 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 62 Table No. 6 Inventory of Burials at Damdama Phase Grave Orienta- Sex Age Years Remarks No. tion I XII (1) West-East Female Adult 1985 Pal J.N., 1992a: 43; 1992c: 61 II XXXVIII West-East Male Adult 1987 IAR :84; Pal J.N. 1992a: 43; 1992c: 62 III XVI West-East Male Adult 1985 Pal J.N., 1992a: 43; 1992c: 62 XVII East-West Male Adult 1985 Pal J.N., 1992a: 43; 1992c: 62 XL Not Pal J.N., 1992a: 43; exc. 1992c: 62 IV XI West-East Male Adult 1984 Varma R.K. & others 1985:50; IAR : 84; Pal J.N., 1992a: 43; 1992c: 62 V XX West-East Male Adult 1986 IAR : 83 VI XXII West-East Male Young 1986 IAR : 84; Adult Pal J.N., 1992a: 43; 1992c: 62 X West East Female Adult 1984 Pal J.N., 1992a: 43; 1992c: 62 XV West-East Female Adult 1985 Pal J.N., 1992a: 43; 1992c: 62 IX Varma & Others Distur 1985: 48; Pal J.N., bed 1992a: 43; 1992c: 62 VII XIV West-East Pal J.N., 1992a: 43; 1992c: 62
80 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 63 XXVII NW-SE Male Adult 1987 IAR : 84 VIII II West-East Male Adult 1986 Varma R.K. & others 1985:48; IV West-East Pal J.N., 1992a: 43; 1992c: 62 V West-East Female Adult 1984 Varma R.K. & others 1985:48; Pal J.N., 1992a: 43; VI SN-NS Female- Adult 1984 Varma R.K. & Male others 1985:48; Pal J.N., 1992a: 43; VII West-East Female Young 1984 Varma R.K. & Adult others Pal J.N., 1992a: 43; VIII West-East Male Adult 1984 Varma R.K. & others Pal J.N., 1992c: 41. XVIII West-East Male Adult Pal J.N. 1992c : 62 Male 86 Female Adult XXX West-East Female Adult 1987 IAR, : 84; Male Pal J.N. 1992a : 43, 1992c: 62. XXXII SW-NE Male Young 1987 IAR, : 84; Adult Pal J.N., 1992a : 43, 1992c: 62. XXXIII West-East Male Adult 1987 Pal J.N., 1992a : 43. XXXVI West-East Female Young 1984 IAR, : 84; Male Adult Pal J.N., 1992a : 43. XXXIX NE-SW Male Adult 1987 IAR : 84; IX I East-West Female Adult 1983 Varma R.K. & others 1985:48; Pal J.N., 1992a: 43.
81 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 64 III West-East Female Adult 1984 Varma & Others 1985: 50, Pal J.N., 1992a: 43. XIII West-East Female Adult 1985 Pal J.N., 1992c: 63. XIX East-West Male Adult 1986 IAR , Pal J.N., 1992a: 43. XXI West-East Female Adult 1986 IAR , Pal J.N., 1992a: 43. XXIII NE-SW Male Adult 1987 IAR : 48 Pal J.N., 1992a: 43. XXIV NE-SW Male Adult 1987 IAR :84 Pal J.N.,1992c: 63. XXV NE-SW Female Adult 1987 IAR , Pal J.N.,1992a: 43. XXVI NE-SW Female Young 1987 IAR , Pal Adult J.N., 1992a: 43. XXXVII NE-SW Male Adult 1987 IAR : 84 XXIV SW-NE Male Adult 1987 IAR, : 84 Pal J.N., 1992a: 43. XXV NE-SW Female Adult 1987 IAR, : 84 XXXI West-East Pal J.N. 1992a: 43. XXXIV SW-NE Male Adult 1987 IAR, : 84 Pal J.N.,1992a: 43. XXXV West-East - Adult 1987 IAR, : 84 Pal 1 J.N.,1992a: 43. XLI IAR, : 84 Pal J.N.,1992a: 43. Neolithic Period The next culture in the area belongs to the early farming culture (Neolithic). The new archaeological evidence Jhusi its hoary antiquity beginning from the stoneage in contrast to other sites of the Upper Doab having Chalcolithic origin 65 earlier evidence have clearly shown a direct role of the Vindhyan region in the colonization of the Ganga valley during the
82 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 65 Pleistocene/Holocene interface. The Mesolithic people of the Ganga valley, necessarily of north-east vindhyan were dependent on the rich raw material of the Vindhayas and it has semiprecious stones were procured by the Gangetic peoples from the Vindhyas (Son Valley) directly or through some kind of exchange system. 66 The discovery of two Mesolithic sites on the Vindhyan overlooking the Ganga Barkaccha and Siddhapur in the Mirzapur district served as the link between the Mesolithic peoples of ecologically dissimilar region the Vindhyas and Ganga Valley. The recent excavation at Jhusi revealing the microlithic component at the lower most level followed by Neolithic cultural horizon. These are indicate that during the Mesolithic period man had started in and around Jhusi. Microliths have been found not only at the site but also at Nibicolan and Jamnipur near Jhusi. It appears that the Mesolithic people would have come in this area at a time when silty and sandy formation of Bhagar was taking place. Recent excavations at Jhusi in the Gangetic plain also has revealed evidence of early agriculture like that of the Vindhyas. The excavated Neolithic sites of the Middle Gangetic plain include chirand in (Soran district) chechar-kutubpur in (Vaishali district), Taradih (Gaya) 67, Majhi, Soran and Senuwar (Palamu in Bihar) and Sohgaura and Imlidih 68 (Gorakhpur), Bhunadih 69 and Waina 70 (Ballia), Lahuradeva (Sant Kabir Nagar) and Jhusi (Allahabad) in Uttar Pradesh. These sites have presented the evidence to reconstruct the first farming culture of the area. Early farming culture in the Middle Ganga Valley have been found in three geological zones in Bihar, in the Northern slopes of the Vindhyas and in the Suryupar plain of eastern Uttar Pradesh. In the Bihar they come from the river line plains to the north of Ganga s (mainly Chirand and Chechar Kutubpur). Jhusi (Lat N; Long E) The Neolithic site of Jhusi is located on the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna at a distantce of 7 km to the east of Allahabad city. The ancient name of Jhusi was Pratisthana, while the Puranas associate with the king yayati, sixth in the line of Manu. The site has been excavated for the five season , and by department of ancient History Culture and Archaeology, University of Allahabad. The evidence of Neolithic Culture were found in session were conducted by V.D. Misra, J.N. Pal and M.C. Gupta and then in 2003 by J.N. Pal and M.C. Gupta.
83 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 66 The ancient site extends about 3 km (north-south) along the Ganga and its width from west to east measures abut 1.5 km the floors are well represented by occupational debris containing pot-sherds, house hold, implements bones of animal etc. The wild grains also was part of their diet as is suggest by finding of millet, rice, moong and masoor. A large sized spouted basin with soot marks were the cooking vessels. The Neolithic man of Jhusi were cattle, sheep, goat, boar, barasingha etc. fish was found important item of their diet. The evidence of structures has been found in form of hut floors from the Jhusi (Plates No. 13). The huntments appear to be round or oval on plain. At Chirand evidence of pit dwelling has also been reported. The Neolithic celt is conspicuous by its absence at Jhusi. Bone tools have been found at Jhusi, Senuwar and Chirand. The site has yielded a corpous of bone tools and weapon including celts, scarpers, chisels hammers, needles, points, borers awls arrow heads etc. Other bone object comprise ornaments like pendents, earring, bangles, disc, comb etc. Chirand is only Neolithic site in India to have produced bone object both in quantity and variety. The site have yielded stone object in Bladelets, flakes, blades, scrapers, arrowheads, serrated points, lunates, borers etc. The microlithic assemblage fashioned on chert, chalcedony, agate, jasper and quartz have been found. Celts of basalt and granite have been obtained from Lahuradeva, Chirand and Senuwar. Other stone object include fragments of querns mullers balls hammar stones etc. These are fashioned on sand stone or quartzite finished and unifinished on chalcedony, agate have been found at Jhusi, Chirand and Senuwar. Chirand has also yielded beads of steatite and faience. The total thickness of cultural deposit is about 16.5 m the lowest level at the site has revealed geometric microliths. There is presence of seven cultural periods at Jhusi: (i) Mesolithic Culture (ii) Neolithic Culture (iii) Chalcolithic and Early Iron Age Culture (iv) Northern black polished ware culture (v) Sunga-kushana period (vi) Gupta period (vii) Early medieval period. During the end of the Pleistocene and beginning of Holocene period the Mesolithic man colonized the Gangetic plain. This evidence have been revealed from the Mesolithic
84 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 67 sites of the Gangetic plain, possibly the first shelter at Jhusi were the Mesolithic people, evidence have been found in the form of Mesolithic tools like, triangles, points and blades. The next phase is seen the habitation during the Neolithic phase was in limited area. Evidence is coming in the southern frings of samudrakup mound of Jhusi. The discovery also show that Jhusi has been a cradle of human civilization right from the Mesolithic age down to the blossoming of Urban phases of the culture of this region. The Neolithic at Jhusi ceramic industry consists of four wares, cord impressed wares, (Plates No. 14) rusticated ware, burnished black ware and burnished red ware. All four ware are hand made. The pots are ill fired. The clay used for manufacturing the pot is not levigated. The occurance of burnt clay lumps with wattle and doub impression indicates the use of mud plaster on the screen walls of these huts all in the middle Ganga Valley have yielded cord impressed pottery, comparabale to the cord impressed pottery of Vindhyas. The cord impressed pottery apparently with that of Daojali Hading but it differs in colour as well as in the range of decoration pattern. The pottery of Daojali Hading is of grey and red colour and stamped designs are also present here. Stone blade industry is totally absent at Daojal Hoding. The shoulders celts are also found here along with rounded celts. It may also be noted that chronological, there is a considerable temporal lag between the two culture and culturally also they clearly represented two different traditions. Among these excavated and C 14 dated sites the cord impressed were found from spirit cave in Thailand furnishes the nearest analogy to the Vindhyas 71. The other artifactural remains have also little to show cultural interactions between the two distantly situated centers of the early forming communities. The cord impressed pottery is common to the Vindhyan Neolithic culture and the mid Ganga Valley Neolithic culture. The lowest strata Neolithic at Sohgaura is located near the confluence of rivers Rapti and Ami about 32 km south-east of Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh. The excavation revealed 5 fold cultural sequence and the 70 m thick deposit in the lowest level yielded handmade pottery of cord impressed, rusticated and burnished red ware pot sherds. Among the pottery shape mention may be made of angular carinated necked jar of corded ware analogous to those of Mahagara. Other associated find of beads of bone and steatite, a piece of quern of sand stone and pit-hearth. The Neolithic ceramic industry of Taradih was recovered vessels also indirectly suggest that the people probably liked liquid. The large ovens of different shapes and sizes along with numerous charred bones with hewn marks of phase IB give an idea of community kitchen.
85 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 68 The Neolithic deposit at Chirand in the Saran district of Bihar has revealed cord impressed pottery but the ceramic assemblage at Chirand is varied and developed. The clay is levitated mixed with mica or quartz powder, a few pots thrown on turntable is also available. A few black and red ware pots also have been found. This evidence according to Dr. Sinha pushed back the antiquity of black and red ware before chalcolithic period in India. A few base of vessels with rustication on outer surface have been reported from Chirand which were used as cooking vessels, but Chirand ceramic assemblage is richer in pottery types where we get spouted vases, vase with pointed base, footed bowls, bowl on stand, lipped bowls, channel spouted vessels with lips, spoon or ladle, knobbed vessel which are not found in the ceramic assemblage of Vindhyan Neolithic culture. Appliqué decorations representing rope and notch deigns are common to Mahagara-Koldhiwa and Chirand, but post firing scratch decoration on some pots of Chirand is not present in the Belan valley, post firing ochre painting represented by semi-circle, linear, criss-cross, oblique, concentric circle on some of the pottery of Chirand. Especially on the grey ware, also is new feature not present in the Vindhyas. Thus it is clear that the ceramic assemblage of Chirand is more developed in comparison to the ceramic of Vindhyas. Excavation conducted by the Department of Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology of Gorakhpur University have brought to light some surface sites associated with this ceramic assemblage in this region. Among such site Lahuradeva (Lat N; Long E) were carried out by the Department of Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology University of Gorakhpur under the direction of K.N. Tripathi, revealed five cultural sequence, this region was a part of a larger Rice in the 7 th 6 th millennium B.C. The Neolithic ceramic industry, specially the corded ware is widely distributed in the northern Vindhyan plateau. It has been obtained from Koldihwa, Mahagara and Panchoh and Tokwa in the Belan Valley and Kunjun in the Son valley. This characteristic ware of the Vindhyan region is also found at Lahuradeva, Sohgaura, Chirand, Chechar Kutubpur, Taradih, Bhunadih, and Imlidih in the mid-ganga valley. Not only the technique of manufacture but even the functional pottery types are also common to Vindhyas and mid- Ganga valley Neolithic pottery. The Neolithic pottery of the mid-ganga Valley is more advanced in comparison to its counterparts of the Vindhyas, as is indicated by a few turntable thrown pots and post-firing paintings, but comparative study of the pottery of both the regions confirm that the Vindhyas Neolithic pottery has influenced to a considerable extent to the Neolithic pottery of the mid Ganga Valley.
86 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 69 Pottery types in the Neolithic culture are very simple not only in the Vindhyas but other parts of India also. This is the reason that we have some common functional types in each Neolithic culture. At Kuchai in Orissa coarse gritty red ware associated with rounded Celts has similar types of jar as in the Vindhyas and in the Ganga. Though there is no direct stratigraphic evidence to demonstrate the transformation of farming culture from the huntinggathering culture, but it is clear from the comparative study of the cultural content of both the cultures of the Vindhyas that several features of the Neolithic culture have their source in the Mesolithic culture of the area. The microliths industry, bone arrowheads, food processing equipment like querns and mullers, tool fabrication like anvils, hammer and curvilinear, hut floors may be treated as the Mesolithic remnants in the Neolithic culture. The wild rice found in the form of husk embedded in burnt clay lump at Chopani-mando in the Belan valley indicates presence of rice in wild form in the area was cultivated in the Neolithic period. Similarly some of the wild animals present in the area were domesticated in the Neolithic period. The ceramic tradition in the Vindhyas back to pre-neolithic times. Some of the pottery especially the cord impressed ware recovered in the Mesolithic rock-shelters may be contact with Neolithic people, but some specific features of the Mesolithic pottery of the Vindhyas like impressed floral designs on brownish grey or dull red ware. All these point present a picture o smooth transition of cultural traditions of Mesolithic to the Neolithic in the region. On the basis of analysis of microliths tool types and some of the special features of animal bones of the Vindhyan and south Indian Neolithic cultures, Mandal has proposed that Vindhyan Neolithic is nearer to the Mesolithic culture and evidence a primary stage of Neolithic people.
87 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 70 REFERENCES 1. Singh I.B., Late Quaternary evolution of Ganga plain and proxy records of climate change, Geotectonic and Anthropogenic Activity. Pragdhara 12, pp Spate. O.H.K., India and Pakistan, p Le Mesurier, In BASB, pp Ribett Carnac. H On stone implements from the North Western provinces of India, JASB, Vol. LII Parts I, No. I to IV, pp Cockburn, J On Palaeolithic implements from the drift gravels of the Singrauli basin; JAI XVII pp Cockburn. J. 1894; Op. cit. pp Ghosh, Manoranjan, Rock paintings and other antiquities of Pre historic and later lines NASI No IAR, , p Varma, R.K Stone Age Culture of Mirzapur, D.Phil. thesis Allahabad, University, pp Misra, V.D Some Aspect of Indian Archaeology, p IAR, , p Sharma, G.R Beginnings of Agriculture, pp Misra, V.D. et. al. 1977, pp Sharma, G.R. and D. Mandal Excavations at Mahagara, pp Sharma, G.R. et. al. 1980, pp Sharma, G.R Stone Age in the Vindhyas and the Ganga Valley: Radiocarbon and Indian Archaeology (eds.) Agrawal, D.P. and Ghosh, A. pp Varma, R.K Bhartiya Pragaithasik Sanskritiyan. pp Varma, R.K Op.cit. pp Varma, R.K Op.cit. pp Misra, V.D Op.cit. pp I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , pp ; Sharma, G.R. and B.B. Misra, 1980, op.cit. pp Varma, R.K. 1964, Op.cit. pp Misra, V.D Op.cit. pp Sharma, G.R. and B.B. Misra Excavation at Chopani-Mando, pp
88 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Sharma, G.R., et.al pp Pal, J.N. n.d Mesolithic ceramic industry of the Vindhyas paper read in annual conference of IAS & ISPQS at Allahabad. 28. Pal, J.N Navpashanik Sanskritiyaon in R.K. Varma, Bhartiya Pragathihasik Sanskritiyan, pp Allchins F.and R Birth of Indian Civilization, p Sharma, G.R. 1980, et. al. pp Ibid. 32. Ibid. 33. Misra, V.D., B.B. Misra, J.N. Pal and M.C. Gupta 2000, Pragdhara 11, pp I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p Mittre Vishnu and Archana Sharma n.d. Neolithic Chalcolithic Food economy of eastern Uttar Pradesh. 39. Alur, K.R Op.cit. pp Archaeology of Southern Uttar Pradesh: Ceramic Industry of Northern Vindhyas, 1986, Allahabad. 41. I.A.R., , p. 6; , pp. 6-8; , pp. 6-7; pp. 5-6; , pp.3-4; , pp. 6-7; , pp. 6-7; , pp. 7-8; , pp. 9-10; , pp I.A.R., , pp I.A.R., , pp ; , pp ; pp.12-13; , pp Chaturvedi, S.N Advance of Vindhyas Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures to the Himalayan Tarai: Man & Environment, Vol. IX, pp Misra, V.D., B.B. Misra, J.N. Pal, J.N. Pandey, Pragdhara No. 6, pp Tiwari, R.K. Srivastava and K.K. Singh. Excavations at Lahuradeva, Purattatva No. 32, pp Pal, J.N Base of Neolithic culture of the Middle Ganga Valley Felicitation Vol. (Journal G.N. Jha, Kendriya Sanskrit Vidhyapeeth. pp Sharma, T.C The Neolithic Pattern of Eastern India; In V.D. Misra and J.N. Pal (eds.) Prof. G.R. Sharma Memorial Allahabad. 49. Rao, S.N Excavation at Sarutaru, Man and Environment, pp
89 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Mandal, D Neolithic cultures of the Vindhyas Excavations at Mahagara in the Belan Valley in V.D. Misra, J.N. Pal (eds.) Indian Prehistory, 1980, Department of Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology, University of Allahabad. 51. Mandal D. N.D. Neolithic Culture of the Vindhyas Excavation in the Valley, paper read the annual conference of ISPQS at Allahabad in 1980, p Singh I.B Lat Quaternary of Ganga plain, Geological survey of India, No. 65 (1) xcxiii-i. 53. Misra, V.P Significance of Quaternary Vertebrates from Gangetic Alluvium; National Symposium. Role of earth science in integrated development and related, G.S.I No. 65 III; pp Pant, P.C Prehistoric Uttar Pradesh, pp Pal, J.N Mesolithic settlements in the Ganga plain. Man and Environment XIX (1-2), pp Sharma, G.R Seasonal Migration and Mesolithic Lake Cultures of the Ganga Valley: Indian Prehistoric Society, p Sharma, G.R Op.cit. pp Sharma, G.R et.al.. pp Varma, R.K I.A.R I.A.R , p. 48; p Sharma, G.R. 1973b. p Sharma, G.R. et.al p Pal, J.N. 1985: p I.A.R , p , p Misra, V.D. J.N. Pal and M.C. Gupta Further Excavations at Jhusi evidence of Neolithic Culture, Pragdhara 13, pp Chattopadhyaya U.C Settlement pattern and the spatial organization of existence and mortuary practices in the Mesolithic Ganga Valley. Word Archaeology, 27(3), pp I.A.R , pp I.A.R , pp ; , pp Purattava No. 20, pp Pargdhara No. 8, pp Pargdhara No. 6, pp
90 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 73 CHAPTER 3 Late Harappan & Ochre Coloured Pottery Culture Late Harappan Culture During the fourth-third millennium B.C., a highly developed civilization known as Harappan civilization existed along the river Indus and Saraswati and western Uttar Pradesh all located in the north-western part of South Asia. 1 The earliest human occupation in the Ganga-Yamuna doab belongs to the Late Harappan culture. The Late Harappans preferred the alluvial fertile regions of eastern Punjab, Haryana and Upper Ganga-Yamuna doab of western U.P. The remains of this culture were first discovered at Alamgirpur. 2 Many Harappan sites have been located in the Upper Ganga plain. They are concentration in the western U.P. in the district of Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar and Meerut. 3 They are located on rivers Hindon, Krishni, Kaitha Nala and Maskara, all tributaries of the Yamuna. So far no site has been found on the Yamuna proper or in the Ganga valley. The late Harappan culture is therefore confined only to the upper part of the doab, it is almost certain that the Late Harappan occupations of the Upper doab took place by way of migrations from the adjoining Haryana and Punjab regions to the west. Where the Harappan people had been established from much earlier period. Geographically in the Upper Ganga-Yamuna doab, Baragaon 4 is situated in the north, Hulas in the middle and Alamgirpur in the south. They are not more than 200 metres in length and breadth. This would suggest that the habitation belong to a small cluster of families. The Harappan culture which was spreading with regional variations from Sutlej to Yamuna in the east, two observation need to be made in this connection :- (i) In Upper Ganga plain one meets the last lingering phase of the Harappan culture. (ii) The Harappan did not cross the Ganga as their impact was never felt in the upper Ganga plain north. After the Harappans the next shelters were the users of the ochre coloured ware pottery. Though their link with the earlier Harappan culture is not yet clear. M.N. Deshpande observed that the Harappan culture in western U.P. has identified imbibed traits of cemetary H, Jhukar and Bara. It has also some traits of O.C.P. particularly in the upper reaches of the doab.
91 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 74 Late Harappan and their Contact with Other Culture The Late Harappan sites are smaller in size located on a higher elevation at a distance of 5 to 12 km and had close contacts and communication with each other. These have an agriculture base. In Rajasthan and upper Ganga Yamuna doab region the Late Harappans were associated with ochre coloured ware and copper hoards culture. It is clear that the Harappan ceramic tradition in the western Uttar Pradesh, is a widely diffused ceramic tradition. K.N. Dikshit 5 believes that In western Uttar Pradesh the Harappan gradually merged into another existing local culture identified by Ochre Coloured ware assemblage. The OCP sites in the Ganga valley have typological affinity with the Harappan in the Yamuna and Sutlej valley. Some mature Harappan shapes are present in O.C.P. The O.C.P. existed in India from circa B.C. and they were having contacts with the early, mature and Late Harappans. The copper hoards culture was also contemporary with the mature Harappan and Late Harappan culture and they were different from the Harappans. The chronological priority of this Harappan tradition over the OCP Ware has yet to be settled because so far no site has yielded Harappan deposition superimposed by the Ochre Coloured ware. If we compare the full pottery repertoise of Baragaon and Ambkheri we find that Baragoan is essentially a rural Harappan site with marginal contact with O.C.P. while Ambkheri is essentially O.C.P. site with marginal contact with Harappan sites on the banks of Yamuna. The Haraappan assemblage noticed in western Uttar Pradesh has been tentatively placed by Dikshit in two subsequent phases. On the basis of the presence and absence of certain Harappan traits. The first or the earlier phase I (c B.C.) is represented by the sites like Alamgirpur, Tatar Kalan, Hulas, Bhura. This cultural complex consists of typical Harappan pottery, animal figures, terracotta, beads, triangular cakes, stone objects and burnt bricks. Inscribed pottery at Alamgirpur proves that this phase was nearer to the Urban phase of the Harappan culture. The second or the later phase II (c B.C.) includes sites like Baragaon, Behupur, Bakarka, Gathera, Pilkhani, Budhakhera (Map No. IV). Here the unslipped red ware loking like so called Ochre Coloured ware dominated the assemblage. Allchins 6 have suggested two or more phases. The first contemporary to Late Ganga Valley and sites with Probable Harappan Link.
92 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 75 Map. No. 4. Distribution of Ochre-Coloured Ware in the Upper Harappan and second to post-harappan. Possehl 7 has equated Baragaon and Ambkheri with Alamgirpur and suggested the date of c B.C. Dikshit has divided the Late Harappan culture into three sub-stages :- (i) Harappan culture without painted Grey-Ware, Ropar, Hulas, Daulatpur, Alamgirpur, Kurukshetra. (ii) Harappan culture with painted Grey-Ware Bhagwanpura, Katpaloan, Dadheri. (iii) Harappa culture with Grey Ware Manda. Two other sites showing the late Harappan occupation from lowest levels are Mirzapur and Daulatpur. 8 Again two phases are described almost in the same pattern, and with same kind of cultural features as in Bhagwanpura. At Mirzapur the structure were built
93 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 76 of mud bricks mainting the Harappan bricks of different sizes 52 X 36 X 10 cm and 42 X 32 X 7 cm. Pottery from both the sites shows the characteristic Late Harappan ceramic types of this region. Daulatpur produced some evidence of steatite disc beads also, these two sites from the above evidence with Mitathal IIB, Balu- C, and Bhagwanpura IA. A similar antiquities were notice at Bhorgarh and Mandavali in Delhi. Ochre Coloured Pottery The ochre coloured pottery has been reported in a very wide area mainly occurs in Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh. A good number of O.C.P. sites have been located in the Upper Ganga valley as well as in Rajasthan and Punjab and a single site in west Bengal. Sothi-a significant pre-harappan site in Rajasthan also yielded the O.C.P. in considerable number. Some eminent archaeologists have raised serious doubts about the true nature of this pottery. 9 The O.C.P. people did not live in cultural isolation. In the course of their east ward and south ward expansion in this subcontinent they came in close cultural contact with different people as noted below :- (i) In eastern, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh the late Harappans and the Degenerate Siswal ware and O.C.P. people lived together whereas the Indo-French team had recorded total absence of the O.C.P. sites in eastern Haryana. Suraj Bhan founed the Late Harappan and (D.S.W.)/O.C.P. Degenrate Siswal ware elements at almost all the pre-p.g.w. sites 10 Paul Yule 11 also noticed overlap between the Late Harappan and the Copper hoards sites in eastern Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh. The Upper Ganga-Yamuna doab Degenerate Siswal ware/o.c.p. people has imbibed many Late Harappan cultural traits, e.g. the copper tool types, pot-shapes, decorative motifs etc. Carnelian and Shale beads etc. discovered at Lal Qila and stone weight at Daulatpur were procured from the Late Harappans. Some characteristic O.C.P. type in Harappan fabric together with typical Harappan shapes, occur at Alamgirpur I, Hulas I, Baragaon Ambkheri etc. in western Uttar Pradesh. (ii) Pre-Harappan and Late Siswal culture, the O.C.P. people also appear to have established cultural contact with village communities of the north-west. R.C. Gaur noticed close stylistic similarities in between the animal motifs, snakes bull and Ibex painted on a few O.C.P. sherds discovered at Lal Qila on one hand and pre-harappan pottery from Amri, Kull and Mehi in Pakistan on other. 12
94 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 77 (iii) (iv) The O.C.P. people were in close cultural contact with the Neolithic-Chalcolithic of eastern Rajasthan and M.P. The O.C.P. people procured copper from Rajasthan mines. The Gangetic copper hoards objects bear certain symbols, discovered at different Chalcolithic sites in Rajasthan and M.P. Several copper hoards have come to light from different sites viz. Pondi, Gungeria in M.P. The O.C.P. people had established cultural contact with the pre-n.b.p. Neolithic- Chalcolithic of eastern U.P., Bihar, West Bengal and Orissa. Some O.C.P. like potsherds discovered at Prahladpur IA, Rajghat IA and Kakoria in eastern U.P. and Parihati in West Bengal. The earliest eastward protohistoric movement around 2200 B.C. marked by the Late phase of Mature Harappan/early Bara/Late Siswal/Siswal B/ O.C.P. group A/ O.C.P. culture at Alamgirpur I, Hulas I, Baragaon, Ambkheri etc. in the Upper Ganga Yamuna doab. The exact nature of pottery from Baragaon and Ambkheri in western U.P. Originally, Ambkheri was considerable as an O.C.P. site with marginal Harappan elements. Subsequently it was labeled as Late Harappan. S.P. Shukla considers Alamgirpur and Hulas as small rural Harappan settlements. These site shows a curious mixture of different cultural traits viz. Sothi, Bara, Siswal, cemetery H. O.C.P. R.C. Agrawal and Vijay Kumar located a large number of OCP sites, at Noh Ganeshwar, Jodhpura and other places in eastern Rajasthan. These sites have shown four phases of this level, and it seems that it is the final phases which is manifested in the Doab sites. During last two decades a new protohistoric culture called Ganeshwar-Jodhupura culture has come to light from more than 200 sites in eastern Rajasthan 13. It is characterized by a red ware resembling the OCP and associated copper implements. B.S. Negi explored an OCP sites at Sewar in Bharatpur district 14. The so-called OCP from eastern Rajasthan possibly belongs to the Ganeshwar Jodhpura culture complex. It is characterized by an incised and painted red slipped ware associated with bone copper objects, terracotta microlithis, animal bones and remains of wattle and daub houses 15. The nomenclature OCP for the Ganeshwar Jodhpura culture is not acceptable to some archaeologists. Some scholar have already postulated that there are two broad categories of the OCP with their respective areas. The one associated with the late Harappan phase in Punjab, Haryana and the upper Ganga-Yamuna doab and the other with the copper hoards of the Middle Ganga-Yamuna doab. A.K. Sinha and B.R. Meena; Who made on the spot examination of the Ganeshwar ware have significantly pointed out that the Ganeshwar ware this red ware has a finaly likeness in typology and decorative pattern with the red ware from
95 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 78 early level at Ahar I.A.C. and Kayatha I. D.P. Agrawal has identified this culture as Jodhpura culture of the pre-harappan culture 16. He also noticed a close resemblance between the incised pottery of Ganeshwar and that of the Pre-Harappan at Kalibangan. The incised shallow decoration on the exterior of the Ganeshwar ware is comparable to decoration on the Late Harappan potter from Bara. The excavators noticed that items like steatite, Faience, shale etc. are also absent at Ahar IA-C, Kyatha I and Bagor II, Whereas incised pottery is present at all the three sites and is comparable to a great extent with the Ganeshwar incised ware. The Ganeshwar ware may have some links direct or indirect with Ahar, Kayatha and Bagor rather than with the pre-harappan or the OCP. The pottery from above sites points to a sort of cultural interaction towards the close of the 3 rd millennium B.C. or in the beginning of the 2 nd millennium B.C. Recently, a large number of microlithis manufactured on semi-precious stones with evolved geometric lithic tool have been discovered at Ganehswar 17. The occurrence of a full fledged microlthic industry imparts a definite chacolithic character to the Ganeshwar Jodhpura culture. The carbon samples have produced a date between C B.C. for the upper levels at Jodhpura. The lower levels of the OCP phase at Jodhpura for which no. C 14 date is available, may be tentatively placed between C and 2800 B.C. 18 B.B. Lal first time identified a famous ochre coloured pottery with its variants-ochre washed ware or ochre coloured ware brought to light through his excavations at Bisauli (Badaun District) and Rajpur Pursu (Bijnore District) respectively in The two places had yielded copper tools earlier, subsequently when he encountered the same ware in a stratified context at Hastinapur and Atranjikhera. 20 He christened it as Ochre Coloured Ware. During the last forty five years numerous OCP sites have been located in the Upper Ganga Valley. The important excavated sites of this culture are Hastinapur 21, Bahadrabad 22, Kaseri 23, Ahichhatra 24, Bahariya 25, Atranjikhera 26, Jakhera 27, Fatehpursikri 28, Sadhavara Khera 29, Kiratpur 30, Lal Qila 31, Daulatpur 32, Saipai 33, Pariyar 34, and Sringaverpura I, 35 Mirapatti, Kannali, Parihati etc. is represented by the Late Harappa/Late Bara/ Degenerate Siswal/Siswal C/ OCP group B/ OCP cultures. The stratigraphic position of OCP in relation to other ceramic industries in the Upper Ganga valley has been underrelated by the study of sequence at the sites here Saipai, Lal Qila, Kiratpur, Pariyar, Bahadrabad, Bahariya etc. in Uttar Pradesh. These sites have fairly indicated the association of OCP with copper hoards. These excavations have also confirmed that the OCP representing the earliest ceramic industry in the Upper Ganga valley was
96 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 79 followed by the PGW at Hastinapur and Ahichchhtra, the BRW at Atranjikhera and Jakhera, a mixed assemblage of the PGW, BRW, Black Slipped and red ware at Kaseri, the BRW and Black Slipped red burnished Grey and PGW at Sringaverpura. The discovery of copper implements from some sites of the Upper Ganga valley in Uttar Pradesh, on the one hand and from those of Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, and Orissa. As most of these copper implement were obtained in hoards the name Copper Hoards. 36 In 1961 Y.D. Sharma noticed some resemblance between the OCP from Bahadrabad and the Harappan pottery and therefore, he felt that the so-called Ochre washed ware 37 represented just a phase of Harappan ware, OCP was also found at Saipai together with the Copper hoards in a regular excavation by B.B. Lal. Later on this pottery was also found from Nasirpur, Atranjikhera, Ahichhatra, Baragaon, Ambkheri, Bahariya, Saipai, Sringverpura in U.P. Noh and Jodhpura in Rajasthan and Katpalon in Punjab. The area marked by the presence of Ochre Coloured pottery measures about 300 km north-south from Bahadrabad to Noh and 450 km west-east from Katpalon to Ahichhatra. Although the majority of potsherds at most of the sites bear no painting. Some of them at sites like Atranjikhera, Lal Qila etc. have brought to light a few painted sherds where the painting has been executed in black pigment over a fine red slipped surface. Atranjikhera, Hastinapur, Saipai have revealed that the general features of the OCP are rolled edges, porous, powdery surface and red or ochorus colour. H.D. Sankalia, Krishna Deva, Y.D. Sharma, do not consider it to be an ill fired pottery. They have ascribed its weathered condition to water logging. H.C. Bhardawaj also considered it to be a well fired pottery. R.P. Sharma, R.C. Gaur, B.B. Lal have attributed the weathered surface of thin less fired pottery to flooding water logging and humidity respectively. B.B. Lal scientifically test this pottery found it to be fired under oxidizing condition. The presence of a grey ware in the OCP complex particularly at Ambhkheri, and Gandhorna etc. is significant. This ware too has a thick medium and thin fabric and is ill fired. Besides yellow ochrous, pink and terracotta buff pottery. In the upper Ganga Valley the OCP is red ochre coloured only the core is grey. Some times the associated grey ware also occurs in small amount in the pre-harappan, Bara, DSW assemblage. It has also been noticed Siswal D stage at like Bhagwanpura IB, Katpalon, Nagar I, Dadheri IB, Manda IB etc. This grey finally evolved into the well known painted grey ware which is totally free from Iron.
97 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 80 Stratigraphic Position of OCP Most of the OCP sites in the Upper Ganga Valley were successively reoccupied in subsequent times. According to R.C. Gaur 38 the OCP sites in the Upper Ganga Valley may be divided into the following three groups. (i) Genuine OCP sites Such as Atranjikhera, Lal Qila, Ahichhatra, Hastinapur, Saipai. (ii) OCP site with Harappan influence- such as Bahadrabad Ambhkheri, Upper phase of Baragaon. (iii) Harappan sites with OCP influence- such as Alamgirpur, Lower phase of Baragaon. According to K.N. Dikshit the Harappan Complex in western Uttar Pradesh is divisible into two phases, phase I ( B.C.) Alamgirpur, Taharpur Kalan, Kalaheti, Bhura, and Hulas, (ii) phase II ( B.C.) Baragaon, Gathera, Bakarka, Hardakheri, Bhupur, Pilkhani, Burha Khera, noticed an OCP like unslipped ware at all the phases II sites. The upper Ganga Yamuna Doab there are two types of the OCP sites. (i) Late phase of Mature Harappan/early Bara/ Late Siswal/ Siswal B/OCP group A. The overlap or intermingling of the two cultures is found at several protophistoric sites, like, Alamgirpur I Baragaon, Hulas I, Ambakheri etc. 39 Siswal C/OCP Group B/ OCP. (iii) Late Harappan/Late Bara/ Degenerate Siswal, Phase II at several sites like, Hastinapur I, Ahichhatra I, Baharabad, Lal Qila, Daulatpur, Fathepursikri I, Atranjikhera I, Jakhera I, Saipai, Pariyar I, Sringverpura I, Kamauli I etc. A comparative study of the sherds from these sites show that a few shapes from the sites in the Upper Ganga valley near the borders of eastern Punjab bear Harappan affinity which may be due to contact between the two groups of people in that region. 40 The Ganga valley namely the so called Late phase of mature Harappa and the Late Harappan cultures are genetically related resepectively to the Siswal B and Siswal C cultures of the Sutlej and the Sarasvati-Drishadvati valleys. In that area the Siswal B is followed by Siswal C at Sanghol, Dher Majra, Mitathal, Banawali etc. In the Upper Ganga- Yamuna Doab also the Siswal B known as the Late phase of the Mature Harappan or the OCP group A culture was followed by the Siswal C called the Late Harappa or the OCP Groups B culture, and the two cultures overlapped or intermingled at Alamgirpur I, Hulas I, Baragaon, Ambakheri etc. Baragaon as a single culture Harappa site with marginal OCP. The lower level at Baragaon is represented by the Harappan phase the upper level appears to belong to the OCP phase. (Chart No. 1)
98 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 81 CHART CULTURES SEQUENCE OF THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY SN Sites District Latitude/ Longitude 1 Alamgirpur Meerut N, E River/Lake Association Left Bank of Hindon Excavator/Year ASI/Y.D. Sharma ( ) 2 Hulas Shaharanpur - Kaitha Nala - 3 Baragaon Shaharanpur - Left Bank of Maskara 4 Ambkheri Shaharanpur N, E - 5 Hastinapur Meerut N, E Right Bank of Budhi Ganga 6. Ahichhatra Bareilly N, E Ramganga M.N. Deshpande ( ) M.N. Deshpande ( ) B.B. Lal ( and 1952) N.R. Banerjee ( ) Period I/Date /Associated Finds Harappan and Bara Pottery (c B.C.) Harappan Ware and Non Harappan Wares Harappan Ware and Unslipped OCP Ochre Coloured Ware and Harappan Ware Ochre Coloured Ware Pre 1200 B.C. Ochre Coloured Ware Period II/ Date/Associated Finds Painted Grey Ware (Black and Red Black Slipped WareRed Ware) Painted Grey Ware (Black and Red Black Slipped Ware Red Ware) Period III Date/ Associated Finds Early Historic Northern Black Polished Ware (Black Slipped Ware) Period IV/ Date/ Associated Finds Period V Date/ Associated Finds Period VI Date/ Associated Finds Period VII Date/ Associated Finds Late Medieval Plain and Incised Red Ware (Sunga Kushan) Gupta and Early Medieval Painted Grey Ware ( B.C.) Painted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished Ware (Early 6 Century B.C. to Early 3 rd Century B.C.) Northern Black Polished Ware Kushan Early 2 nd Century B.C. to the End of 3 rd Century B.C.) Medieval - - Kushan/Gupta Bahadrabad Shaharanpur 8. Lal Qila Bulland-shahr N, E N, E Right Bank of Ganga Left Bank of Kali East Y.D. Sharma ( ) S. Nurul Hasan and R.C. Gaur ( to ) Palaeolithic Industry Ochre Coloured Ware Ochre Coloured Ware
99 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Daulatpur Bulland-shahr N, E 10. Kiratpur Bulland-shahr E, N 11. Saipai Etawah N, E 12 Bahariya Shahjahanpur N, E Left Bank of Kali East Right Bank of Kali East Left Bank of Rind 13. Bisauli Badayun N, E Rajpur Pursu Bijnaur N, E 15. Kaseri Meerut N, E 16. Kamauli Varansi Radhan Kanpur Dehat N, E Fatehpur- Sikri Sadhvara Khera Agra - Agra 20. Atranjikhera Etah N, E N, E - Left Bank of Ganga Right Bank of Hindon Left Bank of Ganga Right Bank of Ganga Right Bank of Yamuna Left Bank of Old River Khari Right Bank of Kali East R.C. Gaur ( ) R.C. Gaur B.B. Lal, B.K. Thapar and L.M. Wahal ( to ) V.D. Misra and B.B. Misra ( ) B.B. Lal ( ) B.B. Lal (1945) Romila Thapar and K.N. Dikshit ( ) A.K. Narain ( ) Makkhan Lal ( ) Shanker Nath ( ) Shanker Nath ( ) S. Nurul Hasan and R.C. Gaur ( Ochre Coloured Ware Ochre Coloured Ware and Copper-Hoards Ochre Coloured Ware and Copper-Hoards Ochre Coloured Ware and Copper-Hoards Ochre Coloured Ware and Copper-Hoards Ochre Coloured Ware and Copper-Hoards Ochre Coloured Ware Ochre Coloured Ware Ochre Coloured Ware (PGW & NBP) Ochre Coloured Ware Ochre Coloured Ware Ochre Coloured Ware Painted Grey Ware (Black and Red Ware, Black Slipped and Red Ware) Painted Grey ware without Northern Black Polished Ware Kushan Gupta and Post Gupta Early Medieval Painted Grey Ware (Black and Red Ware, and Red Ware) Painted Grey Ware (Black and Red Ware, Plain Grey and Red Ware) Black and Red Ware (c B.C.) Northern Black Polished Ware, Red Ware (Black Slipped Ware) Northern Black Polished Ware, (Black Slipped Ware) Painted Grey Ware (c Sunga and Kushan Medieval Red Glazed and Crackled Glazed Ware Red Ware Medieval - - Northern Black Polished Ware (C Kushan Period ( Gupta ( A.D) Medieval ( A.D.)
100 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 83 68) B.C.) B.C) A.D.) 21. Jakhera Etah N, E 22. Pariyar Unnao Sringaverpur Allahabad 24. Kausambi Allahabad N, E N, E Left Bank of Kali East Left Bank of Ganga Left Bank of Ganga Northern Bank of Yamuna M.D.N. Shahi , and ) B.B. Lal and K.N. Dikshit ( ) B.B. Lal and K.N. Dikshit ( ) G.R. Sharma Since 1949 and V.D. Misra Ochre Coloured Ware (Black and Red Ware, Black Slipped and Associated Red Ware) Ochre Coloured Ware (Black and Red Ware, Black Slipped and Burnished Grey Ware) Ochre Coloured Ware Red Grey, to Buff Black and Red, (C B.C.) Black and Red Ware, Black Slipped Ware, Red Ware and Burnished Grey Ware Black and Red Ware, Black Slipped Ware) IIA- Ochre Coloured, Black and Red Ware, Black Slipped Ware, Burnished Grey Ware IIB- Black and Black Slipped, Red and PGW Red Ware, Incised Red Ware, (C BC) IIIA- Black and Red, Painted Black Slipped, Red, Iron, PGW IIIB Mature Painted Grey Ware Painted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished Ware, Painted Grey Ware, Black Slipped Ware, Grey, Black and Red, Red Ware (C BC) IVA- Painted Grey and Northern Black Polished Ware Northern Black Polished Ware (C B.C) Sunga Kushan Post Northern Black Polished Ware V,B- Late Northern Black Polished Ware Sunga- Kushan Gupta Post Gupta Jhinjihana Muzaffar Nagar - Kaytha Nala B.B. Lal Ochre Coloured Ware Painted Grey Ware Allahpur Meerut N, E Left Bank of Hindon Romila Thapar and K.N. Dikshit ( ) IA- Black and Red Ware Painted Grey, Plain Slipped Red Ware (C BC) IIB- Black and Painted Grey Ware
101 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 84 Red Ware (PGW, RW) 27. Mathura Mathura N, E Bank of Yamuna M.C. Joshi ( , ) IA- Painted Grey Ware, Blacked Slipped and Red Ware, IIB- NBP Northern Black Polished Ware Late Northern Black Polished Ware Kushan Gupta and Post Gupta Jajmau Kanpur - Right Bank of Ganga R.C. Singh Black and Red Ware, Painted Grey Ware and Red Ware Northern Black Polished Ware and Associated Red Ware Red Ware Kushan Musa Nagar Kanpur N, E Left Bank of Yamuna - Black and Red Ware, and Red Ware Painted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished Ware Early Historic Medieval Abhaipur Pilibhit - Deoha River Lal,S.B. and A. Mishra (2001) Black and Red Ware, and Black Slipped Red Ware Painted Grey Ware Saunpari Shahjahanpur N, E Gomti Nadi D.P. Tewari ( ) Painted Grey Ware Grey Ware Black Slipped Red Ware Northern Black Polished Ware Kushan Medieval Charda Bahraich N, E Rapti and Bakla - Grey Ware (Dull Red Ware) Northern Black Polished Ware Red Ware Kushan Gupta Post Gupta Early Medieval - 33 Kampil Farrukhabad N, E Old Bed of Ganga K.K. Sinha ( ) Painted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished Ware Kannauj Farrukhabad 35 Sonkh Mathura N, E N, E - - K.K. Sinha ( ) German Team H. Hartel ( ) Painted Grey Ware, Black Slipped and Red Ware Painted Grey Ware, Northern Black Polished Ware Northern Black Polished Ware Post Northern Black Polished Ware Sunga- Kushan Late Medieval Kushan Gupta and Post Gupta - -
102 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Khalaua Agra N, E Left Bank of Old River Khari Y.D. Sharma Painted Grey Ware, Black and Red Ware Northern Black Polished Ware Bateshwar Agra N, E Right Bank of Yamuna J.S. Nigam ( ) Painted Grey Ware, Black Slipped and Red Ware Northern Black Polished Ware Red Slipped Ware Medieval Sravasti Gonda Bahraich - - Sinha ( ) 39. Hulaskhera Lucknow Jhusi Lucknow 41. Thapli Tehri- Garhwal N, E - Ganga and Yamuna Left Bank of Alaknanda - - Northern Black Polished Ware Northern Black Polished Ware, Black Slipped and Black and Rd Ware Mesolithic Period Painted Grey Ware Grey, Black Slipped and Red Ware Late Phases of NBPW Neolithic Period Kushan Chalcolithic Period and Iron Age Northern Black and Polished Ware Sunga Kushan Gupta Period Early Medieval Period
103 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 86 The Chart shows all the excavated sites of the Upper Gangetic plain and presents a Coherent picture at cultural sequence revealed. Excepting Bahadrabad, where the OCP deposit is preceded by a Palaeolithic Industry. 41 The OCP deposit rest on the Virgin Soil noticed at sites like, Rajpur Pursu, Lal Qila, Bisauli, Daulatpur, Kaseri, Hastinapur, Kiratpur. At Hastinapur the OCP is followed by the PGW culture. A similar sequence was encountered at Ahichhatra, Kaseri is succeeded by a mixed deposit containing the painted Grey ware, Black and Red, Black slipped and red wares. In this region the OCP shows predominant Late Harappan, cemetery H and Bara influence in fabric, shape and design. At Atranjikhera it is succeeded by the BRW deposit with a break in between the two. At Noh II in Bharatpur district and Jodhpura II of Rajasthan also the OCP was found below Black and red ware deposit with a break in between two. Fatehpur Sikri and Sadhavara Khera the OCP deposit is overlain by a deposit containing mixed assemblage of the PGW and BRW. At Jakhera the OCP deposit Period I is followed by the strata (Period II) containing the BRW, BSW, and associated red wares. Significantly in the Upper level of the OCP deposit period I there is an overlap or intermingling between the OCP and Black and red and associated red wares. 42 The BRW is found sandwiched in between the OCP and PGW deposits at Atranjikhera, Jakhera, Pariyar, Sringaverpur and Kausambi. In this region marginally influenced by the Late Harappan cemetery H and Bara influences. Sringaverpura period I is represented by OCP exclusively Period II A containing a mixed ceramic assemblage of the OCP coarse Black and red ware, Black Slipped, Burnished Grey and associated red wares. Period IIB yielded BRW, Black Slipped and associated red ware with a few painted Grey ware sherds. Period IIA that it represents an overlap phase between period I and period IIB. This also proves that the OCP did not suddenlly come to an end in period I. It rather for some time with the Chalcolithic Black and Red ware, Black Slipped, Burnished Grey and associated red wares in period IIA and also with the Iron age painted Grey wares n period IIB. A few red ochrous potsherds at Kamauli sites but no stratigraphic overlap with other culture has yet been noticed typical copper hoard objects were found associated with the OCP, deposit at Saipai. The lowest level yielded the OCP, PGW and NBPW mixed deposit were found at Radhan. Jhinjhana, where the OCP was followed by the PGW. At Kausambi yielded red, Black and Red ware, Black slipped grey, incised and corded ware. This intermingling period I is represented by a mixed pottery assemblage coarse black, and Black and red ware 43. Kausambi I and Parihati (W.B.) the Chalcolithic BRW and other wares have been found associated with the OCP.
