1 The Prehistoric Indians of Minnesota LLOYD A. WILFORD ON THE AMERICAN SIDE of the The McKtUStry Mouuds Rainy River, at Pelland, five miles upstream from the Smith Mounds of the Raitty RtVer AsVeCt at Laurel, are two mounds of the Rainy River aspect that are known as the McKinstry Mounds.' They are on the east bank of the Little Fork River, which empties into the Rainy River at this point. Below the level of the top of the river bank are two distinct terraces, and the larger mound is at the western edge of the upper terrace. It is nearly circular, eighty-three feet in diameter, and it rises eight and a half feet above the level of the upper terrace and twenty feet above the lower terrace. The second mound is on the lower terrace, which is occasionally subject to inundation by floodwaters. It has been lowered by cultivation and is now four feet high, sixty feet long, and fifty feet wide. MCKINSTRY MOUND I was excavated by starting at its eastern edge and continuing westward by levels, with vertical faces along the north-south lines. Digging was stopped when the line of twenty feet west was reached, because an area of extensive disturbance by earlier excavators was encountered there. There were firehearths in the topsoil beneath the mound; and both in this area and in the fill of the mound proper a large amount of village debris was found, including broken artifacts, potsherds, flint chips, and bones of mammals, birds, and fish, notably sturgeon bones. No skeletons were found, but fragmentary human bones occurred. Two groups of thick shell beads were in the mound proper. One group consisted of twenty-two hundred disc beads lying face to face in rows, as strands of a necklace. With them were five human bones two neck vertebrae, two kneecaps, and part of a breast bone. This had the appearance of a burial from which most of the bones had disappeared by decomposition, ^This article continues the discussion of the Rainy River aspect begun in the September issue of this magazine (p ). The earlier article describes the type of burial, the artifacts, and the pottery of the culture as revealed by excavations of mounds at Lake Vermilion and Laurel. The illustrations published with the present article were made possible through the generosity of the department of anthropology in the University of Minnesota, which furnished the necessary funds. Mr. J. J. Kammerer of Minneapolis drew the diagram of Mc Kinstry Mound 2. Ed.
2 232 LLOYD A. WILFORD DEC. although those present are among the more fragile human bones, and are not those most resistant to decay. A total of 7,780 potsherds recovered proved to be almost exclusively of the Laurel type. Of the 6,206 body sherds included, per cent had smooth surfaces; and the presence of thickened and pointed bases was attested by several sherds. Not one of the decorated sherds was of the Blackduck type. The decorative impressions were like those of the Laurel sherds from Pike Bay Mound and Smith Mound 4, but there were differences in the frequencies of occurrence of the principal types. These differences may be significant. Pike Bay Mound, might represent an earlier period than Smith Mound 4 because of the much better state of preservation of the human bones in the latter. If so an increase of dentate stamping at the expense of push-and-pull bands is indicated. McKinstry Mound i, from which the human bones had nearly vanished, is like Pike Bay Mound in showing a low frequency of dentate stamping. Though the use of push-and-pull bands is much less common than at Pike Bay Mound, at McKinstry Mound i it is still three times as frequent as at Smith Mound 4. An intermediate position, earlier than Smith Mound 4 is indicated. Among the more significant artifacts recovered were a few objects of copper, including an open bracelet perforated at each end, twenty-nine socketed antler points, and twenty-five cut beaver incisor teeth. A total of a hundred and twenty-eight objects of chipped stone included twelve arrow points, all of the stemmed variety, and forty-two end scrapers. The two necklaces of shell beads, when strung, averaged a hundred beads to the foot. One string was twenty-two feet long, the other eight. MCKINSTRY MOUND 2 proved to be extremely interesting, as well as rather puzzling. It contained approximately ninety-six skeletons, which gave evidence of a wide variety of treatment in the disposal of the remains, including primary and secondary burial, disarticulation, and cremation in place. Nearly a third of the 8,256 potsherds were of the Blackduck type, and the balance were of the Laurel type, so in this mound there was a very evident admixture of the two cultures. As the mound was elongated from north to south, digging began at the eastern edge along a front of sixty feet and continued to the west for forty feet, to a line ten feet west of the middle or north-south axis. This area was divided into ten-foot squares. The twelve outer squares, where the mound fill was shallow, were excavated without vertical division, but in the inner squares a division was made between an upper and lower level, the plane of division being placed arbitrarily at two feet below the mound surface.
