Susa and Elam. Archaeological, Philological, Historical and Geographical Perspectives

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2 Susa and Elam. Archaeological, Philological, Historical and Geographical Perspectives

3 Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse Edited by Michel Tanret Hermann Gasche Béatrice André-Salvini Daryoush Akbarzadeh VOLUME 58 The titles published in this series are listed at brill.com/mdp

4 Susa and Elam. Archaeological, Philological, Historical and Geographical Perspectives Proceedings of the International Congress Held at Ghent University, December 14 17, 2009 Edited by Katrien De Graef Jan Tavernier LEIDEN BOSTON 2013

5 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Susa and Elam. Archaeological, philological, historical and geographical perspectives : proceedings of the international congress held at Ghent University, December 14-17, 2009 / edited by Katrien De Graef, Jan Tavernier. pages cm. (Mémoires de la Délégation en Perse, ISSN ; volume 58) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (hardback : acid-free paper) ISBN (e-book) 1. Susa (Extinct city) Antiquities Congresses. 2. Elam Antiquities Congresses. 3. Susa (Extinct city) History Congresses. 4. Elam History Congresses. 5. Susa (Extinct city) Languages Congresses. 6. Elam Languages Congresses. 7. Susa (Extinct city) Geography Congresses. 8. Elam Geography Congresses. I. Graef, Katrien de. II. Tavernier, J. (Jan) DS262.S9S '.764 dc ISSN ISBN (hardback) ISBN (e-book) Copyright 2013 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Global Oriental, Hotei Publishing, IDC Publishers and Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Koninklijke Brill NV provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change. This book is printed on acid-free paper.

6 CONTENTS List of Abbreviations Preface ix xiii I ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL-HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES A New South-Eastern Iranian Glyptic Evidence Enrico Ascalone New Evidences on Emergence of Complex Societies in the Central Iranian Plateau M. Hessari and R. Yousefi Zoshk The Trans-Tigridian Corridor in the Early Third Millennium bc Steve Renette Elam and Eshnunna: Historical and Archaeological Interrelations during the Old Babylonian Period Luca Peyronel Transferts culturels de la Babylonie vers Suse au milieu du 2 e millénaire av. n. ère Hermann Gasche Elams Kulturkontakte mit seinen Nachbarn im Spiegel der Glyptik des 2. Jahrtausends v. Chr Georg Neumann In the Shadow of Kurangun: Cultural Developments in the Highlands between Khuzestan and Anšan Daniel T. Potts Essai d application de la méthode de la psychologie environnementale à travers l exemple de la ville méso-élamite de Dûr-untaš (Tchoga-zanbil, Iran), site inscrit au patrimoine mondial de l Unesco Zsolt Gábor Lantos Some Chronological Aspects of the Building Structures at Haft Tappeh Behzad Mofidi-Nasrabadi Distribution, Materials and Functions of the Wall Knobs in the Near Eastern Late Bronze Age: From South-Western Iran to the Middle Euphrates Françelin Tourtet Re-assessing Elamite Highland Boundaries: New Evidence for the Middle and Neo-Elamite Periods in the Mamasani Valleys, South-Western Iran Bernadette McCall Braids of Glory. Elamite Sculptural Reliefs from the Highlands: Kūl-e Farah IV Javier Álvarez-Mon

7 vi contents From Susa to Persepolis: The Pseudo-Sealing of the Persepolis Bronze Plaque Gian Pietro Basello Seal Impressions from Susa. Re-evaluating Some of the Findings in Susa Available in the National Museum of Iran and Introducing Some Unpublished Samples Sedigheh Piran II PHILOLOGICAL, PHILOLOGICAL-HISTORICAL AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES Ur-Nammâ(k) s Conquest of Susa Gianni Marchesi Puzur-Inšušinak at Susa: A Pivotal Episode of Early Elamite History Reconsidered Piotr Steinkeller Les premiers sukkalmah et les derniers rois de Simaški Jean-Jacques Glassner La «suprématie Élamite» sur les Amorrites. Réexamen, vingt ans après la XXXVI e RAI (1989) Jean-Marie Durand «Ainsi parle l empereur» à propos de la correspondance des sukkal-mah Dominique Charpin Prosopographische Untersuchungen anhand der Rechtsurkunden aus Susa Sheyda Jalilvand Sadafi Scribal Training in Old Babylonian Susa Mehrnoush Malayeri Abiešuh, Elam and Ashurbanipal: New Evidence from Old Babylonian Sippar Frans van Koppen Sugirs of Anšan Matthew W. Stolper Approche historique et philologique du titre royal likame/we rišakki Stéphanie Anthonioz and Florence Malbran-Labat Beziehungen zweier Großmächte Elam und Babylonien in der 2. Hälfte des 2. Jt. v. Chr. Ein Beitrag zur internen Chronologie Susanne Paulus Dynamics of the Fall: Ashurbanipal s Conquest of Elam Peter Dubovský Elamite and Old Iranian Afterlife Concepts Jan Tavernier