104 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 87 The upper Ganga valley is marked by the well-known Iron age pottery called PGW at Alamgirpur II, Hulas II, Kaseri II, Hastinapur II, Ahichhatra II, Atranjikhera III, Jakhera III, Pariyar III, Sringaverpur IIB, Kausambi II etc. it followed the OCP at Hastinapur, Jhinjihana and also the BRW, at Atranjikhera, Jakhera, Pariyar and Srigraverpura, Kausambi etc. The PGW phase at Sanghol II and Rupar II and Daulatpur, Raja-Karan-Ka-Qila I, there is a distinct Stratigraphic break in between the OCP and the PGW at Hastinapur, Jhinjhana and Ahichhatra in the Upper Ganga valley. This clearly shows represented by the PGW occurred long after the OCP culture had ceased to exist in the Upper Ganga valley. The Chronological gap in between the end of the OCP and the beginning of the PGW cultures at different sites in the Upper Ganga Valley, this time gap was filled by the Chalcolithic iron age BRW and associated Black Slipped and red wares as noticed at Atranjikhera II, Jakhera II, Pariyar II, Kausambi II and Sringaverpur II A (c B.C.). Painted Grey ware is succeeded by the well known NBPW are culture. The epi-centre of which was some where between eastern U.P. and western northern Bihar, Hulas III (BSW) Hastinapur III, Atranjikhera IV, Jakhera, IVA, Pariyar IV, Sringaverpur III, Kausambi IV, Musanaga III, Fatehpursikri III (BSW/RW), Kesari PGW without NBP and Ahichhatra III. Pottery Types The earliest eastward protohistoric movement the Late phase of mature Harappa/ early Bara/ Late Siswal/ Siswal B/ OCP group. A culture at Alamgirpur I, Hulas I, Baragaon and Ambkheri in the Upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab show a curious mixture of different cultural triats viz. Sothi, Bara, Siswal, Harappan, cemetery H, OCP etc as notice below: At Alamgirpur I some most characteristic OCP type (Figure 2) in Harappan fabric together with typical Harappan shapes, such as Indus goblet, cylindrical beaker with slightly rim, perforated brazier and small bell-shaped beaker with disc base, ring stand and large carinated dish on stand. The typical Harappan shapes were hot favorities with the OCP, so is the jar with wide flaring month. The presence of such a large number of the OCP types at Alamgirpur in the Harappan fabrics and adoption of numerous Harappan and cemetery H shapes is the OCP or possibly indicates close cultural contacts or intermingling between the Harappan, cemetary H and OCP. 44 Alamgirpur I, some distinguishing characteristic of the Harappan civilization, e.g. big buildings, seals, human figurines, etc. are markedly absent; But some OCP cultural traits, including pottery types and painting traditions are present. The
105 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 88 incised deigns prevalent at Alamgirpur is a typical phenomena OCP assemblages, but not of the Harappan. 45 V.D. Misra the OCP is conspicuous by its absence at Alamgirpur. Hulas I Typical painted Harappan and some non-harappan wares were found in period I. The characteristic Harappan forms are restircted, the new non- Harappan types, viz. dish-on-stand with drooping rim, jar, medium size jar with everted rim and bowl like lid with central knob were in profusion. The pottery included a few miniature pots with ring or pedestalled base. Figure-2: Late Harappan Pottery Alamgirpur
106 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 89 The pottery included painted motif executed in black pigment are simple bands, triangles, row of hatched diamonds with horizontal bands, leaf pattern, and dancing peacock with hatched body. The incised decorations on the exterior of the pots comprise wavy lines, sigmas and cord impressions. The so-called new or non-harappan pottery types noticed at Hulas bear close resemblance with the well known OCP shapes. The Harappan pottery reported from the ditch separating the Harappan settlement from that of the PGW at Hulas looks like the ochre coloured pottery. 46 At Baragaon I as a Harappan site with marginal OCP it shows the presence of certain Harappn pottery forms common to Ambkheri. Baragaon is a Late Harappan site having connection with the Late Harappan phase of Mitathal II B in Haryana, and show an admixture of the OCP. A few pottery shapes incised designs and paintings at Baragaon, which show marked affinity with those from Bara and cemetary H. Baragaon OCP is also associated with a copper ring of Pondi Bahadrabad types S.R. Rao observed that the incised decoration present at Baragaon and Bara is a Jhukar element. Ambkheri as a OCP site with marginal Harappan elements. It appears that the OCP people coming in contact with the Harappan tried to make bricks. Ambkheri as the Degenerate phase of the present Harappan culture. The Harappan pottery as such is absent at Ambkheri. S.R. Rao noticed that the occurrence of flask types and star and fish motifs at Ambkheri remind us of cemetery H culture. OCP has a greater concentration in the western Upper Ganga Valley than else where. The OCP ware has been reported from Hastinapur, Ahichhatra, Kaseri, Bahadrabad, Daulatpur, Lal Qila and Anwarpur, Baroli at the sequence up is found in period I. Hastinapur Since the potsherds were very small, in size no definite form of pots excepting outlines of the rims could be obtained. The following shapes may be identified.(figure 3)s Jars with horizontally splayed out rim and high narrow neck. (i) Bowl Bowls with slightly incourved thickened rim and semi-circular profile. Ahichhatra The main pottery types are as below :
107 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 90 Basin - (i) Basins with thickened and flanged rim 47. (ii) Shallows basins with thickened protruding rim and concavity at the neck. 48 (iii) Basins with thickened and horizontal rim noticed on the exterior. 49 Bowls Slightly everted rim and a burnt ridge on the interior. 50 Dish-on-Stand Fragmentary hallow sterm and a dish of a dish-on-stand. 51 Vases (i) Vases with wide mouth, tapering shoulder and outturned Featureless rim. 52 (ii) Vases with slightly ribbed exterior and globular shape. 53 Figure-3: Hastinapur: OCP Shapes Ring base A ring base of a globular jar. Figure 4. Bahadrabad OCP Shapes (Y.D. Sharma ) Kaseri Excepting that it is representing by a few potsherds showing affinities with similar ware reported from other sites in the Ganga-Yamuna doab.
108 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 91 Bahadrabad The main pottery types (Figure 4) are as below : Storage Jars (i) Storage Jars with globular body and flat base. (ii) Large storage jars with beaked rim wide open mouth and oblique shoulders. 54 (iii) Externally beaded rim concave neck, and tapering side. Basins (i) Deep basins with heavily beaded under cut rim and grooved carinated shoulder. (ii) Basins with thin flat, internally incised open base. (iii) Basins with thick drooping under cut rim and tapering sides. Bowls (i) Deep bowls with externally faceted rim and rounded profile. (ii) Deep bowls with slightly out curved feature less rim and almost vertical sides. 55 Vases (i) (ii) Vases with featureless flaring rim and short narrow concave neck. Vases with externally faceted flaring rim low concave neck and wide mouth. Pedestalled Bowls Featureless rim, straight sides globular profile and ring base. Loop Handle a semi circular loop handle. Dishes-on-stand (i) Large circular base of a dish-on-stand. (ii) Small ring stand. Knobbed Libs Lids with short central knob small cups or saucers. Daulatpur The main pottery types are as under : (Figure 5) (1) Storage Jars 56 (2) Vases Large vases with wide mouth and grooved high neck. 57 (3) Miniature Vessels 58 (4) Basins 59 (5) Platters internally beaded thick vertical rim and flat base. 60 (6) Bases (i) Flat base of the globular vase. 61 (ii) Ringed base of vase on bowl. 62 (iii) Ringed base of a cup or bottle with tapering body. 63 (7) Lid 64 (8) Spout Spout of a vase or bowl which is partly tubular and channel shaped. 65
109 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 92 Lal Qila The main pottery types are as below :- Troughs 66 (i) Troughs with slightly out turned thickened rim and in curved neck. (ii) Troughs with beaded rim, depression below rim, carinated neck and convex sides. Figure 5. Daulatabad OCP Shapes (R.C.Gaur 1988b) Basins 67 - (i) Basins with flanged rim and incurved. (ii) Basins with lipped spout. (iii) Basins with out going clubbed rim and tapering sides. Bowls 68 Storage Jars (i) Storage jars with out curved rim flattened top and flaring sides. (ii) mildly carinated neck.
110 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 93 (iii) Jars with prominently out curved beaked rim. Miniature Bowls 69 Dishes/Bowl-on-stand 70 Dish-on-Stand 71 Miniature Pots 72 (i) Miniature pot with raised neck and flattish base. (ii) (ii) Miniature pots with globular sides. Ritualistic or Toy pots (i) Pots (ii) Bowls (iii) Lamps/lids Handles fixed on trough basins, vases and pans. 73 (i) Handle with oval (ii) Cylindrical handle, conical top. (iii) Handle with rope pattern. Base Fragments (i) Ranged 74 (ii) Footed. (iii) Discoid. (iv) Cylindrical. Lids 75 Lids with flaming sides and narrow open at tops. The genetic relationship of OCP of the Ganga-Yamuna doab with the Sarangpur ware of the Siswal tradition was first suggested by Suraj Bhan. The typology of the Degenrate Siswal ware of Haryana and OCP of Uttar Pradesh shows common occurrence of the following shapes vases with a flaring rim in the OCP. From Ahichhatra, Hastinapur and Lal Qila and Degenrate Siswal ware flatted looped handle in the OCP from Bahadrabad and Lal Qila and Degenrate Siswal ware, commonly occur both in the OCP and Kalibangan I pottery. Lids with a central knob and round bottom from Bahadrabad, Lal Qila, Daulatpur and Kalibagan I.
111 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 94 The OCP sites in central Upper Ganga valley are lesser in number than those in the western Upper Ganga valley. Atranjikhera, Bahariya, Pariyar, Saipai. Atranjikhera - The main shapes are as below : (Figure 5) 1. Storage jars Vases Other Vessels 4. Trough 5. Basin 6. Bowls 7. Dish-on-Stand 8. Miniature pots 9. Lids featureless and saggar base. 10. Pot-Handles Semi-circular. 11. Base fragment (i) Basin fragments with flat base. Figure 6. Atranjikhera OCP Shapes (R.C. Gaur )
112 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 95 Bahariya- This sites yielded a few pots sherds only the main pottery types are (1) Jars (2) Vases (3) Bowls (4) Basins Fatehpur Sikri The main pottery types are vases and bowls. 78 Pariyar Following shapes are 79 (Figure 7) (i) Vases horizontally splayed out featureless rim. (ii) Jars high concave neck. (iii) Bowls. (iv) Lids Lids with central knob. Saipai 80 - The main pottery types (Figure 8) are given below (i) Jars (ii) Vases (iii) Other Vessels medium sized vases with splayed out featureless rim, wide mouth. (iv) Basins (v) Bowls (vi) Dish-on-stand (vii) Miniature bowls (viii) Lids bowl shaped knobbed lid. (ix) Handle fragment of a strap loop handle. Figure 7. Pariyar OCP Shapes (B.B. Lal and K.N. Dikshit )
113 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 96 Figure 8. Saipai OCP Shapes (B.B. Lal ) There is a close affinity between the OCP of the western and central Upper Ganga Valley in respect of technology, typology and decorative motifs. The jars with a splayed out flaring rim and high neck from Atranjikhera, Pariyar, Saipai, and Hastinapur bear close resemblance with each other. A number of OCP sites in eastern Upper Ganga Valley is quit few the two excavated sites in this region are Sringaverpura and Kausambi. A separate OCP horizon has been demarcated at Sringverpura. Some shapeless pieces of the Ochre Coloured ware the pottery recovered from the lowest phase Kausambi I with the BRW, Black Slipped, Grey Buft and red wares, the intermingling of different cultures in period I at Kausambi. Sringaverpura 81 - The main pottery types are (i) (ii) Jars Jars with a prominently out turned rim. Basins shallow basins splayed out rim.
114 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 97 (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Vases Vases with disc base. Bowls Bowl or basins with short channel spout. Platters Dish-on-Stand with drooping rim Lids Kausambi The excavator noticed the following shapes, which bear resemblance with the analogous shapes from Atranjikhera I and Bhagwanpura IA. (i) Bowl-cum-lid. (ii) Convex Vessels. (iii) Cooking Vessels (iv) Basins Basin without turned rounded rim. (v) Dish-on-stand Close effinity between dish-on-stand, Lid-cum-bowls from the lowest level at Kausambi and Bhagwanpura I. The pottery shapes of Sringverpura also have their parallels at Atranjikhera I. A number of OCP sites in the mid Ganga valley, Kamauli and Mirapatti are the only OCP sites in this region. Kamauli 82 A few sherds of ochrous red ware with a tendency to rub-off were recovered from the lowest level. Mirapatti The presence of following types are (Figure 9) (1) Storage Jars. (2) Vases (3) Basins (4) Bowl A shallow basin or bowl with thick featureless rim, narrow mouth and conver profile. Its association with a copper shouldered axe-ignot at Mirapatti.
115 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 98 Figure 9. Mirapatti OCP Shapes (Krishna Kumar 1992b) Decorations The painted or incised sherds were found in the Ochre coloured pottery assemblage subsequent excavations at Lal Qila, Bahadrabad, Atranjikhera, Fatehpursikri, Saipai, Sringaverpur, Kamuli. Incised Designs - The incised motifs noticed on a few potsherds are as follows Bahadrabad (i) Multiple wavy incised decorations or notched lines on cord pattern along the pot belly. (ii) Internally and externally incised multiple way lines with in parallel bands. 83 Lal Qila 84 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Leafy pattern made of two sets of oblique stokes in either direction. Way or irregular lines. Dashes, either slightly curved, oblique or vertical Check pattern consisting or oblique.
116 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 99 Atranjikhera The incised 85 designs from Atranjikhera include (i) Finger nail incision on the ribs on cords. (ii) Incised rib or cords with notched. (iii) Simple ribs with notches or wavy or straight (iv) Parallel lines. (v) Notches on one side of the rib. (vi) Leaf or V shaped pattern. (vii) Simple notched in a row or scattered. (viii) Simple or double grooves with notches. (ix) Oblique parallel graves with notches. (x) Horizontal parallel multiple grooves with or without notches. (xi) Grooved wavy lines on the neck. (xii) A row of oblique strokes on the neck. (xiii) Zig-zag parallel dashes or straight lines. (xiv) Checked or compartment pattern. (xv) Parallel or oblique angular lines. (xvi) Parallel ribs with incised marks Ambkheri and Bahadrabad have yielded only cord impressed designs. Fatehpur Sikri 86 The pottery is decorated with oblique incision and criss-cross section. Saipai 87 The salient feature of this ware, the various decorative motifs are as below :- (i) Rows of dashes. (ii) Rows of dots. (iii) Single rib. (iv) Rows of triangular enclosing rows of dashes. Sringaverpura 88 The following inside designs: (i) Wavy comb-like pattern (ii) Parallel lines etc. Finger made designs - The finger made decorative motifs are as follows:- Ahichhatra 89 Six straight parallel ribs. Atranjikhera 90 Way lines. Sringaverpura A few sherds bear raised bands.
117 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 100 Thumb-Nail impressed Designs This motif has been found on some pot-shered from Atranjikhera, Lal Qila. Appliqué Designs: A few sherds from Lal Qila, and Atranjikhera show raised bands or straight ribs applied over the shoulders. Painted Designs : This ware was treated with a red slip and painted with black bands, painted decorations were the rim the neck and the shoulder portion of the vases at Lal Qila. The various painted motifs are as below: Geometric 91 (i) Wavy Lines. (ii) Wavy or rope pattern (iii) Comb like designs. (iv) Sand glass like designs (v) Parallel lines and triangles (vi) Thick bands loops and curved or wavy lines. (vii) Oblique or Vertical dashes. Figural 92 (i) Serpent (ii) Goat (iii) Humped Cattle Floral (i) Lily (ii) Leaf (iii) Miscellaneous (iv) Stalk. Atranjikhera (i) Wide paintings over the shoulder of the vases below the rim. (ii) A parallel bands either on the neck on the body of the pot. (iii) Parallel bands and incised rib alternately decorated. (iv) Painting in criss-cross or chequerred pattern on the body. Saipai - A few pot sherds bear criss-cross lines in black pigment.
118 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 101 Incised cum- painted Designs: - Lal Qila and Atranjikhera A significant discovery was a graffiti marks noticed for the first time on OCP sherds is particularly on the deep bowls. These marks include symbol like ladder, cross, hatched, quadrilateral, human figures with stretched arms, stylized Swastivka at Lal Qila. A single sherds from Mirapatti boars two slanting lines forming an angle, which resembles letter ga of the Mauryan Brahmi script post firing graffiti marks, which were scratched with a pointed instrument made of bone or wood. Similar marks also occur on the OCP from Ganeshwar Jodhpura, Kausambi and Mirapatti. Association of Copper Hoards with OCP The association of copper hoards with the OCP has been a matter of debate the scholar for quite a long time B.B. Lal who had for the first time pointed out the association of the two at Bisauli and Rajpur pursu. He also observed that techno-typologically the copper hoards and the Harappans bronze implements have nothing in common, but the scholars generally remained to accept Lal s hypothesis. Further strengthened by the fact that some of the excavations in the upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab particularly those at Bahadrabad and Ambkheri had created some problems by and large, the OCP at these sites contained unmistakable elements of the Harappan ware particularly in typology of vases, basins and dish-on-stand in All India seminar on Indian Prehistory held in the Deccan college Poona. Some of the scholars, the OCP had no independent status of its own. One of them even called it is Late Harappan Ware but the identification of the OCP as a Late Harappan ware was not free from problem, B.B. Lal the copper hoards associated with the OCP had no similarity with the Harappan artifacts. L.M. Wahal was finally proved at Saipai, for the first time typical copper hoard tools viz. a harpoon and a hooked lance head were found in association of the OCP in a proper archaeological context. A genetic type large copper hoard consisting of shouldered axes, hooked, Lance head, bar celts, bangles, harpoon, anthropomorph etc. was earlier found in course of a ploughing at that very site. Besides the discovery of the typical copper hoards implements in association of the OCP under a closely controlled digging at Saipai, this pottery was also found from a number of copper hoards sites; i.e. Bisauli, Rajpurpursu, Lal Qila, Manpur, Bahariya, Kiratpur, Deoti etc. in the Upper Ganga Valley in the past, most of the OCP sites are also located in the Upper Ganga Valley.
119 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 102 Bithur is a well-known copper hoard site, which is not far from Pariyar-another famous copper hoards/ocp sites in district Unnao across the Ganga. The OCP like sherds were also found at Dushkaha were a large copper shouldered axe was incidentally found earlier. Significantly, a copper shouldered axe was earlier found from Mirapatti in Handia subdivision of Allahabad district. A few sherds of ochrous red colour together with BRW and associated red ware and microliths were also recovered as surface find from Parihati an important copper hoard site in the Lower Ganga Valley. A large number copper hoard objects have been found at several OCP sites, in the Upper Ganga Yamuna doab. This clearly shows that the gangetic type copper hoards are associated with the OCP, but the copper hoards using OCP people had established cultural, trade or political contacts with other contemporary cultures in the subcontinent. Numerous copper objects have also been found in context of the Ganeshwar-Jodhpura culture in northeastern Rajasthan. In this connection the following points deserve attention of the stied yielding the copper hoards Rajpur pursu, Bisauli, Bahadrabad, Bahariya, Nasirpur, Saipai, Manpura, Kiratpur, Lal Qila, Kamuali, Kamalpur, Deoti, Pariyar, Balua, Baragaon, Indlapur, Bithur, Chandus, Surthauli, Dhaka, Fatehgarh, Gandhauli, Hardi, Nakrahiya, (Sitapur), Shahabad, Madnapur, Hardoi, Kausambi, Mirapatti, Mathura, Haswa, Dadupur (Lucknow) and Madnapur, numerous copper hoards objects from different parts of the country were published by the archaeologists like; S.P. Gupta 94, P.L. Gupta 95, K.N.. Dikshit 96, B.R. Narain 97, A.K. Nag 98, Makkhan Lal 99, R.C. Gaur 100, F.R. Allchin 101, Subhra Bose 102, R.C. Agrawal 103, G.R. Sharma 104, D.K. Chakrabarti 105. In Makkhan Lal made a reassessment of the Indian copper hoard culture. S.P. Gupta, Makkhan Lal, R.C. Agrawal consider the two groups of copper objects as identical, but that techno-typologically they stand quite apart from one another. The typical copper hoards from Ganga Valley include sophisticated copper objects like hooked lanceheads, antenne swords, harpoons, anthromorph etc. The copper objects from north-eastern Rajasthan include arrow-heads, bow-shaped razors, Fish-hooks, spiral headed pin bowl etc. The arrowhead, fish-hooks and spiral headed pins from Ganeshwar, which have no parallel in the typical copper hoards are characteristic of the Indus sites. Copper objects from northeastern Rajasthan are simple and primitive while the copper hoards objects from the Ganga Valley are sophisticated and of advance nature. Even technologically, the two groups, shows some differences, while the implements from north-eastern Rajasthan were normally manufactured by using primary techniques, viz. open casting. The moulds were probably covered with movable covers to allow slow cooling, annealing (a few copper hoard objects
120 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 103 have shown evidence of annealing and cold work Annealing was noticed in a flat celt from Lal Qila, hammering, sheet cutting. The copper sheets are first produced by hammering from centre towards periphery. The paper thin double edged axe from Bhagrapir (Orissa) arrowheads from Lal Qila and Navdatoli (M.P.) were probably made by this method. The silver plates from Gungeria (M.P.) were also produced by the some technique etc. The typical copper hoards object from Ganga basin show employment of advancement metallurgical technique viz. chasing this technique used for engraving various decorative motifs with help of a fine sharp chisel and a hammer on metal objects. Boring, closed casting, splitting etc. The closed casting specialized copper hoards object viz. harpoons anteannes words, anthropomorph were made of pure copper as well as alloys by the methods. The axes of Gungeria were also manufactured by the same methods. Spiting method was employed for spelnty burbs in settrated harpoon and also for hooks in spear with the help of a thickly pointed chisel and hammer. The allowing methods used in the two groups are also different, whereas the copper hoards. Smith mainly used arsenical alloying, the Ganeshwar Jodhpura suriths chiefly employed lead allowying 106. Even chronologically the Ganeshwar-Jodhpura culture with its antiquity going back to the close of the fourth millennium B.C. is considerably earlier than the OCP culture, which come up not earlier than the closing years of the third millennium B.C. Copper Hoards Main types and their Probable use The chart is show distribution of the copper hoards/ocp main types is Upper Ganga Valley as below: (Map No. V) (Chart No. 2).
121 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 104
122 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 105
123 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 106
124 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 107 Numerous typical copper hoard objects have incidentally came to light from different sites in the western Upper Ganga Valley, the Kumayun hills, and north-eastern Rajasthan, Lal Qila, Kiratpur, Manpura, Rajpur pursu, Nasirpur (Uttar Pradesh) have fairly shown association of the copper hoards with the OCP. A excavations at Lal Qila have confirmed the association of a copper flat axe, an arrowhead a bead and a pendant with OCP. A pair of copper rings or bangles, a fragmentary chisel together, with a chert blade and the OCP potsherds were also recovered from the Late phase of Mature Harappan (early Bara) Late Siswal B OCP at Baragaon. Map No. V. Map Showing important OCP & Copper Hoard Sites
125 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 108 Flat Axe Celts are of three types (i) Rectangular a large rectangular flat axe with long parallel sides, more or less straight wide butt-end and cutting edges from Nasirpur. The similar examples from Rewari (Haryana) in respect that the butt end and cutting edge are slightly roundish (ii) trapezoidal flate axes large or small narrow buttend and convex cutting edge from Rajpur Pursu (3), Chandusi and Bareilly. (1) was discovered ealier. (iii) Slender axes with long or short tapering sides Bisauli (1), Bahadrabad (6) and Rajpur Pursu (3). Similar axes are also known from Mitathal, Kausambi. The examples from Bahadrabad bear three or four round indentation marks near the butt-end. West Bengal and Orissa no flat axes have been reported. At Lal Qila a fragmentary copper flat axe (1) were also found. Kiratpur consisting of flat axes (2) were discovered. A large number of copper hords objects have been found in central Upper Ganga Valley, whereas the archaeological discoveries at Bahariya, Bithur, Deoti, Kannauj, Kamalpur, Majhadpur and Pariyar had already indicated the association of copper hoards with the OCP in this region. The excavations at Saipai have confirmed the same. A number of copper hoard objects including copper flat axes (20) rectangular with long parallel sides and cutting edge, from Bithur. A fragmentary example is also known from Serojpur (3). Large or small trapezoidal flat axes with long or short tapering sides, rounded narrow butt-end from Pariyar (3) Shahabad (32), Gandhauli (9), Hardi (1) Kamalpur, (1), Madnapur (1), Majhadpur (1). The solitary bronze axe from Pariyar bears 6 parallel lines on one face. Similar axes are also known Rajpur pursu, Deoti (1) flat axes was reported. Eastern Upper Ganga Valley has a very sporadic distribution of the copper hoard objects have been reported Dhuskha, Haswa and Kausambi. The copper hoards objects from Pondi (M.P.) geographically as well as typologically belong to this region. Medium size flat axes with short tapering slightly sides, from Kausambi (2), Haswa (2) (Plates 15) and Pondi. The copper hoard sites at Haswa is located on the southern out skirts of the town nor a natural lake at a distance of 12 km east of the district headquarters. The lake is linked with Chhoti- Nadi a tributary of the Yamuna. Three fragmentary copper axes were incidentally found earlier clay from the lake. The confluence of Ganga and Yamuna at Pryag marks the dividing point between the upper Ganga and the mid Ganga Valleys a much more sporadic distribution of the copper hoards objects Itwa and Mirapatti are only sites in this region.
126 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 109 Shouldered Axes Are divisible into the following types: (i) Parallel sided (ii) tapering sided. Shouldered celts have a clear Kline or setback at the point where the curved edge meets the main body of the celt. These are 20 to 23 cm in length and cm in breadth. Parallel sided shouldered axes with long parallel sides, concave wide butt-end convex broad cutting edge from Rajpur pursu(6). Similar axes are also known from Bithur (18), Dakha (5), Nakarhiya (4), Pariyar (1), Hardoi, Kanpur district (3), Madnapur (9), Shahabad (16), Saipai (2) one similar axes also known Haswa (1) and Itwa (5) in eastern region. Tapering sided shouldered axes with long sides narrow convex butt end and broad cutting edge from Bahadrabad (1) and Khera Manpura. A more or less similar pieces is also known from Indilapur (1) Shahabd and Saipai. Their main distribution is in Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal. These have not been found west of the doab. The shouldered axes were employed as weapons of warefare called hatchets (Kuthara). Battle Axes A large battle axe (hatchet with short tapering sides convex narrow butt-end and broad crescentic cutting edge from Nasirpur (2) Gandhuli (3). Winged battle axes from Sarthuali (1). A similar example with damaged wing is also known from Sherojpur. They were used as a weapon in warefare. Shouldered Lugged Axes Small lugged shouldered axes with short concave sides of rectangular lugs from Shahabad (1), excepting a solitary examples from Nepal, which appears to have originally belonged to the mid Ganga-Yamuna doab. A fragmentary example of this type from an site in Unnao district has recently come to light, probably used for controlled cluiseling of wood and for giving final shape to various timber objects. Chisel A small chisel with circular section is known from Sherojpur (1) Diamond shaped chisel narrow straight bi-convex cutting edge from Bithur(1) and Shahabad (1) is also found used for cutting splitting, chasing and pattern gouging.
127 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 110 Bar Bar celts consists of nearly parallel sides bars with a crecentric cutting edge from Nasirpur (2) and Rajpur pursu (1). These three types of celt show a flat ventral and slightly convex dorsal side. The flat and shouldered celts were probably used for cutting wood and for hunting animals. On the basis of use marks on the edge Agrawal (1971:198) suggests that bar celts were used forming ores. Weeding Chisel Tapering sides, thin flattish, section narrow convex butt, cutting edge from Bithur(3) Shahabad (4) and Pariyar (1). Similar tools are also known from Rewari, Bahadrabad, Kiratpur region. Weeding chisel were used for removing grass and other wild georith from cultivated fields. Vessels A copper vase (handi) with carinated body and everted rim from Tajpur (1) and globular vessels from Shahabad (1) (Yule 1989: 219). Beads A cylindrical coiled bead having irregular truncated ends was recovered from excavation at Lal Qila (1). Pendent A pair of pendents (one flat and other bloon shaped) were found Lal Qila (1). Ring/Bangles Rings are made by bending a circular rod till the ends meet, rings or bangles are divisible into the following types- heavy and light. Large heavy circular rings or pointed ends and open mouth from Bahadrabad(5). The rings from Pondi, Rewa district (U.P.) are different because they are made from rods with perfectly circular cross section. Pondi type rings have not been found at any other site. Smith suggested their use as currency like Irish gold and silver ring money (Agrawal 1971: 199) thinks that they were units of weight for smiths, large rings made of thin circular with blunts ends and open mouth from Kiratpur (8) similar examples known from Saipai and Tajpur(10).
128 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 111 Lance-heads Are divisible into the following types : (i) Ribless (ii) ribbed a long broad tapering thick ribbed blade and abrupt transition between blade and tang from Bahadrabad (1), Khera Manpura (1) and Nasirpur (2) similar Lance-heads are also known from Niroi (1), Saipai (5), Shahabad (4), Sarthauli (5), Sherojpur (1), Fatehgarh (1), Pariyar (1) and Unnao (1). Two hook less examples from Saipai and Shahabad. The lance head also served as weapons of offence. Harpoon The Harpoon are divisible into the following types : (i) Serrated (ii) barbed (iii) Knobbed. They are cut from a thick sheet of copper and hammered. They have 4-6 oblique barbs or each side, space equally on the two-third length of blade they have a holed ung or forked hook on the stem to pieces from Bithur (Lal 1970) have three pairs of straight projections in place of foiled lug or forked hooks and a circular shank from Chandusi, barbed harpoons are further divided into following sub-types : Slanting barbed incurved barbed incurved barbed Bithur (8) Rajpur pursu (6) Bareilly (2), Bahariya (1) Niroai (1), Saipai (1) Bisauli (1), Shahabad (9), Sarthauli (2), Pariyar (1), Kannauj (3), Jajmau (1), Bairrajpur (2), Nasirpur (1). A single example with a small tapering ribbed lance head four pair of knobbed and short circular shank from Malli (Rajasthan). The harpoon were possibly used for hunting big games viz. elephant, bison, crocodile, rhinoceroses and also as an effective weapon in warfare. Antennae Swards The antennae swords following types (i) Large (ii) medium (iii) miniature. Large medium sized pointed or knobbed antennae from Fatehgarh (13) and Shahabad (7) medium antennae swords bi-convex section antennae swords bi-convex section rectangular grip, short incurred or outcurved pointed antennae from Bithur (2), Sheorojpur (1). A similar sword is also known from Chandusi. Miniature antennae swords the solitary examples from Bithur is unique I the sense that no other specimen come to light from any site. Similar swords frequently occur in European burials. An antennae sword has also been reported Pariyar (1) Shanccot (1) and Unnao (1) Large size and heavy weight were used for hunting or in combat. Mini Antennae Swords Mini Antennae swords examples only from Bithur (1).
129 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 112 Arrow head A fragmentary arrowhead with triangular blade was recovered from excavations at Lal Qila (1). The arrow heads have also been discovered in context of the Ganeshwar- Jodhpura at a number of sites in eastern Rajasthan. The arrow head were employed both for hunting and warefare. Although the material from eastern Upper Ganga Valley is too scanty for a typological comparison with other regions. The available artifacts clearly shows flat axes, shoulder axes and shoulder axes ignot bear close resemblance with those found is central Upper Ganga plain. The large heavy circular rings also commonly occur in Upper Ganga Valley. The Various symbols (Plates 16) noticed in these sites are as below: (i) Round indentations. (ii) Cow-heads. (iii) Five-point star Round indentations 107 a slendar flat axe from Bahadrabad bears 3 round marks near the butt-end and a trazezoidial flat axe from Khera Manpur shows 8 round marks, Gandhuali and Shahabad marks in combinations of 3 or 4 near the butt end. Bithur displays 5 round indentation marks arranged in form of a cross in the center. A parallel sided shouldered axe from Nakrahiya displays round indentation marks of 3:3:3 near the butt end. A chisel from Bithur shows two round marks near the butt-end. A trapezoidal flat axe from Kausambi II round indentation marks in the form of a trident in the center, and Haswa 4 indentation marks near the butt-end. Hooked Swords Long or short broad ribbed winged blade hooked grip, base from Bahariya (1). Flat Axe Ignot A large unfinished trapezoidal flat axe ignot with long tapering sides smooth dull edge from Kamalpur (1) and Rajpur pursu(1). Shoulder Axe Ignot: A large shouldered axe ignot have been incidentally found at Dhuskha in the past, but similar axes from Mirapatti (1) (Plates 17) and Unnao(1) were also known.
130 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 113 Anthropomorphs Anthropomorphs are large and massive object are divisible into the following types: (i) Squat (ii) tall (iii) unfinished (iv) damaged. A squat anthropomorph semi-circular head, long incurved arms and medium sized pointed legs from Bisauli (3) breadth is 33.5 cm whereas length 22.5 cm. The head portions of a similar figures was also recovered from the Late Harappan level at Lothal A IV (Gujarat). Tall anthropomorphs with semi-circular ridges long incurred arms and long out stretched pointed legs from Sherojpur (3) and Fatehgarh (1). An examples from Sherojpur housed in the State Museum Lucknow bears a fish symbol on the chest and two cross like remnants on back side. Similar anthropomorph ridgeless incipient heads, long thin out- stretched arms and broken legs from Kiratpur (1). Taragoan (1), Saipai (2) and Kanauj (1) were also found. A rectangular flat axe from Nasirpur bear 3 cow-head (go-mukha) pendent loops near the butt-end. A wedding chisel from Kiratpur displays a five starpoint near the buttend. The other motifs that occur on the copper hoard objects namely fish, bull, nandipada, trisula, cross, svastika, five point star cow-head etc. appear to have been the auspicious symbols having some religious significance. Some of them even occur on potsherds and terracotta objects from different protohistoric sites, besides its frequent occurrence on the Harappan seal and sealings, a fish symbol is also noticed on a Harappan terracotta ball from Hulas and crescentic horns flanked by leafy motifs is pointed on an OCP sherd from Lal Qila. This motif frequently occurs on the Kulli ware. A bull also finds funerary pots from cemetery H. A trident or trisula like graffiti marks occurs on the OCP sherds from Lal Qila and Ganeshwar Jodhpura. Some of the symbols viz. trident (trisula) nandipada, fish (mina) bull (nandi) Svastika etc. have survived as sacred art motifs in Indian art through the ages. This shows the continuity of the Indian proto historic art traditions. Associated Objects Among the associated objects mention may be made of copper objects a number of OCP sites have not only yielded a rich harvests of potsherds but a variety of architectural remains and associated finds viz. terracotta, bone, stone, plant and wood remains animal bones. A fairly extensive clay plastered floor reinforced with horizontally laid pot sherds rammed in earth and containing a series of post-holes Lal Qila and Daulatpur. A few regularly laid rundried bricks showing mud mortar and in the west. Ahichhatra and Lal Qila baked brick fragments rectangular Lal Qila, Daulatpur and Bahadrabad burnt clay plaster with reed impression Atranjikhera Saipai and Sringverpura wedge shaped backed brick
131 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 114 fragments: Lal Qila and Hardakheri fire places, Lal Qila and Daulatpur, ash with charcoal pieces Lal Qila and ovaloid oven lined with hand made bricks at Ahichhatra. Terracotta Objects Decorated and plain ball Lal Qila and Daulatpur and Atranjikhera. Beed or pendent Atranjikhera and Daulatpur. Pottery disc - Lal Qila and Daulatpur. (without a central perforation disc Sringverpura. Perforated Atanjikhera. Unperforated disc pottery - Atranjikhera. Dabber - Atranjikhera Crucible contain copper granules - Atranjikhera. Amulets - Sachukot and Indra Nagar. (Clay taplets Lal Qila) Gamesman - Lal Qila. Wheels Lal Qila Teracotta Figurines (i) Anthropomorphs, Lal Qila (ii) Mother Goddess figures- Lal Qila (iii) Bull figurines Lal Qila (iv) Bird figurines Lal Qila Indeterminate objects Atranjikhera and Gadhrona. Stone Objects Balls Lal Qila, Daulatpur, Saipai, Godhrona. Grinders Lal Qila Pestles Lal Qila Querns Lal Qila, Daulatpur, Saipai, Atranjikhera. Sharpner Lal Qila Pounder Saipai Skin rubber Lal Qila Net sinker Lal Qila Chert blades Saipai
132 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 115 Chalcedony flake Saipai Carnelian flake Sringverpur Weight Daulatpur. Copper Object Arrow head - Lal Qila Pendents Lal Qila Beads Lal Qila Flat Axe Lal Qila Hooked lance head Saipai Harpoon- Saipai Animals bones 108 Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Lal Qila Cow (Bos indicus linn) Lal Qila Deer (Axis axis) Lal Qila Goat (Capra hircus) Lal Qila Nilgai (Bos elaphas tragacanelus) Lal Qila Horse (Equs caballus Linn) Lal Qila Sheep (Ovis Vignei Blythrace domestican) Lal Qila Dog (Canis faniliarian Linn) Tiger (Atranjikhera) Indian humped cattle (Saipai and Atranjikhera) Plant remains 109 Barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn) Lal Qila, Atranjikhera, Sringverpura. Grass pea (Lathyrus stivus L.) Atranjikhera Chickpea (Cicer arietium Linn) Atanjikhera Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Sringverpur, Lal Qila, Atranjikhera. Grass Cloth (Bohemeria platyphylla) Atranjikhera 110 Cotton (Gossipium herbacum asboreum) Sringverpura 111 Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Sringverpur. Wheat (Triticum cf. aestivium linn) Lal Qila Seed Lal Qila Wood Remains
133 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 116 Babul (Acacia nilotica L.) Atranjikhera, Sringverpura. Chir (Pinus sp.) Atranjikhera, Sringverpura Sal (Dalbergia sisoo Rox b.) Atranjikhera Ber (Zizyphus sp.) Sringverpura 112 Bamboo (Dendrocalamus S.) Sringverpura Mahua (Madhuca Longifolia) Sringverpura Siras Sringverpura Mango (Mangifera indica) Sringaverpura. Wild Grass remains Munja Sringaverpura 113 Kansor kusa Sringaverpura. 114 Two female figurines recovered from Lal Qila, it has a broad oval face, a wide receding fore head (Plates 18), a solid neck, big eyes, a parrot like nose, full checks. The excavators two terracotta objects (Plates 19) from Lal Qila and anthropomorphic figuries with stretched stumpy hands and legs. 115 Similar terracotta anthropomorphs figurines have also been found from excavations at Sanghol 116, and bher Mejra in Punjab, Sugh and Bhagwanpura in Haryana. Some terracotta figurines representing buffalo and bull, dog were also found at Lal Qila and Ambkheri. A perforated leg of an animal figurine from Lal Qila possibly represents a wheeled toy. The bull undoubtedly played a role in the agricultural economy of Regvedic Aryans. A bull figure is painted on a funerary pot of cemetery H which suggests its funerary or religious significance. This animal is frequently pointed on the Kulli and Amri ware. The unped bull motif is also chased on the copper shouldered axes from Mahuapur. The terracotta female figurines from Lal Qila possibly mark the beginnings of idolatry in the Ganga Valley. A number of pottery discs with or with out perforated were recovered from excavations at Lal Qila 117, Daulatpur, Atranjikhera and Sringverpura in U.P. Many modded terracotta wheels with or without central hub on one side were also Lal Qila, Daulatpura and Ambkheri. On one examples six pin holes are shown. The wheels and disc of gold symboling sun (Surya) are referred to in the Vedic literature.
134 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 117 Chronology Though the stratigraphic sequence of the cultures in the Ganga-Yamuna Doab is now well established, the absolute chronology still remains a matter of debate. The Chronology of the ochre coloured ware and copper hoard complex is still unclear, because of the disturbed conditions (probably from water action) of most of the sites. A very wide chronological bracket based on TL dating ranging from 2600 B.C B.C. indicates that this culture, oringuating possibly in the pre-harappan times as coeval but different might have gone through a long process of evolution. At least three evolutionary stages of this pottery can be postulated. (i) The traditional stage, or the earliest when OCP with heavy incised designs evolved from the cord impressed and hand made pottery and akin to the associated Red ware of Koldihwa. (ii) Second stage represented by Lal Qila, Alamgirpur and Ambkheri where the ceramic complex indicates Harappan affiliation. (iii) Third stage represented by Atranjikhera and Saipai with thick bands of paintings. In this context it may not be out of place to mention that a single C 14 date 2780 B.C. 118 Heine-Geldern, who related the Indian copper hoards with the movement of Indo- Aryans from Southern Russia via Trans caucasia and Persia to India, has assigned the Indian copper hoards to a time bracket of C B.C. 119 Stuart Piggott identified the copper hoards with the Harappan refugees migrating from the Indus valley to the Ganga basin around 1500 B.C. 120 and placed them with in the period B.C. when Lal excavated Hastinapur from radio carbon dating facility was not available in India. To fix the chronology of the cultures at Hastinapur in particular and in the Ganga-Yamuna Doab in general Lal used stratigraphic and literary evidence. (Lal : 21-23). He suggested following dated brackets for different cultural periods -: (i) Ochre Coloured Pottery Period I- pre 1200 B.C. (ii) Painted Grey Ware Period II to 800 B.C. (iii) Northern Black Polished Ware- Period III Early 6 th century B.C. to early 3 rd century B.C. (iv) Early Historic Period IV- Early 2 nd century B.C. to the and 3 rd century A.D. B.B. Lal for the first time associated the copper hoards with the OCP at
135 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 118 Hastinapur, Bisauli and Rajpur Parsu, which he considered to be the remains of the proto-australiods (Nisadas), who lived in the Ganga valley before the arrival of the PGW and Iron using early Aryans. He also thought that the OCP ante-date 1200 B.C. According to R.E.M. Wheeler the chronology of the copper hoards is largely a guess work, and he assigned them to a period before 800 B.C. S.P. Gupta placed the Indian copper hoards in general to the time bracket of C B.C. and Krishna Deva dated the OCP between 1700 and 1000 B.C. B.B. Lal the reconsidered the time-braket of copper hoards in the light of their stratigraphic association with the OCP at Saipai. The discovery of a copper anthropomorph from the Late Harappa level at Lothal and a series of TL a few OCP sites in the Upper Ganga Valley and assigned the copper hoards culture to the first half of the 2 nd millennium B.C. S.R. Rao has assigned the entire Late Harappans and the copper hoard culture complex including the OCP of the Sutlaj and the Ganga Valley to a period between C and 1500 B.C. Y.D. Sharma held that in the Upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab the Harappan and the copper hoards culture are contemporary and as such he placed them in a tentative date-braket of B.C. According to R.S. Bisht the OCP of the Ganga Valley is partly Late contemporary and partly posterior to the Indus culture. The exploration on the Upper Doab revealed two groups of sties (i) There are certain settlements where Harappans were found living with the OCP user (ii) Sites which are absoulutely free from any Harappan admixture except for some typological resemblance similarly in pottery. In central doab this typological resemblance is absent. The absence of Harappan forms from central doab and two groups of OCP pottery in Upper doab. Suggests a kind of loose chronological sequence which no doubt requires further confirmation. 121 On the basis of Lal Qila evidence R.C. Gaur 122 has preseumed that the OCP people were the descendants of the pre-harappan. The sothi comple including pottery types, incised decorations and paintings has more affinity with deposits of the OCP in the Doab than that of Kalibangan I, while Sothi, Lal Qila and Atranjikhera share a common tradition of painting. Gaur equated to some extent with six pottery groups of Kalibangan I. Several OCP sites have been excavated in the Upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab, but not a single C 14 determination is available for the OCP phase. On typological grounds S.P. Gupta has placed the copper hoards between C and 1000 B.C. R.C. Gaur has placed the OCP culture at Daulatpur in the Upper Ganga valley in the time-bracket of c B.C. 123 At sites, like Alamgirpur, Hulas, Baragaon and Ambkheri the OCP overlapped or intermingled with the Late phase of mature Harappan culture, which R.N. Brunswing has dated in between c and 2000 B.C.