3 1950 THE MCKINSTRY MOUNDS 233 Covering almost the entire south half of the mound was a layer of clayey earth consisting of hard pellets and fine dust that had been burned brick red by intense heat. In general the layer was about a foot deep, extending from six to eighteen inches below the surface, though thinning out at the edges. Above it in the plowed zone was a mixture of black clayey earth and the burned clay. No ashes or other remains of fire were found; evidently the fires had been above the burned layer, and the ashes had been removed by the plow. Within the burned layer were thirty skeletons in four groups of seven, five, seven, and eleven respectively, as indicated on the accompanying diagram. The group of five was at the base of the layer. It included two adults, an adolescent, and two children, with four small mortuary pots. The bones had been cremated by the intense heat and some were reduced to powder. The pots were much over-fired and brittle, and of a brick red color. One adult and the adolescent clearly had been interred as primary burials, but both adults and the adolescent had the eye sockets filled with clay which had been fused into hard plugs by the heat. With one adult were pieces of a clay mold, hardened by fire, which had been around a skull. The exterior was smooth, but the interior showed the impressions of the teeth and lower jaw, and also the deep impressions of coarse twisted fibers or strings. This group apparently was interred before there was any fire on the mound surface, and it is considered to be the first burial of the upper level. It was twelve feet south and seven feet east of the mound center. Immediately northwest of this group was another consisting of the skeletons of two adults, an adolescent, two children, and two infants, six of which were found in a pit dug into, but not through, the burned layer. The pit had been refilled with mixed materials and a fire made above it hot enough to char the bones but not to cremate them or to produce a uniform color in the mixed earth. The seventh skeleton, one of the two infants, was in a separate shallow pit at the southwest edge of the group burials. It had not been affected by the fires above the charred bones and was apparently buried later. Adjoining this group on the northwest was a third in a pit containing four adults, three adolescents, and four children. This group was immediately south of the center stake. A group found in a pit southeast of the others included two adults, four children, and an infant. Both pits were dug into the burned layer and were refilled with mixed earth, but there were no further fires, hence no charring of the bones, and no change in the color of the mixed earth. Among groups i, 3, and 4, as indicated on the diagram, were five skulls having clay plugs in the eye sockets, and at least three with a
4 234 LLOYD A. WILFORD DEC. portion of the occiput removed. The skeleton of one child was wrapped in birch bark, and three more individuals had pieces of birch bark beneath them. Red ocher was found with several skeletons, and small mortuary pots, copper ornaments, and a few other objects were associated with the burials. In the lower level of the south half of the mound, eighteen feet south and a little east of the center, was a formal burial arrangement where three rocks had been placed on a floor of red ocher. Clam shells were arranged around the rocks, and three stone scrapers were found, one within a shell. Only a few fragmentary bones remained. This burial was below the layer of burned earth and clearly had preceded it. A second burial on the lower level was at the center of the mound, where a pit had been dug into the subsoil. It contained the body of an old male buried on his back, fully flexed, and accompanied by red ocher. The disturbed character of the soil above the pit indicated that at least part of the mound was built before the pit was dug. Burials in the north half of the mound were concentrated in a circular area about nine feet in diameter, centering at a point twelve feet north and four feet west of the mound center. In the lower level were thirty skeletons, which are not shown on the diagram, as they were directly below group 5. The lower burials are designated as group 6. For their burial the original topsoil had been removed, and the bodies placed on the subsoil. They had been shallowly covered with earth. Then in a circular area somewhat south of the burial group, but extending northward to cover its southernmost one-third, a fire had been built and the resulting accumulation of ashes and charred wood had been left in place. The fire had burned the soil beneath it to a brick red for a maximum depth