8 contents vii III GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVES Geoarchaeological Research in Lower Khuzestan: State of the Art Vanessa M.A. Heyvaert, Peter Verkinderen and Jan Walstra Index of Divine Names Index of Personal Names Index of Topographical Names Index of Text Citations

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10 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AA Arts Asiatiques AB Assyriologische Bibliothek ABAWPh Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-historische Klasse ABL R.F. Harper, Assyrian and Babylonian Latters belonging to the Kouyunjik collections of the British Museum, London, AcSum Acta Sumerologica ADFU Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft in Uruk-Warka ADOG Abhandlungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft AfO Archiv für Orientforschung AHw Akkadisches Handwörterbuch AION Annali dell Istituto Universitario Orientale AJA American Journal of Archaeology AJSLL American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literature AMI Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran AMIT Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan AnOr Analecta Orientalia AOAT Alter Orient und Altes testament AOS American Oriental Series ArAs Arts Asiatiques ArOr Archiv Orientalní ARM Archives royales de Mari AS Assyriological Studies AUCT Andrews University Cuneiform Texts AUWE Ausgrabungen in Uruk-Warka. Endberichte BA Beiträge zur Assyriologie und vergleichenden semitischen Sprachwissenschaft BagM Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. Baghdader Mitteilungen BaM Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. Baghdader Mitteilungen BAR-IS British Archaeological Reports. International Series BBV Berliner Beiträge zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte BBVO Berliner Beiträge zum Vorderen Orient. BBVOT Berliner Beiträge zum Vorderen Orient. Texte BE The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania BiblAr The Biblical Archaeologist BiOr Bibliotheca Orientalis BIWA R. Borger, Beiträge zur Inschriftenwerk Assurbanipals : die Prismenklassen A, B, C = K, D, E, F, G, H, J und T sowie andere Inschriften, Wiesbaden, BM British Museum BN Beiträge zur Namenforschung BPOA Bibliotecé del Proximo Oriente Antiguo BZAR Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für altorientalische und biblische Rechtsgeschichte CAD Chicago Assyrian Dictionary CAH Cambridge Ancient History CANE J. Sasson (ed.), Civilisations of the Ancient Near East, New York, CBS Collection of the Babylonian Section (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia). CDAFI Cahiers de délégation archéologique française en Iran CDOG Colloquien der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft CIRPL E. Sollberger, Corpus des Inscriptions Royales Présargoniques de Lagaš, Genève, 1956 CM Cuneiform Monographs CPOA Civilisations du Proche-Orient Ancien. Série 1: Archéologie et environnement CPOP Civilisations du Proche-Orient Ancien. Série 2: Philologie CRAIBL Comptes Rendus des séances de l Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres

11 x list of abbreviations CT Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum CUAS Columbia University Oriental Studies CUSAS Cornell University Studies in Assyriology and Sumerology DA Documenta Asiana DB Dictionnaire de la Bible DMOA Documenta et Monumenta Orientis Antiqui EKI F.W. König, Die elamischen Königsinschriften (AfO. Beih. 16), Graz, ElWb W. Hinz & H. Koch, Elamisches Wörterbuch (AMI. Ergänzungsband 17), Berlin, EncIr Encyclopedia Iranica ETCSL Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature FAOS Freiburger Altorientalische Studien FM Florilegium Marianum GS P. Amiet, Glyptique susienne des origines à l époque des Perses Achéménides. Cachets, sceaux-cylindres et empreintes antiques. Découvertes à Suse de 1913 à 1967 (MDP 43), Paris, HANES History of the Ancient Near East. Studies HdO = HdOr Handbuch der Orientalistik HEO Hautes études orientales. Publications de l Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. Ive Section. Sciences historiques et philologiques HKL R. Borger, Handbuch der Keilschriftliteratur, 3 vol., Heidelberg, HSAO Heidelberger Studien zum alten Orient IrAnt Iranica Antiqua ITT Inventaire des Tablettes de Tello JA Journal Asiatique JAOS Journal of the American Oriental Society JBVO Jenaer Beiträge zum Vorderen Orient Bd. 3 JCS Journal of Cuneiform Studies JCS/S Journal of Cuneiform Studies. Supplement Series JEOL Jaarbericht van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap Ex Oriente Lux JESHO Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient JNES Journal of Near Eastern Studies JRGS Journal of the Royal Geographic Society LAPO Littératures anciennes du Proche-Orient LKA E. Ebeling, Literarische Keilschrifttexte aus Assur, Berlin MAD Materials for the Assyrian Dictionary MARI Mari. Annales de Recherches Interdisicplinaires MC Mesopotamian Civilisations MDAI Mémoires de la délégation archéologique en Iran MDP Mémoires de la délégation en Perse MHEM Mesopotamian History and Environment Series. Memoirs MHEOP Mesopotamian History and Environment Series. Occasional Publications MHET Mesopotamian History and Environment Series. Texts MMAI Mémoires de la mission archéologique en Iran MSKH Materials and Study for Kassite History MSL Materialen zum Sumerischen Lexikon MVN Materiali per il vocabolario neosumerico MVSt Münchener Vorderasiatische Studien NABU Nouvelles Assyriologiques Brèves et Utilitaires NAPR Northern Akkad Project Reports NESt University of California Publications. Near Eastern Studies OBO Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis OECT Oxford Editions of Cuneiform Texts OIC Oriental Institute Communications OIP Oriental Institute Publications OLA Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta OLZ Orientalistische Literaturzeitung OPSKA Occasional publications of the Samuel Noah Kramer Fund