136 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 119 As pointed out by Suraj Bhan the Degenerated Siswal Ware bridges the geographical and chronological gap between the late Siswal of Haryana and the OCP of western Uttar Pradesh. The archaeological discoveries at Bahadrabad, Nasirpur, Lal Qila and Kiratpur have fairly shown that the copper hoards are closely associated with the OCP. As mentioned above a number of tool types viz. Flat axes, shouldered axes, bar-celts, antennae, sword, lanceheads, chisels, rings harpoons and anthromorphs commonly occur on both the sites. B.B. Lal has dated the Lothal anthropomorphs to c B.C. This dating receives some corroboration from D.K. Chakrabarti, who has assigned the Lothal anthropomorph in the second half of the third millennium B.C. On the basis of TL dates 124 recently obtained on the ochre coloured pottery from four different sites, Atranjikhera, Lal Qila, Jhinjhana, Nasirpur and Sringaverpura have been obtained ranging in the time-bracket of B.C. R.C. Gaur has suggested that the OCP culture preceded, co-existed with the even survived the Harappan culture. The following TL dates have been worked out by F-Huxtable and D.W. Zimmerman on samples from different OCP sites. Table No. 7 T.L. Dates for OCP Sites Sample No. TL date in B.C. Mean TL date in B.C. Atranjikhera C C C Jhinjhana B B Lal Qila Nasirpur 114 A A2 1180
137 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 120 The real TL dates range between 2650 and 1180 B.C. The mean TL dates suggest 2070 and 1340 B.C. as the beginning and the end of the OCP culture in this region. B.B. Lal has dated the OCP phase at Hastinapur I in between c and 1800 B.C., on the other hand R.C. Gaur has assigned the OCP phase at Lal Qila in the date bracket of c B.C. viewed against the C 14 date of Jodhpura, the OCP would appear to be pre-harappan in Rajasthan but in the Upper Ganga Valley, it may be placed in the first half of the second millennium B.C. on the basis of above TL dates. R.C. Gaur has assigned the OCP phase at Atranjikhera in the first half of the 2 nd millennium B.C. or in the date-bracket of c B.C. whereas the above TL determinations suggest a time span of c B.C. for the OCP phase at Atranjikhera. The mean TL age of the OCP phase at Atranjikhera i.e B.C. falls well with in the time bracket of c B.C. proposed for this region. The OCP phase at Ahichhatra has been assigned by R.C. Gaur to a date-bracket of c B.C. which falls within the time span of c B.C. proposed for the OCP culture in this site. D.K. Chakrabarti has placed the OCP level at Saipai in the first half of the second millennium B.C. The terminal date for the OCP culture has to be fixed in the light of dates proposed for the OCP phase at Kausambi and Sringaverpura. The pre NBPW phase I at Kausambi, which also contains the OCP sherds was originally assigned by G.R. Sharma to the date-bracket of C B.C. Sringaverpura is the only site, where the OCP level (period I) has been properly excavated. The following TL dates have been worked out by D.P. Agrawal on these samples from this site. T.L. Dates for OCP Site Layer Sringaverpura 19E TL Date TL Date Year Mean TL age Year B.C. B.C. Year B.C. 3015± ± ± On the basis of dates have placed the OCP phase (period I) Sringaverpura in between C and 1000 B.C. However, the TL dates themselves suggest a time-bracket of C B.C. for the OCP phase. On the basis of TL dates, the sub-period IIA at Sringaverpura representing the overlap phase between the OCP, BRW, Black Slipped and associated red wares has been assigned by the date bracket of B.C.
138 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 121 Origin and Authorship The authorship of the copper hoard and the OCP is still being debated upon. Eminent scholars have proposed different theories from time to time. A briefly review would not be out of place. Heine-Geldern associated the copper hoards with the Aryan immigration in India, Stuart Piggott also initially supported him, subsequently, he changed his view, in favour of the Harappan refugees. Y.D. Sharma, V.D. Misra, S.R. Rao associate the copper hoard and the OCP with the Late Harappan s 125. B.B. Lal and S.P. Gupta 126 ascribe the copper hoards and the OCP to the aborigines who inhabited the Ganga Valley before the coming of the Aryan-speaking people. R.C. Gaur 127 is inclined to associate it with the Pre- Harppan D.P. Agrawal 128 expresses the possibility of south-east Asian inspiration behind these copper implements. P.L. Gupta held that the copper hoard using Asuras had spread from eastern India to the Upper Ganga Valley. The problem is still unsolved. Indo-Aryan Invadar Theory R. Heine-Geldern, Stuart Piggott and John Marshall are to the opinion that the Indo- Aryan invaders coming from the west were the authors of the gangetic copper hoards. 129 Heine-Geldern drew our attention to certain typological parallels of the copper hoards weapons, like harpoons and antennae, swords reported in west Asia. 130 But B.B. Lal does not agree with him. According to him there is no parallel between the Gangetic copper hoards and any of the protohistoric cultures of west Asia. The origin of the Indo-Aryan and their invansion in the Indo-Pak subcontinent is a highly controversial question and it is not certain whether there was any Aryan invansion of India. Harappans Theory Y.D. Sharma and S.P. Gupta have opined that the copper hoard and OCP represent two different cultures originating respectively in eastern India and central U.P. and subsequently mingling in the Upper Ganga Yamuna Doab (The area in between Kanpur and Etawah) from where it had spread both towards east and west. While in the east it merged with the pre-pgw horizon at Kausambi and in the west it intermingled with the Harappan culture. Recently, S.P. Gupta considered the OCP as a Late Harappan variant 131. J.S. Nigam 132 also does not consider the OCP as Harappan, According to him it is a local pottery deeply influenced by the Harappan pottery tradition. M.N. Desh Pande 133 and Krishna Deva considered the OCP as essentially a non-harappan ware with only marginal Harappan influence at sites like Ambkheri and showing regional features such as incised
139 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 122 decorations at Atranjikhera. Makkhan Lal 134 also considered the OCP people as district, but almost contemporary to the Late Harappans. After the initial discovery of the OCP at Bisauli and Rajpur pursu, where the copper hoards were found earlier, B.B. Lal had ascribed the authorship of the copper hoards/ OCP culture to the ancestors of the proto-australoid tribes (Nisadas) who originally inhabited the Ganga Valley before the arrival of the early stock of the Indo-Aryans in the subcontinent. Later on G.M. Bongard Levin 135, N.R. Banerjee, D.V. Deopick, S.P. Gupta, Makkhan Lal, D.P. Agrawal also subscribed to this view. B.B. Lal s arguments is mainly based on certain typological resemblances between the copper hoard and the Neolithic bar-celts as well as between the copper hoard harpoons and the Mesolithic barbed spears depicted in cave paintings at Ghormangur and Likhunia in district Mirzapur in southern U.P. Asura Theory S.C. Roy associated the gangetic copper hoards with the Asuras of eastern India. Subsequently, P.L. Gupta also endored his view, the spread of the copper hoard using Asuras from eastern India 136 towards the Upper Ganga valley. The simple copper hoard tool types of eastern India represent an early stage. Recently, Subhra Bose observed that the simplicity of the copper hoard tool types from West Bengal and their proximity to the copper seem suggests that chronologically they are earlier then those from the Upper Ganga Valley. She further held that the authors of the copper hoards had migrated from West Bengal to the Ganga-Yamuna doab. R.C. Gaur considers the copper hoards of the Ganga basin as distinct from the copper bronze implements from other regions. The OCP and the Late Harappan pottery appear to be of different origin. D.P. Agrawal has fairly indicated that their alloying patterns were quite distinct. The arsenical alloying is the most significant feature in the copper hoards where as only a small percentage of the Harappan objects are arsenical. Recently Dhavalikar has reviewed the problem of the OCP and the copper hoards the OCP though initially a pre-harappan culture some where in the later half of the third millennium B.C. 137 some of the OCP using people might have adjusted with the mature Harappan. This represents a symbiotic relationship between the Harappans and the OCP. The OCP copper hoards people first settled in the Upper Ganga basin and later moved to the middle Ganga valley.
140 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 123 OCP and Flood Theory The OCP deposits at Ahichchatra, Atranjikhera, Noh, Jhinjhana, Nasirpur, Bahadrabad, Hastinapur, B.B. Lal found that everywhere the OCP sherds occur in a deposit of earth varying from yellowish brown in colour, often mixed with Kankar and usually hard in texture. Which did not contain any flooring substance or any object indicative of regular habitation, e.g. ash, charcoal etc 138. The OCP has a tendency to rub-off and has rolled edges sand and silt deposit occur at different sites. The entire Upper Ganga Yamuna Doab was flooded. A tectonic movement involving the Indus gangetic divide. Some where near the sources where the Ghaggar and the Ganga basins come close to each other, had diverted the course of river Yamuna from west to east. The OCP culture met a catastrophic end in this deluge, The village settlements got submerged. Like ash, charcoal etc. Copper hoards objects and the like got mixed up with the natural soil and resettled more or less in the same area. Generally found at the OCP sites in the Ganga valley, and the earthen pots originally a red slipped ware because of rolling and water logging in the flood. The scientific studies of the OCP sediments from sites of Ambkheri, Jhujhana, Nasirpur, Atranjikhera, by D.P. Agrawal indicated that the OCP deposits were affected by the floods. Makkahan Lal also noticed that seasonal flooding was quite common during the OCP period. This is an important evidence B.B. Lal theory of tectonic movement involving the Indo gangetic divide, and the consequent eastward shift in water channel of river Yamuna and flooding of the Upper Ganga valley. Geochronological study of the soil samples from ochre coloured pottery horizon exposed at Ambekheri, Bargaon, Hastinapur, Nasirpur, Atranjikher, Achichhatra have been subjected to mechanical analysis to determining the mode of transportation and sedimentation of the material. The specimens are free from clay grade and are largely composed of fine sand and coarse and medium silt. B.B. Lal gave a different reason for the recent weathering of the OCP. Through out the long period of inhumation in the soil, the pottery remained in contact with the subsoil moisture containing soluble salts. R.P. Sharma 139 forward the argument that the floods mentioned in literature are post- Rigvedic. The earliest flood may be dated to the first half of the IInd millennium B.C. The second, flood, mentioned in Atharveda may be dated to a slightly later period. If the later Rigvedic period is to be synchronized with the PGW culture, the floods referred to should effects the habitational deposit of the PGW and NBP cultures also. Thus the idea of flood does not hold good.
141 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 124 In the modern times, the settlements located right on the banks of river Ganga and its tributaries are often washed away by mansoonal floods. The presence of sand and pebbles at Bahadrabad sand and silt at Gadhrona, sand and river-borne silt at Nasirpur and Ambkheri and gravel at Atranjikhera OCP sites were not destroyed by a particular deluge by Lal by recurring monsoonal floods. Dikshit 140 believes that In a riverrine cultural like, OCW, people must have clinged to river banks and temporarily shifted to higher grounds during floods. They must have welcomed short duration floods for the fertile alluvium. The OCP associated sediments indicated intense and extensive flood activity which washed away the OCP settlements and left behind the silt which at places got mixed up with the OCP sherds and other artifacts. This devastation may also partly explain the considerable delay in the urbanization of the Doab. Settlement Patterns The OCP sites are generally small village settlements located along the arterial rivers, their tributaries and natural lakes surrounded by primordial forests. Most of the sites were thus liked up by the water-ways. The antiquity of some famous pilgrim centers located on holy river-sides, namely, Haridwar, Naimisarauya, Sringaverpura, Bithur, Prayaga, etc. goes back to the OCP period. At present the river, Kali, drains several district like Saharanpur, Muzzaffarnagar, Bulandshahr, Aligarh, Etah and Farrukhabad. As noticed by R.C. Gaur, besides regular OCP settlements situated along the perennial rivers, these were some composites, like Daulatpur located on the banks of lakes. The settlements of OCP people are generally very small (200 x 200m) and therefore appear to be short duration. The occupational thickness varies from 0.30m to 1.20m. 141 At Atranjikhera the OCP is mainly confined to the eastern most part of the mound an area of about 300 sq. m. The OCP sherds were collected from an area of hectare 142 Shanker Nath thinks the numerous OCP sites in the Upper Ganga Valley is extensive, not being more than 100 m. on each side. According to Makhhan Lal, most of the OCP settlements located on river-banks were in size very much like the Late Harappan i.e. between 1 and 2 hect. In the Upper Ganga Valley. The OCP settlement of Daulatpur i.e. 240 x 190 m. as recorded by the excavation. They were either extensive e.g. Daulatpur or medium sized. The OCP sites generally occur in Khadar and Bhabar land, which even today remains water-logged during the rainy season. The OCP settlements also deposited fertile alluvium on the flood plains and caused the ralling and weathering of the ill-fired OCP sherds. Explorations show that in Saharanpur district settlements were located at a distance of about 4 to 6 kms. From each
142 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 125 other in Yamuna Valley which suggests that the area was thickly populated. According to Makkhan Lal, the spacing between different OCP sites was 8 to 12 km. in the Upper Ganga Valley. The settlements at Hastinapur, Ambkheri, Gadharona, Thataula and other sites are situated on the top older alluvium (Bhangar) along the old bank of the river Ganga called Buddhi Ganga. The scholars generally believe that the OCP people were nomads, but as rightly held by H.D. Sankalia, Krishna Deva, R.C. Agrawal, they led a sedentary life. The settlement patterns as revealed by excavations at a number of OCP sites e.g. Atranjikhera, Lal Qila, Daulatpur, Saipai, Jakhera, Srigverpura etc. in the Upper Ganga Valley. The discovery of floor levels divided into 4 phases at Lal Qila clearly shows that the site was permanently inhabited by the OCP people who did not frequently change their settlement. The available archaeological evidence clearly indicates that they lived in permanent houses and practiced agriculture and tamed animals. The rich variety of pottery types and other artifacts show that economically they were well established. The querns, pestles and grindess discovered at Lal Qila, Daulatpur and Atranjikhera suggest that cereals like rice, barley, wheat, Oil seeds etc. were pounded and cooked on ovens before consumption. Atranjikhera and Saipai and also the charred animal bones at Lal Qila. The recent botanical analysis has confined that rice, barley, and pulses formed parts of the staple diet of the OCP people at Atranjikhera. A number of furnaces hearths were also exposed at Daulatpur and Lal Qila. The copper rings and terracotta bangles and red-shaped ear-studs bearing pin hole decoration served as ornaments. Terracotta bangles of different shapes and size, showing circular, rectangular-square, on plano-convex sections were sections were recovered from excavations at Lal Qila. The terracotta beads from Lal Qila are bi-cone, circular, lenticular, barrel-shaped standard spherical, vase-shaped and squaish in shape. The stone beads from Lal Qila are convex circular and short truncated bi-conical carnelian. The few kiln-burnt brick fragments discovered Lal Qila, Daulatpur, Saipai, Atranjikhera, Bahadrabad etc. The terracotta skin-rubbers discovered at Lal Qila. Two terracotta gamerman recovered from Lal Qila. Hunting, swimming, wresting etc. were possibly other past time. The OCP people recognized the fertility of the soil on the banks of Kali Nadi. The paleo-botanical remains discovered at Lal Qila, Atranjikhera and Sringaverpura. Grains such as, rice, barley, gram and Khesari have been collected. Grains have also been reported from Lal Qila. Grains finds suggests that agriculture was in developed stage. The nature of plant remains further suggests that the people grew two crops a year-rice in the summer and barley
143 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 126 along with gram and Khesari both legumes, in the winter. The evidence of the cotton has been discovered at Sringaverapura. The cultivation of rice (oryza sativa L.) is indidigenous to India, where it has been recovered from the Neolithic phase (c B.C.) at Mahagara and Koldihwa in eastern U.P. The evidence of rice cultivation has also come to light from the Harappan level at Hulas 143 in western U.P. and the BRW phase at Narhan 144 in eastern U.P. The cultivation of chick-pea or gram cultivated by the Chalcolithic people at Chirand, Narhan and Hulas it is likely that the cultivation of wheat, barley, chick-pea, sesame, grass pea was introduced by the OCP people in the Chalcolithic cultures the Mid-Ganga valley. The discovery of cucurbitaceous seeds from the OCP phase at Lal Qila. A few palaeobotanical remains of fruits viz. mauha (Madhuca longifolia), mango (Magnifera indica) and jujube (Zizyphus sp.) recovered from Sringverpura. The remains of jujube (ber) have been reported from the Neolithic levels at Koldihwa and Mahagara. The OCP people supplemented their cereal diet with meat. This is indicated by the presence of bones of cow (Bos indicus) some with sharp cut-marks both at Lal Qila, and Atranjikhera. The bones of wild animals, namely Nilgai, deer, tiger bearing cutmarks were obtained from Atranjikhera and Lal Qila. It show that the primordial forest in the Ganga Valley were hunted by wild animals. The deer and nilgai destroyed the agricultural crops. The wild life provided ample scope for hunting. The terracotta ball bearing fish-motif was obtained from the lowest Harappan phase at Hulas. A stone net sinker recovered from Lal Qila. The fish may have also supplemented the diet of the OCP people. The variety of animal bones recovered from Lal Qila. Saipai and Atranjikhera suggest domestication of sheep, horse, goat, pig, cow, buffalo and dog. The cow and bull played significant role in their agriculture economy. The vast gangetic plain provided an ideal habitat from animals. A large number of animal bones including those of cattle, horse, goat, fish were obtained from the Neolithic phase at Mahagara and Koldihwa. The discovery of pieces of burnt clay plaster with reed marks both the Lal Qila and Atranjikhera. The identification of leaf peels of wild grasses viz. kusa and munj at Sringaverpura. The OCP shapes included a variety of storage jars, vases, troughs, bowls, basins, bowls-on-stand, miniature pots, lids, ring stand etc. The presence of straight sided deep bowls and dishes at Lal Qila disproves the notion that those shape were completely absent in the OCP and they were first introduced in the Black ware.
144 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 127 This discovery of a mud brick structure at Lal Qila and a few kiln burnt brick fragments from Bahadrabad, Atranjikhera, Lal Qila, Daulatpur Saipai etc. suggest that the OCP people masonry too. A brick kiln was exposed at Ambkheri. The rivers served as life-lines of the OCP people. The pine (chir) logs were probably floated through the Ganga and its tributaries from the height of Himalayas down to their village settlements in the plains. Although no remains of a bullock-cart or a horse-chariot has been discovered from any OCP site the occurrence of a few fragmentary terracotta bull headed toy-carts at Bargaon, Bara and other Proto-historic sites, terracotta toy cart, wheel with a central hub at Lal Qila, Daulatpur and Ambkheri and paleontological remains of bull and buffalo at Lal Qila, Atranjikhera and Saipai and terracotta bull figurines at Ambkheri and Lal Qila and a buffalo figurine at Lal Qila the use of two wheeled bullock and buffalo carts in this period. The numerous burnt clay plaster fragments with reed and bamboo impressions and pot-holes discovered at Lal Qila, Atranjikhera, Saipai and Daulatpur. Suggest that the mud walls were supported by wooden posts of babul, sal, sisoo, rarely chir. The mud floors as noticed at Lal Qila were made of compact clay and reinforced with horizontally laid potsherds rammed in earth and plastered with clay. The alignments of pot-holes at Daulatpur indicate that the wattle and doub hutments were either circular, oval or rectangular on plain and of different size. At Daulatpur low mud walls were raised around the huts presumably for protection against wild animals and recurring monsoonal floods. A solitary mud-bricks structure representing an angle of a room containing five courses of sun-dried bricks regularly laid in mud-mortar was exposed at Lal Qila. The discovery of a brick kiln at Ambkheri and occurrence of a few kiln-burnt brick fragments at Bahadrabad, Atranjikhera, Lal Qila, Daulatpur, Saipai etc. that kiln-burnt bricks were sparingly used for such as flooring the bath rooms, drains etc. The presence of a new urban trait in the OCP culture complex is also in consonance with the stratigraphic, chronological and cultural continuity as noticed by J.G. Shaffar between the two phases of urbanization viz. the Harappan and the NBPW culture belonging to a single cultural tradition as the Indo-Gangetic cultural tradition. A clear stratigraphic overlap between the OCP and the Late or degenerated phase of Mature Harappan culture at Ambkheri, Baragaon, Hulas, Alamgirpur I in the Upper Ganga- Yamuna Doab and between the OCP and the BRW and associated red ware in the upper level at Jakhera I in the Middel Ganga-Yamuna Doab and also between the OCP and BRW, BSW, PGW, burnished grey and red wares, at Sringaverpura IIA in Lower Ganga-Yamuna Doab. This facts is fully witnessed by the continuity in material culture between the OCP and the
145 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 128 BRW as well as between the OCP and the PGW phases at different sites in the Upper Ganga Valley. (i) The cultural overlap between the OCP and the BRW cultures in the Upper Ganga Valley is noticed both in pottery shapes as well as other material objects. M.D.N. Sahi noticed this continuity in some of the pottery forms and fabrics in period III A at Jakhera. The continuity between the OCP and the BRW cultures is more pronounced in the wattle and doub method of house construction as indicated by recovery of clay lumps, mud floor house plans, pot-holes fire pits containing ash. (ii) The cultural overlap between the OCP and the PGW in the upper Ganga Valley is noticed both in pottery types and other objects of daily use. M.N. Despande for the first time pointed out the vertical walls of a OCP bowl from Ambkheri also occur on the red ware associated with the PGW. B.B. Lal a few OCP shapes from Lal Qila and Saipai are similar to the red ware of the PGW phase. On the basis of foregoing observation, the end of their career the surviving OCP people not only lived with the new comers mainly the BRW and the PGW, but they also deeply influenced their material culture, even during the NBPW period. The OCP people did not live in cultural isolation. In the course of their eastward and southward expansion in this subcontinent they came in close cultural contact with different people as noticed below:- (i) In eastern Haryana and western U.P. the Late Harappans and the DSW/OCP people lived together. Paul Yule noticed a spatial overlap between the Late Harappan and the copper hoard sites in eastern Haryana and western U.P. during their stay in the upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab the OCP people had imbibed many Late Harappan cultural traits e.g. the pot shapes, tool types, decorative motifs etc. The stone objects, like carelian and shale beads discovered at Lal Qila and stone weights at Daulatpur were produced from the Late Harappans. The solitary bronze flat axe discovered at Pariyar, appear to have been borrowed from the Harappans. G.R. Sharma noticed some Harappan architectural and ceramic influences pottery of the earliest phase at Kausambi. As noticed above, some characteristic OCP type in Harappan fabric together with typical Harappan shapes occur at Ambkheri, Hulas I, Alamgirpur I, Bargaon etc. in western U.P. (ii) A copper ring of Pondi and Bahadrabad-type from Bargaon also cultural contact between the OCP people and the Harappans.
146 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 129 Conclusion The ochre coloured pottery and associated gangetic copper hoards represent one of the earliest protohistoric cultures that flourished during the 2 nd millennium B.C. in the Ganga basins. In a nut shell, we can say that the area marked by the presence of ochre coloured pottery north-south from Bahadrabad to Noh and west-east from Katpalon to Ahichchhtra. In the area of Saharanpur district a fair number of Harappan, Late Harappan and OCP sites have been found. 145 The course of Kali Nadi in Saharanpur and Muzzaffar nagar districts is dotted the OCP sites and this is the first indication of the settlements along this river indication of the settlements along this rive by copper using people. The valley show a remarkable concentration of OCP, BRW, PGW and NBPW cultures. The hydrological changes coupled with ever increasing pace of deforestation had caused atleast three folk movements from the Ganga basin during the 3 rd -2 nd millennium B.C. The Ganga valley provided much more congenial atmosphere the development of human culture during this period. The first folk movement that around 2200 B.C. OCP culture at Alamgirpur I, Hulas I, Ambkheri, Baragaon etc., in the upper Ganga Valley Doab, second folk movement around 2100 B.C. earlier is represented by the Late Harappan Bara, OCP culture at Hastinapur I, Ahichchhtra I, Kaseri I, Jakhera I, Sringaverpura I. Lal Qila I, Bahadrabad I, Daultapur, Fatehpur Sikri I, Sadhvara Khera I, Atrangikhera, Saipai, Pariyar, Mirapatti, Kamuli, Parihati etc. in the Ganga Valley, third fold movement that started around 1200 B.C. by the PGW culture at Alamgirpur II, Hulas II, Hastinapur II, Ahichhatra II, Kaseri II, Gakhera III, Atranjikhera III, Pariyar III, Kausambi III, Srigaverpura II B etc. in the Upper Ganga Valley. Excavations at Ambkheri has given a definite evidence of the extension of Harappan traits in the OCP of this and other western sites of the Upper Gangetic plain. On the other hand sites like Lal Qila and Saipai showed some originality. The available archaeological evidence thus do not comoborate the view point that the OCP culture was confined to the Upper Ganga Valley and Sringverpura marks its eastern limit, and that the OCP in not associated with the copper hoards. The OCP with or without copper hoards. The OCP with or without copper hoard objects has already been reported from Mirapatti and Kamuli in the Mid-Ganga Valley. The sherds of an ochrous red ware accompanied by BRW and associated fine and coarse red ware have also been discovered at Parihati a well known copper hoard site in the lower Ganga basin Saipai has also furnished the evidence of its association with a copper hoard tool a copper harpoon with the OCP. The settlement and subsistence pattern showed that these people lived in simple and mud walled houses, and had an assemblage of pots which shows that they had a more
147 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 130 sophisticated life then the nomadic or hunting people. Towards the end of their career the OCP people, not only lived with the new comers represented by the BRW, BSW and associated red wares in the Upper Ganga Valley, but also deeply unflunced their material culture the presence of numerous OCP cultural traits in the succeeding cultures. They include certain analogous pot-forms, wattle and daub, decorative motifs, method 146 of house construction, hose plan, post holes, mud and kiln burnt bricks, circular fire pits stones pestles, querns and balls, perforated and imperforated pottery, terracotta beads, wheels, dabbers, gamesmen, seal, human, animal and bird figurines, carnelian beads, arrow head, points domestication of humped cattle, pig, horse and sheep, cultivation of barley, wheat and rice. All the above mentioned cultural traits originally introduced by the OCP people in the Upper Ganga Valley persisted even during the NBPW period. A stratigraphic overlap between the OCP and the BRW, phases and between the BRW and the PGW phases and also between the PGW and the NBPW phases in the Upper Ganga Valley. Ganga-Yamuna Doab was not a cultural vacuum. The OCP people were these in the 2 nd millennium B.C. OCP in its early phase overlapped with the BRW in the central doab and with the PGW in the Upper Doab. This explains the manner in which the OCP culture had contributed to the development of Indian culture.
148 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 131 REFERENCES 1. Shaffer, J.G The Indus valley, Baluchistan and Helmond Tradition: Neolithic Bronze Age in Chronologies in Old world Archaeology, Vol. 1. pp I.A.R , pp Deshpande, M.N The Harappan Settlements in Ganga-Yamuna Doab in Indus Civilization: Problem and Issues, Simla Seminar. 4. I.A.R , pp Dikshit, K.N Harappan Culture in Western U.P., Bulletin National Museum, New Delhi, No. 2, pp Allchin B and Allchin R The birth of Indian Civilization, p Possehl, G The end of a state and continuity of a tradition: A Discussion of the Late Harappan ; Realm and Region in traditional India, Duke University Monograph No. 14, pp Singh, U.V Late Harappan culture as revealed by the excavations at Mirzapur and Daulatpur, in Indus civilization; Problem and issues, Simla. 9. Thapar, B.K. 1985, Puratattva No. 11, p , pp Suraj Bhan, Op.cit. pp Yule, P. The copper hoards of the Indian sub continent: Preliminaries for an interpretation; JRGZM; 36 p Gaur, R.C Excavations at Lal Qila (district Bulandshar) A habitational site, Jaipur, pp Puratattva No. 5, , pp , Horja, Rima and Vijay Kumar, Aspects of early copper age in Rajasthan 1995, p Negi, B.S. Exploration along the Banganga river Bharatpur, Rajasthan; Puratattva No. 17, , p Ibid, p. 125, I.A.R , p Agrawal, D.P. and S. Kusumgar, Radiocarbon chronology of Indian Protohistoric cultures; in D.P. Agrawal and D.K. Chakrabarty (eds.) 1979, p I.A.R , p Agrawal, R.C. Exploration in Rajasthan; Man and Environment V, p. 59.
149 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Lal, B.B Further copper hoards from the Gangetic basin and a review of the Problem. Ancient India No. 7, pp Gaur, R.C. 1969, The ochre coloured pottery from Atranjikhera and its significance in Sinha B.P. (ed.) Potteries in Ancient India pp Lal B.B , op. cit. pp Sharma, Y.D. Salvage of Archaeological evidence from Bahadrabad. Puratattva No , pp I.A.R , p I.A.R , p Misra, V.D. and B.B. Mishra, Op.cit., pp Gaur, R.C. 1983, Op.cit. pp I.A.R , p I.A.R , pp I.A.R , pp Gaur, R.C. One more Copper Hoard from the Ganga basin and a reassessment of the Problem in M.S. Nagarajoo (ed.) Madhu (recent researches in Archaeology and Art History) Delhi, 1981, pp Gaur, R.C. 1973, Op.cit. pp , Excavations at Lal Qila A Habitational site, Gaur, R.C , Op.cit. pp Wahal, L.M Op.cit. Puratattva No. 5, pp Lal, B.B. and K.N. Dikshit, , Op.cit. 35. Lal, B.B. and K.N. Dikshit, , Op.cit. 36. Smith V.A The copper Age and Prehistoric bronze implements of India; IA, XXXIV, pp Sharma, Y.D Op.cit. p Gaur, R.C Op.cit. p. 131, 1983, Op.cit., p Krishna Deva, Op.cit. pp Deshpande M.N., 1969, Op.cit., pp , Dikshit, K.N. 1979, Op.cit. p Gaur, R.C The ochre coloured pottery from Atranjikhera and its significance in B.P. Sinha (eds.) p Sharma Y.D , Op.cit. p I.A.R., , p. 79.
150 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Sharma, G.R History to Prehistor, Archaeology of the Ganga Valley and the Vindhyan Allahabad, pp Krishna Deva, Op.cit. pp Gaur, R.C Op.cit. p Dikshit, K.N The Excavation at Hulas and further exploration of the Upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab; Man and Environment V, pp I.A.R., , p Ibid., Fig Ibid., Fig. 8 & Ibid., Fig Ibid., Fig Ibid., Fig Ibid., Fig Sharma Y.D Op.cit., p Ibid., Fig Gaur R.C. 1980b.Op.cit. pp Ibid., Fig Ibid., Fig Ibid., Fig Ibid., Fig Ibid., Fig Ibid., Fig Ibid., Fig Ibid., Fig Ibid., Fig Gaur, R.C Op.cit. p Ibid., p Ibid., p Ibid., p Ibid., pp Ibid., p Ibid., p Ibid., p Ibid., p.132.
151 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Ibid., p Gaur, R.C Op.cit. p Ibid., pp I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p Lal B.B. and K.N. Dikshit , p I.A.R., , p Sharma Y.D Op.cit. p Gaur, R.C Op.cit. p Ibid, p I.A.R., , p Lal B.B. and K.N. Dikshit , Op.cit. p I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p Gaur, R.C Op.cit. p Gaur, R.C Op.cit. pp Ibid, p Gupta, S.P., Comments, Puratattva, No , p Gupta, S.P The Indian copper hoards: The problem of homogeneity stages of development, origin Authorship and dating, JBRS - 49, pp Gupta, P.L Prehistoric implements from Banganga, JIM, 21-24, P Dikshit, K.N The copper hoards in the light of recent discoveries, BAIHA-2, pp Narain, R.B Ten more copper tools from the Gangetic valley; PAIOC-XXIV, Varanasi, pp Nag, A.K. and D.K. Chakrabarti, Copper hoards from West Bengal. Puratattva No. 9, pp Makkhan Lal, New copper hoards from Bithur Kanpur district, ASI, 4, pp Gaur, R.C Op.cit. pp Allchin F.R A south Indian copper sword and its significance, pp Bose, Subhra, The copper hoard culture of west Bengal, A.M. Shastri (eds.) , pp
152 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Agrawal, R.C Op.cit., p Sharma, G.R. Excavations at Bahariya (district Shahjahanpur) Puratattva No. 5, , pp ; I.A.R.; , p Chakrabarti, D.K Man and Environment -1, p Yule, P Op.cit., p Joshi, M.C. Comments Puratattva No , p I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p. 150; Gaur, R.C. 1995, Op.cit. p Ghosh, A (ed.) Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology, I, New Delhi, p I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p. 178; Saraswat, K.S. 1987, Op.cit I.A.R., , p Ibid Gaur, R.C. 1995, Op.cit. pp. 159, Pl. XVI, A & B Margabandhu, C. and G.S. Gaur, Sanghol excavations 1987; Some New evidences, Puratattva No. 17, I.A.R., , p I.A.R., Von Heine, Geldren R., 1936, Op.cit., p Piggott, S. 1944, Op.cit p Dikshit, K.N. 1979, Op.cit., p Gaur, R.C. 1973, Op.cit. p Ibid, p Dr. Huxtable of the Oxford research Laboratory for archaeology has kindly limited the given thermo-luminescent dates for the OCP bearing sites Sharma, Y.D Copper hoards and ochre coloured ware in the Ganga basin, summaries of papers international conference on Asian Archaeology Gupta, S.P Indian copper hoards - The problem of homogeneity stages of development, origin Authorship and dating, Journal of Bihar Research Society - 49, pp Gaur, R.C OCP culture and its association with Pre-Harappan, in studies in Indian Archaeology and Ancient India, Jaipur, pp Agrawal, D.P The copper bronze age in India, New Delhi, p Mitra, P Op.cit., p. 107.
153 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Heine-Geldren, R Op.cit. pp Gupta, S.P Op.cit., p Personal Communication Deshpande, M.N Op.cit. pp Makkhan Lal Op.cit. p Bongard Levin, G.M. and D.V. Deopick Op.cit. pp Roy, S.C. Distribution and Nature of Ausura sites in Chhota Nagpur, JBORS. 63, p Dhavalikar, M.K Indus Proto-history Lal, B.B. 1968, Op.cit. pp Sharma, R.P The environment setting of OCP people, pp Dikshit, K.N Op.cit. pp Shankar Nath, Comments Puratattva, No. 5, pp I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p Lal B.B. and S.P. Gupta (eds.) Frontiers of Indus civilization, New Delhi Sahi, M.D.N Op.cit. pp ; Deshpande, M.N. 1965, Op.cit. pp ; Gaur, R.C. (eds.) 1984, Op.cit. p. 83; Tripathi Vibha, 1976, Op.cit. p. 80.
154 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 137 CHAPTER 4 Black and Red Ware Culture Black and Red Ware The black and red ware has very wide distribution both in time and space. It occurs in a limited way with the Harappan assemblage, but the ware figures prominently in the Chalcolithic context. The Chalcolithic cultures traditionally include non-urban, non- Harappan cultures characterized by the use of copper and stone. These cultures make their first appearance at the turn of the second millennium B.C. and are eventually replaced by the iron using cultures. Unlike the Harappan culture which was marked by a striking uniformity despite its spread over a vast area these cultures show a distinct regional identity probably determined by smaller ecological units. South-eastern Rajasthan gives rise to the Banas culture, the Malwa region to the Kaytha culture, Maharastra region to the Jorwe culture and the Gangetic valley to the OCP culture. The main difference along these cultures lie in their characteristic ceramics though economically they have similar status. A limited amount of copper and an abundance of lithic blades mark most of these culture. 1 The BRW has a characteristically black interior and red exterior with the black or grey confined to the rim portion of the vessel. It is attributed to the technique of Inverted firing. The BRW was first designated as such by Sir Mortimer Wheeler. 2 Black and red ware is a unique pottery tradition expanding over several ceramic cultures, securing in diverse contexts. For the first time Black and red ware (here after BRW) was found at Arikamadu 1945 and then at Brahmagiri 1947 by Sir Mortimer Wheeler. The beginning of the study of the Black and red ware is closely linked with the Megalithic burials. Since BRW invariably occurred in the megalithic culture it acquired the designation Megalithic ware. Wheeler dated the BRW approximately between second century B.C. to the first century A.D., mainly on the basis of the stratigraphic position as it was found below the Satvahana and Roman coins, 3 However, it is now more than certain that the ware is of greater antiquity than hitherto advocated. This has positively been confirmed by the discovery of this ware in the Chalcolithic as well as the proto-historical context. The archaeological investigations in recent years have clearly indicated that it does not have an exclusive burial character. It came to be associated with Chalcolithic and iron age cultural frame work. It has been recorded from Rupar in the north to Adichanallur in the
155 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 138 south and from Pandu Raj Dhibi in the east to Desalpur in the west. But the context differs from place to place. The process and routes of diffusion of BRW ware has long been a matter of debate Gupta (1969:111) suggested that there were two probable routes of movement of BRW people from Rajasthan. The BRW ware people from eastern Rajasthan had moved into the Ganga valley. (i) through Chambal and Yamuna the were reached Kausambi and Prahaladpur etc., and then took a backward turn towards central and upper Doab and (ii) From Ahar to Eran and then along the vindhyan hills BRW people entered the eastern part of the country. Agrawal (1971: ) on the basis of C 14 dates suggests that BRW spread in two waves from Rajasthan :- One going to north rich deflects from the western doab to spread into eastern Punjab and second goes to west Bengal via central India recolls back to Bihar and eastern U.P. (Map No. VI) Painted BRW in period I at Kayatha was dated between 1700 B.C. to 1200 B.C. and the period II and III with a date ranging between 1700 B.C. to 1200 B.C. 4 Though the BRW was found in association with the well known PGW at many sites in North-Western Rajasthan, Western U.P. Haryana and Punjab, no cognisance was taken of it on account of the insignificant quantity in which it occured. The excavation at Noh 5 in district Bharatpur of Rajasthan and Atranjikhera 6 in district Etah of U.P. have, however established an altogether new cultural horizon, where a clearly demarcated deposit of the BRW has been found superimposed by the PGW. The PGW of Atranjikhera has been dated by C 14 method to eleventh century B.C. it must be pointed out that the painted variety of the BRW is absent at these sites. The tradition of painting in the BRW is absent in the central Gangetic plains, but its reappearance in eastern U.P. Bihar and West Bengal is significant. Kausambi, Sohgaura, Rajghat in Uttar Pradesh, Chirand and Sonepur in district Gaya of Bihar and Pandu Rajdhibi in district Burdawn of West Bengal are some of the important sites. In Orissa, the BRW makes its appearance in a very late context. Sisupalgarh in district Bhunbaneshwar is the principal site, where it has been dated, though the BRW occured in levels anterior to that of the NBP, a conservative date of circa 200 B.C. to 100 A.D. was ascribed to it, on the basis of the Rouletted ware. 7
156 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 139 Map No. VI. Distribution of Black and Red Ware in Northern India So the wide spread distribution of the BRW, both in space and time gives rise to three very relevant questions which are as follows:- (i) Whether the BRW found in different part of India represents merely a similarity in technique without any cultural or chronological implication? (ii) Whether the BRW is a cultural trait of a group of people moving from one part of to other? (iii) Whether the BRW is a combination of both the above i.e; (i) In certains parts of the country it is simply a maker of similarity in technique and nothing more. (ii) In others it is a cultural trait of a groups of people moving from one place to the other. In an attempt to solve the above problem of the BRW, (Srivastava, K.M. 1980: ) has classified the entire BRW yielding regions into six zones they are:- Region - A Gujrat Sites : - Lothal, Rojdi, Rangpur, Prabhaspatan, Amra.