of one and four-tenths feet, and had caused the cremation of two skeletons and the partial charring of four more. Later a platform was made on the soil above the burial group by placing side by side a single layer of small poles, all lying east and west. The platform was covered with a thin layer of yellow clay, and thirty-five bodies were buried there, directly above the group of thirty. In the two groups were thirty-two adults, seven adolescents, twenty-one children, and five infants. The bones of thirty-five skeletons had been more or less scattered, presumably because many bodies had been added after the limited space was already crowded. The type of burial represented was therefore doubtful, but nine of the thirty-five apparently were interred in the flesh as primary burials. Twenty-eight skeletons were in proper anatomical order, representing true primary burials, twenty-four were flexed, and four were extended at full length. Some of the flexed skeletons appeared to have been origi-
5 1950 THE MCKINSTRY MOUNDS 235 nally in a sitting position. The bones of two individuals may have represented bundle burials. On many of the skulls, especially those of the adult males, part of the occipital bone had been removed, and many had the eye sockets filled with clay plugs. Some skeletons were liberally supplied with red ocher, and twenty-seven mortuary pots as well as other artifacts accompanied the burials. Baskets of birch bark were found with the charred burials of the lower group. As birch bark was found with the charred burials in group 3, it is possible that the heat acted as a preserving agent. Though the usual form of burial in this mound was primary a Blackduck trait as opposed to the typical bundle burial of Smith Mound 4 the mutilation of the skulls and faces is so unusual as to definitely point to Laurel people. The small pottery vessels appeared to point the same way, for with the exception of six pots treated with the cordwrapped paddle, all of which were associated with the lower level burials, the body surfaces were plain. The decorative treatment, however, belied this appearance. Twenty-eight vessels had punctate impressions, a trait common to both cultures; but sixteen had cord-wrapped stick impressions, a Blackduck trait, and only one had the distinctive Laurel push-and-pull band. No dentate or wavy-line stamped impressions occurred. Furthermore, the use of small pots as mortuary offerings is a weu-established Blackduck trait, but there is only one known case of a pot accompanying a Laurel burial, and that was a large cooking vessel. The distribution of the potsherds proved to be significant. Blackduck sherds comprised 32.5 per cent of all sherds from the mound, but in the southern half they were 22 per cent of all sherds, and in the northern half 42 per cent. In the ten-foot squares excavated at two levels, 22.8 per cent of lower level sherds and 62.2 per cent of upper level sherds were Blackduck. In the squares to the north where the two large burial groups were found, however, the percentage of Blackduck sherds was 73.3 in the lower level, and 87.7 in the upper. These differences lead to the conclusion that the earth of the mound fill was taken from a habitation site on which peoples of both the Rainy River and Headwaters Lakes aspects had lived. As the relative proportion of Blackduck sherds is nearly three times as high in the upper levels of the mound as in the lower, it fouows that the Headwaters Lakes people were the later arrivals, and that the higher level of the mound was added by them after they had lived at the site long enough for their cultural debris to exceed in quantity that of their predecessors. It also follows that all the group burials were made by Headwaters Lakes people. It is not certain that all portions of the mound were erected by the
6 236 LLOYD A. WILFORD DEC. Headwaters Lakes people. The single burial in the southern end of the mound, described as a formal burial arrangement, had every appearance of being considerably older than the group burials. Blackduck sherds constituted 50 per cent of all sherds in the upper level of the square in which this burial was located, but only 2.6 per cent of the lower level. In the lower levels of this square and of the four immediately adjoining it, the frequency of Blackduck sherds was only 6.2 per cent. Thus in a fairly large area at the south of the mound the frequency of Laurel sherds was 93.8 per cent. It is logical to believe that people of the Rainy River aspect had constructed a low mound there, probably about thirty feet in diameter, above a single burial. The presence of Blackduck sherds in this original mound may be accounted for by the later