12 list of abbreviations xi Or Orientalia OrA Orient-Archäologie OrAn Oriens Antiquus OrEx Orient-Express. Notes et nouvelles d archéologie orientale, Paris. PBS University of Pennsylvania. The University Museum. Publications of the Babylonian Section PDT Die Puzriš-Dagan Texte der Istanbuler archäologischen Museen PF Persepolis Fortification Tablets (published by R.T. Hallock, Persepolis Fortification Tablets (OIP 92), Chicago. PF-NN Unpublished Persepolis Fortification texts cited from draft editions by Richard T. Hallock and collated by Wouter F.M. Henkelman PIHANS Publications de l institut historique et archéologique néerlandais de Stamboul RA Revue d'assyriologie et d'archéologie Orientale RAcc F. Thureau-Dangin, Rituels accadiens, Paris, 1921 RGTC Répertoire Géographique des Textes Cunéiformes RIMA Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia. Assyria RIMB Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia. Babylonia RIME Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia. Early Periods RlA Reallexikon der Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen Archäologie RTC F. Thureau-Dangin, Recueil de tablettes chaldéennes, Paris, 1903 SAAS State Archives of Assyria. Studies SANTAG SANTAG. Arbeiten und Untersuchungen zur Keilschriftkunde SAOC Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization SAT Sumerian Archival Texts SCCNH Studies on the Civilisation and the Culture of Nuzi and the Hurrians SM Studia Mediterranea StIr Studia Iranica StOr Studia Orientalia TAVO Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients TCL Musée du Louvre. Département des Antiquités Orientales. Textes cunéiformes TCS Texts from Cuneiform Sources TD Tell ed-der TTM I M.W Stolper, Texts from Tall-i Malyan I: Elamite Administrative Texts ( ) (Occasional Publications of the Babylonian Fund 6), Philadelphia. UAVA Untersuchungen zur Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie UCP-NES University of California Publications. Near Eastern Studies UE Ur Excavations UET Ur Excavations. Texts UF Ugarit-Forschungen UMM University Museum Monograph VB Vorderasiatische Bibliothek VS Vorderasiatische Schriftdenkmaler der Königlichen Museen zu Berlin WO Die Welt des Orients WVDOG Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft YOS Yale Oriental Studies ZA Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie ZAR Zeitschrift für altorientalische und biblische Rechtsgeschichte

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14 PREFACE This proceedings volume contains twenty-seven papers that were read at the international congress Susa and Elam. Archaeological, Philological, Historical and Geographical Perspectives held at Ghent University, December 14th 17th The aim of this congress was to investigate exactly 20 years after the 36th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale entitled Mésopotamie et Elam held at Ghent University the present state of affairs on our knowledge of the Elamite and Susian society from an archaeological, philological, historical and geographical point of view. The topic of this first Susa and Elam Congress was a multidisciplinary approach of the city of Susa in the broader context of the Elamite region. Susa is one of the oldest cities of the Ancient Near East and has known an almost uninterrupted occupation from the 4th millennium bc till the Islamic period. Being one of the most important centres in Khuzestan, the South-Western Iranian region east of Mesopotamia, Susa has been the capital of several Elamite kingdoms and dynasties. Moreover, during the greatest part of its history, Susa has maintained variable relations with the consecutive Mesopotamian empires and has eventually become one of the seats of the great Persian Empire of the Achaemenids, who ruled the whole Ancient Near East. The primary goal of this congress was to generate a multifaceted picture of the history of Susa and Elam, based on archaeological, philological, historical and geographical research results. The interdisciplinary character of the congress made a substantial contribution to the present research into the fundamental landscape, socio-economic, historical and philological developments in the Suso-Elamite region. Moreover, the congress wanted to give a new impulse to these studies by assembling all specialists concerned, established and young scholars alike. The idea is to organise a Susa and Elam Congress quinquennally. This congress has been made possible thanks to funding by the IAP project Greater Mesopotamia. Reconstruction of its Environment and History headed by Michel Tanret (Ghent University), the Funds for Scientific Research Flanders and the Humanities Faculty of Ghent University. I wish to thank each of these for their support. Moreover, I wish to thank all participants and chairs for making this congress a great success as well as the students, assistants and colleagues of the Department of Languages and Cultures of the Ancient Near East of Ghent University for the organizational support. Last but not least, I thank Jan Tavernier (Université Catholique de Louvain) for going along with me in this adventure, for his support and for co-editing this volume. Katrien De Graef Ghent