157 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 140 Dates : B.C. to 800 B.C. with survival at Rangpur & Prabhas-Patan Painting:- On the exterior. Region - B South-eastern Rajasthan and M.P. Sites : - Ahar, Gilund, Eran, Navdatoli, Nagda and Besnagar. Dates : B.C. to 800 B.C. with survival at Eran, Navdatoli, Nagda and Besnagar. Painting:- On the exterior as well as on the interior. Region - C Eastern U.P. Bihar and West Bengal Sites : - Kausambi, Rajghat IA, Sohgaura II, Khairadih, Sonepur, Taradih IIIB, Manji I, Narhan I, Waina, Bunadih, Chirand, Senuwar, Raja Nal Ka Tila II, Jhusi I, Masondih-IA, Panduraj Dhibi. Dates : B.C. to 800 B.C. with survival at Sonepur and Chirand. Painting:- Generally on the interior. Region - D Punjab, Western U.P. and Northern-Western Rajasthan Sites : - Roper, Alamgirpur, Hastinapur, Atranjikhera, Sravasti, Jakhera, Noh, Allahpur, Kaseri. Dates : B.C. to 800 B.C. Painting:- Absent. Region - E Maharastra, Northern Maysore Sites : - Bahal, Prakash, Newasa, Nasik, Jarwe, Diamabad, Halloor. Dates : B.C. to 600 B.C. with survival at Bahal Prakash. Painting:- On the interior as well as on the exterior. Thus, it is obvious that BRW occurs indifferent archaeological contexts. It is wide spread, occurring practically all over India with different cultures (Tripathi 1976: 50-51). There is hardly any tract in India, where this ceramic did not form a part of the cultural milieu two and half thousand years before Christ. It was not introduced in the entire country at the some time, it has no distinctive typology of its own either. On the other hand its shapes are conditioned by the associated ceramic morphology. The archaeologist generally believed that the authors of the BRW were a group of people or community which moved from place to place. A set of archaeologists believed that
158 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 141 the author of BRW were Dravidians. Subbarao came out with this theory in He said we are no longer justified in making the distinction between the megalithic and nonmegalithic wares. The recent discoveries of a large number of painted vases decorated with dots (as at Navdatoli, Adichanallor in the Trinnevelly district should set at rest this doubt the homogeneity. The same hypothesis was supported by Soundra Rajan in his paper on the community movement in prehistoric India, while emphasising the association of BRW with the Dravidians, he said (1962: 74). I am lebel the BRW using people as Dravidians but such would seem the impelling suggestions of the find of details which had been gathered about this remarkably ancient and obliquntious ceramic culture. No known data about the Dravidians and their early activities seem to against the known diffusion and proliferation of the BRW using societies, right up to the thresh hold of our present era, two thousands years ago. There is another set of scholars who associated the BRW ware with the Aryan; amongst the scholars holding this view, mention may be made particularly of B.P. Sinha and D.P. Agrawal. Sinha felt that the Aryan entered India by sea route and later on entered Bihar through the river Sadanira which has been identified with river Gandak. While discussing the people who used this ware he does not believe that they were just a localised people and said I had suggested in a paper read at the Aligarh session of the Indian History Congress in 1959, that a branch of Aryan who came to India across the sea ware responsible for this pottery. Agrawal (1966: ) analaysed this problem on the basis of available C 14 dates from different sites equating Banasians with the early Aryans. The Aryans theory was also pleaded by S.P. Srivastava (1969: 41) he said BRW tradition being earlier than PGW it may be taken to belong to the early Aryan wave while PGW tradition is a Late ceramic tradition. Besides the equation with Dravidian and Aryan, the BRW has been associated with races like Yadavas and Bhils etc. Inspite of all those views by scholars the problem still remains unresolved. Chronologically the BRW has a very wide spread it occurs from c B.C. Koldihwa to the early centuries of Christian era. BRW, for the first time was associated with megalithic. Inspite of the abundance of the megalithic burials and BRW appendend to them no attempt was made by archaeologists till 1947, to determine the chronological basis of both megaliths burials and BRW associated with them, Wheeler, on the basis of the stratigraphical position below Satavahanas and
159 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 142 Roman coinage dated the BRW approximately between second century B.C. and first century A.D. (AI No. 4: 202). But after some times reviewing his findings in the book Early India and Pakistan Wheeler said I have infact suggested 200 B.C. as a schismatic date for the beginning of the megalithic occupation there. The guess may err on the sort side but a date not earlier than third century B.C. would be consistent with the recorded finding of a bronze coins of Eran ascribed to the third second century B.C. in a post-hold cist at Kulur in comibation district. Ahar excavations in opened a new glorious of the history of BRW (IAR : 14) on the basis of its comparison with BRW from other sites of central India, the excavator assigned a date of 500 B.C. to the beginning of the ware but revised and pushed back to 2000 B.C. during the course of excavations in After Ahar BRW has been discovered from several other Chalcolithic sites. In 1954, Lothal excavations gave a new significance to the BRW. The ware occurred in all the levels right from earliest to the latest. On the basis of radiocarbon dating the earliest remains of Lothal may be dated to 2450 B.C. (Rao, 1973: 54) Rangpur, Desalpur, Rojdi, Surkotda and other Harappan sites also yielded BRW. Besides BRW, has also been found from several sites in pre-pgw context Atranjikhera, Jakhera, Noh, Pariyar, Kausambi in association with PGW, NBPW, context and in subsequent period too. Thus, on the basis of the foregoing it may be said that the BRW was generally a result of inverted firing, though single/or double firing. The pottery is found from Ropar in north to Adichanallur in south and Amra in the west to the Pandu Raj Dhibi in the east. The pottery encompased the entire country from 4500, B.C. down to the beginnings of the Christian era, particularly during the major part of the second and first millennium B.C. with regards to its association with several races like Dravidians, Aryans, Yadavas, Bhills etc; it may be pointed that this pottery does not belong to any particular community of ancient India, because of its spread in time and space. For the present study, however we concentrate on the BRW which is found in the Gangetic plain. Black and red ware in Gangetic plain is reported from the period of Neolithic to Northern Black Polished Ware, but the occurrence of BRW in Upper and Middle Ganga plains are found in different contexts. In Upper Ganga plain, BRW generally occurs with the Painted Grey Ware, but it has preceded the PGW at several sites and also outlived it as an associated ware of NBP Ware at most of this sites of this region. Though Black and Red ware was found in PGW assemblage at the site of Ahichhatra (Ghosh and Panigarhi : 50-55). Its existence as an independent phase was unknown
160 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 143 at Atranjikhera in early 1960s, where this pottery was found sandiwiched between OCP and PGW cultural deposits. For this reason it was difficult to believe in the initial stages that BRW represents an independent phase. But in the early 1970s excavations at Noh and Jodhpura (IAR : 29-30) in Rajasthan confirmed the independent status of BRW with a stratigraphic sequence similar to that of Atranjikhera. The reason for the thickness of the deposit at Atranjikhera is attributed to activity. In brief its cultural affiliation in the Ganga plain is as follow -: 1. Posterior to OCP and anterior to PGW : Noh, Atranjikhera II, Jakhera II, Pariyar II, Kausambi I, Sringaverpura IIA. 2. Painted Grey Ware Context: Alamgirpur, Allahpur, Kaseri, Jakhera, Atranjikhera, Ahichchhtra, Fatehpur Sikri, Sadavakhera, Kausambi, Hastinapur, Khalua, Hulas, Hulas, Khera, Abhaipur, Saunphar. 3. Early Iron Age: Atranjikhera, Noh, Jodhpura, Kausambi, Sringaverpur, Jakhera, Allahpur, Jhusi, Raja Nal Ka Tila and Malhar. 4. Megalithic Context: Kakoria, Kotia. Black and red ware has a distinct horizons which is evident from the excavations at Atranjikhera and Jakhera in U.P. and Noh 8 and Jodhpura in Rajasthan. Here we must remember that the absence of common pottery types in Black and red ware and OCP is a positive proof that Black and red ware culture has no link with the OCP culture and it emerged as a totally new tradition. We can definitely say that this time gap was filled in by the Chalcolithic/Iron age plain BRW and associated Black Slipped and red ware culture as noticed at Atranjikhera II, Jakhera II, Pariyar II, Sringaverpur IIA, Kausambi I etc. in the Upper Ganga Valley, where the plain BRW is preceded and succeeded by the OCP and the PGW respectively. The only other site with a similar sequence is Noh is Rajasthan. This folk movement appears to have originated from eastern Rajasthan. The associated finds are microliths cores and flakes, copper and bone objects, carnelian and shell beads. The plain BRW and the associated wares mark the transitional stage, when iron was introduced in another wise Chaclolithic milieu. It was a wide spread folk movement as the BRW with or without painting and associated potteries have been noticed all over the Ganga Valley and beyond. Although this pottery has been assigned to the last part of the 2 nd millennium B.C. this folk movement appears to have commenced around 1500 B.C. and lasted till c. 700 B.C. since the
161 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 144 plain BRW was the typical pottery of the Chalcolithic cultures at Noh II, Jodhpura II, Sunari etc. this folk movement appears to have originated in Bharatpur region in eastern Rajasthan. The late phase of the Chalcolithic culture or the so-called pre-nbp phase in the Mid- Ganga Valley is characterised by the plain and painted BRW and associated Black-Slipped and red wares along with a few microlithis (short blade industry), bone tools, ghata-shaped, terracotta, beads and iron objects at Prahladpur IA, Rajghat IA, Masondih IA, Chirand III, Manjhi I, Taradih IIIB, Senuwar IIB, Narhan I, Sohgaura II, Raja-Nal-Ka-Tila II, Jhusi I etc. This ceramic assemblage is similar to the chalcolithic pottery of the Vindhyas. The OCP and the BRW and associated Black-Slipped and red ware it overlaps or intermingles with the Chalcolithic/Iron age, Black and red ware, associated BSW, and red wares at Jakhera I in central Upper Ganga Valley and Sringaverpura IIA, in eastern Upper Ganga valley, and Parihati in the lower Ganga basin. The OCP like potsherds have also been noticed in the pre-nbp Chalcolithic Iron horizon characterized by the plain and painted BRW associated Black slipped and Red wares at Prahladpur IA, Rajghat IA Kakoria etc. in the mid-ganga valley and the adjoining areas. The pre-nbp phase containing the OCP like sherds was followed by the NBP phase. Some resemblance has also been noticed between the pottery of Lal Qila and Atranjikhera I on one hand and Kausambi I, Koldihwa II and Chirand IA on the other. In central and eastern U.P. and West Bengal it got mixed up with the Chalcolithic Iron age cultures, represented by BRW, BSW, burnished and associated red wares. Black and red ware is associated with a variety of cultures and has a very wide spatial and temporal distribution. It shares a number of common ceramic types with the PGW. According to J.N. Pal, some Chalcolithic red ware pots from Kakoria in Varansi district resemble the OCP. Further many shapes such as bowls with featureless rim and shallow basins with horizontally splayed out rim along with appliqué decoration commonly occur at Kakoria and Sringaverpura I. In respect of typology and decorative motifs the pottery from Kakoria also compares well with that from Onaur, Unchdih, Kausambi I and Sringaverpur I, on the basis of similarity of a few pottery types in the OCP and the Vindhyan Chalcolithic red ware. J.N. Pal inferred some contact between the two cultures. He also traced some affinity between the Chalcolithic pottery traditions of the Vindhyas and that of the Upper Ganga valley, viz, the OCP, BRW and PGW. A remote possibility of the latter to have been at some stage inspired by the former has also been surmised. At Kausambi I (U.P.) and Parihati (W.B.) the Chalcolithic BRW and other wares have been found associated with the ochre coloured ware. In the light of above evidence we may conclude that the OCP people
162 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 145 were in close cultural contact with the Neolithic-Chalcolithic folks in their neighbourhood, and subsequently the former merged with the latter. Technique Black and Red Ware enjoys the nomenculture because of its appearance, it is a ware which is black inside and red outside with a black top. The results are obtained with a special technique known as Inverted firing technique. In the technique the pots are placed in an inverted position in the kiln subjecting the exterior to oxidizing condition and the interior to reducing conditions. Saw dust, or some vegetable material might have been fitted in the pot while firing under reducing conditions. As a result the interior turns black and the exterior dull red to buff in colour. This technique is believed to be the common practice in preparing the Black and Red ware. A large number of scholar s like Agrawal (No.1-5), Allchin (1968: 291), Benerjee (1965: 58), Gaur (1965: 143), Joshi (1972: 39), Mishra (1967: 183), Nagarjarao (1965: 37), Sharma (1960: 57-59), Singh (1969: 67), Srivastava (1980: 233), Subbarao (1956:74), Thapar (IAR, p. 68), Wakankar (1967: 7), Wheeler (1966: 88) etc. are of view that Black and Red ware is produced by an inverted firing technique, while conducting the experimental examination on this pottery. The possibility of another technique i.e. double firing technique cannot be totally ruled out. The study shows that the technological personality of this ware is colourful. According to Majumdar 9 (1969: 91) the double colour effect in the same pot can be produced by some special arrangement and the pot can acquire dull colour effect by any of the following processes. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Single firing 10 under simultaneous reduction oxidation conditions, like in the Black and red ware, from Chalcolithic Navdatoli. Inverted firing technique. Double firing when the pot is fired red first and after subjecting it to special arrangement and refusing it when the part protected by this special arrangement becomes black. A Lucas has shown by this experiments that for the red pot to acquire its black top a second process was necessary, and that it had to be treated with a special matter, carbon, which is not present in the red slip. Double firing with a different technique in which the pot is fired black first and refining it the fact that the ware is most probably a result of single firing under simultaneous reduction excudation condition. In other words, as observed by Majumdar else where (1973: 447), BRW is result of individual firing. 11
163 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 146 Thus, we find that the technological personality of BRW is poignantly diverse for divergent views have been expounded in respect of the technological make up, for example, inverted single and/or double firing technique of manufacture. Pottery As already stated the characteristic features of this pottery is that it is black inside and near the rim on the outside and rest of the body red it is made of fine clay and mostly made of wheel. The fabric is generally fine with thin walls and firing is generally perfect. Some of the types specially dishes are ill fired and have gritty core. Some pots are also made by hand. Unlike in the case of BRW from Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal pottery is devoid of paintings. Shapes The main shapes include the following in the fine as well as the coarse and hand made black and red ware. The basic forms are dish and bowl. The other main shapes are basin, and vases are also reported. The different types of black and red ware excavated from the upper Gangetic plain are the following. Atranjikhera The bowls appear to be quite common and are of mainly six types :- Bowls: (i) bowls with flaring sides. (ii) bowls with incurved sides. (iii) bowls with rounded side towards base. (iv) bowls with convex side. (v) bowls with straight sides. (vi) bowls with tapering sides. According to Gaur Bowls with convex sides having out turned beaded rim at Atranjikhera apparently lack similarity to those found at Ahar, but maximum frequency in bowls from Ahar are slightly thickened at the top. The fabric is also coarse whereas the bowls of plain BRW in pre-pgw context at Atranjikhera are featureless and comparatively of fine fabric and are distinguishable from the variety occurring in the PGW level.
164 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 147 The bowls with vertical sides and sharpened rim or having agrooved carination at shoulder and dish with an in turned featureless rim and convex sides forming a saggar base are the noteworthy shapes of the BRW and the PGW levels at Jakhera. Jakhera (Plates No. 20, 21 and 22) Many pottery types especially : (i) basin with lipped spout. (ii) footed basin with perforated base. (iii) vases with internally hooded rim (iv) Concave sided dishes which are almost identical. (v) The barbed and tanged bone arrowheads with circlet designs. It is interesting to note that at Jakhera BRW appears for the first time in period II which is plain. In period IIIA which has been termed as Proto PGW. Iron is introduced along with painted pottery tradition, comprising black painting on various sherds of BRW, BSW and red wares Sahi M.D.N Some Aspect of Indian Archaeology, pp Dish Dish with featureless rim and concave sides forming a saggar base is found on nearly all the sites. Pieces with eliptical, sloping or almost straight sides are not present at Atranjikhera. 12 Basin Rarely found in Black and red ware. Thus it does not appear as common pot, it has convex straight or incurved sides. The Black and red ware shows a striking resemblance in shapes to those of the painted Grey ware. At Atranjikhera 13 the painted Grey ware and the plain Grey ware show remarkable closeness in shape to the Black and red ware. Most the shapes of this ware excavated from Atranjikhera are different from those of other sites yielding Black and red ware of Chalcolithic association. At Khalua a close resemblance between PGW and Black and red ware has been noted 14 by the excavations. At the site of Kaseri bowl and dishes shapes have a typological resemblances with painted Grey ware.
165 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 148 Hulas Khera The main shapes are bowls and water vessels. Most of the sherds are externally red and internally black, while internally grey surface is also evident. Abhaipur The main shapes are bowls and dishes. The vessels are slipped on either side and are unpainted (Figure 10). Painting The painted Black and Red ware is not reported from any of the sites of the Upper Ganga plain. As the sites with painted sherds in the middle Ganga plain are located (Agiabir the western most site) It may be that the new strain i.e. painting tradition infiltrated in the middle Ganga plain in this area. At Jakhera a very small number of painted pottery has so far been discovered and bulk of the pottery continues to remain the same as of period II. The painting which was mostly done in parallel linear pattern was also executed by rubbing off the black colour band of slip with a dry brush when the slip was still wet (Sahi 1990: 218) comparable painting has also been reported from Chalcolithic levels at Koldihwa, Narhan Sohgaura, Kausambi I. It is worth mentioning that Jakhera is the only site in the Upper Ganga plain, with evidence of BRW with paintings. The painting is in black on red surface and some of the designs are similar to those found on PGW though not completely identical. 15 The important sites are Kausambi, Rajghat, Prahladpur, Sonepur, where the unpainted BRW is reported in pre-nbpw context, although at sites like Koldihwa, Sohgaura, Khairadih, Chirand unpainted BRW along with painted BRW have been reported from pre- NBPW context. The plain BRW from pre NBPW is reported in period I and II of Kausambi. 16 The BRW in pre-nbpw context of Kausambi is extremely coarse. The clay used is mixed up with a large quality of rough organic material and very small pieces of stone used as degrassent. The rugged texture full of small cavities was on account of this mixture. The pottery accordingly to excavation was manufacture on a slow wheel and fired in an inverted position at a low temperature, but the inverted firing is superior in NBPW level at Kausambi. The pottery of period I of Kausambi consists of sturdy red, coarse black and red, crude grey and OCP. The functional types included dish-on-stand, beaker, high necked jar, convex sided dish, large size bowl basin and cooking vessel.
166 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 149 The pottery of Kausambi II consists of red, black and red ware, black slipped and grey wares. In fabric, finish and firing it is superior to that of Kausambi I. The shapes are represented by bowls, dishes, Lid, cum-bowls, bowls-on-stand, large sized hemispherical bowls, basins, beakers. Storage jars, medium size vases, cooking vessels of handis, straight sided trough or basin etc. Occasionally the pottery is decorated with paintings incised or appliqué patterns. The painting is executed in black or creamy pigment on red or black and red wares. The ceramic assemblage of Sringaverpura on the north bank of the Ganga in Allahabad district has also yielded pre-nbp (Chalcolithic) culture in lower horizon. Sringaverpura II is also characterized by red, black slipped, Black-and-Red ware and grey wares 17. This pre-nbpw pottery of Sringaverpura II also like that of Kausambi is nearer to Koldihwa group of pottery. The types are jars with prominently out turned rim, bowl with featureless rim, vases with disc base and platters. It is commonly accepted that middle and Late PGW phases overlapped with early NBPW and Ganga Valley, occurrence of a small quality of BRW has been reported from sites belonging to this phase viz. Atranjikhera, Hastinapur, Kausambi, Sravasti, Sonepur etc. The frequency of BRW in this phase has dominished considerably from pre-pgw and pre-nbpw level. A significant difference between the BRW of PGW and early NBPW phase lies in the fact that along with plain BRW few painted BRW are also reported in the early phase of NBPW, while painting are totally absent in BRW of the PGW phase. The BRW associated with the PGW and NBPW is distinct in shape and surface treatment from the BRW bearing white painting of Ahar Culture and is also different from the Megalithic BRW. This BRW generally has a burnished black interior and burnished exterior. The colour varies from lustrous bright to dull black. The exterior chocolate also varies in shade. The vessels are of the fine quality thin and well burnt in comparison with BRW of pre-pgw and pre-nbpw phase. At Sravasti few specimen of BRW have a glossy finish like NBPW. The common shapes during this phase are bowls and dishes, generally confirming to the PGW, BSW and NBPW types, but dishes are not so popular as the bowls. So it important to note that in this phase the identity of BRW both in regard to its shape and fabric completely merged with the more dominant PGW or NBPW. The following are the important types found in the BRW of this phase are : 1. Bowls with vertical sharpened or incurved rim and carinated towards the base, or carinated bowls is seen at Hastinapur, Atranjikhera, Allahapur, Noh, Rupar, Rajghat.
167 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Straight sides bowls are found at Allahapur, Noh. This shape is also found in PGW, NBPW and BSW. 3. Hemispherical bowls are reported from Alamgirpur, Allahpur, Atranjikhera, Jakhera, Pariyar. This shape is also found in PGW and BSW but continue to occur in the early phase of NBPW. 4. Dishes in BRW are not reported from Hastinapur, but they are found at Allahpur, Noh, Atranjikhera etc. 5. Basins are rare in PGW phase but completely absent in NBPW phase one or two specimen are seen at Atranjikhera and Allahpur. 6. Miniature shapes specially vases are seen at Allahpur and Atranjikhera. Since BRW, like BSW represent an earlier tradition, it is not unlikely that PGW and NBPW people borrowed some of its forms and at a later stage all the four wares became the components of the same culture. Associated Wares Along with black and red ware the following wares are also found: (i) Coarse black and red ware (ii) Black Slipped ware (iii) Red Ware (iv) Brown or Grey ware. (i) Coarse black and red ware The coarse and handmade, black and red ware, is generally black from inside but brownish and black out side. The black portion is towards the rim and in same cases towards the base. A few pots are greyish due to ill-firing. In a few cases the upper portion is burnished and the lower portion is gritty and rough. The inner side of these pots has acratched surface which seems to have been done by scooping out the inner side with a brush of dry grass of split bamboos only vases in this ware have been found. 18 (ii) Black Slipped Ware This is by far the most important and basic representative pottery of the entire Ganga plains. The black-slipped ware is carefully tuned on a fast wheel treated with a smooth black slip and possibly also burnished which give it a shine, with a medium to fine grey or blackish
168 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 151 grey core. B.B. Lal and Thapar were the first who discovered specimen of black slipped ware from the PGW levels of Hastinapur. The ware represent a stage that precedes the NBP. However Lal immediately demonstrated that the two Black-Slipped ware and NBP are dissimilar in fabric finish and firing. In contrast to NBPW the black slipped ware is comparatively thick having medium to course fabric invariably less gloassy in appearance not so hard and lustrous. Some time it has thicker and highly porous core having numerous cavities and it is noteworthy that it resemble the sherds of BRW. It was noticed by T.N. Roy that the BSW associated with the PGW phase of Hastinapur is similar in technique texture and typology with the BSW found in the Pre-NBPW levels of Prahladpur. The shapes that are not found in Black-Slipped ware are : (i) Bowls with slightly inturned and externally flatty clubbed rim. (ii) Miniature bowls. (iii) Bowl with a sharpened rim and expanded mouth with a carination towards the base. The sides are convex having incised grooves externally. (iv) Vases with an everted collared rim and a slightly carinated neck. (v) Bowls with ovaloid body, featureless rim and flat base. At Jakhera a black slipped bowl with Chalcolithic affiliation and two objects of iron were found. The distribution of BSW is more extensive than that of PGW but less than NBP. It extends from Bikaner region where this pottery occurs in a limited number to the Ganga- Yamuna doab and beyond that upto West Bengal. I have classified it into three differences :- (i) Plain Black-Slipped ware of medium to coarse fabric :- Sringaverpura, Prahladpur, Rajghat, Gulharighat, Khairadih. (ii) Painted Black Slipped ware. (iii) Plain Black-Slipped of fine fabric The plain Black slipped of the fine fabric is reported from pre-pgw and PGW level of Upper Ganga Valley and in eastern extended upto Sringaverpura. Among the bowls the shapes are following types :- (i) Straight sided (ii) Carinated hemispherical (iii) Convex sides. (iv) Bowls with rounded sided towards base. The same shape is reported in BSW from Pre NBPW of Sonepur I.
169 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 152 (ii) (iii) In pre-pgw context this pottery has been claimed to have occurred at Atranjikhera II, Jakhera I, Noh I and II, Pariyar II, Sringaverpura IIA. In all the pre-pgw phase this ware is associated with BRW. The plain BSW of fine fabric is reported is the PGW level from the following sites:- Hastinapur II, Atranjikhera III, Alamgirpur II, Sravasti I, Kannauj I, Bateswar, Kaseri II, Hulas II, Kausambi III, Sanghol, Bhagwanpura II etc. (iii) Red Ware Two types of red ware are found slipped red ware and unslipped ware. They are generally wheel turned and having many shapes. The core with only a few exceptions, is blackish. Most of the pottery is hand finished at the base. The shapes apart from those that are common with Black and red ware are vase, bowl, dish and miniature pots. Few pieces of miniature bowls with convex side, featureless rim and flat base are also found in both slipped and unslipped red ware. One of these has a slightly out turned beaded rim with incised lines just below it. The Vases have outturned beaded rim, concave neck and globular body with incised grooves on the shoulder as a decoration. Majority of the bowls are of slipped ware. The basins have almost vertical internally thickened, bevelled rim. Vessels are found in all the three wares i.e. Red, Black and Red ware and Black Slipped ware. These appear mainly to be cooking pots. Dishes are not found in red ware, but other two industries rarely in Black and Red ware. Platter are found in Red ware only, it could be used for baking the food stuff. (iv) Brown or Grey Ware The colour of these pots are brownish black or grey ware due to till firing. Some of the shapes of Black and Red ware are found in this ware with slight variation. In eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar (Middle Ganga plain) the Black and Red ware culture has different evolutionary trend. The Black and Red ware in Middle Ganga plain appears from Neolithic and continues with the Northern Black polished ware period. For convenience we may divide its occurrence in pre NBPW period in three cultural contexts viz.(i) Neolithic (ii) Chalcolithic (iii) in association with iron in pre-nbpw period. The Chalcolithic ceramic assemblage of the district compares well with various Chalcolithic sites located in the remaining parts of the Vindhayas and Mid Ganga Valley, mention may be made of Kakoria 20, Tokwa 21, Raja Nal Ka Tila 22, Malhar 23, in the Vindhyas
170 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 153 and those of Narhan 24, Waina 25, Imlidih 26, Sohgaura 27, Prahaladpur 28, Agiabir 29, Chechar- Kutubpur 30, Chirand 31, Taradih 32, Senuwar 33, Bhunadih 34, Jhusi and Hetapatti 36, in Mid Ganga plain. In Neolithic and Chalcolithic context, this pottery appears at these sites. They were generally small village settlements. These Neolithic settlements demonstrate a rich cultural material. The occupational deposits at these sites vary. At Narhan it measures 1m at Khairadih it is 1.95m. The relevant thickness at Taradih measures 2m, and Chirand 90 cm. At Jhusi it measured 4.35 at Agiabir (Narhan culture) it is 60 cm and Lahuradeva phase II it measured 1.60m. The people were generally living in the Wattle and doub houses. Evidence of mud houses is reported from Khairadih and Taradih. The pieces of burnt clay lumps with reed impression have been obtained from Agiabir, Jhusi, Lahuradeva, Bhunadih, Narhan, and Sonepur. No evidence of the use of bricks backed has been found from any of the sites. The clay used for manufacturing the pots is not well- levigated and full of gritts. The fabric of different wares varies from medium to thick. Pots in fine fabric are also met with at some sites. Burnishing recorded at some of sites. The pottery are generally ill-fired. The ceramic industry was dominated by red ware along with Grey ware, Black-and- Red ware and Black-Slipped ware. Both plain and painted BRW were found. This pottery was painted in white colour with linear pattern. Black and Red ware Black Slipped and red wares have been found from all the sites. Khairadih, Chirand, Taradih, have yielded sherds of Black ware, Grey ware, pottery have been found from Rajghat, Prahladpur and Sohgaura in U.P. The lower levels of Narhan have yielded pottery of the corded wares. A limited number of pottery of the burnished black and red ware also reported from Narhan and Lahuradeva. The Black and Red ware a salient feature of the Chalcolithic cultures of mid-ganga valley shapes in the ware include variety of bowl, small, channel, spouted lipped everted featureless rim, deep with slightly, pedestalled, Basin, Vases and dishes. The pottery of the Black and Red ware have been found at Rajghat, Waina, Sohgaura, Narhan, Imlidih, Agiabir, Bhunadih, and Lahuradeva, on one hand and Chirand, Taradih, Senuwar on the other. (i) (ii) The painting is executed in white or creamish, white or black pigment on exterior or interior surface of pottery. Black-Slipped ware is important ceramic industry represented at most of the sites. Like Prahladpur, Sohgaura, Rajghat and Taradih, painted pottery of the black-slipped have also been found. Painting is executed in white pigment at Taradih, and black at Sohgaura on exterior or interior surface. Among the shapes in the ware mention may
171 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 154 (iii) be made of bowls, sub ovalid carinated, straight sides, pedestalled convex sided, dishes and basin etc. Red ware is the most ceramic industry at most of the sites. The ware variety of types including convex sided, perforated and legged with globular or ovaloid body and everted rim, small and medium sized, vases and dish-on-stand. The pottery with painting or appliqué patterns are also met with. Painted pottery have been found from Senuwar, Chirand, Narhan, Rajghat, etc. At Narhan have yielded a few pottery with painting executed in black pigment on the interior of pots. The painting linear has been executed in multiple brush technique. At Kamauli few pottery of orhrous red ware with a tendency to rub-off were recorded from lowest level. A few sherds were found decorated with incised designs. As ochre coloured pottery is found at Sringaverpura 37 and Mirapatti 38 its occurrence at Kamuali. Generally vases, bows dish perforated ware the prominent shapes. In the pre-nbpw Iron age BRW has been reported from the sites like Rajghat, Prahaladpur, Ganwaria and Narhan. During this period the material culture of the people remamed same as in preceding Chalcolithic period. Only change was the introduction of Iron in the mid Gangetic plain. Relationship between BRW of the Doab and other Areas Gaur (1967: 6) sees affinities between BRW of Atranjikhera and Gilund (IAR : 60-64) and Ahar (Sankalia et.al. 1969) in south Rajasthan. Srivastava also finds some genetic relationship between BRW of Noh and that of Atranjikhera and Ahar. But Gaur and Srivastava s views seem to be based on very superficial comparison. They do not mention specific points of similarities except that of same type of fabric, texture, burnishing and other techniques. The most important characteristic features of the doab and Noh pottery is that it is plain whereas pottery from Gilund and Ahar is painted in white on black surface. Besides these are following typological difference between the two:- (i) Bowls with channel or pronounced carination and dish-on-stand are completely unknown in BRW of doab whereas they are present at Ahar and Gilund. (ii) The painted BRW bowls from Ahar have pronounced carinated concave sides and fabric is also coarse whereas Bowls of plain BRW are devoid of any painting of carination and are of comparatively fine fabric.
172 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 155 (iii) The dish with featuresless rim and concave sides completely unknown at Ahar and Gilund whereas it is present in large number in doab BRW. It is also possible that as the plain Black-and-Red ware had more utilitarian shapes painted Grey ware people adopted these shapes while manufacturing their pottery. Agrawal is also of the opinion that it is possible that the painted Grey ware people at Atranjikhera might have taken shapes of the plain Black-and-Red wares. Material Culture One of the main industries of this period was copper smelting. A new dimension has been added to the stratigraphic position of iron by the discovery of iron objects from Blackand-Red ware deposits Iron tools have been found with Black and Red ware deposits at Noh and Jodhpura (Rajasthan) but it is conspicuous by its absence in the Upper Ganga Valley so far. It seems quite certain that the Black and Red ware people did have a limited knowledge of iron. At Atranjikhera no definite tool either in metal on in stone was found. Only fragments of stones, waste, flake, chips and cores of quartz, chalcedony, agate and carnelian were found. Ornaments are represented by one bead each of carnelian, shell and copper. A copper ring was also found. The only other object worth mentioning is a fragmentary comb of bone. Among bone tanged and barbed arrowhead with circlet designs, pottery disc and two iron objects (one an arrowhead with a long tang). Copper was represented by a single ring and three beads all from the upper level of the period at Atranjikhera 39. Bone tools in manufacturing stage has not yet been found from the sites of upper Gangetic plain. Only a bone spike was found at Jodhpura at Noh a shapless pieces -of iron, a bead of terracotta and a bone spike were found. The basis of the economy of Black and Red ware people was agriculture in a restricted way, hunting, gathering, metal smelting and bone tools making. Metal smelting and wheel turned pottery may be taken as evidence of specialization of labour. Now we can divide them on the basis of occupation A. The full time specialists like potters. B. The agriculturists and food gatherers. Naseem Akhtar 40 believes that some of the terracotta beads may be identified with spindle whorls, which will bear testimony of their knowledge of spinning. Hence, it may be
173 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 156 suggested that spinning and weaving was practised, wheeled terracotta toys from Alamgirpur suggests that for transport of men and goods crafts might have been used. Settlement and Subsistence Pattern The entire setup of the Black and Red ware culture is very interesting and shows certain individualities of its own. As has already been noticed the Black and Red ware of the Upper Gangetic plain typologically differs from the Black and Red ware of Chalcolithic cultures excavated from other parts of India. The material remains of this period is its pottery as the name itself shows. A variety of pottery was manufactured for house hold use in Black and Red ware and associated wares i.e. Black slipped ware, Red ware, Grey ware, we notice that the potters have used coarse of medium clay for making some of these potteries and refined clay for the Black and Red ware pottery. We can infer that these pots were meant for every day s rough use, thus mode of coarse fabric and other s for refined use. The structural activities of this period, mainly because of the limited area of the excavations. However, closed and open mouthed hearths, mud floors with post-holes, patches of ash and traces of burnt reed impressed mud plaster were found from the excavation at Allahpur 41. A mud brick platform or flooring, measuring 1.5 by 1 m represented the only evidence of the presence of structures at Khalaua 42. Mud brick were also known and used for constructions. Anything further cannot be said about the planning of the houses. Akhtar suggests that there was some kind of chief tanship in this culture as we have come across the larger house units made of mud bricks at Khalaua and Ahar and Gilund of Rajasthan. Everything put together presents a picture of village settlement. No agricultural equipment has been found from the excavations but large storage jars in associated wares 43 suggest that grains were stored. Animal bones found from the sites. Show that people were non vegetarians, hunting and food gathering was also practiced along with agriculture. Bone arrowheads have been found from the excavated sites. Rice and moong cultivation is known at Atranjikhera. But from same site evidence for rice, barley, gram and khaseri come from the OCP level. It is quite possible that BRW people also cultivated these crops. Other finds from Atranjikhera and Jakhera are carnelian and shell beads, barrel shaped beads of jasper, microlithic cores and flakes, copper objects including an ear firing from Atanjikhera, bone comb, double barbed bone arrowheads with incised circlet designs and hollow tang from Jakhera. Fragments of a pestle and a large number of flakes of chalcedony, agate etc. and cores with ripple marks. One interesting point to be noted here is
174 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 157 that in the succeeding period of PGW culture at Atranjikhera although the ceramic tradition of Black-and-Red ware and Black slipped ware continued, the flake industry was completely absent. Jakhera period IIA is a transitional phase from Black and Red ware of period I to the PGW phase. It is clear with the appearance of linear paintings in black on red surface. At Jakhera revealed oval and circular wattle and doub house plans, with well smooth floor, often with burnt patched. One of the floor an oval open hearth was found. Each floor two circular fire pits full of ash, yielding pottery bones and antiquities. One such pit the broken arm of a U shaped portable Chulla was found. A black slipped bowl with Chalcolithic affiliation and two objects, of iron were found. Associated with another floor a deep plastered ashy pit, with narrow mouth at the top like a Tandoor was noticed. Authorship A study of Black and Red ware culture reveals that its earliest concentration and focus was in pre-harappan levels in Gujarat which has been dated to 2000 B.C. it seems that the Black and Red ware moved along the Chambal and entered into the Yamuna valley in a different atmosphere. Another area of attraction seems to be the middle gangetic valley, particularly Bihar. On the basis of differences we may divide the Black and Red ware culture into two zones, western and eastern. The Black and Red ware excavated and explored from the upper Gangetic plain (western U.P.) are without any painting. Dikshit believes that the plain Black and Red ware has a different source about the knowledge of inverted firing and it cannot be correlated with Ahar. According to him The Aravallies in Rajasthan has also checked the expansion of Aharians towards the north and pushed them to south-east from where they got an outlet to enter in middle and lower Gangetic valley through M.P. we known that in the beginning the main families of Aryans lived in the area of Sapta Sindhava, roughly from Kabul river to the Saraswati river (southern Punjab and northern Rajasthan). The Rgvedic society is essentially a pre-urban society with a copper and possibly iron technology. 44 Later on the spread upto Yamuna and beyond. The shapes in plain Black and Red ware are different from other Chalcolithic cultures. V.D. Misra has observed 45 that Apart from the stratigraphic gap between the end of the ochre coloured pottery and the beginning of the Black and Red ware, the absence of common ceramic tradition and pottery types in both group is a positive proof that the Black and Red ware culture did not evolve out of the ochre coloured pottery assemblage but instead emerged as totally a new tradition in the Ganga valley. About the
175 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 158 relationship of this ware with the succeeding P.G. Ware, it may be pointed out that while both at Atranjikhera and Noh these is a gap between the end of the Black and Red ware and the beginning of the PGW ware, both the cultures share a number of common ceramic tradition and pottery types. For example, the Black and Red and Black Slipped ware are present in both the groups along with at least 50% common types. It is also possible that the users of painted Grey ware, adopted the shapes of plain Black and Red ware or both the wares may have existed simultaneously as they are also reported together. It is only at Atranjikhera, Jakhera, Noh, Pariyar and Kausambi that Black and Red ware has been noticed from pre-painted Grey ware horizon. The introduction of iron technology in India is very important. So far, iron technology has been associated with the Indo-Aryan group of people. The discovery of iron from Black and Red ware depostis from Allahpur, Atranjikhera, Jakhera, Noh, Jodhpura, Kausambi, Sringaverpura, Jhusi, Raja-Nal- Ka-Tila, Malhar and other sites has added a new dimension to the identification of Black and Red Ware using people. After considering all these points we can say that :- (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) The area of distribution and the form and nature of the society tallies with Rgvedic Aryans of Sapta Sindhava. The plain Black and Red ware using people were different from the Chacolithic Black and Red ware using people. The shapes of plain Black and Red ware are similar with pointed Grey ware users of PGW are identified to be Aryans by several scholars. 46 The time limits of plain Black and Red ware fits in well if compared with Bogazkeui inscription c B.C. 47 The early antiquity of iron in the south-eastern U.P. these finds have recently came out mainly from the ancient sites of the Raja-Nal-Ka-Tila (Lat N; Long E) in district Sonbhadra, Malhar (Lat N; Long E) in district Chandauli and Jhusi (Lat N; Long E) is situated on the left bank of the Ganga just near the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna in district Allahabad, the excavations carried out by the Allahabad University. On the basis of the surface finds Raja-Nal-Ka-Tila antiquarian remains culture sequence representive of the Chalcolithic period. The main ceramic industries were represented by the Black and Red ware, Black slipped ware and Red ware. Iron included the tools, such as nail, arrowhead, knife, chisel and also the slag. The main shapes of pottery included, footed bowl with perforated base, pedestal bowl, crucible, dish, goblet, button based etc. Some of the pot-sherds were found decorated with
176 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 159 painted patterns, occasionally with cord impression also. The antiquity of iron at this site was placed around 1300 B.C. At Malhar a lot of iron slag was found in association of early ceramics consisting of plain, painted and corded red ware, and BRW. The presence of iron tools, consisting of nail, clamp, spearhead, arrowhead, awl, knife, bangle, sickle, plough share (?) etc. similar to Raja-Nal-Ka-Tila, Malhar also yielded the presence of copper in much lesser proportion of iron artefacts. The ceramic industry of this period is represented by Red ware, Black and Red ware, Black Slipped ware and Grey ware. Plain and painted pottery were found this site. The main shapes include pedestal bowl, perforated and footed bowl, dish or bowl-on-stand etc. Conclusion Pottery associated with Harappan, Late Harappan, OCP and the Chalcolithic culture of central and western India clearly belongs to the red ware category, with the exception of the Ahar/Banas culture where the painted BRW has a dominant position. The pottery in the group of the above noted cultures belonging to a period before 1000 B.C. has been overintermingly produced under oxidizing condition in the above group of culture the frequency of BRW or Grey ware which were produced under reducing condition is insignificant. The only exception as mentioned earlier is the Ahar Red ware which is notably the most significant cultural trait of the Ahar/Banas culture, but by virture its dispsal in the neighbouring Malwa and western India. From the above study it is evident that Black and Red ware does not possess a single cultural personality. 48 In upper Gangetic plain it differs prominently from other Chalcolithic Black and Red wares. The main shapes in this ware are bowls basins, dishes and storage jars in associated wares. This ware is unpainted Black and Red wares. These shapes are different from other Chalcolithic Black and Red ware and resemble to those of painted Grey ware. Other material remains show that it was essentially a village settlement where people were agriculturists in a restricted sense and they used to practice hunting and food gathering. The settlements were restricted in nature as the surrounding area was covered with thick mansoonal forests. The sites are mostly situated on the river banks which provided them with stable economic resources. One of the main industries of this period was copper smelting and wheel turned pottery which are the works of full time specialists. Nothing much is known about trade and commerces, but we can infer from the wheeled terracotta toys that for transport of man and goods craft might have been used.
177 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 160 REFERENCES 1. Its exception is Ahar where only copper was used and no stone blades but the same culture had a developed blade industry at Gilund which is just 80 km away from Ahar. 2. Ancient India, No. 4, p Ibid, p Wankankar, V.S New light on Central India Archaeology Throughs; Kayatha excavations, Puratattva No. 2, p I.A.R., , pp ; , pp Ibid, , p. 35, , pp Lal, B.B. Ancient India, No. 5, pp I.A.R., , p Mujamdar, G.G Seminar papers on the problem of Megaliths in India, p Mujumdar, G.G Chalcolithic Chandoli, ; Appendix I, p Ibid, 1969, pp Gaur, R.C Nature of Pottery complex of Black and Red ware phase at Atranjikhera in Potteries in Ancient India, ed. B.P. Sinha, p Gaur, R.C Indian Prehistory, 1964, pp Ibid, , pp Sahi, M.D.N New light on the life of the PGW people as revealed from the excavation at Jakhera, Man and Environmental, No. II, pp Sharma, G.R The Excavations at Kausambi, pp. 13, Lal, B.B. and K.N. Dikshit, 1980, Op.cit. p Gaur, R.C. 1968, Op.cit. p Ibid, p I.A.R , pp , , pp 57-58; Misra, B.B. A brief report of excavation at Kakoria: A Chalcolithic, Megalithic sites, Indian Archaeology Vol. II, pp Misra, V.D., Misra, B.B., Pal J.N. and Gupta, M.C Explorations at Tokwa, Pragdhara No. 6, pp Tiwari R. and R.K. Srivastava, Excavations at Raja-Nal-Ka- Tila, Pragdhara No. 7, pp Tiwari R. and Srivastava, R.K., Saraswat, K.S. and Singh K.K Excavations at Malhar, 1999, Pragdhara No. 10, pp
178 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Singh, P. and M. Lal, Excavation at Narhan, pp Singh, P. and A.K. Singh, Excavation at Waina, District Ballia, Pragdhara No. 6, pp Singh, P., , Excavation at Imlidihkhurd, Pragdhara No. 3, pp and Pragdhara No. 22, pp Man and Environment, IX, p Narain, A.K. and T.N. Roy, Excavation at Prahladpur. 29. Singh P. and Ashok Singh Agiabir, Puratattva No. 29, pp I.A.R., ; pp I.A.R., , pp. 5-6; to , , pp I.A.R., , pp ; , pp ; I.A.R , pp ; Puratattva No. 12, pp Singh, B.P Puratattva No. 20, pp Singh P. and A.K. Singh, Excavation at Bhunadih, district Ballia, Pragdhara No. 8, pp Misra, V.D., B.B. Misra, J.N. Pandey, and J.N. Pal. Pragdhara No. 6. A preliminary report on the Excavation at Jhusi, pp Ibid, p I.A.R , pp ; , pp ; Lal B.B. and K.N. Dikshit Sringaverpura: A Key site for the protohistory and early history of the Central Ganga Valley, Pragdhara No. 10, pp A flat celt of copper was found from the site while digging a pit; it was brought to notice of the author by Krishna Kumar. The author subsequently visited the site B.B. Misra and M.C. Gupta and picked up Ochre Coloured potsherds. 39. Gaur R.C., op.cit.; I.A.R., , p Akhtar, N Associated antiquities with Black and Red ware Chalcolithic phase. In Potteries in Ancient India, pp I.A.R., , pp I.A.R., , pp Gaur, R.C. 1968, op.cit., p Thapar Romila, Presidential address in Indian History Congress, p Misra, V.D The Chalcolithic cultures of Uttar Pradehs; K.C. Chattopadhyaya Memorial Volume, pp Lal, B.B., Ancient India, No. 10 and 11, pp
179 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Singh, P. op.cit. pp Singh, H.N Black and Red ware: A cultural study, Essays in Indian Protohistory, ed. D.P. Agrawal and D.K. Chakrabarti, p. 279.