activities of the Blackduck people, and by the artificial stratification employed in digging the mound. The pit burial at the mound center was probably dug through the northern edge of the original mound by Headwaters Lakes people. Later they extended the mound to the north and increased its height. Group 6 may be the oldest group burial, as all the pots with cord-wrapped paddle markings were associated with this group. Group 2 would appear to be the oldest of the group burials in the south half of the mound. Though the mound yielded a rich treasure of artifacts, a discussion of the objects which accompanied the burials and are presumed to be of Headwaters Lakes origin is not pertinent to a study of Rainy River culture. Objects in the mound fill included nineteen socketed antler points and twenty-six pointed beaver teeth. These artifacts are characteristic of the Rainy River culture, and it is significant that only two of each type were found in the upper level. In McKinstry Mound i all the arrowheads were stemmed. In Mound 2 nine were stemmed and five were of the small triangular type. The presence of the triangular points may be credited to the Headwaters Lakes component. If the group burials are those of Headwaters Lakes people, how is the ''practice of the removal of a portion of the occiput to be explained? This was a common practice of the Rainy River people, but it is not found in pure Headwaters Lakes mounds. When the people of the latter culture camped on habitation sites of the earlier people they doubtless became familiar with Laurel pottery and this may have influenced them to adopt plain surfacing rather than the cord-wrapped paddle treatment of the mortuary vessels. In intruding the bodies of their dead into mounds of the Rainy River culture they probably noted the custom of removal of part of the occiput and may have imitated it. But they did not puncture the long bones as their predecessors did. The ancient Egyp-
7 1950 THE MCKINSTRY MOUNDS 237 tians removed the brains to aid in the preservation of the skull. The replacement with clay of the eyeballs and, in at least one instance, of the soft parts of the face suggests that like the Egyptians the Headwaters Lakes people were attempting skull preservation, and they removed the brains for that purpose. The Rainy Lakes people are believed to have punctured skulls and long bones to secure the brains and marrow for food or for industrial uses and activities, such as tanning. The explanation suggested above should not rule out the very real possibiuty that the two peoples were in contact with one another. The time interval between the two successive occupations of the site is not known, and the Rainy River people, after abandoning the site, may not have moved far from the vicinity. Direct contact between the two groups may have influenced the Headwaters Lakes people to modify their burial practices. How THE FRONTIER Community of St. Paul celebrated New Year's Day in the 1850's has been recalled by many a pioneer, but few descriptions have the life and color contained in Judge Charles E. Flandrau's account. It is quoted here from his "Reminiscences," published in volume 9 of the Minnesota Historical Collections. He recalls that "The early settlers brought out with them the old fashioned way of celebrating New Year's day, and when that event occurred, the whole town was alive with sport. Everybody kept open house and expected everybody else to call and see them. No vehicle that could carry a party was allowed to remain idle, and from morning until late in the night the entire male population was on the move. The principal houses were those of the Ramseys, the Germans, the Borups, the Oakeses, the Warrens, the Coxes, the Robertsons, and the Rices.... We also had Fort Snelling, with its Old School Army officers, famous for their courtesy and hospitality, and the delightful household of Franklin Steele, the sutler; and there was Henry H. Sibley, at Mendota, to whom the finest amenities of life were a creed: all of whom assisted on New Year's day. There was great strife among the entertainers as to who should have the most elaborate spread, and the most brilliant and attractive array of young ladies to greet the guests. A register of the callers was always kept, and great was the victory of the hostess who recorded the greatest number."
8 Copyright of Minnesota History is the property of the Minnesota Historical Society and its content may not be copied or ed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder s express written permission. Users may print, download, or articles, however, for individual use. To request permission for educational or commercial use, contact us.