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16 I ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL-HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

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18 A NEW SOUTH-EASTERN IRANIAN GLYPTIC EVIDENCE Enrico Ascalone * 1. Geographical and Chronological Notes The excavations carried out during the second half of the Sixties and in the Seventies in Iran have allowed a new historical and cultural approach to the south-eastern regions of the Plateau. The explosion of fieldwork in the Kerman province, Bampur district and in the Hilmand valley permitted us to know a more complex cultural horizon of the Iranian eastern area. In the first studies on the new eastern Iranian excavations, the cultural complex of Kerman and Lut province, as known from Tepe Yahya and Shahdad archaeological evidences, was considered intercultural by Philip Kohl to underline the civilizing interferences on the chlorite/steatite production (Kohl 1975a; 1975b; 1976; 1978; 1979; 1982). According to Pierre Amiet s evaluations on the cultural horizons of the region bordering to the west with the historical Elam and to the east with the Lut desert and the Makran coast, we believe more correctly to identify in the cultural production of Markhashi lands (Steinkeller 1982 contra Van Dijk 1978) a local, original and unbroken development (Amiet 1986; 1997). 1 However the knowledge of a new eastern Iranian civilization, defined Trans- Élamite by Amiet (1986: ), is not complete and it seems not to be so simple to reconstruct its chronological limits and its geographical diffusion. If we could consider probable to identify in the Kerman region, in the Halil valley, the cultural origin of a different artistic thought (as attested in Shahdad, Tepe Yahya and in later Konar Sandal excavations), it is not yet possible to comprehend the real geographical diffusion of south-eastern Iranian culture. The new evidences collected in the Halil valley (Madjidzadeh 2003a) and the excavations carried out at Konar Sandal South and North (Madjidzadeh 2003b; 2003c; 2004; 2008) are crucial to distinguish an autonomous regional context probably connected to the corpus of seals known in Tepe Yahya and Shahdad excavations and from antiquary market (in particular Porada 1964; 1982; 1988; Amiet 1986; 1994; 1997). The archaeological and stylistic approach to the stratigraphical evidence of Tepe Yahya have shown different and not exhaustive interpretations principally on IVB period; in the first publications Yahya IVB period was attributed to the first half of the third millennium (Lamberg-Karlovsky 1970; 1971; 1972; 1976; Lamberg-Karlovsky Kohl 1971) and only subsequently identified in later chronological framework (Beale 1986; Amiet 1986; Potts 2001). The evidence for the continuation of the so-called Intercultural Style in Akkadian times (Ascalone 2003: tab. 1) in Mesopotamia and Iran (Miroschedji 1973: 25) and the evidence of the glyptic art summarized by Amiet (1986), support a later date for IVB period. 2 The glyptic * University of Palermo. 1 Concerning the textual Mesopotamian evidences on Markhashi/Parakhshum see in particular Steinkeller 1982; 1989; Vallat 1985: 52; Heimpel 1988: 199; Horowitz 1992: 114; T.F. Potts 1989: 128, n D.T. Potts takes into consideration an Akkadian-type bull man representation, an alabaster unguent, square based jar of a type common in Bactria, Iran and Gulf, a piece of incised grey ware (associated to Shahr-i Sokhta IV),