180 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 163 CHAPTER 5 Painted Grey Ware Culture In the proto-historic period, the western Gangetic and Yamuna and the north-western part of the Rajasthan were under the occupation of a culture well known amongst the Archaeologists like Ghosh, Panigrahi and Lal 1 have brought to light a complex of pottery, known as Painted Grey ware culture. The potentiality of urbanization in the Ganga valley was realized for the first time primarily because of the use of iron by the PGW people. Iron tools helped PGW people to clear and settle in the then dense monsoonal forests of the Upper Ganga plains in the words of Romila Thaper, (1978: 91). It would seem feasible that this material culture provided the base for emergence of states with a monarchical system of government in which the control of agricultural land and rights to succession would play a major role. The associated culture is dubbed by an author as the Ganges civilization except for the wide distribution from the Punjab in the north to Ujjain in the south and in the west in north Rajasthan and Sind border to Bihar in the east (covering the Indo-gangetic plains, the Vedic and Upanishadic, Aryavarta, Brahmarshidesa it has little to boast of by way of the civilization. 2 This pottery, with its highly evolved technique of manufacture showing an excellent fabric, firing and finish occupies a significant place among the proto-historic pottery tradition of India, it is such a distinctive ceramic that the Allchins (1968: 210, The birth of Indian Civilization) call it a hallmark of this cultural period. This pottery was first reported from Ahichhatra (district Bareilly of U.P. Long back, but unfortunately the importance it deserved was not attached at that time. Hastinapur excavations (District Meerut, U.P.) under taken by Lal ( ) established this typical pottery in Indian archaeology. The real significance of this culture was realized when it was further reported from many excavated sites Alamgirpur 3, Hulas 4, Hastinapur 5 Ahichchatra 6, Kaseri 7, Radhan 8, Fatehpursikri 9, Sadhavrakhera 10, Atranjikhera 11 (Plates No. 23), Jakhera 12 (Plates No. 24), Pariyar 13, Kausambi 14 (Plates No. 25), Jhinjhana 15, Allahpur 16, Mathura 17, Jajmau 18, Musanagar 19, Abhaipur 20 (Plates No. 26), Saunphari 21 (Plates No. 27), Kampil 22,
181 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 164 Kannuaj 23, Sonkh 24, Khalaua 25, Bateswar 26, Sravasti 27, Hulaskhera 28 (Plates No. 28), Thapli 29 (Plates No. 29), Sringaverpura 30, Madnapur 31, Purana Qila 32, Rupar 33 and Siyapur 34. Extensive exploration carried out in the Upper Ganga valley have brought to light numerous painted Grey ware sites, in districts of Unnao, Hardoi, Kannauj, Farrukhabad, Shahjahanpur, Pilibhit, Kheri Lakhimpur and Sitapur (Map No. VII). The numbers of settlements in each district is given below: Map No VII. Map Showing the location of PGW sites in Ganga Plain Table No. 8 Numbers of Settlements PGW Site in each District District PGW Total Farrukhabad Hardoi - - Kannauj 6 6 Kheri Lakhimpur 7 7 Pilibhit 8 8 Shahjahanpur 21 21
182 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 165 Sitapur 1 1 Total 54 The largest number of PGW sites the size of settlements on the basis of present measurement of mound is given in table. The biggest one was found in Farrukhabad (22,50,000 sq. meter) and smallest in Kannuaj (1,000 sq. meter). Table No. 9 Size of Settlements in Square meters District Maximum Minimum Farrukhabad 22,50,000 2,500 Kannauj 1,20,000 1,000 Kheri Lakhimpur 2,47, 500 2,000 Shahjahanpur 3,20,000 6,000 The district wise distribution of the PGW sites is as below: Farrukhabad Sites Kampil, Silsanda, Sankisa, Pasnikpur, Nadsa, Bhishampur, Banthal-Shahpur, Bhatasa, Daleganj, Ljaur, Tiuari Ismailpur. Kannauj Sites Harbhanpur, Siyapur, Kannauj, Ahirwa, Rajarampur, Bishamgarh, Chandpura. Kheri Lakhimpur Sites Atasar, Bhirawanghat, Firozpur, Mathana, Padariya, Parsehra, Semra Janipur. Shahjahanpur Sites Anawa, Aun, Bikrampur, Bujhera, Husainpur, Dhai, (Pirthipur), Dhulia, Gadaighat, Gandharpur, Gulaula Khera, Gautaiya Ghat, Khajuri, Kherarath, Madnapur, Muhammadpur, Naraura, Nurpur Tarsaura, Pausil, Saunphari, Shahbaz nagar, Sutnera, Talgaon. Hardoi :? Pilibhit Sites
183 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 166 Katmata, BiLai, Biharipur, Pagar, Bautha, Bisalpur, Simraya. Sitapur Sites Mulla-Ji-Ka (Barchhata). Distribution Pattern of PGW Sites The distribution of PGW sites are confined to the Indo-Gangetic divide, the Ghaggar basin, the Ravi-Sutlej basin and the entire Ganga-Yamuna doab. The PGW culture extends from the dry bed of Ghaggar in Bahawalpur and north Rajasthan eastwards across the water shade of the Ganges and Indus to the Ganges-Yamuna doab. The presence of PGW at Thapli in Garhwal 35 has taken this culture to the hills. A few sherds of PGW were also found at Ujjain (M.P.) and Chosla and Gondi in district of Ajmer and Jaipur Rajasthan respectively. A solitary sherd of the PGW has been found on surface at Gilund in Uadipur district of Rajasthan. A few sherds of PGW have also been found at Vaisali but it is still disputed because of dissimilarity in shape and fabric with the PGW of the Upper Ganga plain. From Gularilawaghat in district Deoria of U.P. PGW sherds have also been found in exploration. Altogether more than 1000 PGW sites have been located so far in Indo-Pak subcontinent. Thus, it is clear PGW has been found from Sravasti in east to Lakhiopir (Sind) in west, and Tilaurakot (Nepal) in the north and Ujjain (M.P.) in the south. Stratigrphically painted Grey ware is found in four contexts. At sites of Rupar and Sanghol in Punjab, Daulatpur in Haryana, Alamgirpur and Hulas in western Uttar Pradesh it is preceded by the Late Harappan culture but with a gap between the two cultures. At Dadheri, Katplaon and Nagar in Punjab and Bhagwanpura in Haryana PGW has an inter loking phase with the Late Harappan culture. The Upper Ganga basin is marked by the wellknown Iron age pottery called PGW at Alamgirpur II, Hulas II, Kaseri II, Hastinapur II, Ahichhatra II, Atranjikhera III, Jakhera III, Pariyar III, Sringaverpura IIB, Kausambi etc. It followed the OCP at Hastinapur, Jhinjhana and Ahichhatra, and also the BRW at Atranjikhera II, Jakhera II-IIIA, Pariyar II, Sringaverpura II A-B, Kausambi II, Noh II, Jodhpura II, Sonari etc. on the upper side it every where overlaps with the NBPW culture. This movement however, did not go beyond the Lower Ganga-Yamuna doab in the east. 36 There is a distinct stratigraphic break in between the OCP and the PGW deposits at Hastinapur, Jhinjhana and Ahichhatra in the Upper Ganga valley. Although geographically PGW commands an extensive region from Indo-Pak border in Rajasthan and Punjab to
184 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 167 central Ganga-Yamuna doab but its maximum frequency is in Haryana (35.8% of the total sites) and second largest in Uttar Pradesh (30-3% of the total sites) and Punjab comes (14.2%) of the total sites and Rajasthan comes at fourth place with 11.2% of the total sites. In India PGW is found in two contexts: (a) From the Late Harappan phase which is pre-iron phase. (b) In association with Iron. PGW in Pre-Iron Bhagwanpura IB, Sanghol IC, Dadheri IB, Katpalon I, Nagar I, Manda IB, Dher Majra, Chak-86, Chak-72, Sardargarh, Bara, Salura, Daulatpur, Ropar etc. are the important sites where PGW has been reported without iron and at many of them it is associated with Late Harappan tradition. The overlapping of the two culture i.e. the Late Harappan and the PGW culture are recorded from Bhagwanpura IB, Sanghol IC, Dadheri IB, Katpalaon I, Nagar I, Manda IB 37 and Dher Majra (surface collection). The grey ceramic has a long usage. It is known in the Neolithic context, Chalcolithic complex of the pre-harappan times down to Late Harappan stage. The PGW of this group has been placed in the time bracket of c B.C. on the basis of associated material and few thermoluminescence dates from Bhagwanpura. 38 The pre-iron PGW culture at these sites is an intruder setting over the remains of a Late Harappan habitation. Some of Late Harappan shapes is said to have been fabricated in Grey ware of PGW phase. The Late Harappan potteries are also present which shows the continuation of the Late Harappan tradition in the PGW phase. PGW in this context generally lacks resemblance in execution seen on the similar vessels in the Upper Ganga plain. Some Late Harappan shapes are in the PGW at Bhagwanpura, Nagar, Katpalon in Haryana, and Ropar in Punjab. It is significant to note that PGW pottery of Bhagwanpura IB besides the Late Harappan vessels, had PGW, Grey ware, Red ware, and a limited quantity of black slipped ware. It is recorded that a few Late Harappan form viz. bowls, dishes, dish-on-stand, basins and jars, occurred in the thick grey ware. The painted design on the PGW present a host of motif including simple dots, slashes, horizontal bands, wavy lines, sigmas, complex, semi-circles, lotus, concentric, intersecting, circles, fish scale, net and honey comb patterns, For the first time seen are a maltese cross and an intersecting circle giving rise to six or four petal flower. Among the antiquities recorded from this phase mention may be made of terracotta human figurines, aviolin shaped mother goddess in grey fabric wheeled-rams, dogs, birds ghata-shaped bead and copper bangles. Another important discoveries of this period are
185 goods. 39 At Manda IB, confined by the presence of the Harappan red ware represented by EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 168 the bones of Equus Cabalus Linn, located in the habitational area where found two human burials, one each of an adult and the other of a child. These burials were without any grave forms such as dishes and dish-on-stand. Beakers, goblets and perforated jars were not found. Grey ware else where generally associated with PGW. The other associated ceramic found were Black slipped ware and small quantity of thick burnished Grey ware. 40 Sanghol II is represented by the PGW, Black slipped ware and other associated wares. The occurrence of PGW along with its associated Red ware and the continuation of the Bara pottery. Dadheri IB a people who were using the PGW, Grey ware, Black-Slipped ware and Red ware. The percentage of the Black Slipped ware is much more than that found at Bhagwanpura in a similar context. Roper II is characterised by the presence of the PGW, Grey ware, Black Slipped ware, and Red wares. The pottery shapes in PGW are bowls including deep variety and straight sided dishes with Saggar base. Special mention may be made of a vessel (Lota) having been recorded at this site only so far. It is akin to the modern Lota in metal. 41 The designs on the PGW include bands, vertical/oblique, criss-cross, dots, dashes, sigmas, wavy lines, chains and swastika. In Red ware, a few sherds bearing stamped circular designs were noticed at Ropar in the PGW levels. Copper was mostly in use though iron also appeared in limited quantity. PGW in Associated with Iron Atranjikhera III, Jakhera IIIB, Hastinapur II, Ahichchhtra II, Alamgirpur II, Autha, Bateswar I, Hulas II, Allahpur I, Kaseri II, Khalaua II, Sonkh I, Mathura I, Kampil I, Noh II, Jodhpura II, Raja Karan Ka Qila etc. are important sites where, in a majority of cases PGW is reported in association with iron. In this phase, the Standardization of the PGW shapes and designs along with the appearance of BRW and BSW are the important changes in this phase. The PGW culture reached its height at this stage. PGW as well as associated pottery becomes very fine. Apart from this the associated assemblage of the PGW shows regional variations (Tripathi 1976:52 & 62) 42. Dr. Tripathi further says that the cultural trait and habitation pattern of the PGW culture shows a lack of uniformity she classified the PGW sites in four major zones they are: 43 (Map No. VIII).
186 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 169 (a) (b) (c) (d) Zone I. Comprises of a group of sites located along the banks of the dried up river Saraswati (Ghaggar) and Drisadwati (Chautang) in Bikaner division of Rajasthan and in Bahawalpur state of Pakistan along the dried up course of Ghaggar (known as Hakra in Pakistan). Zone II- is formed by sites located in more perennially watered regions of the same rivers along their upper courses, and basins of river Sutlej and Yamuna. This compries of the states of Haryana and Punjab. It is this area where there is an inter locking of Late Harappan and the PGW culture. At sites like Bhagwanpura, there is a near absence of Black and Red ware. Zone III. The third zone is formed by a sites located in the upper parts of Ganga- Yamuna valleys notably Meerut and Agra division of U.P. Zone IV. Finally the fourth zone which has in its groups of sites located in the lower region of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab coinciding with the present day Allahabad and part of Lucknow division of central U.P. Map No VIII. Distribution of Painted Grey Ware Regional Division
187 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 170 The PGW users appear to have entered into the territory of Uttar Pradesh from two direction: (i) One group from Haryana. (ii) Other from Rajasthan. They took their routes, through Ganga-Yamuna and their tributaries. At Hulas the PGW habitation is again on the virgin soil. Here it is belived that a few Red ware sherds bearing stamped concentric circles have been found from the excavations. The use of iron is also reported. These features indicate that the settlement here is of an earlier in the time graph of the culture as compared to other sites so far known in U.P. But when the people came down to Hastinapur and Alamgirpur, they settle on the same locals occupied by a preceding culture. At Hastinapur some of the vases in Red ware bearing linear incised decoration are similar on the pottery from PGW sites in Rajasthan and Pakistan reffered to earlier. In the south-western U.P. the bearers of the PGW culture seem to have entered from eastern Rajasthan. Mathura, Sonkh, Bateshwar, Khalaua, Atranjikhera, Jakhera present an evidence of comparatively early and Late phases. Advancing further along the rivers these people settled at Ahichhatra, Kannauj, Kampil, Pariyar, Jajmau. In a still later phase they reached Kausambi. At what time and during which phase of migration, what route they took to reach Thapli is difficult to say. At Sravasti and Sringaverpura the ware shows only contact of the local inhabitants with the PGW users and not their regular settlement at these sites. Further east at Belhar Jungle (District Siddharthanagar) sherds of PGW, plain Grey ware and NBPW were picked up from the surface. 44 At Ganwaria in the same district, a Grey ware with paintings, fine grey ware and red (orange-red) ware having generally dishes with sides heaving strokes painted in black, the exterior is also black while the interior is grehish had been found from period I 45. This kind of pottery have been found in association with the PGW in Ahichhatra, Hastinapur and Bateshwar. Finally the PGW culture has gradually merged with the element drawn from more easterly regions. Technique The PGW is a sophisticated pottery of grey colour with paintings general in black though occasionally in red chocolate, whitish, grey and bichrome. The pottery was made by well levigated clay free from all impurities. After the laborious preparation of the clay, it was thrown on a fast rotating wheel to obtain the desired shapes. Commenting on the technique of manufacture of PGW, Saran 46 has remarked: It is to be noted that greater thinness is difficult
188 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 171 to achieve by the method of throwing on wheel because if the clay is not sufficiently well levigated and of desired consistency, any attempt to make the walls very thin on the rotating wheel by pressure of hand may result in complete tearing of the lump of the clay. Marks of cutting string and sometime thumb or finger impression are found on the vessel pots were returned to the wheel once again after they became leather hard, i.e. when the clay had slightly dried up to a lighter tone. At this stage its lower parts could be smothered or its walls reduced to egg shell thickness with a scraper. This way it may be trimmed, scraper pared, and smoothened. An emelsion applied at this stage would serve as a slip Burnishing and polishing are also possible this stage. Braid wood notice that multiple brush device was frequently utilized by the near eastern potters in 4 th millennium B.C. 47 The colour commonly found in PGW evident from its name is grey, it varies from ash grey to battle slip grey, buff grey is also found, though not very commonly other shades which are met with are brownish and reddish grey, but in every case the core is grey. 48 Painting is another distinctive feature of this ceramic. The painting is generally executed in black or deep chocolate colours. However, white and red pigments have also been used. Generally the pigment has a mat finish. The point was applied on the pot before it was baked (Tripathi 1976: 43). The brush used for painting PGW is not very fine strokes are thicker at the starting point and thinner toward the end. In certain cases they are very thick. Lal has observed that a study of the patterns reveals that the outlines of some of the design was first drawn in a thin deep black line, since where the paint has faded a thin black line is seen sunning along the whole pattern. Tripathi has listed 42 designs on the PGW the most common painted motifs found on this ware are: Groups of vertical or oblique strokes, concentric circles, sigmas, spirals, swastikas, horizontal bands, dots, intersecting strokes, double lines, wavy lines, rim bands, leaf, floral pattern, comb pattern, solar symbol, half circles, circles, dashes, criss-cross, scalloped concentric, chain, zig-zag lines. On the method of painting these above mentioned designs Ansari 49 differs with Saran on the point that the painting have been done with a single brush and not with multiple one because Ansari observes that the nature of groups of painted lines either straight or wavy. It will appear that they are of unequal thickness an length besides they are not parallel in the real sense.
189 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 172 Shapes Among the shape of daily use in this pottery mention may be made of several types of basic pot forms the PGW are the bowls of various sizes (Katoras/Katoris) dishes (thalis) vases (Lota) which is a complete dinner set of the Indian style; besides basin and lids. The last named may have been used as pans (dongas or Kurhis) for the cooked items and also found. Lal had suggest that the dishes were used for eating dal-bhat (pulse and rice). Some uncommon varieties like Lota shaped vase, spouted vessel, ring base etc. are also found. All these shape together appears to form either a modern dinner set or a group of ritualistic pots (Plates 30). Different types of bowls are the following: Bowls (i) Convex Sided Bowls : Sides of these bowls are slightly convex and sharp rimmed Hastinapur, slightly more concave types have been found from Atranjikhera 50, and slightly featureless convex have been found from Shaunphari. (ii) Hemispherical Bowls : The rims are incurved but the sides are concave to the extent of making the shape hemispherical-these types are reported from Hastinapur, Saunphari, Atranjikhera. (iii) Straight Sided Bowls : These are the most common of the bowl types with a slight variation of the rim. A common factor between these types is grooves generally drawn in the lower portion of the bowl just before it is shaped for a convex base. All these types are found in Hastinapur. (iv) Incurved Sided Bowls : The sides are incurved and rim are internally sharpened and have provinent saggar base found from Hastinapur. (v) Concave Sided Bowls : The body of these bowls are concave, one of the specimen from Hastinapur has slightly flaring rim and concave sided with carination towards the base. The other type has an inturned featureless rim and slightly concave sided with three mid grooves. This type is not common. (vi) Ledged Bowls : A bowl with a featureless rim and a lodged shoulder with punched decoration has been found from Hastinapur. This shape is rare. (vii) Corrugated Bowls : These have generally corrugated vertical and sharpened rim. This type have been found in Hastinapur. This type has also found in other associated wares like black-slipped ware from Atranjkhera, Sravasti and Prahaldpur.
190 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 173 (viii) Tapering Sided Bowls: Some of these bowls have out-turned sharpened rim and tapering sided with carinations towards the base, at site saunphari. This type is also present in Black and Red ware and Black slipped ware. (ix) Miniature Bowls: A number of miniature bowls have been recovered, from different sites, 3.6 inc. bowl with a horizontally splayed out rim and concave side carinated to a rounded base has been excavated from an untratified deposit of period II at Hastinapur. Atranjikhera also yields a similar bowl with slight variation. A miniature ring base, possibly a base for a footed bowl or cup was unearthed at Allahapur, miniature bowl with rounded body were found Hulaskhera, Abhaipur and Saunphari, Khalaua, Noh (unusal type). These miniature pots were perhaps used for ritualistic purpose as is the practice still in vogue during house hold routines pujas. Dishes Compared to bowls, dishes, seem to have a limited variety in PGW assemblage. Commonly the PGW dishes have a vertical or inturned featureless rim with rounded, straight or tapering side, flat base, saggar base painted in black inside with a group of five wavy lines were found Saunphari. (Plates 31) These dishes are conveniently large for eating purposes. These type were not found in the Harappan Chalcolithic or OCP assemblage. In the culture just preceding the PGW i.e. black and red ware at Atranjikhera and Noh bowl dominate. A sudden influx of dish shapes with the PGW has been noticed. In other two varities 51 the sides of the thalis are straight and go out whereas in another sides are indented or have ledges and bear a punched decorations outside. Basin A solitary basin has been reported from Hastinapur. It has an externally grooved collared rim and rounded sides. It is painted with stroke designs. Vases Vases are also found in the PGW fabric rarely. A globular vase with stroke painting very small neck and a rounded body has been found from Atranjikhera. This type has been found in red ware at Hastinapur. At Ahichchhtra a small vase with roundish body has been found. A feature hitherto unknown in PGW is a ring base found from Allahapur. The mid portions bear painting.
191 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 174 Spouted Vessel examine. This type of shape were found Sardargarh. The shape and its nature is yet to be Associated Wares of the PGW Generally the following wares are found associated with the PGW. (i) The plain Grey ware. (ii) The black slipped ware (iii) The black and red ware. (iv) The red ware (i) Plain Grey ware: Grey ware is close to PGW in fabric and form only the differences is in painting. The fabric of Grey ware is generally very fine, though there are a few sherds of medium to coarse fabric also. Generally the section is very thin and the colour varies from light grey to steel grey. Common types are bowl, dish, vases and basin. Some of them decorated with stamped and incised designs like red ware of this period. In the Upper Gange plain, the ware is reported from Hastinapur, Atranjikhera, Jakhera, Hulas, Allahpur, Alamgirpur, Saunphari, Hulaskhera etc. along with the PGW. At sites like Kampil, Khalaua, and Sravasti, where PGW occur in a very restricted number the plain variety is also less. Following types of bowls are found in this fabric: (i) Bowls with featureless rim and concave side Saunphari. (ii) Bowls with convex sided with rounded or straight body Hulaskhera. (iii) Bowl with weakly corrugated and concave base Atranjikhera. (iv) Bowl with an inturned featureless rim, vertical sides and a straight base-khalaua. (v) Bowl with bevelled in rim, vertical edge -Kausambi. (vi) Bowls with sharpened vertical featureless rim Kausambi (vii) Bowls with an oblique clubbed rim and slightly convex side Allahapur. (viii) Bowl with a flaring side and narrow and slightly saggar base-khalaua. (ix) Bowl with obliquely cutrim, convex sides- Kausambi. (x) Bowl with tapering sides, an open mouth and a flat thick base Ropar.
192 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 175 Dish The types of dishes are :- (i) Dish with convex side Hulaskhera. (ii) Dishes of incurved and saggar base Saunphari (iii) Dish flaring externally thickened rim Saunphari (iv) Rounded base Saunphari. (v) Dish incurved grooved and convex side Saunphari (vi) Dish with an incurred featureless rim and a rounded base is a popular type Hastinapur and Allahpur. (vii) Dish with an incurved features rim and presumably a flat base Hastinapur, Khalaua. (viii) Dish with a vertical featureless rim, straight sides and a carination at the base Hastinapur, Fatehpursikri and Sadhvarakhera. (ix) Dish with vertical featureless rim sides bulging near the base- Kausambi. (x) Dish form with a ring base Allahpur, Rupar and Chak. (xi) Very shallow dish with tapering convex sides and a flat base out with finger while it was still at the potter s wheel Alamgirpur. Vases The fabric of the vases is medium to course, variety of vases are the following : (i) Short vertical flat nail headed rim and a concave neck- Hastinapur. (ii) Obliquely cut clubbed rim Ropar, Allahpur. (iii) Convex shoulders and a globular body in medium fabric Hastinapur. (iv) Vases with high necks (measuring two-and a half to three inches) in usually thick fabric Allahpur. Basin The fabric varies from fine to medium different types of bowls are as the following : (i) Basin with a nail-headed rim with a groove ridge and a convex side body Sardargarh. (ii) Clubbed rim and straight sides Noh, Allahpur, Chak-86 IA, Sardargarh. (iii) Externally elliptical collared and grooved rim- Hastinapur. Miniature vases occur frequently. These have been reported from Sravasti, Khalaua, Noh, Hastinapur, Atranjikhera, Allahpur.
193 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 176 A common feature of the Gandhara grave culture of the Swat Valley and the Grey ware culture of the Sarawasti and Ganga Valley is its grey colour and the introduction of iron along with this ware. Black Slipped Ware The Black-Slipped ware has a fine, soapy but sturdy fabric. The shapes of this ware are similar to those of PGW. Although this ware has a superficial similarity with the NBP the fabric, finish and firing is very different from the well known NBP Lal believes that it is a stage when people where experimenting with the production of NBP, Black slipped ware has been reported in different contexts. It has been found in the pre-pgw context (Atranjikhera, Noh, Jakhera, Pariyar, Kausambi and Sringaverpura PGW, and others it has been found in the pre-nbp context and at the site like Chirand and Sonepur and continues in the succeeding phases of the NBP ware deposit. The core of this ware is grey common shape of this ware is bowl. The fabric is fine. This has been found from Saunphari, Hulaskhera, Fathepur Sikri, Atranjikhera, Allahpur, Hastinapur and Thapli, Prahladpur other shapes are; (i) A flat base and a shallow bowl or lid with a hole in the centre Atranjikhera. (ii) Corrugated bowl :- Atranjikhera, Sravasti. (iii) Vertical sharpened rim and a flat base is a common type Sravasti, Hastinapur. (iv) Roundish body Allahpur. (v) Obliquely splayed out rim with a depression inside and globular Saunphari, Fatehpur-Sikri and Abhaipur, Thapli. (vi) Convex sides bowl Hulaskhera. Dishes are rare in this ware, a dish with a vertical internally sharpened rim and weak carination, flat base, orange-red slipped, rounded base have been found in Thapli, Hastinapur, Saunpari and Hulaskhera. Jar, vases and handis, though are very few have been reported from Atranjikhera, handis splayed-out rim, concave neck and bulging shoulder, were found Saunpari. Black and Red Ware The common shapes of Black and Red ware of this period are bowl and dishes. A few basins and miniature vessels have also been found. This ware is found in a larger at Allahpur and at the sites of Rajasthan. At Hulaskhera Black and red ware pottery are two types.
194 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 177 (i) (ii) Handmade. Wheel-turned. The following are the important types found in the black and red of this phase :- (i) Wheel turned sherds mainly, flat and saggar based bowls, footed bowl Hulaskhera. This pottery made of well levigated clay. (ii) Straight sided bowls are found at Allahpur, Noh, Sardargarh. (iii) Hemispherical bowls are reported from Jakhera, Atranjikhera, Alamgirpur, Allahpur. This shape is also found in PGW and black and slipped ware but continue to occur in early phase of NBP. (iv) Bowl in vertical shapes orincurved rim Abhaipur. Dishes in black and red ware are not reported from Hastinapur but they are found at Allahpur, Noh, Atranjikhera and Hulaskhera. Basins are rare, but one or two specimen are seen at Allahpur and Atranjikhera. Large size vessels were found at Hulaskhera and Jar were found. Miniature shape specially, vases are seen at Allahpur and Atranjikhera. Red Wares Fabric of this ware varies from fine to coarse a limited number of specimen have incised of stamped designs. 52 This ware into three broad groups : (i) Red ware of medium to coarse fabric (ii) Red ware of very fine fabric (iii) Miniature vessels in Red ware (i) This group is noticed red ware of medium or coarse fabric. This type of fabric is common in storage jars. Firing of coarse ware is generally not very uniform. It has turned black at places. A large number of unslipped and coarse red ware were found at Atranjikhera 53. At Allahpur ill baked storage jars and vases were found. The common shapes in the medium to coarse fabric are storage vessels, basins, vases, and bowls in a limited variety. Shapes most common in this group are the vases which served as storage vessels, two types of vases are found. (i) Vase having broad to medium spaced mouth splayed out rim, constricted neck and carinated to a globular. The rim is slightly thickened at mid-portion or near the neck. (ii) Vases with high concave necks.
195 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 178 Interest is a big vessel in the medium fabric group from Hastinapur other variety of vase in medium fabric from Kausambi. At Hulaskhera, pottery are of two types, hand made and wheel turned Handmade, pottery consists of sherds with rusticated, straw and reed mark and cord impressed exterior. Their fabric is coarse and the main shapes are water vessels. Wheel turned pottery made of well levigated clay and are well baked. Main shapes are dishes, bowl, basin, jar, vases and water vessels. A vase of red ware, concave neck and spreading shoulders were found at Shaunphari. (ii) Bud-shaped rim, concave neck, bear a row of triangular notches on the exterior were found at Shaunphari. Vases in coarse fabric has also been noted from Kausambi. Mention may be made of an obliquely cut rim of vessel in coarse fabric, core burnt black gritty in texture and treated with a red slip wash. At Atranjikhera medium sized vases without turned splayed out rim, concave, neck, flattish base and having incised grooves on the exterior has been noticed by Gaur. The small neck shape occur in fine red and bigger shape like Hastinapur. Type X are found in medium to coarse variety. Bowls Bowls are also found in medium and coarse fabric although not very frequently. (i) Bowls of red ware incurved rim with two grooves and convex-sides-saunphari (ii) Bowls of red ware featureless rim and globular Saunphari, Thapli. (iii) Straight sided, with rounded body with concave sides Hulaskhera (iv) Miniature bowls Hulaskhera. (v) Bowls with splayed out rim Hulaskhera. (vi) Footed bowl and perforated legged bowl grooves, ridges and carination are usually on the exterior of dishes and bowl Hulaskhera.
196 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 179 (vii) Bowl with broad flat rim, flat base, sturdy, fabric showing a good deal of micaparticles and treated with a dull red wash on both the sides has been reported from Kausambi. (viii) Bowls with clubbed rims in medium fabric have been found from Alamgirpur. (ix) Bowls with oblique clubbed rims and convex sides are found at Allahpur, Atranjikhera and Sravasti. Basin or Trough In this fabric at places like, Alamgirpur, Allahpur, Saunphari, Hulaskhera, Rupar, Khalua, Atranjikhera, Kausambi, Thapli, Abhaipur and Ahichchhtra. Basin with out turned rounded rim in coarse fabric at Kausambi and Alamgirpur were found. Another deep basin with a diameter of 9 inch, clubbed rim and convex side has been reported from the same site. A large lipped basin has been found intact from the PGW phase at Ahichchhtra. In the red ware assemblage with PGW the universally distributed types are bowls, dishes, basin, vases of different size. These have distribution in almost all the PGW yielding sites. At Allahpur a very narrow type of dish the rim almost touching the bottom has been found. A channel led basin from Ahichhatra also has a parallel in the channel like shape at Ropar. At Alamgirpur and Sravasti a limited number of new shapes show resemblance with Hastinapur NBP phase. (II) A red ware consists with a very fine fabric. At times the ware is treated with a slip or a wash. The common shapes are bowls and dishes. Dishes are a common shape in this fabric and these are found at all PGW yielding sites. Sites yielding dishes are Allahpur, Alamgirpur, Hastinapur, Noh, Atranjikhera, Khalaua and Sravasti. Another variety of bowls have featureless rims and a tapering body. These are found from Noh, Sardargarh, Allahpur and Hastinapur. These shapes are different rims are also common in Black slipped and Black and red ware of this period, Basin also occur in this ware. These shapes both small and big in size have been found from Alamgirpur, Allahpur, Ahichhatra, Hastinapur. This shape is more common in the medium fabric group. (III) Miniature vessels consists in red ware at sites like, Rupar, Allahpur, Khalua, Atranjikhera, Sravasti, Hulaskhera and Saunphari has a variety of shapes. The shapes are vase, bowl, lid cum-bowl. These miniature pots were perhaps used for ritualistic purpose, perforated vessels are also noted from the sites like Thapli, Atranjkhera, Ahichhatra etc.
197 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 180 These are footed bowls and footless bowls footless bowls. Some of these have diamond shaped perforation. Decoration Pots were decorated by paintings in Black and some times in deep chocolate colour on outer as well as inner surface. Hegde is of the opinion that painting were made on sun-dried pot before fining. Design on PGW may roughly be divided into two groups: (i) Painted designs. (ii) Incised designs Painted designs are common on this pottery as is evident from its nomenclature. The designs are executed generally in black or chocolate colour, but examples of paintings in white, red or purplish brown are also to be seen. Generally the brushes used for painting are not thin. Gaur has also reported some impressed and cord impressed designs from Atranjikhera. A number of such painted motif include. Vertical parallel strokes, vertical wavy lines, solar symbol, circles, concentric circles, half circles, spirals, dots, rim band s parallel horizontal lines, cumb pattern and Swastikas. Incised designs most of the sites, however red ware group shows some kind of incised decorations. The incised designs are more common on the PGW sites of the Ganga plain like Hastinapur, Allahpur, Ahichhatra, Atranjikhera, Saunphari, Abhaipur, Thapli. At Hastinapur, the only decorations met with in this ware are a few impressed pattern, but none of these pattern are illustrated. Incised decoration of red ware from various sites are :- (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Dashes in vertical and slanting form Ahichhatra. Hopscotch, painted in black inside with concentric circles of dashes Saunphari. Appliqué design Abhaipur, Khalua, Allahpur, Kausambi. Incised twisted cord pattern Sarasvati Rop-pattern in appliqué design Saunphari. Cord impressions on the exterior resembling tortoise shell impression Saunphari. Strap handle of red ware decorated with three bands of lunar or finger nail impression Saunphari (viii) Miniature vase of red ware, three concentric lines, flaring mouth, concave, neck Saunphari.
198 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 181 (ix) Notched incised on the neck- Atranjikhera, Sravasti. (x) Dashes pierced with sharp object in rows - Allahpur. (xi) Body decorated with parallel channel like depression Kausambi (xii) Dashes in vertical and slanting form Ahichhatra. (xiii) Oblique parallel cord patterns forming grooves in between (Kausambi) Stratigraphically red ware is preceded by OCP at sites like Ahichchhtra and Hastinapur. Deshpande has observed a similarity between the OCP and red ware associated with PGW. Lal has also suggested the possibility of OCP tradition influence encing the later red ware on the basis of Lal Qila and Saipai pottery. Settlement Pattern The settlement pattern of PGW people has hardly been studied on a considerable scale, therefore, the picture in this regards still remains hazy. On the basis of archaeological investigations of an exploratory nature under taken in different areas, namely by Makkhan Lal in Kanpur district, Erdosy in Kausambi region; Brahmadutt Suraj Bhan and Jim Saffar in Haryana and Mughal in Bahawalpur state of Pakistan not much can be said. These studies however were confined to limited areas. PGW is primarily a river plain oriented culture. There was a preference for the favourbale environmental conditions with good soil and economic, resources. Rivers have played an important role in the selection of the sties. As reveled by exploration of Kanpur district, Y.D. Sharma in Meerut district, Surajbhan in Upper Yamuna reaches it has come to light that most of the settlements are on the major rivers, mainly on the Ganga-Yamuna. In Kanpur district Makkhan Lal 54 located forty six PGW sites out of these a total of forty sites were below 2 hect. or less; two were 2-2, 99 hect. three were 3-3, 99 hect and only one site was 4-4,99 hectares. Six sites located away from rivers are near large lowlying swampy areas where water accumulates during the rainy season. The season for settling along the banks of major rivers is obviously because they provided better economic resources as where on the tributaries there is comparatively less economic stability as the water supply fluctuations in the summer months. A survey done by Erdosy 55 in Kausambi region and brought to light sixteen sites bearing Painted Grey ware the period of B.C. one site was less than 1 hect. nine were hect., five were hect. and one was hect. All of the sites are on the rivers, the maximum number of sites are located along the Ganga. In Haryana, Brahmadutt 56 located a total thirty-four sites and puts them two broad categories. Twenty three sites were below sq. metres and
199 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 182 nine sites above this. In Bahawalpur in Cholistan in Pakistan, Mughal located fourteen Painted Grey ware sites. It is significant to note that the settlements in the area of inundation are high terraces over looking the river. The people were well aware of the flood pattern of the rivers and fully exploited its benefits and tried to make embanksments or bunds from fairly early stage of habitation of the plans. This is amply demonstrated in settlement pattern of each river, i.e. on the Ganga we find sites only on the higher right banks and rarely along the left bank which is mainly the flood plain. It is also revealed through the study that the maximum sites were in the area of fertile land. Another interesting observation of Makkhan Lal is that the PGW sites of the Ganga basin are generally on the elevated land in contrast to the settlement pattern in the Saraswati basin to the west. Where the sites are mainly in the ancient river bed it self, in case of other rivers like Yamuna and Sangur etc. the reasons of Sparceness of the settlements can be partially explained by the Kankary ravines. The soil along these rivers are quite fertile. Out site of the Ganga plains in Haryana, PGW sites are in the alluvial Bhangar plains, but it is noteworthy that flood plains were prepared over the unirrigated alluvial land by the PGW people, where ever subsoil, water resources and flood plains were exploited at NBP level at Atranjikhera and Jakhera at PGW level. PGW people also selected the area for habitation which received a better annual rainfall, to promote agriculture which was a major resources of their subsistence. The soil on the river banks is extermely fertile aiding agriculture and rich crop yield. Additionally the rivers provide a powerful means of communication particularly in ancient times. According to Makkhan Lal the size of settlements in BRW and PGW periods are the same on all sites explored by him, but as the BRW deposits are capped by the PGW deposits, the extent of habitation of BRW settlements cannot be determined precisely unless the sites are properly excavated at different points. The BRW picked up from the surface of the mound may have been the associated ware of the PGW ceramic industry. Excavations at Atranjikhera, Jakhera, Kannuaj, Kampil and Khalaua indicately that in the PGW period there was a considerable expansion in the size of the respectively settlements. At Atranjikhera the area covered by BRW deposit was 400 sq. m. and suddenly we see the expression in PGW period, when 1000 sq.m. was covered by the habitation. There are sites like Khalaua or Kampil which have limited variety of good quality PGW sherds. This is in keeping with the size and nature of the settlement. M.D.N. Sahi notes; At Jakhera the settlement area was extended to the present extent of mound (500 m x 500 m) during the PGW period, these by indicating a perceptible growth in the population. In this connection it may also be noted that while the older settlements continued to remain in occupation many new satellite
200 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 183 settlement appear, to have been planted such as Allahapur, Khalaua, Bateshwar, Purana Qila and many others starting just on the natural soil. These indicated not only growth in population but intensive colonization and reclamation of the much larger area uninhabited previously. The average distance from one PGW site to another is about 10 to 12 kms. In Aligarh district (Personal Communication with Prof. M.D.N. Sahi), however in favourble ecological environment it could be much less even 5 km. In general the concentration of PGW settlements is greater on the south side of Ganga indicating more intensive and extensive colonization of the basin. The migration was along the big rivers like Ganga and Yamuna and not along the foot hills. 57 Subsistence Pattern Painted Grey ware period is marked by progressive strides in the material life. Economy of this age was predominantly rural. Agriculture was the main economic activity of the PGW people. In order to have a better picture of the agricultural production achieved by the PGW people it is desirable to see the agricultural crops cultivated by the pre-pgw people. In the pre-pgw context, the grains reported from the Upper Gangetic plain are rice and barley from Lal Qila, Atranjikhera and Sringaverpura. Only rice has been reported at Hulas and Noh, Garden pea from Atranjikhera horse-gram, (Dolichos biflorus) and Urad and Sarson from Noh, Kesari and Atranjikhera, til Sringaverpura. Most of these crops must have been known to the subsequent PGW phase. Various evidences from different excavations has established this e.g. there is evidence at Hastinapur and Noh only rice (Oryza Sativa) was found from PGW level. At Atranjikhera rice, wheat and barley were found. Wheat was introduced for the first time in the Ganga plain, during the PGW period, and rice (unhusked) was found in heaps. Prof. Chawdhary 58 that the production of cereals was then not only enough to meet the requirements of the entire community but there was also some surplus. It is significant to note that though ecology of the upper Ganga plain is favourable to the cultivation of wheat in comparison of rice quantitatively rice exceeded wheat and barley. Thus it seems that rice dominated the staple diet of the PGW people. The reason of predominance, of rice might have been thus that rice was well known cereal for long but wheat was a new comer. Makkhan Lal has also found evidences of rice, barley, pea and an unidentifiable catyledon of a legume from the site of Radhan in district Kanpur. The palaeo-ethnobotanical investigations carried out at the site Saunphari in Shahjahanpur district of U.P. have added more data to the pre-historic plant economy of the
201 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 184 culture in this region of Ganga-Yamuna doab, which is near the epicentrice of Painted Grey ware ( B.C.) and the main excavated sites are Hastinapur, Atranjikhera, Alamgirpur, Ahichhatra. At ancient Saunphari an advanced agriculture based subsistence economy is revealed during (1000 B.C A.D.). At Saunphari PGW phase seed and fruits remains recorded are given below :- (a) (b) (c) (d) Cereals Barley (Hordeum vulgare), Rice (Oryza Sativa), Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Ragi millet (Eleusine coracana). Pulses Lentil (Lens culinaris), Khesari/ Grass pea (Lathyus sativus), Field pea (Pisum arvense), Black gram (Vigna mungo), Horse-gram (Dolichos biflorous), Aconite bean (Vigna aconitifolia). Fruits - Jujebe (Ziziphus nummularia), Gular (Ficus glomerata). Weeds and Wild taxa Andropogon sp., Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Meadow grass (Poa sp.), Scirpus sp., Hasy indigo (indigofera hirsuta), Ipomoea sp., Polygonum barbatum. Crops remains amply the rich and varied agricultural economy at Saunphari during 1 st millennium B.C. to 3 rd cent. A.D. we have ample evidence of cultivated rice as staple food grain of ancient proto-historical and early historical communities in north India, basically the Saunphari lies in rice-growing zone. Barley and wheat are main cereals of west Asian origin, by 6000 B.C. in light of occurrence of barley from many sites in northern India dated back from 2 nd millennium B.C. to 1,000 B.C. 59 Out of seven pulses recovered at Saunphari, field pea, grass-pea and lentil are a west Asia and South European origin. Green-gram, horse gram, black-gram and moth-bean are of Indian origin. The finds of some fruit remains have added into the subsistence pattern of early settlers at the ancient site. Jujube fruits appear to have been eaten by during the Chalcolithic period in India. Gullar is very common, its fruits are edible and leaves also used as fodder. In pre-historic times man was dependent on wild plants for food, medicine, and other requirements. At present, Amaranthus sp. Chenopodium album, commelina benghalensis and Trianthema are used as vegetable. A few others are valued as fodder plants like Ischaemum rugosum have been reported from Chalcolithic and Neolithic cultures of Adwa valley (district Mirzapur U.P.) and Belan valley (Mahagara, Allahabad) respectively. Coming to the agricultural production of grains on the basis of literature it may be noted that in the Rigveda barley (Yava) and probably rice (Dhara, Dhanya) too occur. In the later Vedic texts PGW period the grains attested are rice plasuka, Sali (rice) Upavaka
202 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 185 (barley), til Khalva, garamut (wild beans), Badara (Jujube). Thus literary evidences also shows that during the PGW period agriculture was fairly well developed. Discovery of the metal tools like sickle, hoe, socketed and plain axes and plough shares etc. Sharma holds that plough-share during the PGW was made of Khadir or Khair which is known to be very hard and compact with bones in the Satpath Brahmana (XII-4-4.9). This is also confirmed by the discovery of iron plough share at Jakhera with other Iron tools, probably the broken piece of socketed axe from Hastinapur and simple type axe from Atranjikhera, Jakhera and Noh were used by the PGW people for cutting the stumps of burnt trees of the dense forests. For agriculture plough share from Alamgirpur and hoe from Jakhera must have been very helpful in the hard alluvial soil of the Gangetic plain and preparing the field for cultivation. Complete sickle without handle from proto-pgw phase of Jakhera and smaller one from at must have facilitated the agricultural operation of the PGW people. It is note worthly that iron tools were not only useful in breaking hard of the Gangetic plain, but also for procurring water for irrigation by tapping artificial sources of water such as digging of well tanks and canals. Kachcha wells are attested at Atranjikhera and Jakhera associated with the PGW level. At Jakhera, a moat like water channel has also been noticed Sahi which may have been used for irrigating the fields, it is also significant to note that mostly PGW sites were situated on the river banks so they PGW managed the water for the irrigation the field through this kind of channels. Although the PGW culture was basically agrarian there are evidences of cereal food being supplemented by meat of horse 60, pig, goat/sheep, cow/ox and some wild species. Cattle breeding was also prevalent during the period of PGW culture. At Hastinapur bones of humped cattle like cow, bull, buff and other like sheeps and pigs have been found in a large number. On the basis Lal says it is evident that cattle formed an important occupation of the people. Indeed in an essentially agricultural society such as is represented during the PGW period. The bones of some of these animals are also found from Allahpur. As we know from literary sources dairy products like milk and its preparations, viz. curd, ghee, cheese, butter milk etc. were also part of the diet right from the Rigvedic times to the succeeding period. At Saunphari a large number of wild animal domesticated animals, birds and aquatic animals were found. Deer, Black buck, and Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) are some times seen in the Khadar areas. Wolves (conisluphu and Hyalna hyalna) and Jackals are the distinctive carnivore and appear in dales and dunes. Wild pig (Sus-scrofa) are very Scarce though they were found in large numbers sometimes wild cattle are some time seen in the low-lying areas of Ganga. The domestic animal includes cows, buffalos, bullocks, horses,
203 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 186 goat, ponies, dunkies, pigs, dogs, camels and elephants. Bird of the different species are found in fair numbers. Various kinds of ducks, doves, cuckoos, domestic birds, pigeons, eagles, crows and Nilkanth. The aquatic animals includes crocodiles, ghariyal, and tortsie, which are generally found in the rivers, and about 45 varieties of fishes are found in the tals, tanks and lakes. The bones found during excavations bear definite cut marks. Some of them charred. Thus it appears that the PGW people were found a beef and pork also. Horse bones are the most significant animal remains excavated at Hastinapur. We learn from literary sources that on special occasions horses were sacrificed and their meat distributed among the participants. It was belived that it imparted some of the swiftness, strength and vigour of the horse to the participants. A large number of antler tools from Allahpur and deer bones and antler bearing sharp cutting marks from Hastinapur confirms that deer was hunted for meat and antler. At Saunphari revealed a good quantity of animal bones bearing cut marks, charring and human workmanship were also collected. Its identification, which was made by Prof. G.L. Badam, the presence of big to small sized animal including Bovid, Bos Indicus (cattle) Bos/Buballus (Cattle/Buffalo), Axis-axis (Chital, spotted deer), Sus scrofa cristatus (Pig) Ovis/Capra (Sheep/goat), Turtle (Clemys) and reptiles. Some of the limb bones may belong to birds, rodents and other small animals. Charred bones of bivalve, lissiemys and trionyx were found which suggests that these were consumed. At Abhaipur PGW sites a large number of bones bear sharp cut marks and some are charred. Splitting of bones, may be for the bone marrow. A large number of charred fish bones and carapace of crab and turtle have been found from the excavations, rice, wheat, barley and some sort of lentils. Besides jujube seeds are also found. Thapli remains of animals of Indian humped bull cattle, pig and horse. On the basis of indentation and fracture marks on limbs, bones and jaws, it has been suggested that the inhabitants of Thapli butchered adult and matured animals for their food requirement. The PGW inhabitants in all parts of the country had preferred a particular type of cattle in their dietary needs. Fish-hooks have been found from Atranjikhera, Ropar and Abhaipur made of both iron and copper. Nets were made of remi-fibers which were collected from the hilly areas. The yield of husbandry was not so great in early times that farmers could afford to neglect other sources of food and the game which abounded in the forests must have been welcome for the raw material it yielded, notably antler and hides. Again it was necessary in the interest of husbandry to keep wild animals in check and one should not overlook the taste
204 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 187 for hunting as a sport, which developed particularly among societies dominated by a warrior class. Other Associated Objects Painted Grey ware people were the first in the Ganga-Yamuna doab to use Iron. In order to comprehend properly the situation in which iron was introduced I am discussing the cultural sequence of the region: (a) The excavations at Hulas and Alamgirpur and Ropar indicate that the Harappan culture was succeeded by the painted Grey ware with a distinct break between the two. (b) Archaeological evidence from Hastinapur, Ahichchhtra, Jhinghana, Kaseri attested that OCP is succeeded by the PGW. (c) Excavations at Jodhpura, Noh, Jakhera, Atranjikhera, Pariyar and Sringavepura further corroborated that PGW as preceded by PGW with a gap in between, but with the difference the PGW was unpainted BRW and Black slipped ware which in turn was preceded after a gap by the OCP. An overlap between BRW and PGW is also attested at these sites. (d) Besides the above mentioned sites PGW is reported to have been succeeded by the NBP ware with an overlap at Sonkh I, Mathura, Bateshwar, Kaseri, Allahpur, Khalaua, Purana Qila, Kannauj and Kampil. Initially iron was not found from the PGW phase at Hastinapur and Rupar consequently Wheeler 61 put it in the bronze age. At Atranjikhera as many as 135 objects were found in a small dig. Jakhera also yielded 127 object besides many chunks of slags and ignot lumps. Alamgirpur, Ahichhatra, Noh, Allahpur, Kausambi, Atranjikhera have brought to light a corpus of Iron implements. Thus it has become an iron age culture. From Jodhpura comes the evidence of two furnaces from the early levels of PGW period. These furnaces were of open type and provided with belows as indicated by the process of holes. One of these was used to extract the bloom and other for heating during the forging. At Atranjikhera a furnace was also found. The prevalence of iron was found in shape of iron slags and few pieces of iron implements at Saunphari. At Abhaipur the iron objects are in a highly corroded condition. They comprise adze 62 arrowheads, Knives, Chisels, nails and rods. O.P. Agrawal who examined four specimen from Atranjikhera opines that these objects were first made of brought iron and then were carburised by some technique whereby the surface turned into
205 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 188 corbide. This happen when the iron object is kept on a charcoal bed for a long time and at high temperature. Apart from iron, copper implements are also found, Arrow heads, hooks, chisels, borers have been reported from various sites like Ahichchhtra, Allahpur, Atranjikhera, Abhaipur, Noh, Hastinapur, Rupar, Alamgirpur, Saunphari etc. Other objects of toiletries and ornaments of copper are Kampil yielded copper pins and balls, Atranjikhera yielded twenty two copper objects including antimony rods, nail papers, pins, bangles, ring fish-hook, celts, clamps and dishes etc. From Atranjikhera also comes the evidence of a furnace of black-smith exposed at Ujjain belonging to the NBPW phase. Hearth closed and open mouthed were encountered at Allahpur. At Atranjikhera U shaped domestic hearths, generally in damaged condition have been found. However, two of them were reasonably in a shape. These clay hearths were generally semi-oval in shape and 25 cm to 35cm high. They had roughly tapered sides with a curve at the top suggesting that usually big cooking vessel were used. Oval shaped hearth is reported from Kesari. A circular fir pit found at Atranjikhera contained ash, charcoal pieces grains and a few fragments of animals bones. Terracotta was the material which was used for making several types of objects, invariably each site yielded terracotta objects in large numbers. Human and animal figurines bird figure, several ornaments etc. as well as disc, house hold objects have been profusely fashioned in terracotta. Three Human figurines of terracotta in this period have been reported from Jakhera and Khalaua. At Jakhera the most important finds are human figurines of both males and females. Grey coloured figurines appears to be the precursors of archaieiolin shaped figures reported from NBPW from Jakhera and other sites. Terracotta human heads are also found from Khalaua (IAR , p ). Animal figure in terracotta are reported from several sites like Mathura, Ahichhatra, Darau, Jakhera, Hastinapur, Atranjikhera in this period. They included humped bull, horse pig and ram. Humped bull has been reported from Atranjikhera, Hastinapur and Alamgirpur. Hastinapur evidence of bulls does not speak of any craft man ship in the art of clay modelling. Birds figure during this period are reported from Mathura, Thapli, Jakhera, and Shaunphari. From Thapli terracotta birds perfectly backed showing a pale red colour and decorated with notch on the body, were recovered while head of bird is reported from
206 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 189 Jakhera. At Saunphari terracotta birds showing a black colour and decorated with notch on the body. Among ornaments mention may be made of bangles, beads, amulets and pendents reported from several sites. Terracotta bangles are found at the sites like, Sonkh, Hulas, Pariyar, Jakhera, Saunphari. Reels of terracotta are reported from site like Atranjikhera, Saunphari. These were probably used as ear studs. Four of them are reported from the middle phase and three from the upper phase. These reels are treated with black or dull red wash. Amulets are reported from Mathura and Hulas. Aparts from these sties beads in terracotta are found at the sites. Like Kaseri, Kampil, Pariyar, Sringaverpura, Khalua, Bateswar, Jakhera, Kausambi Saunphari, Thapli. A remarkable contribution of PGW people is glass technology. In the Indian context, the credit of introduction of real glass goes to the PGW people. During this period beads and bangles of glass were made. This is note worthy that though glass Kachha is not mentioned in the Rigvedic literature, it has been referred to the later vedic period. Beads of glass during PGW period have been attested to from sites like, Hastinapur. From Sravasti, Jakhera, Allahpur, Alamgirpur 22 beads of glass have been reported. According to Sinha the most interesting specimen are two eyes beads of stratified glass. Bangles of glass have also been reported from the sites like Hastinapur, Atranjikhera, Sravasti and Saunphari and Jakhera. One of these is brown and other is black in colour. The colour in both cases is due to the presence of Iron. 63 The specimen may be described as of Soft glass of Soda lime type (Ghosh A The city in early Historical India, Simla). At Jakhera gold and ivory objects have been also found. The gold objects are flat spiral rings/ rose rings, leaf shaped ornament, pieces and wires of various thickness. Terracotta disc appears in the PGW period in the upper Gangetic plain. These are circular objects of well backed clay fashioned with some definite purpose and exclusively decorated by making incised designs on both the surface. Discs have been reported from several sites like, Hulas, Pariyar, Bateshwar, Darau, Mathura, Jakhera, Abhaipur, Saunphari, Hastinapur and Atranjikhera. These discs are generally decorated with incised designs. Their include finger nail patterns executed around the circumference, sun symbols, swastika, cross and plus etc. The nail pattern variety was most popular and was reported from Atranjikhera, Jakhera, Hastinapur and Mathura. Jakhera it is noteworthy that is the only site which yielded the discs bearing Swastik symbol prior to the late phase of NBPW.