19 4 enrico ascalone Fig. 1a: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Shahdad (after Hakemi 1997: 320) collected from Tepe Yahya shows that there is no continuity of occupation between period IVC and IVB; the glyptic associated with period IVB can not to be earlier than Old Akkadian period. However on the base of last discoveries in the Halil Valley is possible to recognize three different phases of production in the south-eastern Iranian corpus; the seals collected from antiquary market and excavations projects (Shahdad, Tepe Yahya and Konar Sandal in the regional context of production, Tôd, Gonur depe and Susa in the secondary contexts) allow to identify at least three main stylistic phases of making: 1. Konar Sandal production (Trench III): ca. 2500/ bc. 2. South-eastern Iranian production, classic group (= Konar Sandal Trench V, Yahya IVB; Takab III2): ca /2100bc. 3. South-eastern Iranian production, later group (= Yahya IVA; Takab III1): ca. 2200/ /1900bc. The earlier Konar Sandal sealings from Trench III seem to be very close to the ED III Mesopotamian ateliers (Madjidzadeh 2008), while the so-called trans-elamite seals have to be considered a different and very original production circumscribed to the last quarter of III millennium bc with internal subdivisions. The identification of a later group in the south-eastern Iranian corpus has been permitted by iconographical and stylistic changing in the figurative patrimony of seals and for their significant archaeological contexts, in particular for seals coming from Gonur 1 north (last century of III millennium bc), Tôd, in the Treasure of Amenemhat II (ca bc), and Tepe Yahya IVA (ca bc). 3 a Persian Gulf stamp seal and sherds of truncated pots similar to those from numerous sites in Bactria, Margiana and Baluchistan for dating around bc Yahya IVB period (Potts 2001: ). In spite of Potts hypothesis, P.C. Kohl placed Yahya IVB to the third quarter of Third millennium bc (around bc) on the base of chlorite vessels documentation and the new radiocarbon evidence (Kohl 2001: 220); in this way it seems possible to conciliate the chlorite vessels Mesopotamian contexts, the later diffusion of Intercultural Style in the Akkadian, Post- Akkadian periods and the iconographical and stylistic cylinder and stamp seals production. Lamberg-Karlovsky s theory is again a lowering of dating of Yahya IVB period and represents a third different approach to the not clear stratigraphical sequences of Yahya (Lamberg-Karlovsky 2001: ). 3 For a more detailed analysis of south-eastern Iranian corpus see Ascalone 2011:

20 a new south-eastern iranian glyptic evidence 5 Fig. 1b: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Shahdad (after Hakemi 1997: 324) 2. South-Eastern Iranian Cylinder Seals The south-eastern Iranian glyptic documentation collected from Tepe Yahya and Shahdad shows a differential use of seals; 4 stamp and cylinder morphologies are both well-attested in the Kerman area (cf. with the specimens published in Amiet 1976: 1 3, fig. 1; 1986: 133, fig. 138; Hakemi 1997: 660, figs. Ia ; Lamberg-Karlovsky 1971: 92, fig. 2C, E; 1973: pl. XXVI: b; Potts 1980: 403, 527, fig. 66A; Pittman 2001: nn ). Although the stamp seals seem to be a clear expression of the local culture, a dozen of cylinder seals were found during the Shahdad and Yahya excavations. All excavated Shahdad specimens, except one from the surface, 5 are dated to the second half of the III millennium bc (using a periodical regional chronology from Takab IV.1 to Takab III.1). The five excavated cylinder seals from Shahdad were found in the Main Cemetery, from the graveyards located in the area A (Hakemi 1997). A deeper chronological evaluation, based on the iconographical comparisons, could allow us to date the majority of Shahdad cylinder seals 6 to the last quarter of III millennium bc (Fig. 1a e). 4 On the south-eastern Iranian seals and their chronological, iconographical and more general discussion see principally Porada 1964 and Amiet 1973: 26; 1974; 1986: , fig. 132; 1994; The alabaster seal from surface is height 2,8cm with a diameter of 1,0cm (Fig. 1d; Salvatori Vidale 1982: fig. 6: 7; Hakemi 1997: 716: Xg. a-b; Winkelmann 2000: fig. 30; Ascalone 2006b: fig. 16c). The seal could be dated to a later period. 6 The first marble cylinder seal (F.488/50) from Shahdad was found in the Main Cemetery (Area A), in Grave 163 (1,90 0,95cm), from 0,85cm below the surface: its measures are 3,9 2,3cm (Fig. 1a; Hakemi 1997: 320, 661: Ib. 2; Amiet 1973: 25; 1974: , fig. 9; 1986: 299, fig. 132: 8; 1997: fig. 3; Dyson Harris 1986: n. 177; Collon 1987: 39, n. 134; Winkelmann 1997: fig. 1d; 2000: fig. 3: 9; Ascalone 2006a: fig. 5; 2006b: fug. 16a; 2008: fig. 7c); the second one specimen in chalky stone (F.489/50, now placed in NMI 928) measures 2,7 1,7cm and it comes from Grave 166 ( Main Cemetery, Area A) (Fig. 1b; Hakemi 1997: 324, 661: Ib. 4; Amiet 1973: 25; 1974: 105, fig. 10; 1986: 299, fig. 132: 7; Dyson Harris 1986: n. 178; Winkelmann 1997: fig. 1e; 2000: fig. 3: 8; Ascalone 2006a: fig. 5; 2006b: fig. 16b; 2008: fig. 9f.); an alabaster cylinder seal (F.370/49 and NMI 899) was found in funerary contexts ( Main Cemetery, Grave 094) and measures 2,8 1,1cm (Fig. 1e; Hakemi 1997: 254, 661: Ib. 3; Dyson Harris 1986: n. 176; Ascalone 2006a: fig. 5; 2006b: fig. 16e; 2008: fig. 9e); the fourth seal in limestone, now placed in NMI 898, was collected from Grave 193 ( Main Cemetery, Area A) and measures 2,6 1,8cm (Fig. 1c; Hakemi 1997: 255, Obj. n. 2263; Ascalone 2006a: fig. 5; 2006b: fig. 16c; 2008: fig. 7b).

21 6 enrico ascalone Fig. 1c: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Shahdad (NMI 898) Fig. 1d: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Shahdad (after Salvatore Vidale 1982: Fig. 6: 7) Fig. 1e: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Shahdad (NMI 899)

22 a new south-eastern iranian glyptic evidence 7 Fig. 2a: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Tepe Yahya (NMI 892) Fig. 2b: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Tepe Yahya (NMI 775) The Yahya evidence regarding the cylinder seals presence is linked to the IVB period where six on seven trans-elamite seals were found (Figs. 2a f); 7 all the specimens from Yahya are in chlorite/steatite. 8 7 TY 33 (from Area B-BW and now placed in NMI 893) measures 3,0 1,0cm (Fig. 2d; Lamberg-Karlovsky 1971: fig. 2B; 1973: pl. XXVI: c; Dyson Harris 1986: 105, n. 233; Amiet 1986: fig. 132: 1; Winkelmann 2000: fig. 3: 5; Pittman 2001: n. 47; Ascalone 2006b: fig. 17d); TY 34 was found in BW TT5 7 in the north step trench (Second Building Level) and its measures are 2,4 1,2cm (Fig. 2g; Lamberg-Karlovsky 1970: 22, fig. 33; 1973: pl. XXXI: c; Lamberg-Karlovsky Tosi 1973: fig. 65d; Amiet 1986: fig. 132: 3; Winkelmann 2000: fig. 3: 2; Pittman 2001: n. 51; Ascalone 2006b: fig. 17g; 2008: fig. 6d); TY 32 is coming from the floor of the Persian Gulf Room (Area B-BW ; now in NMI 775): its measures are 3,4 1,3cm (Fig. 2b; Lamberg-Karlovsky 1971: 91, pl. VI e fig. 2; Lamberg- Karlovsky Tosi 1973: fig. 122; Amiet 1973: 25; 1974: 106, fig. 11; 1986: fig. 132: 6; 1997: fig. 2; Potts 1981: , fig. 1; Dyson Harris 1986: n. 230; Winkelmann 1997: 1f.; 2000: fig. 3: 1; Pittman 2001: n. 49; Ascalone 2006b: fig. 17b); TY 38 (NMI 892) is 3,4cm in height and 1,9 of diameter (Fig. 2a; Lamberg-Karlovsky 1973: pl. XXVI: c; Lamberg-Karlovsky Tosi 1973: 375, fig. 65c; Potts 1981: 137, fig. 2; Amiet 1986: fig. 132: 9; 1997: fig. 4; Collon 1987: 39, n. 134; Winkelmann 1997: fig. 2b; 2000: fig. 3: 6; Pittman 2001: n. 48; Ascalone 2006b: fig. 17a); the seal from Baft (near Tepe Yahya, now in NMI 756) measures 2,6 1,1cm (Fig. 2f; Lamberg-Karlovsky 1970: pl. 21; Pittman 2001: n. 52; Ascalone 2006b: fig. 17f.); TY 34, coming from BW.5.5 (NMI 993), is 1,8 1,3cm (Fig. 2c; Lamberg-Karlovsky 1970: pl. 22; Amiet 1986: fig. 132: 5; 1994: 2, fig. 1; Winkelmann 2000: fig. 25; Pittman 2001: n. 46; Ascalone 2006b: fig. 17c; 2008: fig. 6c); the last one cylinder seal from Yahya (Fig. 2e), TY 43, is coming from B.70.6 (NMI 965) (Lamberg-Karlovsky 1971: fig. 2b; Pittman 2001: n. 50; Ascalone 2006b: fig. 17e). 8 At the same chronological range could be associated the Yahya cylinder seal representing a human being in front of a palm; strong affinities are known in a cylinder seal from private collection (cf. with Fig. 3a) where a deity is sitting on his intertwined legs in front of a palm (in primis Amiet 1986: fig. 132: 2); the style and the iconographical representation of the horned god have resemblance with the seals showing the twin horned deities without wings, previously dated to the Akkadian period.