207 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 190 What was the exact use of these discs could not be determined. Roy is of opinion that these were used as weights as we have evidence that many of the sites of Gagetic plains like Alamgirpur, Ahichhatra, Kausambi, Kesari, Kannauj and Abhaipur (10 gms to 50 gms) and all the sites beyond the plains have not yielded a single disc it can be said that in the same period culture and region, the weight system was not in existence at the maximum sites. Among other objects mentioned are wheels, gamesman, netsinkler, dabble, marble, and hosscotch. From Allahpur two wheeled toys are found, gamesman are the objects reported from the sites of Mathura, Jakhera and Atranjikhera, A hopscotch has been recorded from Mathura and Saunphari in the PGW level. Authorship Extensive exploration revealed that the PGW is found at almost all the traditional sites mentioned in Mahabharata the great epic of India. Most of the Indian scholars 64 have held that the PGW people were Aryans, while others have doubted it. Against this background Lal presented a strong case for the association of the PGW with Aryans Lal ( : 147) remarked As will be seen below, there is a likelihood of the PGW having been associated with Aryans during their early days in India. Having taken into consideration the date of Boghazkoi inscription (14 th Century B.C.) Lal belived that the Aryan speaking people must have reached in Ghaggar (N.W. Rajasthan) and Sutlej valley during the following couple of century, In view of the date at Indian sites, Lal was tempted towards dealing the association of the PGW culture with the Aryans in India, while attributing the PGW culture to early Aryans he states The people who appeared in the Ghaggar, Satlej valleys in a post Harappan context. A period which synchronizes with the arrival of Aryan speaking people in that area as per literary and inscriptional evidence cited above used the painted Grey ware. Sankalia also supported the views of Lal and said that But one might go a step further and equate these Aryans with the one of the tribes of Aryans, viz. the Bharatas who occupied the Ganga- Yamuna valley. The claims of the relationship of the PGW with the Aryans still holds the general consensus of the archaeologists. A few scholars like Piggott, Wheeler and Agrawal have discerned two distinct waves of Aryans migration simply to justify the association of the PGW with the second wave. Scholars after B.B. Lal generally believe that the PGW signifies the Indo-Aryan invasion from West Asia, and its origin has been traced in the painted and plain Grey wares
208 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 191 discovered at Thessaly in Greece, Shah Tape in Iran and Shahr-I-Shokhta in Seistan, and Shahi Thump in Baluchistan which are broadly assignable to the 2 nd millennium B.C. The archaeological evidence shows that the PGW culture in parts of Haryana, and Punjab i.e. At Bhagwanpur IB, Dadheri IB, Nagar I, Katpalaon I and Manda IB etc. was Chalcolithic (in mid 2 nd millennium B.C.) and certainly earlier than those of at Hastinapur, Noh and Atranjikhera. This would show that the PGW people appeared in Punjab and Haryana before moving to U.P. The PGW thus represents a late phase in the gradual indigenous cultural development beginning from the Chalcolithic down to the iron age in north western part of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. To quote Lal., since their entry into the latter area took place before 1000 B.C. their occupation of the former region will have to be placed in the last quarter of the second millennium B.C. on the basis of their movement which, as seem just now, was from west to east, they are likely to have occupied Pakistan, Punjab sometimes in the third quarter of the second millennium B.C. In the region of Haryana and Punjab PGW is preceded by Late Harappan with a break, except at Bhagwanpura, Dadheri, Katpalaon, Nagar, at all these sties PGW has an interlocking phase with the Late Harappan. At Manda, in Jammu, also PGW has an interlocking phase with the Late Harappan. Evidence from the excavations in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and U.P. show that the PGW culture was essentially a rural culture Evidence of town planning is not clear. Houses of kiln burnt bricks have not yet been found from any of the PGW sites. On the evidence of the use of iron the following picture emerges: the Punjab stage may have been a pre-iron stage and an earlier one. By the time PGW people entere western U.P. they had begun to used Iron. Another point emphasized by Lal is that while the other cultures like the Indus Civilization, the copper hoard culture etc. This demonstrates that it is the PGW culture which laid the foundation of what continued to be the main stream of the Aryan culture in the centuries to come. Thapar 65 (1970: 161) is of the following opinion: The PGW of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab seems to be belong to the Grey ware complex which had suddenly intruded upon the ceramic tradition of northern Iran towards the end of third millennium B.C. At the some time it may be admitted besides similarity in the tradition of firing and kiln there is little to compare in the forms, fabric and decorations of the PGW with those of the Iranian ware. The PGW ware belong to a later wave of Indo-Aryans as it is clear from the sophisticated forms, decorations and its association with the use of Iron.
209 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 192 Thapar further emphasized The link to Grey ware complex, howsoever tenuous is reinforced a fortiori by (i) the evidence about the use of the horse (Equus caballus) in association with the Grey ware in northern Iran (Shahi Tepe II & III) Swat valley and the Gandhara region of Pakistan (Gandhara Grave culture) and upper India (PGW late levels) and (ii) the association of predominantly mediterranean type of people with this Grey ware, atleast in northern Iran and Swat valley. G.R. Sharma 66 has also shown on the basis of linguistic, literary and archaeological evidence that Aryans came to India in two major waves and PGW belong to the second wave of Aryans. According to Agrawal 67 There were two phases in the cultures of intruding Aryans. The initial phase is when they were nomadic invaders adopting the superior cultural traits of the vauguished. The mature phase is when they developed the individuality of their culture as a result of sedentary life. The PGW may represent the second phase of intruding Aryans in their sedentary phase when they had developed their individualistic traits which no doubt could have been influenced by the then existing cultures. The absence of common pottery tradition has been explained by Ghosh. He suggested that the migrating folk adapted the local tradition in the absence of their own pottery tradition which was also difficult to pursue in the wake of constant migrations. B.D. Chattopadhyaya 68 feels to turn to vedic rather that epic and Puranic data for correlation with archaeological evidence. It is widely admitted now that the stages in the social evolution of the Ganga basin and its peripheries are indicated in the Vedic tradition and chronologically atleast the PGW and NBP ware phases in the archaeology of this region broadly coincide with the period generally known as the later Vedic. The vedic texts show an unmistakable shift from tribe to territory, a common enough corollary to the transition to an agrarian economy. The epic sites of the Ganga basin and its peripheries, are infact subsumed in Janapadas which provide the territorial milieu of the early strata of both the epics. The archaeology of the epic sites of the Ganga basin can at best be the archaeology of its Janapadas and nothing more. M.C. Joshi 69 is also of the view that tradition and archaeology should not be mixed together in any form as far as Indian protohistory is concerned. R.S. Sharma 70 feels that the material equipment of PGW phase is comparable on many counts to the material culture of the later Vedic texts. The beginning of territorial state formation, advent of Social stratification and the emergence of administrative machinary is noticed in the later vedic texts, and the PGW culture but the fact that the Rigvedic people were mostly pastoralists, used neither Iron nor glass and cultivated only barley rules out the possibility of their being equated with the users of the PGW culture. Sharma feels that we have a good case for using the PGW archaeology for the
210 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 193 study of the later Vedic culture and form an integral picture of the society and economy in the first half of the first millennium B.C. in the Sutlej and upper Gangetic plain. We can assume that the PGW people were the only known here and successors of those people who used Ochre Coloured and unpainted Black and Red ware in the upper Gangetic plain. 71 Chronology The most controversial aspect of this culture is however, its chronology. The scholars differ on this issue so much that the date bracket suggested by them vary by several century. The first firm date assigned to PGW was at Hastinapur. After excavating Hastinapur Lal ( ) made a significant contribution by offering. For the first time an independent stratigraphical horizons as the firm Chronology analaysing the archaeological date in the light of literary evidence he provisionally placed the PGW culture from 1100 B.C. to 800 at the site (Lal : 23). Immediately after the publication of the report of the Hastinapur excavations objections were raised by Scholars like Gordon and Wheeler. Gordon 72 ( : 175) reacting sharply, said that it is doubtful whether period II PGW period). Lasted more than 250 years as there is nothing to account for a longer duration for the dating of the NBPW prior to 400 B.C. being highly debatable. Lal s date for beginning of period II and III are 1100 and 500 B.C., but there is a good case, if no better for substituting 700 and 350 B.C. In his latest work (1960: 166) Gordon maintained his earlier view. Wheeler 73 (1959: 28) observed that if initial date of the NBP ware in the Ganga region be placed some where in the fifth century B.C. then the bulk of PGW is certainly earlier than that date, the beginning of the PGW might be ascribed to the 8 th century B.C. But in view of the dates obtained from Atranjikhera, Noh etc. he modified his earlier views and observed that the date of this urban culture seems to have been about B.C. to 500 B.C. D. Mandal 74 and V.D. Misra give the time bracket from 1000 B.C. to 400 B.C. G.R. Sharma (1960: 59) contributing substantially to the problem of the relationship between the PGW and NBPW emphasized that the supposition of a gap between the two is not longer tenable. The PGW continued to survive along with the NBPW as long as the 5 th century B.C. atleast in the eastern part of the Ganga valley. T.N. Roy ( : 64-76), K.K. Sinha, M.D.N. Sahi also related the existence of a phase between the two cultures. New dimensions to the controversies regarding the date of PGW were added when C 14 dates were obtained for Hastinapur and a number of other sites. Agrawal in the light of recent evidences proposed a shorter chronology for the PGW culture ranging from 800 to 400
211 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 194 B.C. which reached there probably through diffusions that the gap between period II and III is unjustifiably inflated that the view of temporal succession of the PGW and NBPW is un called for. For the lower bracket Prof. Agrawal depends mainly on the C 14 evidence. Gaur (1968: 3-4) on the other hand on the basis of a C 14 date TF ±110 from the mid level of the PGW deposit push the antiquity of the PGW at Atranjikhera some where in the 12 th century B.C. if not earlier. The date given by Agrawal (1968a) was supported by Dikshit and Sankalia (1974). Discussing the chronology of PGW Tripathi said that The main span of the PGW was between 800 to 400 B.C., with the possibility of an extension by about 100 years an the either side. The date bracket given by Agrawal earlier has now been revised to B.C. by Agrawal (et.al ) in the two articles more or less on identical lines. D.K. Chakrabarti (1976: 118) while reviewing the antiquity of Iron in India suggested that the upper date limit of the PGW can be brought down to c B.C. R.S. Sharma while identifying the PGW culture with later vedic people, assigned a date of c B.C. For the beginning of PGW in the Gangetic plain, he said that the dates of PGW phase marked by the using Iron in the upper Gagetic plains can be reasonably dated to c B.C. T.N. Roy discussing the chronology of the PGW said that In the Gangetic plains all the PGW deposits are associated with Iron. On the basis of stratigraphy and radiocarbon dates the lower limit of PGW at sites like Noh, Jodhpura, Atranjikhera and Jakhera (where the PGW deposit is preceded by distinct phase of BRW), but site like Hastinapur, Allahpur, Alamgirpur, Hulas, Ahichhatra, Sravasti, Mathura, Bateshwar, Khalua, Kampil and Kannauj etc. which do not contain any pre-pgw Black and Red ware phase cannot be dated earlier than seventh-six century B.C. In a more recent paper discussing the chronology of early historic culture. Tripathi (1990) has assigned date B.C. for this culture in two parts. She has divided the entire PGW yielding sites chronologically into two zones i.e. Indo-Gangetic divide and Doab. She however, said that the sites in the Indo Gangetic divide (Rajasthan and adjacent parts of Punjab and Haryana) may be earlier B.C.). Some of these sites have shown an overlap with the Late Harappan culture thus indicating an early beginning so atleast two brackets emerge for the PGW culture earlier ( B.C.) and later ( B.C.) the Late bracket dating the doab sites. Both the sites in Rajasthan have given the antiquity of PGW higher than 800 B.C. From doab all but one date from Atranjikhera is younger than those of Rajasthan. Iron makes
212 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 195 its earliest appearance in the PGW phase in Ganga-Yamuna doab, whereas excavations at Bhagwanpura, Dadheri and Katpalaon 75 in Haryana (west of doab) have not given any evidence of Iron from PGW deposits. The iron has already been found in other parts of the country in India context of 1 st millennium B.C. it is not surprising says Mandal if it appears in this region also at least in the same date context, if not earlier. Excavations at Bhagwanpura in Haryana and Dadheri, Katpalaon and Nagar in Punjab have revealed an interlocked phase between Late Harappan and PGW cultures. At Manda in Jammu-Kashmir Grey ware, generally found associated with PGW, has been found interlocked with Late Harappan culture. For this interlocking phase J.P. Joshi has given a tentative date bracket of C B.C. At Manda period IB overlap with Late Harappan dated between C B.C. Sharma argued between the Late Bara and PGW gives a duration of B.C. for this phase. Possehl and Fairservis in their lengthy discussion of the chronology of Harappan culture have convincingly shown that the Late Harappan culture in the region of Haryana, Punjab and Western Uttar Pradesh ended around B.C. for interlocking phase. Mandal s view The urbanised culture normally witnesses quick changes than the rural one due to the sharp contradiction in the production relations. The rural chalcolithic cultures which are generally longer in span than that of the urbanised NBP ware culture. The upper date limit of PGW we should also consider the numismatic evidences. In India the Punched Marked Coins were the first coins to be used. They are of copper and silver. In northern India, the punched marked coins have been reported from early historic period i.e. from about 600 to 200 B.C. Hastinapur, Ujjain, Mathura, Purana Qila etc. show that the punch marked coins and NBP ware are coeval for mid phase of which C 14 dates are consistant between B.C. The literary and archaeological evidence leave no doubt that by 5 th century B.C. Punch marked coins ware in circulation in northern India particularly in the Ganga valley. Among these the radiocarbon date from Bateswar (Agra) is older i.e. 5130±240 B.P., 3335±245 B.C., cal B.C. Madanapur belongs to PGW culture and its a single culture site. The radiocarbon date is BS 2418: 5990±160 B.C. cal. 4899, 4891, 4848, 4817, 4813) 4694 B.C. In the same way one date from Saunphari is also much early and that is 5950±100 B.P. cal B.C. Radiocarbon dates, stratigraphic and numismatic evidences favour a date bracket of PGW is 1400 to 500 B.C. other C 14 dates from PGW excavated sites from in the surrounding areas is as under :-
213 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 196 Table No. 10 Radiocabon and T.L. Dates of PGW Sites Name of site Cultural Horizon dates Radiocarbon/T.L. Dates Archaeological dates Sankisa Period I PGW B.C. Atranjikhera Hastinapur Layer 8 Mid level Pd. III PGW PGW Late PGW TF: 415: 570±210 B.C. TF: 191: 1025±110 B.C. TF: 291: 535±100 B.C. TF: 289: 675±100 B.C. TF: 90: 2270±110 B.P. (390±115 B.C.) Cal 383 B.C. TF: 112: 375±100 B.C. TF: 83: 335±110 B.C. TF: 85: 2385±125 B.P. (505±130 B.C.) Cal 406 B.C TF: 91: 2450±120 B.P. (570±125 B.C.) Cal 752, 709, 530 B.C B.C. Hulas Period II PGW TL date 965 B.C. Allahpur Period IA, PGW 2335±95 B.P. (385 B.C.) 2270±90 B.P. (390±95 B.C.) B.C. Cal 383 B.C. Alamgirpur Period II PGW TF 51: 860±100 B.C. Hulaskhera Period I B PGW B.C. Pirvitani Sharif Period I NBP + PGW BS 2995: 5290±200 B.P. Cal B.C. Ahichhatra Period II Late Phase T.F. 311: 415±105 B.C. T.F. 317: 270±106 B.C. T.F. 83: 335±110 B.C. T.F. 112: 375±110 B.C. 600 B.C. Mathura 2460±150 B.P. (510 BC) NBPW + PGW 2390±150 B.P. (510 ± 55 Cal Overlap 407 BC) Bateshwar BRW + PGW 5130 ± 240 B.P ± 245 B.C. Cal B.C. PRL 198: 620±90 B.C. Sonkh PGW 2570±85 B.P. (695±90 B.C.) Cal 795 B.C. Noh Period III, Mid (a) UCIA 703A, 605±260 BC (b) UCIA 703B, 820±225 BC (c) TF, 993, 725±150 BC (d) TF 1144, 490±90 BC Rupar 1000 B.C. Khalaua PGW PRL 67: 2520±160 B.P. (570±160 B.C.) 2450±155 BP (575±160 BC)
214 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 197 Ganwaria Bhagwanpura Manda Kausambi Pd. I BRS+PGW Pd. IB, Late Harappan, plain Grey ware and PGW overlap Pd. IB, overlap with Late Harappan Pd. I coarse, RW, GW, with elementary Painting PRL 325: 4740±210 = 2790 B.C. TL date B.C B.C Conclusion While concluding we can say that PGW is confined to a particular geographical horizon. It occupies a very significant place among the protohistoric ceramic Industries in India. The distributions of the PGW sites in the doab tends to adopt a settlement pattern following the banks of the rivers and their tributaries. The PGW settler in the Ganga valley are known to have reoccupied the sites deserted by OCP users or Late Harappan. Because of the lack of horizontal excavations and limited number of planned explorations we do not have much idea of its micro-settlement or macro-settlements pattern. The ware is marked by its superior quality. It made of wall levigated clay and fine thin well burnt fabric. The colour of this ware is mainly grey but the shades vary from battleship grey ashy grey to buff grey. Motifs are geometric in nature. The most common motifs are obliques lines, horizontal bands, sigmas, swastikas, dashes vertical bands, rows of dots, chain, spiral, leaf and wavy or zig-zag lines etc. The common and most distinctive shapes are bowls and dishes. This period is marked by the manufacture and use of other associated wares like, Grey ware, Red ware, Black slipped ware, and Black and red ware found in a variety of shapes and fabric. The PGW people were agrarian nature, various evidence from different excavations e.g. rice from Hastinapur, wheat, barley and rice from Atranjikhera and rice, barley, pea and an unidentifiable cotyledon of a legumn from Radhan and Saunphari have established this. These are evidence of charcoal food being supplemented by meat as some of the bones are charred and bear cut marks. Fishing was also an indicated from the fish hooks at Abhaipur and Atranjikhera as well as the fact that the habitation was no/near the rivers. The area of exploitation by the PGW people was limited which explains the lack of communications and trade. PGW people dewelled in the mud dewelled houses. The earliest occurrence of glass objects in Indian sub-continent is attributed to these people. Other associated finds of this period are terracotta animal and human figurines, objects of tollet,
215 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 198 stone, querns, pestles, disc, and gamesman. Apart from Iron, copper implements are also found. The PGW sites of Ganga plain are generally on the elevated land in contrast to the settlement pattern in the Sarasvati valley where the sites are mainly in the ancient river bed itself. We can assume that the PGW people were the only known heirs and successors of those people who used Ochre Coloured Ware and unpainted Black and Red ware in the upper Gangetic plain. Appendix B List of Painted Grey Ware Sites in the Gangetic Plain S.No. Sites District 1. Ahichhatra Bareilly 2. Ahir Saharanpur 3. Ainti Kanpur 4. Alamgirpur Meerut 5. Allahpur Meerut 6. Amauli Kanpur 7. Ankin Kanpur 8. Antapur Kanpur 9. Aong Mainpuri 10. Asora Meerut 11. Atawa Kanpur 12. Atranjikhera Etah 13. Balenj Meerut 14. Bannauli Meerut 15. Banthora Lucknow 16. Barnawa Meerut 17. Bateshwar Agra 18. Bhadras Kanpur 19. Bhudhna Khera Shaharanpur 20. Bijaipur Kanpur 21. Buhnar Kanpur 22. Chakar Nagar Kheda Etawah 23. Chandanpur Kanpur
218 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 201 REFERENCES 1. Ghosh, A. and K.C. Panigrahi The Potteries of Ahichhatra, Ancient India No. 1, pp ; Lal B.B , Excavations at Hastinapur and other explorations in Upper Ganga and Sutlej basin ( ), Ancient India No , pp Sankalia, H.D. Functional Significance of the OCP and PGW shapes and associated objects, Puratattva No. 7, 1974, p I.A.R , p Man and Environment, Vol. IV, pp Lal B.B , Op.cit. pp I.A.R : , p I.A.R , p Lal, Makkhan Excavation at Radhan district Kanpur, U.P.; Pragdhara No. 1, , p I.A.R , pp I.A.R , pp Gaur R.C Excavation at Atranjikhera, pp I.A.R , p Lal, B.B. and K.N.Dikshit. Pariyar An eastern outpost of the painted Grey Ware, Puratattva No. 11, , pp Sharma, G.R The Excavation at Kausambi, Allahabad, p Lal, , Op.cit. p I.A.R , p I.A.R , p. 32; , p I.A.R., , p Pragdhara No. 4, pp Lal, S.B. and A. Mishra Abhaipur An Endangered Painted Grey Ware site in district Pilibhit, Uttar Pradesh in U.P. Arora et.al.(ed), Heritage of Panchal, Bareilly, pp Tiwari, D.P. Excavations at Saunphari, pp I.A.R., , pp I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p. 47.
219 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p Tewari, R. Hemraj and R.K. Srivastava Excavations at Hulaskhera Lucknow, to Pragdhara No. 6, pp I.A.R., , p Lal, B.B. and K.N. Dikshit Sringaverpura : A key site for the protohistory and early history of the Central Ganga valley, Puratattva No. 10, pp Tewari, D.P Excavations at Madnapur, Lucknow, pp I.A.R., , p. 13; , p. 4; , p. 8; , p Sharma, Y.D., In an Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology, Vol. II, For Ropar, pp Tewari, D.P Excavations at Saunphari, Lucknow, pp K.P. Nautiyal. Pushing back the antiquity of Garhwal: Results of recent explorations and excavations, Paper presented seminar, with special reference to western Himalayas, Simla. 36. J.S. Nigam The painted Grey ware culture A fresh Appraisal, In J.P. Joshi, et.al. (eds.) Facets of Indian Civilization: Recent perspective I, New Delhi, p Joshi, J.P. and Madhubala Manda A Harappan site in Jammu and Kashmir Harappan civilization: Contemporary perspective (ed. G.L. Possehl), New Delhi, pp Joshi, J.P Excavation at Bhagwanpura and other Explorations and Excavations in Haryana, Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir Memories of ASI, New Delhi No Joshi, J.P Interlocking of the Late Harappan Culture and Painted Grey Ware culture in Light of recent excavations, Man and Environment, Vol. II, pp Ibid, pp Sharma, Y.D In An Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology, Vol. II, for Ropar, pp Tripathi, V The Painted Grey Ware An Iron Age Culture of Northern India, pp Tripathi, V Stages of painted Grey Ware culture; paper read in the International Conference on Indian Prehistory: Allahabad, University, Allahabad. 44. I.A.R., , pp
220 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY I.A.R., , p Saran, Ballabh, Technology of the Painted Grey Ware ; Potteries in Ancient India. (ed.) B.P. Sinha, Patna, p Braidwood, Robert, A note on a multiple brush device used by Near eastern potters of the Fourth millennium B.C. Man and Environment, Vol. 39. No. 187, p Tripathi, Vibha, Painted Grey Ware and Iron Culture in N. India, Ansari, Z.D. A comparative study of PGW motifs on the PGW, paper read in the seminar on Archaeology 1968; Aligarh Muslim University. 50. Gaur, R.C Op.cit. p Ancient India No. 10 and 11, pp 9-59, also reported by Sankalia, op.cit, p Tripathi, Vibha, 1976, Op.cit. pp Gaur, R.C Op.cit. p Lal, Makkhan, Settlement History and Rise of civilization in Ganga-Yamuna doab, New Delhi. 55. Erodosy, G Settlement Archaeology of Kausambi Region Man and Environment, Bulletin of Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies Vol. IX: Brahamadutt Settlements of Painted Grey ware culture in Haryana. Ph.D. thesis Kurukshetra University. 57. Lal, Makkahan Study of PGW culture in area perspective, read at Allahabad. 58. Chowdhary, K.A. et.al Agriculture and Foresty in Northern India, Bombay, pp Saraswat, K.S. 1992, Archaeo-botanical remains in ancient cultural and Socioeconomical dynamic of the Indian Subcontinent, Palaeo-botanist 40: Misra V.D The Painted Grey Ware: The Aryans and the Mahabharata Modern India, Heritage and Achievement, p Three cut pieces of horse bones have been reported from the top layer of period II at Hastinapur by B.B. Lal. 61. Wheeler, R.E.M Early India and Pakistan, p Chakrabarti, D.K., Beginnings of Iron and Social change in India, Indian Studies Past and Present Vol. XIV, No. 4, p Banerjee, N.R The Iron Age in India, Delhi. 64. Lal, B.B The Indo-Aryan Hypothesis vis-à-vis Indian Archaeology, paper read at seminar on Ethnic problems of the early History of the peoples of Central Asia and India in second millennium B.C., held at Deshpande.
221 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Thapar, B.K The Aryans: A Reappraisal of the problem In India s contribution to World thought and culture (commanorative Vol.) 66. Sharma, G.R Kushana Studies. 67. Agrawal, D.P The Painted Grey Ware: A Revaluation paper read in the Seminar at Aligarh. 68. Chattopadhayaya, B.D Indian Archaeology and the Epic Tradition Puratattva No. 8, p Joshi, M.C Archaeology and Indian tradition Some observation, Puratattva No. 8, p Sharma, R.S The Late Vedic phase and the Painted Grey Ware Culture, Puratattva, No. 8, p Misra, V.D The Painted Grey Ware: The Aryans and the Mahabharata, Modern India: Heritage and Achievement, pp Gorden, D.H Prehistoric Background of Indian Culture, p Wheeler, R.E.M Civilization of the Indus Valley and beyond London. 74. Mandal, D Radiocarbon dates and Indian Archaeology, p Joshi, J.P. 1977, also Tripathi Vibha, Introduction of Iron in India; Radiocarbon and Indian Archaeology (ed.) D.P. Agrawal and A. Ghosh, pp
222 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 205 CHAPTER 6 Northern Black Polished Ware Culture Perhaps no ceramic industry of India has evoked so much interest as this ware because of its shining colours and wide distribution both in time and space. Its hallmark is the black lustrous colour with a very glossy shining surface. The NBP culture in the Ganga valley is distinguished by the extensive use of iron, introduction of coinage as well stratified and economically strong society, expansion of Buddism and Jainism and assimilations of a number of smaller states into one of the biggest empire of the ancient world. The period of this culture coincides with the urbanization of the Ganga plain. It ushers in a new era in the material culture of the people of Northern India, The name Northern black polished ware or NBP is apparently a misnomer as its geographical limit extends beyond Northern India and it is found besides black in a number of colours. The NBPW the Terasigilata of India its highly lutorus surface ranging from grey or brown to black and steel like in quality attracts even a lay man. In the initial stages this pottery was discovered as in at Sarnath, and in at Bhita 1 near Allahabad and was described as fine black lustrous ware. 2 Later again found more sherds at Taxila 3 in 1913 only 21 sherds were found and due to their black shining surface Marshall took them as Greek Black ware 4 further he ascribed its introduction in the subcontinent with the advent of Greeks in India. But its discovery in the pre Maurayan level at Bhita, however was of interest. In the early 1930s and 1940s NBPW was found mainly in the Ganga plains. But since then it has been found over a much wide area. In 1946 Wheeler and Krishna deva on the basis of limited sherds of NBPW from Ahichhatra and Taxila gave first definition of the NBPW in their own words The fabric is a finely levigated clay which is usually grey but sometimes reddish in section with brilliantly burnished slip of the quality of a glaze ranging in colour from jet black to grey and metallic steel blue occasionally varied with reddish brown patches. The ware is readly distinguished by its brilliance from other polished or graphic coated black ware which occur also in south India. 5 In the Nagpur conference Prof. Haertel first voiced his concern for changing the term NBP as there is a disparity between the term and the actual character of the ware. But scholars like Gupta 6, Sharma 7, Agrawal 8, Joshi 9, Dikshit 10 and Sinha 11 and a score of the felt that changing a name at this stage would only create confusion, so there is no necessity for
223 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 206 changing the nomenclature. After the excavations of Hastinapur a more precise and detailed definition of pottery was attempted by B.B. Lal 12 and Thapar This ware invariably potted on a fat wheel, is usually thin and has strictly polished surface having almost a lustrous metallic finish and ranges in colour from coal black through steel gray or silvery to golden. The exterior surface of some of the pots shows patches of reddish brown or sepia. In the same fabric deep and red chocolate colour are also achieved. The paste is consistently fine and well levigated and contains very little of tempering material. The core is usually grey but tends to be reddish in some cases where in below the thin film shinning black a mat red surface is seen. Area of Distribution The geographical distribution of the ware covered a distance of about 2.21 km from north to south and about 1790 km from east to west. Though NBP is distributed over a very large area, the main concerntration of its sites is in Punjab, Haryana, northern Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. The northern more extensive of the NBP known so far is Udegram in Swat (Pakistan); but Charsada and Taxila 13 appear to be the more extensive northern periphical settlements. The southern most limit of the NBPW is marked by Chebrolu 14 and Kondapur further south of the better known site the NBPW at Amrawati 15 and Dharnikota 16 in A.P. western most site is Kandhar (now in Pakistan) and eastern most are Bangarh and Chandra-ketugarh 17 in west Bengal. The maximum frequency of this ware is reported from alluvial tracts of U.P. and Bihar. The focus of this ware is in the Gangetic valley, it has also been found from Ujjain in a large quantity; But it is of an inferior quality when we compare it with its counterparts in the north. In view of this, some scholors 18 have suggested that Ujjain was a separate centre of production of this ware. The archaeological investigations during the last three decades numerous NBP sites have been located in the Upper Ganga valley, as a result of the archaeological explorations and excavations carried out by the field archaeologists. The important excavated sites of this culture are Rupar in Punjab, Raja-Karan-Ka- Qila, 19 and Daulatpur 20 in Haryana, Bairat, Noh 21, and Jodhpura 22 northern Rajasthan, Hastinapur III 23, Atranjikhera IV 24, Allahpur, Kausambi IV 25 (Plates 31), Sravasti I 26, Fatehpursikri III 27, Jakhera IVA 28, Sadhverakhera III 29, Pariyar IV 30, Srigaverpura III 31, Mathura II 32, Jajmau II 33, Musanagar III, Alamgirpur 34, Hulas III 35, Ahichhatra III 36, Radhan I, Saunphari IIB 37 (Plates 32), Charda II 38 (Plates 33), Hulaskhera II 39 (Plates 34), Kampil
224 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 207 II 40, Kannuj II 41, Sonkh II 42, Jhusi IV 43 (Plates 35), Khalaua II 44, Bateshwar II, Waina 45, Ganwaria 46, Lucknow, in Uttar Pradesh and and Sonepur 47 in Bihar. The extensive explorations carried out by the archaeologists recently have brought to light numerous NBP sites in Ganga plain including district, Gonda, Balrampur, Bahriach, Sravasti, Barabanki, Raibareli, Fatehpur, Etawah, Auriaya were explored fist, in the second Unnao, Hardoi, Kannauj, Farrukhabad, Shahjanhpur, Pilibhit, Kheri Lakhimpur and Sitapur is a part of Upper Ganga plain (Map No. IX). A brief description of these discovered sites are as under:- Table No. 11 Exploration Sites of Painted Grey Ware, Gonda 48 District S.no. Name of Sites Main findings and Probably Period 1. Tikauli BSW, NBPW, RW (NBP to med) (NBP 6 th 2. Puranipayar BSW, GW, NBP, RW 7 th Century B.C.) 3. Tilyani Upadhyaya NBP, BSW, RW, BRW (NBP) 4. Kuridiha GW, BSW, RW (NBP) 5. Gaurighat Ranijot BSW, BRW, NBP, RW (Pre-NBP) 6. Muradiha BSW, BRW, NBP, RW (Pre-NBP to Kushan) 7. Itahia Tewari purwa BSW, NBP, BRW, RW (NBP to Kushan) 8. Sapaur NBP, BSW, RW NBPW 9. Udhaura NBP, BSW, RW, ghata NBPW to shaped beads Gupta 10. Chainya Dihwa NBP, GW, BSW, RW NBPW to Med. 11. Kahobadiha GW, BSW, RW NBPW pd. Pre-NBPW to 12. Sisaur Andupar GW, BSW, BRW, NBP, RW Gupta Code
226 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Shamiti NBP District Fatehpur Galath NBP District Unnao Newal NBP 45. Natirnagar NBP 46. Bhadarsar NBP 47. Uga NBP 48. Vasudeva Tila NBP 49. Pariyar NBP 50. Ataha NBP 51. Thana NBP 52. Bethar NBP 53. Sanchankot NBP 54. Mohan NBP 55. Bhagavantpur NBP 56. Khanbhauli NBP 57. Jogikot NBP 58. Neveda NBP 59. Deogaon NBP 60. Tajpur NBP 61. Unchgaon NBP 62. Morawan NBP 63. Sarvan NBP 64. Panchan Pakra NBP 65. Chanar Khera NBP Distrcit Kannauj Ageus BSW, NBP, RW NBP to Med. 67. Ahirwa Rajarampur Atra GW, BSW, RW, GW NBP to Med. 68. Kannuj NBP, GW, RW NBP to Med. 69. Sisahi NBP, BSW, RW NBP to Med. 70. Siyapur BRW, BSW, NBP, GW, NBP to Med.
227 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 210 PGW 71. Siarman NBP, BSW, RW, GW NBP to Med. 72. Raipur RW, GW NBP to Med. 73. Shahjanpur NBP, GW, RW NBP to Med. 74. Pangawan BSW, RW NBP District Haroi Hans Barauli RW, BRW, BSW Early NBP 76. Sujehata RW, BRW, NBP, BSW NBP to Med. Distt. Farrukhabad Pasnikpur BRW, NBP, BSW, GW NBP 78. Sankisa NBPW, RW, BSW NBP 79. Jarhari GW, BSW, RW NBP 80. Kampil BRW, GW and RW NBP 81. Ijaur BSW, GW, RW NBP 82. Bartal BSW, GW, RW Kushan Med. 83. Daleganj NBP, BSW, GW, RW NBP to Med. 84. Bhishmpur RW, GW NBP to Med. Distt. Shahjahanpur 85. Sutnera BSW, GW, RW NBP to Med. 86. Katia Buzug GW, RW NBP to Med. 87. Deokali RW NBP to Med. 88. Sanai GW, RW NBP to Med. 89. Udna GW, ORSW, RW NBP to Med Dhai Gw, RW NBP to Med. 91. Kotia Mirzapur RW NBP to Med. 92. Cotabari RW NBP to Med. 93. Muhammedpur GW, BSW, RW Kushana 94. Patwa RW Medieval 95. Sardarpur RW Medieval 96. Saunphari GW, BSW, ORSW, RW Contemporary NBP 97. Tihar RW Contemporary
228 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 211 NBP District Pilibhit Hariharpur Contemporary NBP 99. Sunaua Contemporary NBP Contemporary 100. Raituya NBP Contemporary 101. Bhagwanpur NBP Contemporary 102. Nusratganj NBP District Lakhimpur Kheri Padariya Jamunabad GW, BSW, ORSW 104. Semra-Jainpur PGW, GW, BSW, RW NBP to Med Mathura GW, BSW, ORSW, RW NBP to Med Bhirawan grant GW, BSW, ORSW, RW NBP to Med Firozpur PGW, GW, BSW, RW Medieval 108. Parsehra GW, BSW, RW, ORSW Medieval 109. Bel GW, BSW NBP to Sunga NBP to 110. Paila GW, BSW, RW, ORSW Kushana 111. Mullapur GW, BSW, RW, TF, fig. NBP to Med. District Sitapur Shah Jalalpur RW Medieval 113. Arbapur GW, RW Medieval 114. Intgaon RW, BW Medieval 115. Unchgaon RW Medieval 116. Ajaipur Rw Late, Med Uttardhama RW Late, Med Ramgarh RW Late, Med Nimsur RW Late, Med Manwan RW Late, Med.
229 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 212 Thus NBP can claim a larger area then any other known cultures of protohistoric India and perhaps also even greater area that the well known Harappan culture. An upto date list of sites and map of NBP ware is provided here with. Stratigraphy Stratigraphically, in Punjab, Haryana, northern Rajasthan and western U.P. NBPW is preceded by PGW with an overlap phase between the two cultures at the sites of Ropar (Punjab) Raja-Karan-Ka-Qila (Haryana), Noh and Jodhpura (Rajasthan), Ahichhatra, Atranjikhera, Jakhera and Sravasti in U.P. in eastern U.P. at the site of Prahaladpur, Rajghat etc. in Bihar at Kumharar, Vaisali and Senuwar etc. NBPW is preceded by black and red ware. In all the areas mentioned above the NBPW is succeeded by Red Slipped ware.
230 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 213
231 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 214 The association assemblage of Sravasti and other sites, K.K. Sinha has shown that NBP is found to occur in atleast two widely different context 59. Early and Late, we propose to divide it in three phases Early, Middle and Late 60 corresponding to c BC for phase A, C B.C. for phase B and c B.C. for phase C. Phase A early NBP that we get very good variety and quality were found. The characteristic feature is the occurrence of miniature pots with incured rim and flat base. Some iron and punch mark coins are also found. Generally, no burnt brick architecture has been found. Pear shaped vase (Ahichhatra type 10a) and carinated handis do not appear in this phase. In the early context of the NBP the following sites may be included these are: Taxila, Bhita, Prahaldpur IB, Kausambi (early level of period I and II), Sonepur II, Mathura II. Atranjikhera IV, Sravasti I and Rajghat IB. This early phase is characterized by the continuation of the BRW and BSW shapes in the eastern region and PGW in west. In the same line Sinha pointed out similarity between PGW and NBP. This phase is also known as pre-defence phase. The sherds have glossy surface with highly lustrous when stuck give a sharp metallic sound. Mostly NBP is monochrome, but few painted specimen are also reported. Phase B (Late) we get NBP mostly in black. In this phase this ware had spread to various parts of the subcontinent since the time bracket of this phase coincides with the Mauryan power. In this phase we have no evidence of BRW and PGW. There is greater use of coarse grey ware. The NBPW suffered decline not only in the quality of the clay shaping surface treatment but also in firing. In contrast to the preceding early phase of NBP the specimen from this phase clearly display lack of sophistication. Punch marked coins and backed brick structure make their appearances. Flat based bowls, carinated handis and pear shaped vases are the main pottery types. This phase of NBP is reported from the site of Hastinapur III, Sravasti II, Noh III, Jakhera IV, Besnagar III, Awra II, Prahaldpur IC, Rajghat IC and Ujjain IC etc. It may be mentioned that Lal and Dikshit have divided NBP Phase of Sringaverpura into three phases. Phase A is characterised by the occurrence of NBPW in greater quality and along with Black Slipped ware and PGW. In phase B, BRW and PGW are absent but is NBP fabric miniature bowl and handis make their appearance. Phase C is characterised by the poor quality of NBP and preponderance of coarse grey ware and the appearance of the burnt brick structures.
232 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 215 Phase C (Late NBP) begins almost after the death of Ashoka and certainly after Dasharatha the Mauryan age noted its sculpture, rock-cave, stupas and fine brand of NBP and coins came to an abrupt end. Technique The pottery is made of well-levigated clay on fast wheel. The thickness of ware is generally uniform and sometimes as thin as 1.5 mm. The texture is fine. It contains very little of tempering material. The core varies is generally grey but sometimes wattish and reddish in section of the core, however varies in colour-fired to a very high temperature in a saggar kiln as (suggested by Rowson 1953) Grey and red surface and melallic sound, which NBP produces are due to this process of firing. Thus pots kept on the top are fired red in the oxidizing atmosphere and those below turn grey. The clay used for this class of pottery appears to have been taken from the silt of the Gangetic basin. On the basis of average thickness this ware can be divided into three groups (i) thick (ii) medium and (iii) thin or fine. The pottery also shows the painting tradition of painted Grey ware. At Bahal in Khandesh and Kausambi, Jhusi and Sravasti in U.P. painted NBPW has been found which bears paintings in yellowish and light vermillian colours, in the steely blue or golden surface 61. It we compare this pottery with its associated ware then it becomes obvious that it was the deluxe ware of its time. A comparison with its associated ware fully justifies its higher place in the society. It was obviously common means pottery; it was used by aristrocrats or members of rich families. Some rivetted potteries have been found at Rupar, Bairat, Ujjain, Sonepur, and Kumharar. This shows that the broken NBP was not usually thrown away; it was used after it was riveted with copper ware and at the same time the repair cost less than the actual production of the ware would have cost further it appears that the ware had inadequate supply due to limited pottings or the high cost of production which involved expensive investment 62. Its availability in lower frequency than its associated wares further strengthened the theory that it was a costly pottery. The exact technique of its manufacture identification of the colouring agent of the black coating and characteristic gloss have been discussed by Khan Bahadur Sanaullah 63, B.B. Lal 64, Hegde 65, and Bhardwaj 65. The NBP ware found in colours like, black, steel, blue, golden, silvery, pinkish, blue-chocalte, buff and brown black etc. more that 80% available pieces are confined to black colour. Sinha feels 66 that the colour variation may not be international. A brief mention of studies of these scholars are being given below :-
233 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 216 Samaullah observes that the black coating contain about 13% oxide whch is responsible for the black shade and that the coating is not siliceous glaze. The ferrous silicate; According to Sanaullah is also responsible for the colout effect. The account for the luster he assumes the formations of ferrous lime and ferrous magnesia silicates, which being of low fusibility bring about fusion of the black filmduring firing, further he holds the possibility of the deposition of carbon and tarsy malter in the pores to enhance the black colour. According to Lal the black gloss of the NBP ware may have resulted by some sort of postfiring treatment in which the kiln not pottery was coated with some organic liquid of vegetable or animal origin. He further states that the exact conditions of firing and the nature of the ferruginous material employed in its manufacture still remain exclusive. The shining black slip consists of a thin layer of black magnetic oxide Fe 304 which is responsible for the colour reports Hegde, he also mentions the formations of glass like substance due to the tendency of the slip to crack he suggests that the slip was applied on baked clay. In contrast to Hegde s views Bimson observes that NBP ware has been mistaken for Greek black gloss and she points out several differences. This a razor blade willsun smoothly across the greek black, where as it will cut into the Indian black (NBP ware) while greek black is magnetic, NBP ware is relatively non-magetic greek black stands the temperature of C without any change while Indian black shows considerable variations in its resistance to such temperature. She addresses that bright gloss is not a glaze on lacquer. The British Museum Laboratary does not subscribe to the views of burnishing and its present view is that the unfired pots were dipped in a suspension of ferruginous inorganic material probably resembling a red earth that after firing to a temperature of C the kiln was sealed so that the pots cooled in reducing atmosphere. According to them the precise nature of the surface layer still remains unsolved. According to Bhardwaj the black colour of the slip is materially on account of carbon, however in view of the presence of detachable clay slip, post firing application of organic liquids look doubtful. The slip might have been obtained by the application of welllevigated emulsion of refind clay and organic liquies over the dried pots. After the slip was dry the pots were fired under reducing condition. The organic matter in the slip carbonized without burning out, resulting in a uniform lustrous black surface. Besides H.N. Roys, T.N. Roys and Subas Roy have also thrown some light on the technical observations of NBP ware. It appears from these chemical reports that the black colour and the polish there on were achieved because of the chemical reaction but so far no chemical analysis has been
234 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 217 made on other shades if this pottery, it is just possible that some other chemicals have been added to it for producing other shades but is requires further, experiments and chemical analysis. Main Pottery types The types of the ware bear testimony to the utilitarian character of the pottery. The common shapes are dishes, bowls, handis, basins, lids, vases and miniature, vessels. Besides jars, tumblers, vessels with stand bases and spout (suggestive of the spouted vessels) have also found. A variety of bowls in this ware are the following:- (i) Bowls : Bowl with a featureless rim and bulunty carniated to a rounded base : - (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Hastinapur. Bowl with vertical side and slighting outcurved rim Hulaskhera. Bowl with corrugated side Hulaskhera. Bowl with rounded body Hulaskhera, and slightly outcurved bewelled rim. Bowls with vertical featureless rim Saunphari. Bowl with everted rounded rim and straight sides Waina. Bowl with convex sides Saunphari, Hastinapur, Fatehpursikri, Charda. (viii) Bowl with a vertical sharpened rim and thin walls Hastinapur. (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) Bowls with tapering and a flat base. The centre of the base on the inside has been stamped with small concentration circles Kausambi. Bowl with vertical internally sharpened rim and incurved sides- Kausambi. Bowl with incurved flattened top rim- Charda. Bowl with incurved slightly thickened rim- Charda. (xiii) Bowl with inclined rim with a carbon on the shoulder- Charda. (xiv) Bowl with featureless slightly bulging side- Charda. (xv) Deep bowl with a vertical featureless rim. The body in distinguished by three prominent ribs Kausambi. (xvi) Bowl with a vertical internally thinned rim, and a concave neck separated a prominent carbon Kausabmi. (xvii) Deep bowl with a vertical rim internally sharpened a concave neck and an externally corrugated body with an flange at the junction of the neck. The shape is very common and have analogies from the sites like- Jhusi, Rajghat, Kausambi, Bhita and other sites. (xviii) Deep bowl with everted rim by grooved below the neck and on the grith Kausambi.