23 8 enrico ascalone Fig. 2c: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Tepe Yahya (NMI 993) Fig. 2d: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Tepe Yahya (NMI 893) Fig. 2e: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Tepe Yahya (NMI 965)

24 a new south-eastern iranian glyptic evidence 9 Fig. 2f: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Tepe Yahya (NMI 756) The first attempts of identifying a development line of so-called trans-elamite glyptic art were born on the base of the primary glyptic documentation collected in Shahdad and Yahya and on the analysis of the iconographical evidence placed on the surface of the engraved chlorite vessels; some seals from private collection or without an archaeological context were related to the south-eastern region overworking a new point of view on the south-eastern Iranian cultural complex (Porada 1962: 32 34, figs ; 1964; 1982; 1988; Amiet 1973: 26; 1974; 1986: , fig. 132; 1994; 1997; Winkelmann 1997; Ascalone 2006a; 2008). The archaeological evidences from Jiroft area have opened a new field of research and they have allowed a new interpretation on the previously published seals; 9 as far as we know, we can identify south-eastern Iranian origin in the following seals coming from private collection or outside southeastern Iranian cultural complex: 10 from Louvre Collection (Amiet 1986: fig. 132: 2; Winkelmann 2000: fig. 3: 4; Ascalone : fig. 9c; 2006b: fig. 18b; 2008: fig. 6m) (Fig. 3a) from Louvre Collection (Amiet 1986: fig. 132: 4; Winkelmann 2000: fig. 3: 3; Ascalone : fig. 9b; 2006b: fig. 18a) (Fig. 3b) from Susa (Legrain 1921: n. 279; Amiet 1994: 4, fig. 3; 1997b: fig. 6; Winkelmann 1997: fig. 1g; 2000: fig. 25; Ascalone : fig. 22a; 2006a: fig. 3a; 2006b: fig. 18c; 2008: fig. 6g) 11 (Fig. 3c) from Susa (Delaporte 1920: 57, Pl. 45: 11 12; Porada 1962: 33, fig. 13; Amiet 1980: n. 1363; 1986: 128, 167, 197, fig. 71; Winkelmann 1997: tav. 1: h; 2000: fig. 2; Ascalone 2006b: fig. 8c) (Fig. 3n) from Susa (Ascalone : fig. 22c; 2006a: fig. 3c d; 2006b: fig. 20) (Fig. 3l) 9 The unique south-eastern Iranian cylinder seals found outside Iranian sites are known at Gonur depe and Tôd (Egypt): in Gonur seal the vegetation deity is depicted on a snake moving from left to right (Sarianidi 1998: fig. 27: 3) (Fig. 3k). A Susa seal, dating the end of Early Dynastic III period, seems to be strongly linked to the iconographical and religious aspects of the later south-eastern Iranian experiences (Fig. 3n; cf. the attitude of the deities with Shahdad cylinder seal published in Amiet 1973: 25; 1974: 105, fig. 10; 1986: 299, fig. 132: 7; Dyson Harris 1986: n. 178; Winkelmann 1997: fig. 1e; 2000: fig. 3: 8; Hakemi 1997: 324, 661: Ib. 4). 10 For south-eastern Iranian stamp seals see the specimens coming from Tepe Yahya (Lamberg-Karlovsky 1971: fig. 2E), Shahdad (Hakemi 1997a: 660, figs. Ia. 17, 18), Tepe Giyan (Contenau Ghirshman 1935: tav. 38: 24), and Konar Sandal (Madjidzadeh 2008: figs. 28a, g, h and j). 11 For P. Amiet the seal has to be dated to the Puzur-Inshushinak time (Amiet 1994: 4).

25 10 enrico ascalone from Tôd (Bisson de la Roque 1950: n ; 703a; Landsberger 1954: ; Porada 1982: 289, fig. 7; Amiet 1986: fig. 132: 11; 1997: fig. 7; Winkelmann 2000: fig. 3: 12; Ascalone : fig. 9d; 2006b: fig. 18d; 2008: fig. 6e) (Fig. 3d) from Bailey Collection (Amiet 1986: 166, 168, 299, fig. 132: 12; 1997: fig. 8; 2004: 14, fig. 4; Duchesne-Guillemin 1991: 140, fig. 8; Winkelmann 1997: fig. 2a; 2000: fig. 3: 11; Ascalone : fig. 9e; 2006b: fig. 18g; 2008: fig. 6i; Pittman 2003: fig ) (Fig. 3e) from Foroughi Collection (Porada 1962: 33, fig. 14; 1964: fig. 16; 1988: pl. IV; 1993: pl. 28; Amiet 1970: 23, fig. 5; 1974: 106, fig. 12; 1986: 299, fig. 132: 10; 1997: fig. 1; 2004: fig. 2; 2005: fig. 15; Harper Aruz Tallon 1992: fig. 8; Winkelmann 1997: fig. 1j; 2000: fig. 3: 10; Ascalone 2006b: fig. 18h; 2008: fig. 9d) (Fig. 3f) from Rosen Collection (Porada 1988: pls. I III; 1993: 48 49, 94 e pl. 29) (Fig. 3m) from Rosen Collection (Porada 1993: 49, 94 e pl. 31; Amiet 1997: fig. 5; Winkelmann 1997: fig. 2c; 2000: fig. 3: 13; Ascalone : fig. 9f.; 2006b: fig. 18e; 2008: fig. 6h) (Fig. 3g) from Ligabue Collection (Winkelmann 1997: fig. 1a c; Ascalone 2006b: fig. 18 f.; 2008: fig. 8d) (Fig. 3h) from Jalalabad (Ascalone : figg. 5, 9h; 2006b: fig. 19a b; 2008: fig. 1) (Fig. 3j) from Gonur depe (Sarianidi 1998: fig. 27: 3; Salvatori 2000: fig. 15: 8; Amiet 2004: 15, fig. 5; Ascalone : fig. 9g; 2006b: fig. 181; 2008: fig. 9g) (Fig. 3k) from Gonur depe (Sarianidi 2005: 283, fig. 137; Amiet 2005: fig. 17) (Fig. 3i) Fig. 3a: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Louvre collection (after Amiet 1986: Fig. 132: 2) Fig. 3b: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Louvre collection (after Amiet 1986: Fig. 132: 4)