235 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 218 Dishes It is found in a variety of shapes from different sites. The main types are the following ;- (i) Dishes with incurved rim Waina. (ii) Dishes with elongated handle and bearing a thick slip. It is a new shape, not reported from any other site Agiabir. (iii) Dishes with everted rim, convex sides Charda. (iv) Dishes with vertical internally thickened and painted rim- Hastinapur. (v) Dish sharpened rim and incurved sides Hastinapur (vi) Dish with golden hue exterior and black interior has slightly outcurved and convex sides Saunphari. (vii) Dish with convex sides Hulaskhera, Fatehpur sikri. (viii) Dish with inturned externally thickened and grooved rim and incurved side. Kausambi. (ix) Large dish with incurved internally thickened rim, curved side and a convex base Kausambi. (x) Dish with a slightly closing featureless rim and sides carninated to presumably a saggar base Kausambi. (xi) A miniature dish with a inturned rim, convex sides and possibly a saggar base - Rajgir, Kausambi. Handi Vases This ware of the following types : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Handi with a closing featureless rim, sharply carinated to presumably a rounded base- Kausambi Handi with a closing featureless thinner rim in medium fabric Kausambi. Vases with a footed base Hastinapur. Lower portion of a vase with a convex base. It is painted from the outside in black pigment with a curvilinear pattern executed Hastinapur. Vase with a splayed outrim a carinated neck and an oval body Kausambi. Miniature vases with an out curved sharpened rim and a concave neck Kausambi. Vase with an almost horizontally closing featureless rim, a round base which is thinner in section and is marked by the presence of root Jhusi, Kausambi, Hastinapur, Fatehpursikri, Bhita, Taxila, Ahichhatra, Vaisali, Lachchhgiri.
236 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 219 Lids These are of the following varities : (i) Lids with a flat terminal Hastinapur (ii) Lids with a vertical featureless lip and a prominent flaged waist Kausambi. (iii) Lids with slaty surface- Kausambi. The fossil types I the ware are bowls and dishes. Besides these, Kausambi has yielded basins with collard rim, basin with spouts, lids, carinated, handis, globular, vessels, miniature and medium sized vases and Surahis (spouted vessels). Decorative Motifs The glossy surface of NBPW is generally unpainted but painted sherds are not altogether lacking. This ware is painted with bands, dots, strokes, concentric, semi-circles, loops, wavy lines, intersecting circles. arches and other complex motifs in black cream or blue on dark, drab orange, brown and dark grey surface. A few sherds on the inner base stamped designs comprising circles, ring to dots, spokes of wheel and taurine symbols are also met with on some of the pots. From some of the sties painted pieces of the ware 68 have also been obtained. In this connection mention may be made of Kausambi 69, Sravasti 70 and Jhusi 71. In Uttar Pradesh and Bahal 72 in Maharashtra. Graffiti Marks In this phase the graffiti marks are reported on NBPW, coarse NBPW grey ware and red ware from Rajghat. The NBPW assemblage at Kausambi pottery with graffti have been recorded. The symbols on these pottery are forty five in number. They occur frequency on the NBPW and all the associated wares viz. Grey ware, Black slipped ware and Red ware. Some of these symbol also appear on ununiscribed cast coins and punch mark coins such a tree symbols crecent, and Taurine. More than 50% of the symbols on the pottery at Kausambi may go back to the Chalcolithic Harappan times. It roughly resembles a square or rectangular which has an emanating vertical line at the top; two horizontal lines cut by a number of horizontal and comparatively small lines which resembles a ladder. This symbol occur on Harapan, Chalcolithic and megalithic pottery. From Rajghat the symbol is complete and vagvely resembles the English letter M from a late level of NBP. The symbols consists of vertical parallel lines, a cross border of four irregular lozenges, a trident, arrow, Brahmi
237 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 220 letters, ta ga a damaru or two triangles meeting each other at the apex, three equally spaced loops, early Brahmi na or tsurine, and upper horizontal lines is met with a vertical line almost in the middle. Roughly similar symbols have been also found from a NBPW sherds of Sravasti but it is from the early phase of NBP period I of Sravasti. Associated Wares The NBPW yielding strata are also associated with black and red ware, black slipped ware, plain grey ware and red ware, the last one further sub-divided into a number of groups. With the exception of the red ware, the remaining wares including the NBP ware appear to be table ware. But the NBP ware was definitely de-lux ware. (i) Black and Red ware In the middle Ganga valley at Chirand the black and red ware appears in the Neolithic period and continues in the succeeding periods of Chalcolithic and Northern black polished ware without any break, but there was some modifications. These pots were invariably treated with wash or slip. In Bihar this ware has been associated with the NBP phase at almost all the important sites, such as Vaisali (II), Oriup II, Champa, Manjhi I, Rajgir, Patliputra, Kumharar I, and Sonepur etc. However, outside Bihar the BRW is either associated with the NBP ware, Rajghat, Kausambi, Ahichhatra, Purana Qila, Hastinapur, Atranjikhera, Mathura, Sravasti and Hulaskhera. Bowls dishes vases and basins are the common pottery form in Black and red ware. Lata shaped vessels, with single and multiple grooves, basin in everted thickened rim of fine fabric and with slip, both externally and internally. Many dishes in this ware, including deep ones with slip on their interior and exterior with a slightly incurved rim have been found at Sonpur. Some times burnishing is also seen at Hulaskhera. A few examples bear painted strokes in red pigment. (ii) Black Slipped ware This ware has black-slip on both the surfaces composed of medium to coarse fabric. Black slipped ware, a chalcolithic ware, has been noticed in Bihar a typical sites. Like Champa, Vaisali and Patilaputra, out side Bihar in the Upper Ganga Valley association of Black Slipped ware at sites like, Atranjikhera IV, Kausambi, Hastinapur, Fatehpursikri, Sadhverakhera, Hulas, Hulaskhera, Saunphari, Charda, Waina and Srinaverpura.
238 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 221 The main shapes are dish and bowl. Dishes are convex sided and flat based. Bowls are with rounded body and slightly outcurved or incurved rim, with corrugated sides and flat base. Miniature bowl with vertical side are also found. At Hulaskhera, two sherds also bear incised designs. (iii) Grey Ware The fabric of this ware is different that that of the painted Grey ware. A very fine fabric while the grey coloured sherds found in the NBPW levels are of medium to coarse variety. This ware is thicker in section has a grey gritty core and blackish surface and it is not fired at a high temperature. These types are found from Hastinapur, Saunphari, Sadhaverakhera, Hulaskhera, Kausambi, Waina, Charda, Agiabir and Sravasti. The main shapes produced in this ware were bowls and dishes, yet in the Late NBP culture complex new varieties such as basins, carinated handis, handi-cum-karahi appeared from the first time. Besides the miniature pots, pedestal, bowls, lips, and lipped vessels in Grey ware are the rare examples, which occur at one or the other site. The principle types of Grey ware are the following : Bowls, Dishes, Basin, Vases, Handi Bowls - The main froms bowls were:- (i) Bowls with everted rim Hastinapur, Kausambi (ii) Bowls with tapering sides Agiabir, Kausambi and Saggar base. (iii) Bowls with globular body and vertical rim Saunphari, Waina. (iv) Bowls with flat base- Hulaskhera, Sadhverkhera. (v) Bowls with a vertical featureless rim and a flattened base Hastinapur. (vi) Miniature bowl with a vertical featurless rim and a convex base Kausambi. Dishes (i) Dishes with incurved rim Kausambi, and rounded base Saunphari, Agiaber (ii) Dish with externally thickened rim Waina (iii) Vertical side and convex side Hulaskhera. Basin (i) (ii) Channeled basin with oval collared rim Saunphari Basin with an inturned externally rounded collared rim by a lip. It is treated with a darkish grey slip both externally and internally Kausambi, Hastinapur and Vaisali.
239 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 222 (iii) Basin with a vertical nail head rim, bevelled at the top and incurved sides, it is grooved externally Hastinapur, Kausambi Handis, Vases and Lids This ware are following types (i) Carinated handis of thick grey ware with a closing featureless rim Hastinapur. (ii) Sharply carinated body with a closing rim Ahichhatra, Kausambi, Hatinapur. Vases and lids were found at Hastinapur. In this pottery form of surface decoration both painted and stamping designs. The painted design, designs in black are a simple geometric forms. But it is impressed marks such as, hollow cross, wheel with spokes, concentric circles, crescented hill, swastika etc. are significant. These are marked generally on the inner surface of the vessels like dish and bowl. Carinated handis the middle part of the outer surface of the vessels were stamped. (iv) Red Ware These are the most common groups of earthen pottery of all times, right from the Neolithic to the historical periods. In the NBP strata at all sites in northern India, Red wares predominates the pottery were found, and a number of ceramic traditions may be seen it such as; coarse and dull wares, slipped and unslipped ware, lustrous ware etc. More than one variety of fabric fine to coarse various tendencies of the surface treatment, slipped unslipped and painted, and the varying size very large to miniature and a variety of shapes vases, dishes, bowls and other forms. Bowls (i) Bowls with incurved rim, hemispherical sides round base- Charda, Saunphari, Hulaskhera. (ii) Bowls with red slip on both sides but the interior is blackish has slightly incurved thickened rim- Charda, Sravasti, Hulaskhera. (iii) Miniature bowls Atranjikhera. (iv) Bowls with tapering side disc base- Sringverpura. (v) Bowls beaker deep of red vertical externally bevelled rim Waina. (vi) Footed bowl of red ware featureless rim Agiabir, Fatehpurskiri, Sadhverkhera.
240 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 223 (vii) Deep bowl with an almost vertical featureless rim incured sides an a convex base Kausambi, Hulaskhera. (viii) Bowl with a splayed out drooping rim and tapering sides and a flattened base- Kausambi. (ix) Bowl with lipped or channeled, perforated and legged Hulaskhera. Dishes Different types of the dishes of this ware are following : (i) Miniature and Lid-cum-dish Sravasti (ii) Dishes are convex sided and flat or round base generally a groove marks on exterior Hulaskhera. (iii) Dishes incurved featureless rim saggar base- Saunphari. (iv) Dish with a slightly out turned rim grooved on the top end flanged above the base- Hastinapur. (v) Sallow dish with an out-turned rim decorated with obliquely cut deep incision- Kausambi. (vi) Shallow dish with an internally decorated with a finger tip design in appliqué Kausambi. Basins (i) Basin of externally thickened rim and sharp carination at the neck, convex side, red slip Waina. (ii) Basin with an incurved externally oval collared and grooved rim-hastinapur, Atranjikhera, Saravasti. (iii) Basin of Channeled, red slip, black stain on the exterior and inside Saunphari (iv) Lipped basin- Agiabir. (v) Basin without turned externally thickened rim an tapering side Kausambi (vi) Lip of a basin of fine fabric, it is treated with a red slip Kausambi. Vases (i) (ii) Pear shaped vase of dull red ware indifferently fired, with a vertical externally collared rim and a corrugated shoulder Hastinapur, Kausambi, Ahichhatra, Jhusi, Vaisali and Bhita. Four footed vase with perforated bottom, was a special type- Sravasti.
241 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 224 (iii) Miniature vase of red ware with splayed out thickened special type Sravasti. (iv) Miniature vase of dull red ware flaring mouth, a groove at the junction of neck and shoulder reddish core Charda. (v) Vase of red ware incurved rim and concave neck Saunphari. (vi) Vase with a clubbed rim, of coarse fabric it is not treated with any wash or slip Hastinapur. (vii) Vase with a nail head rim and a grooved shoulder of coarse red fabric Hastinapur. (viii) Fragment of a bottle necked vase of red ware fine fabric grooved featureless rim- Hastinapur. (ix) Handmade spouted vase of pale red ware with a vertical rim and rounded base- lug handle opposite the spout Hastinapur. (x) Three footed base fragment of a vase with perforation Hastinapur. (xi) Vase with ledged shoulder, round concave sharp handle body an convex base Kausambi, Ahichhatra. Other shapes are jars, lids and tumblers. These are following types :- (i) Jar and storage jar comprise water pots- Hulaskhera, Sravasti, Atranjikhera. (ii) Fragment of a jar with an out-curved, internally thickened rim and concave neck Kausambi, Hastinapur. (iii) Fragment of jar with a vertical externally grooved rim and a tapering neck-kausambi. (iv) Long oblique neck has a mild ridge splayed shoulder, coarse fabric Charda, Saunphari. (v) Storage jar of the red ware, has flaring mouth oblique neck and spreading shoulder Charda. (vi) Fragment of a jar, exterior, interior shows blackish stains has beaded rim S twist neck Charda. (vii) Lids with a sharply out-turned externally thickened rim, flat base Kausambi, Sravasti. (viii) Lids of red ware with a strap handle. It is distinguished by a finger tip decoration Hastinapur, Ahichhatra, Kausambi and Viasali. (ix) Tumbler with a flaring featureless rim and roughly vertical sides Kausambi. (x) Tumbler with a slightly out-turned featureless rim- Rupar, Kausambi.
242 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 225 Decorations are executed by painting, impressing and incising. These are decorated with rope design, thumb impressed in appliqué method. The painted pottery in cream carry design consist of parallel horizontal lines solid dots, group of sigmas and horizontal rim bands. Some Red ware pottery impressed design on the surface, such as a jar, Chevron on the shoulder and vertical strokes around the neck was reported from Sravasti, carinated rimless handis have impressed designs like, papal leaf etc. Bowls having criss-cross, zig-zag, cord pattern and parallel stokes incised designs. Settlement and Subsistence Pattern The study of the settlement pattern the NBPW period has not been achieved satisfactorily. A very limited area was studies by Lal (1984) and Erdosy (1985). On the basis of these two publications and some exploratory work reported here and there. We propose to work discus the settlement patterns of this period. In the early phase of NBPW maximum settlements were along the rivers in the fertile area. In Kanpur district Lal has surveyed 99 NBPW sites. Out of these 65 are along the rivers and 34 are away from the rivers. It is also seen in the Survely done by Erdosy that the maximum number of sties were long the river. It is also interesting to note that the sites on the major rivers are larger in number than that of tributaries. The relative abundance of NBP yielding sites gives us a glimpse of the density of population in this period and possibly indicates that there was also a growth in population. During the period of early NBPW, several new settlements in entire Gangetic plains were introduced. In the middle Ganga plain maximum number of sites starts in the NBPW phase (Sharma 1983: 100). In Kanpur district during PGW period the total number of sites were 46 and in the NBPW period, this number increase to 99. The area of habitation was also increased in this period. For example at Rajghat, Prahladpur, Khairadih, Ganwaria and Atranjikhera etc. during the preceding period the habitation was confined only to a small part of mound. But in the succeeding NBP period the area of settlement increases. At Atranjikhera (Gaur op.cit. p. 243) the area of habitation during the preceding period (PGW period) was 1000 sq.m. which is only a small portion of the site. But during the succeeding NBP period the major part of the mound came under occupation (1127: 76 X X 6 to 20.5m). The habitational deposits of the preceding periods were confined only to the eastern part of the mound. The NBPW period also began on this part of the sites, partly immediately over accumulation of the PGW and partly directly on the natural soil.
243 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 226 In Kanpur district in PGW period out of 46 sites, remained below 2 hect. and only six sites were above 2 hect. in area. But in the NBPW period 18 sites were above 2 hect. in area. In the PGW period the maximum area of habitation was 5 hect. while in the NBPW period, the site grew upto 8.75 hect. In the Kausambi region, area of habitation was more than that of earlier periods. During this period the area of Sringaverpura was about 12 hect. and two other sites were of 6.75 and 6.72 hect. The NBPW period total occupied floor was hect. It is noteworthy that a significant change in the distribution pattern of settlement took place during the NBPW period. During this period, settlement extended beyond the range of locations of the previous period. A substantial number of sites are found away from the rivers. For example, in the Sultanpur district settlements were mainly along the tanks and lakes. Gomti a major river of this region has not attracted early settlers perhaps because of its violent and turbulent nature. The river keeps changing its course very frequently. The distance between settlements gradually decrease. During the NBP period were at the average spacing of 9.19 and 40 kms respectively. All the PGW sites were confined close to the river banks but in the subsequent period, there is a trend to more further away from the river (34.34%0 sites NBP were away from the rivers) This can be attributed to the emergence of new Socio-economic structure caused by adoption and intensification of social, economical and technological innovations. The rise in the number of settlement also led to reduction in distance between two from 30.76% to PGW 38.70% by NBP period in comparision to PGW/BRW periods. This pattern is observation in all the three kinds of village i.e. small village, big village and also in regional centre. This kind of density of settlements could have been international or even planned. It was likely to bring about a greater security and an over all prosperity to the region. Agriculture was the main stay of these people. Economy of the people was more developed than that of the preceeding cultural period. The economy was mainly based on agriculture though animal breeding and hunting along with a prograssive trade and commerce better managed. More and more areas were brought under cultivation and they were irrigated by rivers and wells. It has already been discussed that during the PGW/BRW period crop like, rice, barley, wheat, gram, grain, masoor, field pea, cheakpea, lentil, til, and sunflower etc.were known. The evidence for grains cultivated NBPW period comes from Atranjikhera, Purana Qula, and Radhan. Purana Qila comes the evidence for millet. From Radhan in district Kanpur rice, wheat, barley, pea, (Pisum arvense) and an unidenti fiable cotyledon of legume were recorded from an exposed section of the mound associated with sherds of PGW and
244 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 227 NBP. Rice, wheat and pulses were the main cereals as they have been found from the excavations and explorations in the Upper Gangetic plain. Rice we know was known in the earlier age. Urad also came to be cultivated during NBP period. Urad contain a high percentage of calcium in to proteins and can easily be grown more than once a year. Grain cultivated this period comes from Rajasthan, Atranjikhera, Saunphari, Hastinapur, Ganwaria, Radhan, Prahaladpur, Sonepur etc. The subsistence along with agriculture, was also substantiated by animal husbandry, as bones of cow, buffalo, deer, goat, sheep, goat, pig, horse, dog, were found. Hunting was also prevalent as is indicated by cutmarks on the bones. Bones excavated from different sites prove that a section of people were non-vegetarians. Meat of horse, sheep, goat, cattle, deer, fish and pig formed important part of dietry. The bones of these animals bearing sharp cut mark have been found at Hastinapur. Terracotta net sinkers were probably used for fishing. A variety of shapes in both NBP and associated wares prove that the culinary art was developing. Table No. 12 List of Crop Remains, Weeds and other Wild Taxa S.no. Crop remains Weeds and other Wild Taxa Cereals Barley, Rice, (Oryza Poaceae (i) Andopogon sp. (Blue sativa) (Grass family) stem grass), Avena sp. (wild oat) 2. Millet Ragi millet (Eleusina (ii) Dactyloctenium (crow-foot coracana) grass) 3. Pulse Letil (Lense culinaris) (iii) Eleusine indica (Goose Khesari/Grass pea grass) (Lathyrus sativus) (iv) Panicum sp. (Panicum Field pea (Pisum grass) arvense) (v) Poa sp. (Medow grass) Green gram (Vigna mungo) Black gram (Vigna Sedge family 1. Carex sp. Cyperus sp. mungo) 2. Scrirpus sp. (Bulrush) Horsegram Vicia sativa (Common watch) (Dolichoshiflorus)
245 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 228 Fruit Jujbe (Ziziphus nummularia) Malva- ceae Sida sp. (country mallow) Large number of bones excavated from different sites prove that a secontion of people were non-vegetarian. Large number of animal bone weighing about kg. and numbering 2152 were excavated from the site of Saunphari. The identified species from the excavations are :- Bos indicus (cattle) Bublaus bubalis (buffalo) Bos/Bublaus (cattle/buffalo) Ovis/Capra (Sheep/goat) Sus scrofa cristatus (pig) Axis-axis (Chital : dear) Equus sp. (Horse) Turtls (clemys) Crocodiles (Crocdylus?) Table No. 13 Selected Bones of Painted Grey Ware of Saunphari Animal Family No. of Bones Charring Cutmarks Workmanship Weight Mammal X Bos indicus X Bos/Babalus Equus caballus 1 X X X Equus sp. 1 X X X Bovid 4 2 X X Sus scrofa 4 X X X Chital (qxis) 10 3 X X Bird 1 X X X Chronology
246 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 229 Before the C 14 dating in India NBP ware was regarded as a very good archaeological chronometric makers. A range of c B.C. used to be given in this general estimation. First of all Marshall (1915: 80-1) dated the black lustrous sherds (now called NBP) to c. 8 th Century B.C. On the basis of evidence of Bhita, but cordington (1929: 101) rejected this date on the basis of unscientific excavations. The earliest large scale excavation to have yielded the NBPW was conducted at Taxila by Sir Marshall between (1912:34) on the basis of numismatic evidence at Taxila. Marshall ascribed the introduction of NBP in subcontinent with the advent of Greeks in India. In 1946 Wheeler and Krishna deva ( ) dated NBP at Taxila from 5 th Century B.C. to the early part of the second century B.C. In (p ) on the basis of Hastinapur excavation, Lal dated NBP to circa B.C. to substantiation this early dating by a century more than the original 500 B.C. date given by Wheeler and Krishnadeva he also used the evidence of Taxila and Kausambi. D.P. Agrawal does not agree with Lal s argument of dating NBP at Hastinapur, Kausambi and Taxila on the basis of the depth of occupational strata comes to the conclusion that NBPW should be confined within c. 550 to 100 B.C. Sahi, M.D.N. and Sachidanand Sahay (1969: 148) gave an earliest date to NBPW about 8 th -7 th century B.C. This is probably earliest date given to NBP and is inconformity with the date proposed by Marshall in Wheeler (1959: 31) on the basis of evidence of Charsadda and Udeygram dated the NBP of north westerly region to B.C. Again Wheeler, Sharma and Thaper 73 associated the spread of NBPW with the spread of the Mauryan empire. But Prof. K.K. Sinha has disagreed on the ground that the formative period of the use of NBP ware in middle Ganga plains ante-date the spread of Mauryans and after 300 B.C. its role in the region is insignificant. At Kumrahar which is identified with Patliputra, NBP is nearly absent. On the other hand Rajgir, a pre-mauryan capital, is richer in NBP finds. So the evidence disproves its exclusive association with the Mauryan kingdom. Sinha thinks that its primary centres are Kausambi, Rajgir, Sravasti, Vaisali and the secondry centres of distribution are Hastinapur, Rupar, Ujjain, Kumrahar etc. Sravasti has a overlapping of PGW and NBP. Much of the associated cultural material as well as pottery forms at Sravasti compare well with the pre-nbp culture deposit at other sites including Hastinapur. On this basis Sinha (1969) claims as early date bracket for the early NBP phase of Sravasti, namely sixth to third century B.C. Sinha on the other hand finds close similarity between the NBP phase at Hastinapur and Late NBP phase at Sravasti. On the basis of comparison of the cultural material of Sravasti and Hastinapur. Hence he suggests a contemporaneity of the above two cultural phase, suggesting a dated of 350 to 100 B.C. for
247 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 230 the NBP culture at Hastinapur. Roy thinks that the initial date for the NBP would range 7 th 6 th century B.C. and Late phase of NBP to 4 th -3 rd century B.C. Combined stratigraphical evidence at Sarari Mohana, Prahaladpur and Rajghat clearly indicates the existence of NBP or the culture associated with NBP in two phases one of the early phase of NBP and the other Late phase of NBP. On all three sites of which at Prahaladpur the early phase of NBP (IB) is preceded by black and red ware deposit (IA) with iron. On the basis of C 14 determination a bracket of c. 550 to 50 B.C. was proposed by Agrawal 74. Mandal has given a table of valid C 14 dates of NBP sites. He on the basis of only seven C 14 dates which he considers to be the most valid ones, comes to the conclusion in the light of these dates the lower bracket can safely be dated to c. 7 th -6 th century B.C. in the central c. 5 th -4 th century B.C. In the upper and c. 3 rd century B.C. In the eastern part of the Central Ganga valley. Mandal s views duely supported by the thermo-luminescence date from Sringaverpura. The beginning of period III, Characterized by the first appearance of the NBP ware, has been placed around 700 B.C. In layers which post-dated the NBP ware were found successively a coin of the bull type, and a Sunga terracotta. Therefore there is very good reason to suppose that the NBP ware come to end in the 3 rd century B.C. at the site. The TL from Mathura and Sringaverpura 75 have pushed back the beginning of the ware to 7 th century B.C. This date is confirmed by the recent excavations at Jhusi as well. Four dates from Ujjain, Kaytha, and Besnagar fall around c. 450 B.C. it is interesting because all these sites fall in the Dakshinapath route. Agrawal has inferred that long distance trade have started in the 5 th Century B.C. if not earlier. Regarding the temporal relationship between the NBP ware and PGW ware there is a period of contemporaneity. Sringaverpura is the classic example of the close physical inter-relationship between the PGW and the NBP ware. The chronology of NBPW on the basis of stratigraphy and numismatic evidence has play an important role. In India the first true coins were the punch marked coins silver and copper. In the excavations at Taxila a hoard of Punch Marked coins was found along with two coins of Alexendar and one of Philip Aridaeous. These coins from Taxila were assigned to the 4 th Century B.C. At Rupar, Hastinapur, Purana Qila, Mathura, Kausambi and Ujjain punch marked coins appear in the mid phase of the NBP. Literary evidence shows that by 5 th century B.C. coins were in circulation in India.
248 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 231 Now, we shall turn to C 14 dates for NBP chronology in most of the cases the C 14 dates are younger than the archaeological dates. The available C 14 dates (in B.C.) are as follow: Table No. 14 Radiocarbon and TL. Dates for NBP Sites Name of Sites Laboratory no. Phase Radiocar bon Calibrated Archaeological T.L. Dates dates dates 1. Rupar TF-209 Pd. III early level NBP 485± ± B.C. to 200 B.C. TF-213 -do- 260± ±210± Hastinapur TF-88 Pd. III (E) 340± ±115 c. 600 B.C. to 300 B.C. TF- 80 end of Pd 50±115 50±115 A.D. - III (L) i.e. Making the end of NBP end of NBP C.300 B.C. TF-82 (L) - TF-81 (L) 125± ± Ahichhatra TF-311 Pd.-III NBP 475± ±105 - TF- 301 Pd.-IV Kushan Gupta 370± ± Noh TF-995 Early NBP 685± ± Atranjkhera TF-194 Post NBP 530± ±85 c. 600 B.C. to 50 B.C. TF- 284 NBP 295± ±100 TF-283 NBP 260± ±105 TF-291 NBP 535± ±100
249 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 232 PRL ± Purana Qila PRL ± Kausambi Early level - of mid TF- 221 phase 500± ±105 Late level of mid TF-226 phase 220± ±100 TF-104 Late level 270± ±110 TF-100 Late level 275± ±100 TF-105 Late level 335± ±115 TF- 225 Mid Phase 400± ±110 TF-219 Mid Phase 440± ±105 TF-103 Mid Phase 410± ±110 8.Rajghat Sub Pd. IA earl phase c.600 B.C. to 400 B.C. TF-293 of NBP 490± ± Sohgaura PRL-183 NBP 590± ±110 PRL-182A NBP 410± ±150 PRL-182 NBP 240± ± Rajgir TF-45 Pd. I NBP 265± ±100 c. 600 B.C. TF-46 Pd. I NBP 260± ± Mathura PRL-336 Mid NBP 660± ±100 PRL-334 Mid NBP 730± ±150 PRL-333 (Late NBP) 610± ±150 PRL-343 PGW+NB P overlap 270± ±100 PRL-338 Late NBP 400± ±110 PRL-337 Late NBP 460± ±100
250 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 233 Mid NBP PRL-340 Overlap 510± ±150 PGW+NB P PRL-342 Early NBP 300± ± Bateshwar PRL-201 Late NBP 640± ±160 PRL-197 Mid. NBP 530± ± Kaytha TF-674 NBP 470± ±95 TF-394 NBP 495± ± Ujjain TF-409 NBP (M) 450±95 440± Hastinapur TF-176 NBP (M) 105± ± Sringaverpur Early c. 700 to 300 B.C. Phase Jhusi PRL-2070 NBP 250±90 - c.700 to 300 B.C. PRL-2074 NBP 640±90 - PRL-2072 NBP 550±90 - Agiabir c.600 B.C. to NBP - - B.C. At Sonpur and Chirand the earliest occurrence of the NBP in period II. Which follows sub period IB, the date of the later being 765±100 and that of the former 635±110 B.C. A comparison of these C 14 dates with stratigraphical dates at the sites of the various regions indicates that the ware did not appear at all the site at the same time. It would seem that an evolution of stratigraphical and C 14 dates from different sites shows that the traditional date of 600 B.C. for the beginning of the NBP still holds good. Similarly the ware continued to be in use though very sparingly till last century B.C. The period of NBP is the age of regional emergence synchronizing with the use of towns. Formations of Mahajanpadas during this period attests its political importance. Regarding material culture this period was a turning point in the Indian protohistory specially in the Late levels. During the early phase of NBP, the houses were made of mud, though rarely mud and burnt bricks were also attested to. In the late phase of NBP burnt bricks structures were in general use early phase of this period was pre defence but in the Late phase fortification walls were raised at several sties. Before 300 B.C. one of the most recurring
251 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 234 features of the levels datable to 300 to 50 B.C. of the excavated site is the presence of ring wells. Animal figurines between B.C. show incised lines and punched circlets between B.C. Toys and wheels were generally reported from levels after 300 B.C. writing had certainly came into use though no inscription definitely earlier than Ashoka has been found. Though the coinage were started round about 7 th coinage were started round about 7 th century B.C. but in archaeological excavations. Punch marked and cast coinage have been found from the late phase of NBP culture. Cultural Associated Finds During NBP period structural activities in the doab started on a much larger scale than in the previous periods. Development of cities took place during this period. The evidence from Hastinapur, Atranjikhera, and Kausambi 76 shows that at the beginning of this period structures were made of mud and bricks but subsequently burnt bricks were 43x25x7cm. 27x22 x7 cm. an 30x22x15x7 cm. A tendency to use durable building material like burnt brick is evident. But a complete switch over from mud and mud bricks to brunt brick was not possible. From Kausambi an intense building activity has been observed in the NBP period. The use of mud bricks has been attested at Atranjikhera, Kannuaj, Jakhera and Ahichhatra. Among other structural activities may be included mud floors, ovens Kachcha drain, fortification wall, mud bund, furnaces, drain pipes, storage jars and barn granary rooms etc. from Atranjikhera and Jakhera. In the Late phase of NBP fortification were found at Ahichhatra, Ayodhya, Kausambi, Mathura, Rajgir, Sravasti and Atranjikhera. These embankment were meant exclusively for defence purpose. At Atranjikhera a massive mud band, raised by the people on the eastern side facing the river during the phase I of Late NBP period was extended to surround the whole town during the sub phase III. Sub phase III was marked by a circular structure flanked by mud brick walls on the inner side at the top of rampart. According to excavator it looks like a tower subphase IV shower several smaller pits on the top of the rampart itself. From Kausambi a complete change in the plan of the defence system was brought about in this period, passage with corbelled arch and finally capped with bricks laid width-wise, stairs, walls guard rooms, the flank walls and the two tower sides on the top had been excavated. Standard size of bricks used in this period is 17.5 x 12 x 2.75 insch Which is about 70% use of dressed stones with mud for building is testified from Kausambi, Awra and Ujjain. Long
252 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 235 wall at Rupor 77 are made of kiln built bricks. Terracotta ring wells have been found from Atranjikhera, Hastinapur and Kausambi. Only Rajghat, Mathura, Atranjikhera, Sohgaura, Saunphari, Agiabir and Chirand have yielded evidence regarding structures of early NBP phase especially during this phase the walls of houses were made either of mud or of wattle and doub. A portion of mud wall has also been recovered Atranjikhera. The collapsed material at Sohgaura indicated the ceiling of wooden beams over which kneeded clay mixed with husk was spread. At Atranjkhera, Saunphari the presence of post-holes suggested that they had thatched roofing over wooden and bamboo poles. Mud fools are found at Mathura, Chirand and Atranjikhera, Agiabir. At Chirand and Atranjikhera, Agiabir indicates that the floors were made of rammed of earth. In the late phase of NBP evidence. Purana Qila suggests By the 6 th century B.C. the NBPW had come into use houses were row constructed of kiln burnt bricks. At Rajghat two room of backed bricks size 2.56 x 2.51 and 2.14 x 2.17 m. with two passages of 60 cm. A brunt brick structure of several rooms has been discovered at Atranjikhera shaped bricks in one hundred and sixty five courses and a massive under ground reservion with a low parapet wall. At Hastinapur also reveals the same picture. The roofs of the houses were generally made of earthen tiles evidence at Ujjain 78 suggests. The houses appeared to have been roofed generally with oblong tiles with double perforation for being fixed in position. There was a floor plastered with lime at Sonepur. Buildings were pre-planned and a high civic sense and Sautation arrangements prevailed at that time. 79 Life in this period was easy and luxurious. This is evident from the various ornaments unearthed. Beads are the most prolific objects among the ornaments. Among other industries special mention may be made of bead making. A large number of beads made of shell, agate, crystal, glass carnelian, bone, quartz etc. were remarkable for their workmanship. Beads in all the stages of fabrication have also been reported. Beads are of different shape e.g. barrel shaped, triangular, spherical, showing the craftman s pateience and their skill. Almost all the sites in north India yielded these ornaments. The most popular material was glass. Beads are reported from sites like Kausambi, Atranjikhera, Saunphari, Agiabir, Ahichhatra and Jakhera, Kannauj etc. Bracelet, Neckless, bangles earstud ornaments pendent, rings male of terracotta, stone shell, glass, faience and copper. Special interest was attached to copper bangles which were provided with a series of holes and rivets, perhaps for adjustment. Finger ring have been found in copper, iron, horn and clay. At Atranjikhera and Jakhera small gold pieces also
253 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 236 occurred. Clamps nail antimony rods, nail bearers rods, sockets, tubes and pins have been reported from Atranjikhera, Jakhera, Ahichhatra and Jakhera and Kannauj etc. The terracotta human figurines which were rarely produced in the preceding period occur in considerable number during this period. Mostly the figure are modeled during the early phase of this period. Both male and female figurnes are found. The early phase of NBP the female figurnes are reported from the sties like, Sringaverpur, Mathura, Hastinapur, Ahichhatra, Buxar, Kausambi, Pariyar, Atranjikhera, Ganwaria, Rajghat, Prahaladpur, Taradih, Jakhera, Chirand etc. Terracotta female figures also speak of the love of ornaments. At Hastinapur a single female figure is reported from the mid level of NBP period. Which is hand modeled. The specimen of Atranjikhera are both hand modeled and moulded. At Kausambi several female figures have been found. Some of them are with oval face, prominal for head grace full eyes and nose and are well ornamented. In the late phase of NBPW these female figures are variously reported from several sites. They are made mostly with moulds. The figureines ofthis phase represented better manufactured skill and sophistication along with increased frequency. In this phase practice of moulding was introduced two types figurines are (i) Standing female figurines and the Mithun fig and similar other plagues which are gives the label Sunga. At Hastinapur a standing female figure which is moulded holds flower in the left hand and bowl in the right. At Atranjikhera are moulded and well decorated. Figurness are adorned with ornaments like pearl. Studded ear-stud rounded kundals, neckless figurness are well baked and treated with red black and chocolate coloured slip. Figurines of the mother goddess have been reported from Mathura, Ahichhatra, Jajmau, Bateshwar, Sonkh, Atranjikhera, Kannuaj, Hastinapur, Rajghat, Buxar, Vaishali, Champa. Animal figurines started vary early in the Gangetic plains right from pre-pgw period. In NBP period animal figurines were common. These are reported from several sites, Mathura, Hulas, Ahichhatra, Jajmau, Hulaskhera, Sravasti, Hastinapur, Atranjkhera, Kannuj, Rajghat, Sonepur, Prahaladpur, Kampil, Senuwar, Chandidih, Takiapur, Saunphari etc. Senuwar, Taradih and Maner, figurines and generally well modeled and majority of them are treated with wash or slip to provide them a smooth finish. Among animal figure of bulls, horse, elephant, goat, tiger, line, monkey, rhinocerous and a few indeterminate shapes are common. Art of weaving was known to them as terracotta spindle whorls have been found. Style of dressing is known from the terracotta figurines. Women usually wore skirts and blouses.
254 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 237 A smelting furnace has been recovered from Atranjikhera. The size of fire pit was 4 x 23 cm. Three finished iron objects, two arrowhead and one spear head were found along with an iron slag, arrow head were found at Saunphari. The copper smiths furnace was found Mathura. Ovens have been found at Bateshwar, Mathura and Agiabir. Kichen been has discovered at Sonepur. Noteworthy amongst the bird represented are the peacock, the dove, the owl the woodpecker and the crane. Origin and Authorship The origin of NBP is a matter of debate. In the upper Ganga plain it is preceded by PGW and in the Middle and Lower Ganga plain by BRW. Similarities of NBP can be traced back both in PGW and BRW ceramic tradition. Now the question arises who were these people who brought about this great economic change in the society? Marshall derived it from Grecian Black ware but in the light of the subsequent data regarding the ware, this point was rejected. According to Lal it was a quality culmination of the black-slipped ware found in association with the painted Grey ware. However, any meaningful discussion pertaining to the origins of the NBP ware should take the following points into consideration: - (i) The NBP ware is concentrated in the middle Ganga Valley. In this area it is found in 50% total ceramic assemblage. The region is generally associated with fine grade NBP ware. (ii) From Chalcolithic and pre NBPW iron bearing deposits, the occurrence of black slipped ware has been reported. In this connection particular mention may be made of excavations at Sohgaura, Narhan, Khairadih, Lahuradeva, Jhusi and Agiabir in U.P., Chirand, Chechar-kutubpur, Taradih, Senuwar in Bihar. In the Vindhyan area also Black-Slipped ware has been obtained in good quantity form Chalcolithic/Pre NBP. Iron using horizon of Kakoria, Koldihwa, Raja-Nal-Ka-Tila, Malhar and Tokwa. The recent excavation Jhusi in Allahabad have also yielded sherds of Black Slipped ware is profusion the pre-nbp ware. (iii) Like the NBP ware, the Black-Slipped ware is also represented by bowls and dishes. A person having not handled the NBP ware may be confused between the NBP ware and Black-Slipped ware.
255 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 238 In the light of above it may be said that NBP ware evolved from the Black-Slipped ware, after various experimental stages. The Black-Slipped ware indicates three developmental stages : (i) Chalcolithic (ii) Pre-NBP with Iron (iii) with NBP Ware In date round 7 th century B.C. may be proposed for the appearance of the NBP ware. On the basis of the occurrence of NBP in greater quality and varied colours in eastern U.P. and Bihar it has postulated that the origin of NBP lies somewhere in the above area. Many scholars like Sita Ram Roy 80, L. Narain 81 etc. have associated NBP with Aryans but this hypothesis is very hypothetical and is based on slender grounds. Scholars like B.P. Sinha, R.C. Gaur, Shivaji Singh, R.C. Agrawal, Romila Thapar and other believe that it is highly speculative to associated NBP ware culture with Aryans. So far, the archaeological picture shows a large variety of cultures none of which can be identified as specifically Aryans. The epicentre of NBP ware is in western and northern Bihar and eastern U.P. and it is known that the authors of the pre-nbp ware of these areas were not barbarian or nomadic people. S.Singh 82, feels that NBP ware can be associated with non-aryan tribes like Nishadas, Varatyas etc. Romila Thapar 83 on the basis of linguistic analysis has tried to show that the eastern part of Northern India or the Lower Ganga valley to be precise was more influenced by the non-indo-aryan languages. No doubt there is a need for more intensive studies in the linguistics with the perspective of throwing light on its associated cultures. Conclusion This class of pottery has been eulogished as the de-luxe ware of its time and a comparision with its associated pottery fully justifies its higher position in the domestic usage. The epicentre of which was somewhere between eastern U.P. and western northern Bihar. NBP ware phase is linked up with the consolidation of the first urbanization of the Ganga-Yamuna doab.
256 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 239 NBPW is a most distinctive class of lustrous pottery made of well levigaeted clay. The core varies in colour from grey to reddish. It is found in thick, medium and fine variety. It is found mostly in black colour but also occurs in steel-blue, silver, golden, pinkish gold, blue, buff, chocoloate and brown colour. All the mention shapes are utilitarian. Some of the specimen are painted and some have stamped designs. The common shapes are dish, bowls, handi, jar, lid, basin, vase and miniature vessels. At Kausambi NBP ware with graffiti have been recovered. Associated wares of this period are Black-Slipped ware, Black and Red ware, Red ware, Grey ware, dull red and orange slipped ware. The shapes in this wares are dish basin, bowls, big storage jar, vases, handi and lids. Agriculture and trade were the monstay of subsistence; Agriculture was well developed as is evident by the agricultural implements of iron from excavations and literary references. Specialization and localization if industrially are sufficient causes for trade development. The permanence of settlement concentration of population have also helped to promote craft specialization. The growth of cities coindes with the emergence of NBP ware. Toys and wheels were generally reported from levels after 300 B.C. Terracotta beads were generally reported from all the sites. Besides terracotta beads of semi precious stone paste, ivory, bone glass and copper were found from both the levels. During the late phase, frequency and sophistication increased. Terracotta disc were reported from several sites in the early phase. Most of them show a symbol depicting the sun; But it is interesting to note that these disc increased to exist after 300 B.C. copper already in vogue; continued in use long with iron during the period being mainly used for preparing toilet objects and ornament iron grained in popularity. The kiln burnt brick used mostly I the structures of public utility. Buildings were pre planned with a high civic sense and sanitary arrangements. Punch marked silver and copper coins and uninscribed copper coins have been found in large number from those sites yielding NBP ware. NBPW beyond the Ganga plains was exported and traders and Buddhist monks played an important role in its spread. The final phases of NBP spread can be connected with the spread of Ashoka empire in the 3 rd century B.C. In a nutshell this is the diverse picture of the complex life during the NBP ware period.
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260 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Op.cit. 32. I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p. 29 and I.A.R,, , p I.A.R., , pp I.A.R., , pp I.A.R., No. 67, p Tiwari, D.P Excavations at Saunphari, pp Tiwari, D.P Excavations at Charda pp Tiwari, R., Hemraj and R.K. Srivastava, Excavations at Hulaskhera Pragdhara No. 6, pp I.A.R., , pp Tiwari, D.P. and R.G. Shukla Archaeological exploration in Kannauj Tritantna Heritage Governance and Equity Vol. V, pp I.A.R., , pp Praghara No. 10. pp I.A.R., , pp Praghara No. 6. pp Srivastava, K.M. Excavations at Ganwaria pp I.A.R., , p. 19; , p ; , pp Praghara No. 10. pp Sinha, K.K. Excavations at Sravasti, , p Tiwari, D.P Excavations at Pirvanti Sarif District Bahraich. Abstract, joint Annual Conference of ISPQS, IAS and IHCS, State Institute of Archaeology, Art History, conservation and Museology, pp I.A.R., , pp Shukla, K.S Archaeology of Unnao district, p. 13 and footnote I.A.R., , p. 19; , pp ; , p I.A.R., , pp I.A.R., , p. 47; , p. 48; , p I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p. 29; , p. 44; , p Roy, T.N The Ganges Civilization Ramanand Vidya Bhavan, New Delhi. 60. Sinha, B.P Vaisali Excavation, Archaeology and Museum Patna.