26 a new south-eastern iranian glyptic evidence 11 Fig. 3c: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Susa (after Legrain 1921: n. 279) Fig. 3d: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Tôd (after Amiet 1986: Fig. 132: 11) Fig. 3e: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Bailey collection (after Amiet 1986: Fig. 132: 12)

27 12 enrico ascalone Fig. 3f.: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Foroughi collection (after Amiet 1986: Fig. 132: 10) Fig. 3g: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Rosen collection (after Porada 1993: pl. 31) Fig. 3h: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Ligabue collection (after Winkelmann 1997: Fig. 1a)

28 a new south-eastern iranian glyptic evidence 13 Fig. 3i: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Gonur depe (after Amiet 2005: Fig. 17) Fig. 3j: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Jalalabad (NMI 2698) Fig. 3k: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Gonur depe (after Salvatori 2000: Fig. 15: 8)

29 14 enrico ascalone Fig. 3l: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Susa (NMI 624/46) Fig. 3m: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Rosen collection (Porada 1988: pl. I) Fig. 3n: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Susa (after Delaporte 1920: 57 and Pl. 45: 11 12)

30 a new south-eastern iranian glyptic evidence 15 Fig. 4: South-eastern Iranian cylinder seal from Jalalabad (NMI 2699) 3. Jalalabad Cylinder Seal A new evidence of south-eastern Iranian glyptic art is a limestone seal now placed in the Bastan Archaeological National Museum of Tehran (NMI 2699) (Fig. 4). 12 The measures of the cylinder seal are 2,2cm in height and 0,8cm of diameter; the specimen was found at Jalalabad in the Fars region but it has not a certain archaeological context; however the iconographical representation and the stylistic details seem to be linked to the south-eastern cultural traditions. 13 The seal represents, in the upper part, a figure with her head in profile and body facing frontward with a pair of large, curving wings; breast are indicated by a pair of small circles on triangularized torso; a long, rectangular lozenge, decorated with chevrons, is situated just below the torso and may represent the clothed legs of the figure, as if it was sitting cross-legged. The hair appears to be long and flowing without a crown as known in the other south-eastern Iranian seals. The presumably female divinity is flanked by two figures knelled down represented in profile; both seem to offer something to the winged personage. The left figure seems to have a spherical element in the hands, while the right figure is depicted with his/her arm reached to offer an incomprehensible vegetable element or a star placed on a vertical support (cf. with Figs. 2a and 3h). Only one figure, on the left, has the typical hairstyle well-attested in other seals from Tepe Yahya, Shahdad and private collections. In the lower part of seal is depicted a row of quadrupeds, one of them with wings probably representing a fantastic creature or dragon as known on the cylinder seal of Rosen collection (for bibliography see above). 12 I am especially grateful to Dr. Mohamad Reza Kargar and Mohammed Reza Mehrandish (Directors of the National Museum of Iran) who entrusted the study of the III millennium cylinder seals of the Museum to me (now all collected in my Ph.D. thesis). I would like express my thanks to Dr. Ciaici (vice-director) and Dr. Jaffar Mohammadi (Director of the Treasure of the Bastan Museum) for their help and logistic assistance; I am very grateful to Mrs Askari (Director of the Department of Seal and Coin) and his staff (in particular Mrs Akram Rezaee, Roghaiyeh Chenary, Zainab Gavidol and Neda Amighi) for their kind availability and patience. 13 A seal with a south-eastern Iranian iconographical elements, pseudo-harappan inscription and Central Asia morphology has been found on the surface of the same site of Jalalabad (site number 32) in Paul Gotch s survey carried out in the Persepolis plain (Ascalone 2008).

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