261 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Marg Vol. XIV, No Marg Vol. XIV, No. 3, p Sanaullah, Khan Bahadur Ancient India, No. 1, p I.A.R., ; , pp Hedge, K.T.M Technical Studies in NBP ware, Journal M.S. University, Baroda, XI, No Bharadwaj, H.C Some Technical observation in NBP ware slip. In Potteries in Ancient India (ed. B.P. Sinha), Patna. 67. Sinha, K.K Puratattva No. 5, p Sahay, S Origin and Spread of NBP. In Potteries in Ancient India (eds.) B.P. Sinha, Patna. 69. Misra, V.D Potteries of Kausambi. In Potteries in Ancient India, (eds.) B.P. Sinha, Patna. 70. Sinha, K Excavation at Sravasti Varanasi. 71. Misra, V.D., J.N. Pandey and J.N. Pal, A Preliminary Report on the Excavations at Jhusi, Pragdhara No I.A.R., , pp Quated by Kartikeya Sharma, in, C 14 dates NBP ware and the Early Historical Archaeology of Peninsular India, p Agrawal, D.P Prehistoric Chronology and Radiocarbon Dating in India, p Lal, B.B. and K.N. Dikshit. Srigaverpura: A key site for the Protohistory and early History of the central Ganga valley. 76. Sharma, G.R Excavations at Kausambi, pp I.A.R., , p I.A.R., , p Ancient India, No. 10 and 11, p. 14, Excavations at Kausambi; , pp Roy, S.R Potteries in Ancient India, p Narain, A. Op.cit., p Singh, Shivaji, Op.cit., p Thapar, Romila, 1969, Op.cit.
262 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 245 CONCLUSION The Ganga Yamuna daob have played an important role in making of Indian culture and civilization. The Ganga is mentioned directly in the Rigveda (x.75.5) and in Taittiriya Aranyaka (II.20) special honour is assigned to those who dwell between the Ganga and the Yamuna river valleys. In the later Vedic period centre of Aryan culture moved eastwards from the Indus valley towards the Gangetic plain. The alluvial plains of the Ganga-Yamuna doab are subhumid and rainfall is between cm/per year. The soil is good for cultivation. In the past doab supported the dense forest flora and a variety of fauna. Because of its fertile land the empires of early period always fought to get the control over the doab. The great plain is built up of detrius from the Himalayas and traversed by the great rivers, Yamuna, Ganga and Ghaghra. It is divided into two areas, Bhangar (Older alluvium), an upland running north to south and Khadar (newer alluvium) a low land comprising the alluvial valleys along the main streams and their subparallel tributaries such as Ramganga, Sarda, Sengur and Gomti. The Ganga basins were covered with primordial forests during the 3 rd -2 nd millennia B.C. R.C. Gaur has however, observed: contrary to the general belief the doab at that time was not covered with dense forests. But his view is not corroborated by the Ancient Indian Literature, e.g. the Satapatha Brahmana, the Mahabharata, the Devipurana etc. which is replete with reference pertaining to the dense forests, like Kamyaka, Davaita and Khandava extending from the Saraswati to the yamuna. The notable forests in the Ganga valley as mentioned in ancient Literature were Naimisarauya in Sitapur district, and Bharadwaja Asrama at Prayag. The Kalakavana is particularly notable as it hindered the smooth progress of the OCP and the PGW people beyond the confluence of Ganga and Yamuna in the east. This possibly explains the absence of the OCP sites in the region lying between Kamauli in Varanasi district (Uttar Pradesh) and Parihati in Midnapur district (West Bengal). Today, the remnants of primordial forests survive in patches of Butea Frondosa, Caserica tomentosa. Alienthus excelsa, wood frodia, Floria bunda, Acacia Laucophoria, Terminalia, belerica, Tamarindus indica, Bassia latifolia and species of Bauhinia and Eugenia in the Ganga valley. The common occurrence of a variety of copper axes all over the Sarasvati and the Ganga basins suggests that the clearance of primordial forests commenced with the emergence of different copper Bronze Age cultures in this region. The early history of deforestation in the Ganga basins is divisible into four
263 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 246 successive phases (i) The copper-bronze using Harappan and OCP phase (ii) The copper/iron using BRW phase (iii) The iron using PGW phase and (iv) The iron using NBPW phase. While the deforestation in the first phase was slow, it gained momentum during the next two stages, and was further accelerated in the fourth phase, when iron from Bihar was profusely available for manufacturing various tools and weapons under the Magadhan Supremacy. Both the geographic units adjoining the central Ganga plain in the north and south, the Siwalik and the Himalayan regions respectively have, yielded the cultural material belonging to the Palaeolithic to the Chalcolithic early historical and subsequent period. The horse-shoe, oxbow lakes in Pratapgarh and adjoing track which dominate the morphology of the plains were formed by the meander of the shifting Ganga. It is on the bank of these lakes that the earliest evidence of human settlements not known till the seventies of the last century were located in the region. But some recent discoveries indicate that the plains between and around the Ganga-Yamuna were not a human vacuum even during the Palaeolithic times. There is evidence from Kalpi that the Palaeolithic menmtruded into the Ganga-Yamuna Daob. At Kalpi human artifacts in form of lithic bone tools and charred bones. These have been assigned to the first record of a Middle Palaeolithic (45000 years B.P.) human occupation of Ganga plain. This horizon has yielded rich assemblage of vertebrate faunal remains. Vertebrate faunal remains were reported from places along the axial rivers of the Ganga plain from time to time in District Banda, Jalaun, Kanpur Delhat, Allahabad and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. More than 200 sites were located from Varanasi to Pratapgarh district towards the north of the Ganga out of which three major sites Sarai Nahar Rai, Mahadaha and Damdama were excavated. Sarai-Nahar-Rai is a Mesoliithic site devoid of pottery it was an open air settlement. A number of human burials have also been exposed at these sites. One radiocarbon dates which 8394±110 B.C. has been obtained from Sarai-Nahar Rai. A long time span from 8000 to 2000 B.C. has beeen proposed for these cultures. Mesolithic settlement pattern in past of their exclusive territories would have supplied most of the subsistence needs except certain things such as raw material (stone) which probably came either from the north-east vindhyas or from the Pabhosa hills. The next culture in the area belongs to the early farming culture (Neolithic). The recent excavation at Jhusi revealing the microliths component at the lower most level followed by Neolithic cultural horizon. These indicate that during the Mesolithic period man had started evolution of culture from the Mesolithic of the beginning of urbanization living in
264 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 247 the around Jhusi. Chronology of the Neolithic Culture of the region has been proposed to 4 th millennium B.C. Recent excavation at Lahuradeva in Sant Kabir Nagar in the middle Gangetic plain have given early dates 4220, 4161 B.C. like those of Koldihwa which indicate that the earliest phases of the Neolithic culture may be dated to 6 th 5 th millennium B.C. The Late Harappan and OCP settlements are confined mainly to the higher rainfall zones of the doab. The Late Harappans preferred the alluvial fertile regions of eastern Punjab, Haryana and Upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab of western U.P. The remains of this culture were first discovered at Alamgirpur. There are around 200 Late Harappan sites situated on the bank of Krishni, Kali and Hindon rivers, which are tributaries of the Yamuna. So far, no site has been found on the Yamuna proper or in the Ganga Valley. The Late Harappan culture is therefore confined only to the Upper part of the daob. It is almost certain that the Late Harappan occupations of the Upper Doab took place by way of migrations from the adjoining Haryana and Punjab regions to the west, where the Harappan people had been established from much earlier period. This ceramic tradition evidence in the Upper Gangetic plain is the Late-Harappan culture in Saharanpur, Meerut, Bulandshahr district, Hulas, Alamgirpur and Baragaon belong to the late phase of the Harappan culture. The habitation belong to a small cluster of families. The main pottery types include storage jar with splayed out rim, and bulbous body having trace of parallel horizontal bands on the neck and shoulder, shallow dish dish-on-stand with carinated shoulder, ring stand, Goblet with pointed base, basin with undercut rim. Perforated jar, cylindrical jar, miniature jar, bowl like lid with central knob. The ceramic industry can be divided into three broad groups : (i) Handmade pottery, (ii) Grey ware of sturdy and thick fabric, (iii) Red and pink coloured ware of sturdy and thick fabric painted over with design in black pigment. There is another types of red ware pots which are found in a limited number. The painted designs are cross hatched triangles and within horizontal band and weavy lines in the upper portion and horizontal bands in the lower. Incised decoration on the exterior of pots consists of cord impressed designs, deeply cut chevrous small oblique, wavy lines sigams. The structural remains and material culture show an impoverished state of economy. Tiles from Alamgirpur indicate that there was some structure. Associated finds from these sites include terracota objects like animal figurines, carts wheels with raised central hub, handmade cakes of oval and triangular in shape. The use of metal only copper was very restricted, chert blades have been found from Alamgirpur, Hulas and Bargaon. A few pot sherds from Hulas revealed the impression of rice husk with wary rows.
265 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 248 A new type both in fabric and shape was noticed at Baragaon. The type is represented by red slipped vases of a very thin fabric, having splayed out knife edge rim. It is also met at Ambkheri in OCP complex and appears to be an intrusion in the Harappan assemblage from the OCP when both of these cultures came in contact with each other. At Bhagwanpura, Dadheri, Katpalaon, Nagar, Manda Late Harappan pottery has been found overlapping with PGW and it is more likely that the ceramic tradition overlapped with the PGW. But the overlap between the late Harappan and PGW was a localized phenomenon at few sites in Haryana and Punjab and it never moved to Yamuna valley. The Ochre Coloured pottery appears during the Harappan period and continues in the post Harappan. The OCP Settlements extend to the Ganga proper and its tributary. Variations in the OCP culture suggest some affinities with the Harappan viz. at Bahadrabad and a noticeably independent development at sites like Atranjikhera, Lal Qila and Saipai. This folk movement that begin around 2100 B.C. or even earlier is represented by the Late Harappan /Late Bara Degenerate Siswal/Siswal C OCP group B.OCP culture at Hastinapur I, Ahichhatra I, Jakhera Saipai, Pariyar, Keseri I, Bahadrabad, Lal Qila, Daulatpur, Fatehpursikri, Sadhvarakhera I, Atranjikhera I, Sringaverapura I, Mirapatti, Kamuli, Parihati etc. in the Ganga valley. The OCP ware of Atranjikhera which has a common tradition with the central doab and the adjoining part of Rajasthan and U.P. has a genetic relationship with the Siswal culture. The archaeological excavations at Atranjikhera, Daulatpur, Lal Qila etc. have clearly shown that the OCP was originally a black painted red or a black-on-red pottery, which assumed its present rolled appearance, powdery surface and ochrous colour mainly on account of recurring monsoonal floods and consequent prolonged water logging. The OCP has many shades, i.e. red ochrous, yellow ochrous and grey. The OCP like pot-sherds have also been noticed in the pre-nbp Chalcolithic/Iron age horizon characterized by the plain and painted BRW, associated Black-Slipped and Red wares at Prahladpur IA, Rajghat IA, Kakoria etc. in the Mid Ganga Valley and the adjoining areas. This shows temporal overlap between the OCP and other preceding and succeeding protohistoric cultures on North India. The Ganeshwar-Jodhpura ware and associated copper hoard objects of the early 3 rd millennium B.C. from eastern Rajasthan with the OCP and associated Gangetic type copper hoards representing the full-fledged copper Age culture of the 2 nd millennium B.C. from the Ganga basins. Copper Hoard sites can be divided into three district zones: (A) comprising Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa an West Bengal (B) Uttar Pradesh and (C) Rajasthan and Haryana. The source of metal for the doab copper hoards was probably the copper ores in Garhwal and
266 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 249 Kumaon region. The area of OCP culture with or without the gangetic type Copper Hoards extended roughly from Katpalon (Punjab) in the north-west to Parihati (West Bengal) in the east, and Kausambi (Uttar Pradesh) in the south. The OCP with or without copper hoard objects has already been reported from Mirapatti and Kamuli in the Mid Ganga Valley. The OCP shapes like dish-on-stand with drooping rim, basin, lid with central knob and large storage jars have typological similarity with the Harappan assemblage including Bara. Except for pottery no other associated objects of the Harappan like chert blade, agate, weight, faience bangles, steatite beads and burnt bricks were noticed in the OCP assemblage of Upper Doab. The size of settlements during Late Harappan and OCP periods was small 1-2 hect. and the habitation deposits m. shows that the duration of occupation was short, their population was probably less than 100 persons. This suggests that the density of population in North India during this period was probably much more thinner than that of the later times. The settlement pattern as noticed at Daulatpur and Specialization in various Art and Craft suggests that the OCP people belonging to different profession lived in Separate areas. The OCP people of the Upper Ganga Valley consumed a variety of cereals viz. wheat, barley, rice, gram, sesame and Khesari. The food was cooked in handis on ovens. They also ate mango, jujube, mahua and fruits of group family. The pedestal led bowls were presumably employed for taking alcoholic drinks. The platters (thali), bowls (Katora) and Lota shaped vases formed their dinning sets. Whereas most of the OCP were un-slipped a large number of them were treated with a red slip or Orche wash. OCP vessels were beautifully painted in black pigment showing geometric, floral and animal motifs. A few potsherds bear a variety of post firing graffti marks. A few Copper Hoard objects from the upper Ganga valley bear a variety of symbols. The OCP people enjoyed a self sufficient rural economy, for certain raw material, like copper, silver, stone, chir-wood and finished goods, namely stone weights beads, chert, blades, herbs etc. they depended on other contemporary people, namely the Harappans, the Chalcolithic and the Neolithic people in the neighborhood. In exchange they possibly supplied copper ingots finished copper objects, cereals, cottons, honey etc. to others. The OCP people generally lived in small wattle and daub houses. They were either circular, oval or rectangular on plan. The OCP represents a full-fledged rural culture. The aforesaid characteristics suggest that this rural culture was slowly heading towards urbanization. This conclusion based on their material culture does not support the view point
267 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 250 that the OCP people were mere hunters and food gatherers or partitioner of shifting agriculture, and were living in temporary camps. They enjoyed close cultural contacts with their neighbors. Certain characteristic OCP shapes in typical Harappan fabric occur at almost all the Harappan sites in western U.P. The cultural contact of the OCP people with the Harappans of Gujrat is witnessed by the discovery of a fragmentary copper anthromorph at Lothal A, IV. The occurrence of a typical copper harpoon and a few copper belongs at Mithathal IIB their reglation with the Late Siswal people. The OCP people had also acquired a few pot-forms and incised pottery designs from the Bara people. They had also established cultural links with the Neolithic- Chalcolithic folks of eastern U.P., Bihar, West Bengal and Orrisa. The early beginning of OCP in central Doab may be bracketed from 1600 B.C. to 1000 B.C. on one or two centuries earlier. It is likely that in Upper Doab OCP is overlapped with PGW culture as same grey sherds have been excavated from Ambkheri and a few types of OCP continued in later PGW culture; But in central Doab this overlap may be with Black and red ware or both. This Ganga-Yamuna Doab was not a cultural vacuum before the arrival of the Harappan refugees as OCP people were there in the 2 nd millennium B.C. At several OCP sites in the Upper Ganga Valley, namely Jakhera I, Pariyar I and Sringaverpura IA the OCP is found mixed up with the BRW, BSW, and associated red wares without iron. Same is the case with the OCP at Dadupur. The discovery of a Copper anthropomorph from the Late Harappan level at Lothal and a series of TL dates a few OCP sites in the Upper Ganga Valley and assigned the Copper Hoards culture to the first half of the 2 nd millennium B.C. R.C. Gaur has placed the OCP culture at the Daulatpur in the Upper Ganga Valley in the time bracket of c B.C. The OCP phase period I Sringaverpura in between c and 1000 B.C. however the TL dates themselves suggest a time bracket of c B.C. for the OCP phase. With the termination of the OCP there appears to be a hiatus between it and the succeeding painted Grey ware culture. It is evident from a break in occupation between the two cultures. This gap is filled up by the Black and Red ware as it was given a distinct horizon at Atranjkhera U.P. and Noh in Rajasthan. The BRW has an independent status in the doab but the habitation deposit is very thin. This folk movement is represented by the Chalcolithic/Iron Agre plain BRW and associated Black-slipped and Red wares noticed at Atranjikhera II, Jakhera II, Pariyar II, Sringaverpura IIA and Kausambi etc. where the plain BRW is preceded and succeeded by the OCP and the PGW respectively. Apart from the stratigraphic gap between the end of the OCP
268 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 251 and the beginning of Black and Red Ware, the absence of common pottery types in both the groups is a positive proof that Black-and-Red ware, the absence of common pottery types in both the groups is a positive proof that Black-and-Red ware culture has not link with the OCP culture and it emerged as a totally new tradition. Although there is a gap between the end of the Black and Red ware and the beginning of the PGW yet both the cultures share a number of common ceramic types. The plain BRW and the associated wares mark the traditional stage, when iron was introduced in an otherwise Chalcolithic milieu. Plain Black and Red ware is also found from eastern Punjab, northern and eastern Rajasthan. This established the fact that painted and plain Black and Red ware have separate geographical limits. It is also possible that as the plain Black and Red ware had more utilitarian shapes painted Grey ware people adopted these shapes while manufacturing their pottery. Since the plain BRW was the typical pottery of the Chalcolithic cultures at Noh II, Jodhpura II, Sunari etc. this folk movement appears to have originated in Bharatpur region in eastern Rajasthan. Along with Black-and-Red ware, the black-slipped ware, the Red ware both slipped and unslipped are found. The Black and Red ware of Atranjikhera does not share the common types with its counterparts of Ahar in Rajasthan. Apart from the shapes that are common with the Black-and-Red ware mention may be made of vases and miniature pots. The Late phase of the Chalcolithic culture or the so-called pre-nbp phase in the Mid- Ganga valley is characterised by the plain and painted BRW and associated Black Slipped and Red wares along with a few microliths, beads and iron objects at Prahladpur IA, Rajghat IA, Masondih IA, Chirand III, Manjhi I, Taradih IIIB, Senuwar IIB, Narhan I, Sohgaura II, Raja-Nal-Ka-Tila II, Jhusi I etc. This ceramic assemblage is similar to the Chalcolithic pottery of the Vindhayas. Mud bricks were also known and used for construction. Every thing put together presents a picture of village settlement. This folk movement appears to have commenced around 1500 B.C. and lasted till c. 700 B.C. The next predominant culture, quite unmistakably is the painted Grey ware. The effective area of PGW culture is much smaller than the area in which PGW potsherds are found. PGW settlements were generally located on the river banks and the average spacing between two settlements was km. Nearly 95% of the settlements were small, with a size of 1-2 hect. The settlements on the tributaries were smaller than those on the Ganga. The
269 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 252 distribution of the PGW sites in the Doab tends to adopt a settlement pattern following the banks of the rivers and their tributaries. The PGW settlers in the Ganga Valley are known to have re-occupied the sites deserted by OCP users or Late Harappans. Because of the lack of horizontal excavations and limited number of planned explorations we do not have much idea of its micro-settlement or macro settlement patterns. The PGW people were agrarian in nature. In the beginnings of the PGW period houses were made of wattle and daub and thatched roof but in the late phase sun dried bricks also came in use. Iron was introduced during PGW period but copper remained the Chief metal. PGW people cultivated rice, wheat, barley, grain, pea and Urad. An unidentifiable cotyledon of leguma from Radhan have established this. There are evidences of cereal food being supplemented by meat as some of the bones are charred and bear cut marks. The area of exploitation by the PGW people was limited which explains the lack of communication and trade. The fabric of the PGW is marked by its superior quality. The colour of this ware varies from ashy grey to battleship grey and sometimes buff grey. In every case the core is grey. Straition marks on the pottery suggest the use on a potter s wheel. Multiple brush technique along with single technique have been used for paintings the pots. Due to the adaptation of this technique, geometric designs were easily painted. The common yet most distinctive shapes in PGW are bowls and dishes. PGW is a table-ware and in association with this other potteries like Red ware, plain Grey ware, Black Slipped ware and Black and Red ware are found. The common shapes in this ware are dishes, basins, bowls, vases storage jars and miniature vessels. Majority of the red ware that occurs with PGW is plain without any painting or decoration. The Chronology of the PGW and its antiquity has been the most controversial aspect of Indian archaeology. The Upper Ganga plain is marked by the well-known Iron Age pottery, called PGW at Alamgirpur II, Hulas II, Kaseri II, Hastinapur II, Ahichhatra II, Atranjikhera III, Jakhera III, Pariyar III, Sringaverpura IIB, Kausambi II etc. It commenced sometime after 1400 B.C. and came to an end about 500 B.C. Authorship of PGW has been a much talked about subject. Most of the Indian scholars have held that the PGW people were Aryans while others have doubted it. The first group of scholars who believe PGW people were Aryans believe that they belong to the second wave of Aryans. In India the first phase could be any of the immediately post Harappan cultures of the north or even the so-called Late Harappan. Other feel that the
270 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY 253 material culture of later vedic people. The question is still open for depote and nothing definite can be said at this stage. Painted Grey ware culture is succeeded by the well known Northern Black Polished ware culture, the epiccentre of which was somewhere between eastern U.P. and western northern Bihar. The NBPW period the number of settlements as well as their size increased considerably. On the basis of pottery and structural remains NBPW period can be divided into three cultural phases. NBPW phase is linked up with the consolidation of the first urbanization of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab. The NBP ware is widely spread over form Udaygarm, Charsadda, Taxila, in the north and till Amravati in the south. NBP is lustrous pottery made of well levigated clay. The cores varies in colour from grey to reddish it is found in thick, medium and thin variety. All the shapes of this ware are utilitarian in nature. The common shapes are- dish, bowl, handi, basin, lid, vase and miniature vessels. Bowl and dish dominate in this ware. A few sherds have on the inside of the base stamped designs comprising circles, wheel, dots, spokes, and taurines. At Kausambi NBP wares with graffiti have been recovered. These occur frequently on the NBP and all the associated wares. Associated wares of this period are BSW, BRW, Grey ware and Red ware. Agriculture became the main source of livelihood NBP people cultivated rice, wheat, barley, millet, pea, gram, urad, moong, and mash, Sickles and hoes have also been discovered and the storage jars prove that crops were cultivated and stored. Iron had become the chief metal and most of the tools and weapons were made of iron. All these factors helps in the growth of cities in Doab. The growth of cities coincides with the emergence of NBP ware. Buildings were pre-planned and a high civic sense and sanitation arrangements prevailed at that time. Coins were introduced during this period and the fortified cities with an elaborate drainage system came into being. The C 14 dating in India NBP ware was regarded as A very good archaeological chronometric marker and a range of c B.C. used to be given to this general estimation. It is very difficult to equate NBP ware people with any particular stock of people-indo Aryans or Non Indo-Aryans. This is the composite picture of the cultures as presented by the different ceramic traditions in the Upper Gangetic plain from the earliest times till 4 th 3 rd century B.C.
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303 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Gupta, S.P C 14 Dates Determining the Chronology of N.B.P. Ware and Punch- Marked Coins, The Chronology of the Punch-Marked Coins, Varanasi Gupta, S.P Determining the technique of handmade and wheel turned pottery by microscopic analysis, Purattatva No Gupta, S.P Comments made on the Seminar on O.C.P. and N.B.P., Purattatva No. 5, New Delhi, pp. 7-8, Gupta, S.P., Shashi Asthana and Amarendra Nath, Painted Grey Ware sites in relation to old river beds in Rajasthan, Ecology and Archaeology of Western India, ed. D.P. Agrawal and B.M. Pande, New Delhi Hasan, S. Nurul Comments on the paper of T.N. Roy, Pre-N.B.P. Deposits, Proceedings of the Seminar on P.G.W., Aligarh Hedge, K.T.M Technical Studies in NBP Ware Journal of M.S. University, Baroda -11, pp Hedge, K.T.M Microscopic Study on the Northern Black Polished Ware in India, Current Science -35, pp Hedge, K.T.M The Painted Grey Ware of India, Antiquity -49, pp Hedge, K.T.M Ancient Indian Iron Metallurgy, Man and Environment XVI (1): pp Heine, Geldern, R The Coming of Aryans and end of Harappa Civilization, Man and Environment 56, pp Huxtable, F. and D.W. Zimmerman Thermoluminiscent Dates for Ochre Coloured Pottery from India, Antiquity 46, 181 :
304 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Indian Archaeology: A Review, Annual Publication of the Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi. It is being abbreviated as I.A.R I.A.R., I.A.R., I.A.R., I.A.R., I.A.R., I.A.R., I.A.R., I.A.R., I.A.R., I.A.R., I.A.R., I.A.R., I.A.R., I.A.R., I.A.R., I.A.R.,
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306 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Joshi, J.P Excavations at Bhagwanpura and Other Explorations and Excavations in Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab. New Delhi, Archaeological Survey of India, Memoir No Joshi, J.P. (ed.) Facets of Indian Civilization, 3 Vols, New Delhi, Aryan Books International Joghelkar, P.P Mesolithic Mahadaha: The Faunal Remains, by P.P. Joghelkar, Allahabad Joshi, M.C Early Historical Period in India Some observations Purattatva No. 7, New Delhi Joshi, M.C Chronology of Mathura An assessment, Purattatva No. 10, New Delhi, pp Joshi, M.P The Anthropomorhs in the Copper-Hoard, Hoard culture of the Ganga Valley, Purattatva No. - 26, pp Kausambi, D.D An Introduction to the Study of Indian History, Bombay Kausambi, D.D The Beginning of the Iron Age in India in Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. VI, Part II, pp Khan, Sana Ullah N.B.P. Report of the Archaeological Chemist, Ancient India, No.1, Delhi Kennedy, K.A.R., N.C. Lovell and C.B. Burrow, Mesolithic Human Remains from the Ganga Plain: Sarai-Nahar-Rai, Ithaca, Cornel University, Ithaca Krishna, Deva Problem of the Ochre Coloured Pottery, Potteries in Ancient India, (ed. B.P. Sinha), Patna, pp Krishna, Deva Comments, Puratattva No. 5, Patna, pp
307 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Kumar, G.P.C. Khanna and S. Prasad Sequence Stratigraphy of the Foredeep and the Evolution of Indo-Gangetic plain, Uttar Pradesh, Proceedings of the Symposium. Geological Survey of India, Special Publication 21 (2), pp Kumar, Krishna, Religion and Authorship of the Copper-Hoard/OCP Culture. Journal of the Ganganatha Jha Kendriya Sanskrita Vidyapeetha, 43, pp. 1-4: Kumar, Krishna Discovery of a New Copper-Hoard site in Fatehpur District (U.P.) Vishveshvaranand Indological Journal 28, 1 and 2, pp Kumar, Krishna The Copper-Hoard/OCP culture in the Mid-Ganga Valley: An Appraisal in the New Discoveries. Inc. Margbandhu, et.al. (eds. Indian Archaeological Heritage (K.V. Soundara Rajan) I, pp , Delhi Kumar, Krishna Mirapatti: A New Copper-Hoard/OCP site in the Mid-Ganga Valley. In B.U. Nayak and N.C. Ghosh (eds.) New Trends in Indian Art and Archaeology (S.R. Rao s Felicitation, Vol. 1), pp , Delhi Kumar, Krishna The Beginnings of the Brahamanical Konography in the Ganga Valley. Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art 32 and 33, pp Kumar, Krishna The Late Rgvedic Aryans and Archaeology. In R.K. Sharma and R.C. Agrawal (eds.) Krishna Smriti Commemoration Vol. 46, p 52, New Delhi Kumar, Krishna The Copper Hoard/OCP Culture : A Review of the Problem in light of Recent Discoveries, Pragdhara-8, pp Kumar, Vijay Excavations at Jodhpura, Journal of the Rajasthan Institute of Historical Research 15(2), pp Lal, B.B. 1951, Further Copper Hoards from the Gangetic Basin and a Review of the Problem, Ancient India No. 7, pp
308 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Lal, B.B Excavations at Hastinapur and other explorations in the Upper Ganga and Sutlaj Basins ( ), Ancient India Nos , pp Lal, B.B Indian Archaeology Since Independence, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidas Lal, B.B Presidential Address at Seminar of P.G.W., Proceedings of the Seminar on Painted Grey Ware, Aligarh Lal, B.B A Deluge? Which Deluge? Yet another facet of the Problem of the Copper Hoard Culture, in American Anthropologist, Vol. 70, No.5, pp Lal, B.B Inaugural Address, in Potteries in Ancient India, B.P. Sinha (ed.), Patna. pp Lal, B.B A Note on the excavation at Saipai, Purattatva No. 5, pp Lal, B.B The Copper-Hoard Culture of the Ganga Valley, Antiquity - 46, pp Lal, B.B., The Ochre Coloured Pottery A Geochronological Study, Purattatva No. 5, pp Lal, B.B Chronology of Painted Grey Ware. Did Painted Grey Ware continue upto the Mauryan Time? Purattatva No. 9, pp Lal, B.B Sringverpura: A Key Site for the Protohistory and early history of Central Ganga Valley, Purattatva No. 10, pp Lal, B.B Pariyar: An Eastern out post of the Painted Grey Ware, Purattatva No. 11, pp Lal, B.B Excavations at Sringverpura ( ), Vol. I, New Delhi.
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310 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Majumdar, G.G Seminar papers on the Problem of Megaliths in India (ed. Narain A.K.), Varanasi, p Majumdar, G.G. and Rajguru S.N Investigations of Pleistocene Sediments From the Belan Valley, U.P. Indian Antiquity, IV, pp Mandal, D Radiocarbon Dates and Indian Archaeology, Allahabad Mandal, D Neolithic Cultures of the Vindhyas: Excavations at Mahagara in the Belan Valley in V.D. Misra and J.N. Pal (Eds.) Indian Prehistory: 1980, Allahabad Marshall, J Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization, II, London Marshall, J Taxila, Vol. 2. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Mishra, A.K The Indian Black Wares: First Mellinnium B.C. New Delhi Misra, B.B Chalcolithic Culture of the Vindhyas and Ganga Valleys, Proceedings of 12 th annual congress of I.A.R. and 7 th annual congress of I.S.P.Q.S. held at Allahabad, Misra, V.D Pottery of Kausambi, Potteries in Ancient India, edited by B.P. Sinha, Patna, Patna University, pp Misra, V.D Archaeological Sequence in the Upper Ganga Valley, Journal of Indian History, Vol. XLVIII, Pt. I, Serial No. 142, Trivendram Misra, V.D The Ochre Coloured Pottery, the Copper Hoards and the Harappans, Journal of the Ganga Nath Jha Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, No. 27, 3 & 4, pp Misra, V.D The Chalcolithic Cultures of Uttar Pradesh, in K.C. Chattopadhyaya Memorial Volume. pp
311 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Misra, V.D Some Aspects of Indian Archaeology, Allahabad, Prabhat Prakashan Misra, V.D The Painted Grey Ware, The Aryan and the Mahabharata in Modern India: Heritage and Achievement, p Misra, V.D. and B.B. Misra Archaeological Investigations in Shajahanpur District, Journal of Oriental Institute, 26-4, pp Misra, V.D Reconstructing History Essays in Honour of Prof. V.C. Srivastava (ed.) by V.D. Misra and others, Varanasi, Felicitation, Committee Archaeology and History, Vol Misra, V.D., B.B. Misra, J.N. Pal and M.C. Gupta Excavations at Tokwa : A Chalcolithic Settlement on the Confluence of Belan and Adwa rivers is Peeping Through the Past : Prof. G.R. Sharma, Memorial Vol. (eds.) S.C. Bhattacharya, V.D. Misra, J.N. Pandey, J.N. Pal, and M.C. Gupta, pp Misra, V.D., J.N. Pal and M.C. Gupta, Excavation at Jhusi, Pragdhara No. 10, Lucknow, pp Misra, V.D A Review of the Copper Hoards and the O.C.P. Culture in Indian Archaeology in retrospect, Vol. I, (S. Settar and Ravi Settar eds.), Indian Council of Historical Research, Manohar, New Delhi, pp Misra, V.D., J.N. Pal and M.C. Gupta, Excavation at Jhusi. Pragdhara No. 13, Lucknow, pp Misra, Sheila, Chronology of the Stone Age: The impact of Recent Absolute and relative Dating Attempts, Man and Environment, Vol. XX, No. 2, 1995, p Mitra, D Excavations at Tilaura-Kot and Kodan and Explorations in the Nepaleese Tarai, Kathmandu.
312 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Narain, J Comparative Study of Mesolithic Burials Practices of the North-east Vindhyas and Middle Ganga valley paper presented in the XVIth Annual conference of the Indian Archaeological Society at Gauhati, December Narain, L.A Associated Antiquities of the NBP Ware with Special reference to Bihar, Potteries in Ancient India, Ed. B.P. Sinha, Patna Nevile, H.I. (eds.) Muzaffarnagar Gazetteer, Allahabad Nigam, J.S Northern Black Polished Ware Marg. No. 3, Vol. XIV, Bombay Nigam, J.S The Painted Grey Ware Culture: A Fresh Appraisal in J.P. Joshi (ed.) Facets of Indian Civilization: Recent Perspective, New Delhi, pp Paddayya, K Recent Studies in Indian Archaeology, I.C.H.R. Monograph Series 6, New Delhi, Munsiram Manoharlal Publishers Pal, J.N Archaeology of Southern Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad Pal, J.N Epi-Palaeolithic sites in Pratapgarh District Uttar Pradesh, Man and Environment, VIII, pp Pal, J.N The early Farming Culture of the Northern Vindhyas, Bulletin of the Deccan College, Post-Graduate Research Institute Vol. 49, pp Pal, J.N Mesolithic Settlements in the Ganga plain, Man and Environment, Vol. XIX No. 1-2, pp Pal, J.N Mesolithic Human Burials in the Ganga plain, North India, Man and Environment, Vol. XX, p Panigrahi, G., A.N. Singh, O.P. Misra, Contribution to the Botany of the Tarai Forests of the Baharaich district of U.P. Bulletin of Botanical Survey of India, Vol. II, Nos. 1 and 2.
313 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Pande, G.C. (Ed.), The Dawn of Indian Civilization, Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy and Culture, New Delhi Pandey, J.N Purattatva Vimarsh, Allahabad, Pramanik Publications Pant, P.C Prehistoric Uttar Pradesh, New Delhi Piggott, S Prehistoric Copper Hoards in the Ganges Basin, Antiquity 72, pp Piggott, S Prehistoric India, Harmondsworth Pilgrim, G.E Pleistocene Fossils from the Ganges Alluvium, Records of the Geological Survey of India XXXI, pp Plenderleith, H.J Man, Vol. XXX Oct. No. 138, p Possehl, G.L The end of the state and continuity of a Tradition: A Discussion of the Late Harappan, Realm and Region in Traditional India, Duke University, Monograph, No Prater, M.S The Book of Indian Animals, Bombay Puri, G.S Indian Forest Ecology, Bombay Ralph, E.K., H.N. Michael and M.C. Han, Radiocarbon dates and Reality, Masca Newsletter, Vol. 9, No. 1, Pennsylvania Rameson, The Black and Red ware, International conference on Asian Archaeology, New Delhi Rao, S.R Lothal and the Indus Civilization, Bombay Ray Chaudhari, H.C Political History of Ancient India, Sixth Ed. Calcutta.
314 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Ray, Niharanjan Technology and Social Change in Early Indian History: A Note posing a Theoretical question, Puratattva No Ray, S.C Stratigraphic Evidence of Coins in Indian Excavations and some Allied Issues. Bharti, Bulletin of College of Indology, No. 8, pt II, p Roy, S.C Distribution and Nature of Asura sites in Chhota Nagpur, Journal of Bihar and Orrisa, Research Society, 6.3, pp Roy, S.R The Northern Black Polished ware in Bihar Potteries in Ancient India, (ed.), B.P. Sinha, Patna University, Patna Roy, T.N Study of NBPW Culture, an Iron Age Culture of India Ph.D. Thesis (Unpublished), Varanasi Roy, T.N The Gangas Civilization, New Delhi Roy, T.N A Study of Northern Black Polished Ware Culture of India, New Delhi, Ramanand Vidya Bhawan Sahay, Sachchidanand, Origin and spread the Northern Black Polished Ware, Potteries in Ancient India, Ed. B.P. Sinha, Patna Sahi, M.D.N Transition from Ruralism to Urbanism in the Gangetic Basin, Bharti, New Series I, pp. 9-20, Varanasi Sahi, M.D.N Excavations at Jakhera An Interim Report, Adapation and Other Essays, (ed.) A. Ghosh and D.K. Chakrabarti, Shantiniketan Sahi, M.D.N Jakhera the earliest township of the Upper Ganga Valley, Proceeding of the Indian History Congress, New Delhi Session Sahi, M.D.N Aspects of Indian Archaeology, Jaipur, Publication Scheme.
315 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Sahi, M.D.N Painted Grey Ware: Its Origin, Direction of Dispersal and Significance, in Spectrum of Indian Culture: Prof. S.B. Deo Felicitation Volume, (eds. C. Margabandhu and K.S. Ramchandran), New Delhi, Agam Kala Prakashan, pp Sana Ullah, Grey Ware from Shahi Tump. Baluchistan, Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey of India Sana Ullah, Mohd Ancient India, No. 1, p Sankalia, H.D., S.B. Deo and Z.D. Ansari Excavations at Ahar, Poona Sankalia, H.D The Prehistory and Protohistory of India and Pakistan, Deccan College, Poona Sankalia, H.D Functional Significance of the OCP and PGW shapes and associated objects, Puratattva No. 7, New Delhi, pp Saran Ballabh, Technology of the Painted Grey Ware, in Potteries in Ancient India, B.P. Sinha (ed.) Patna University, Patna Saraswat, K.S The Ancient remain of Crop Plants at Atranjkhera (ca B.C.), Journal of Indian Botanical Society 59 (3), pp Saraswat, K.S Plant Economy in Ancient Sringaverpura phase I (ca B.C.), Puratattva- 12, pp Saraswat, K.S Archaeobotanical remains in Ancient Cultural and Socioeconomical dynamics of the Indian Subcontinent, Palaeobotanist 40: pp Shankar Nath, Copper Hoards of the Ganga Valley A New Appraisal of the Problem Journal of the Oriental Institute, 19, 3, pp
316 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Sharma, D.P Some New finds from Fatehpur District, Puratattva No. 11, p Sharma, D.P Panorma of Harappan Civilizations, Kaveri, Books, New Delhi Sharma, G.R The Excavations at Kausambi ( ), Allahabad Sharma, G.R Kusana Studies, Allahabad 285. Sharma, G.R Excavations at Kausambi ( ), Memoris of the Archaeological Survey of India, No. 74, New Delhi, pp Sharma, G.R Excavations at Baharia, District Shahjahanpur, Puratattava No. 5, pp Sharma, G.R Mesolithic Lake Cultures in Ganga Valley, India, Proceedings of Prehistoric Society Vol. 39, (ed.) John Coles, Cambridge, England, pp Sharma, G.R History to Prehistory (Archaeology of Ganga Valley and the Vindhyas), Allahabad Sharma, G.R., V.D. Misra, D. Mandal, B.B. Misra and J.N. Pal Beginnings of Agriculture, Allahabad Sharma, G.R. and D. Mandal Excavations of Mahagara, University of Allahabad Sharma, R.P Protohistoric Exploration along the bank of river Yamuna in district Meerut. In S.B. Deo (ed.) Archaeological congress and Seminar papers: , Nagpur Sharma, R.P Environment setting of the OCP people. Ecology and Archaeology of western India, Delhi.
317 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Sharma, R.S The Late Vedic and the Painted Grey Ware Culture Puratattava - No Sharma, Y.D Copper Hoards and Ochre Coloured Ware in Ganga Basin, in Summaries of Papers of International Conference on Asian Archaeology, New Delhi, Archaeological Survey of India Sharma, Y.D Salvage of Archaeological Evidence from Bahadrabad, Puratattva, No. 5, pp Shastri, K.A.N Dravidians and Aryans Cultural contact, Ajmer Shukla, K.S Archaeological of Unnao, District Delhi Shukla, K.S The Pre-Harappan Seal from Indra Nagar Mound (Kanpur), Bulletin of Museums and Archaeology in U.P. 39, pp Singh, H.N Black and Red Ware A cultural study in Agrawal D.P. and D.K. Chakrabarti (eds.) Essays in Indian Protohistory, New Delhi Singh, I.B Late Quaternary Evolution of Ganga plain and proxy Records of Climate change, Neotectonics and Anthropogenic Activity, Pradhara, No 12, pp Singh I.B., P.C. Pant, and Rakesh Tewari Middle Palaeolithic Human Activity and Palaeoclimate at Kalpi, Man and Environment No. XXVII (2), pp Singh, P The Problem of Black-and-Red wares in Indian Archaeology, in Sinha, B.P. (ed.), Potteries in Ancient India, Patna Singh Purushottam, Early Iron Age in Gangetic Doab, in Agrawal, D.P. and D.K. Chakrabarti (eds.) Essays in Indian Protohistory, Delhi.
318 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Singh, P Excavations at Narhan ( ), Varanasi, Banaras Hindu University Singh, R.L India - A Regional Geography, Varanasi Sinha, B.S The Archaeology of Lucknow Region, Lucknow Singh, Prem Narain, Life of hunters in the Gangetic Doab, Kooba Degree College, Azamgarh, Vijay Prakashan Sinha, B.P Potteries in Ancient India, Patna University, Patna Sinha, K.K Excavations at Sravasti (1959), Varanasi Sinha, K.K The NBP Ware- Fresh Hypothesis in the light of Sravasti, Evidence in Sinha, B.P. (ed.) Potteries in Ancient India, Patna Spate, O.H.K India and Pakistan, London Steven, G. Davian, The Ganges in myth and History, Motilal Banarsidas, New Delhi Suraj Bhan, New Light on the Ochre Coloured Ware Culture, Research Bulletin (Arts), Punjab University, 57-3, pp Suraj Bhan Comments in Proceedings of the Seminar on OCP and a Brief Report on Siswal. Purattatva No. 5, pp and Suraj Bhan, Expansion of the Harappan Siswal Culture in the Indo-Gangetic divide and Beyond. In V.D. Misra and J.N. Pal (eds.) Indian Prehistory : 1980, pp , Allahabad 316. Tandon, O.P Alamgirpur and Iron Age in India, Puratattva No. 1, New Delhi, pp
319 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Thakur, V.K Urbanization in Ancient India, New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Thapar, B.K The Aryans: A Reappraisal of the Problem in India s Contribution to the World Thought and Culture, Vivekananda Commemoration Volume, (eds. Lokesh Chandra, S.P. Gupta, Devendra Swaroop and S.R. Goyal), Madras pp Thapar, Romila Presidential address in Indian History Congress, p Tewari, A.R Geography of Uttar Pradesh, New Delhi Tewari, D.P Excavation at Saunphari, and Exploration in Ganga Plain, Tarun Prakashan, Lucknow Tewari, D.P. and C. Srivastava Botanical Remains, Excavations at Charda Tarun Prakashan, Lucknow, pp Tewari, D.P Excavations at Pirvatni Sarif, Trilokpur, District Bahraich, U.P. Abstract, Joint Annual Conference of ISPQS, IAS and ICICS. State Institute of Archaeology, Art History, Conservation and Museology, Hill palace, Tripurithura, Kerla, pp Tewari Rakesh and R.K. Srivastava Musanagar Kashetra Mein Puratatvik, Sarvekshana, Jila Kanpur, Dehat, Pragdhara, No. 4, pp Tewari, Rakesh, Antiquity of Iron in Southern Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bharti, Vol. 25 ( ), pp Tewari, Rakesh and K.K. Singh, K.S. Saraswat and I.B. Singh Excavations at Lauhuradeva District, Sant Kabir Nagar, U.P. Pragdhara No. 13, pp
320 EVOLUTION OF CULTURE IN THE UPPER GANGA VALLEY Tripathi, R.S History of Kannuaj (To The Moslem Conquest) Reprint 1989, New Delhi, Motilal Banarsidas Tripathi, V The Painted Grey Ware An Iron Age Culture of Northern India, New Delhi, Concept Publishing Company Tripathi, V Macro Level Study of Painted Grey Ware Culture Pragdhara Vol. 1, (Journal of U.P. State Archaeological Organization), Lucknow, pp Tripathi, V Painted Grey Ware at Vaisali (?): a Note, Bharti, No. 19, pp Tripathi, V Painted Grey Ware: The Ceramic and Cultural Dimensions, in Ancient Ceramic Historical enquires and Scientific Approaches, (eds. P.C. Pant and V. Jaiswal), Delhi, Agam Kala Prakashan, pp Tripathi, V Stages of the Painted Grey Ware Culture, in Indian Prehistory 1980, (eds. V.D. Misra and J.N. Pal), Allahabad, University of Allahabad, pp Tripathi, V The Age of Iron in South Asia: Legacy and Tradition, New Delhi, Aryan Publication Press Vijay Kumar, The Discovery of Ochre Coloured Pottery from Noh, District Bharatpur, Puratattva, No. 5, pp Varma, R.K Puratattva Anusheelan, Vol. I and II, Allahabad, Paramjyoti Prakashan, Allahabad Wadia, D.N Geography of India, New Delhi Wahal, L.M Comments in Proceedings of the Seminar on OCP, Puratattva No. 5, New Delhi Wakankar, V.S Journal of the Vikrama University, Kayatha Excavation, p. 7.
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