The Prehistoric Indians of Minnesota LLOYD A. WILFORD THE RAINY RIVER, flowing westward from SotliC Adouuds of thc Rainy Lake to the Lake of the Woods, ' for its entire length forms the boundary Rrittl'V
The Prehistoric Indians of Minnesota The Mille Lacs Aspect^ Uoyd A. Wilford FROM THE HISTORICAL point of view the most interesting aspect of the Woodland pattern in Minnesota is the Mille Lacs, for this
New York Times Prehistoric Wisconsin Ancient Mounds and Earth Works Lately Discovered Any Number of Effigy Mounds, Some of Them Artistic A Modern Indian s Bones- Finds of Pottery, Arrows and Stone Implements
CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN HEYE FOUNDATION Volume V, No. 3 CERTAIN MOUNDS IN HAYWOOD COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA BY GEORGE G. HEYE (Reprinted from the Holmes Anniversary Volume, Washington,
Evolution of the Celts Unetice Predecessors of Celts 2500-2000 BCE Associated with the diffusion of Proto-Germanic and Proto-Celto-Italic speakers. Emergence of chiefdoms. Long-distance trade in bronze,
Archaeologists identify the time period of man living in North America from about 1000 B.C. until about 700 A.D. as the Woodland Period. It is during this time that a new culture appeared and made important
A COIN OF OFFA FOUND IN A VIKING-AGE BURIAL AT VOSS, NORWAY. BY HAAKON SCHETELIG, Doct. Phil., Curator of the Bergen Museum. Communicated by G. A. AUDEN, M.A., M.D., F.S.A. URING my excavations at Voss
-Pit 3: 31 Park Street (SK 40732 03178) -Pit 3 was excavated in a flower bed in the rear garden of 31 Park Street, on the northern side of the street and west of an alleyway leading to St Peter s Church,
Chapter 2. Remains Section 1. Overview of the Survey Area The survey began in January 2010 by exploring the site of the burial rootings based on information of the rooted burials that was brought to the
TWO MIMBRES RIVER RUINS By EDITHA L. WATSON HE ruins along the Mimbres river offer material for study unequaled, T so far, by any other ruins in southwestern New Mexico. However, as these sites are being
Bioarchaeology of the Near East, 11:84 89 (2017) Short fieldwork report Human remains from Estark, Iran, 2017 Arkadiusz Sołtysiak *1, Javad Hosseinzadeh 2, Mohsen Javeri 2, Agata Bebel 1 1 Department of
SG02? SGS SG01? SG4 1. Presumed Location of French Soundings Looking NW from the banks of the river. The presumed location of SG02 corresponds to a hump known locally as the Sheikh's tomb. Note also (1)
4 0. S. U. Naturalist. [Nov. THE BAUM PREHISTORIC VILLAGE SITE. W, C. MILLS. The field work of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society was completed August 18. The explorations were a continuance
Artifacts Artifacts are the things that people made and used. They give a view into the past and a glimpse of the ingenuity of the people who lived at a site. Artifacts from the Tchefuncte site give special
1996 Figurine Report Naomi Hamilton THE FIGURINES AND OTHER SMALL FINDS Naomi Hamilton Some preliminary comments on the distribution of certain types of artefact, with particular attention to the trench
3. The new face of Bronze Age pottery Jacinta Kiely and Bruce Sutton Illus. 1 Location map of Early Bronze Age site at Mitchelstown, Co. Cork (based on the Ordnance Survey Ireland map) A previously unknown
MUMMIFIED HEADS FROM ALASKA By FREDERICA DE LAGUNA N ARCHAEOLOGICAL discovery of considerable interest was re- A cently made by Mr. I. Myhre Hofstad and his sons, of Petersberg, southeastern Alaska. In
An archery set from Dra Abu el-naga Even a looted burial can yield archaeological treasures: David García and José M. Galán describe a remarkable set of bows and arrows from an early Eighteenth Dynasty
Late Neolithic Site in the Extreme Northwest of the New Territories, Hong Kong Received 29 July 1966 T. N. CHIU* AND M. K. WOO** THE SITE STONE implements and pottery indicative of Late Neolithic settlement
SUMMARY OF THE ARCHEOLOGY OF SAGINAW VALLEY, MICHIGAN-111 BY HARLAN I. SMITH SAGINAW RIVER VALLEY SAGINAW COUNTY Melbozcme FieZa!s.-On August 28, 1890, Mr W. R. McCormick informed the writer that there
BULLETIN OF THE MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS VOLUME XXXVII BOSTON, JUNE, 1939 NUMBER 221 Prince Ankh-haf Harvard University-Museum of Fine Arts Egyptian Expedition PUBLISHED BIMONTHLY SUBSCRIPTION ONE DOLLAR XXXVII,
20 HAMPSHIRE FLINTS. DEMARCATION OF THE STONE AGES. BY W, DALE, F.S.A., F.G.S. (Read before the Anthropological Section of -the British Association for the advancement of Science, at Birmingham, September
Wisconsin Sites Page 61 Silver Mound-A Quarry Site Wisconsin Sites Silver Mound in Jackson County is a good example of a quarry site where people gathered the stones to make their tools. Although the name
Ji i Hiliiil R!llii i ill;! ilijii liiii i li ALBERT R. LIBRARY MANN New York State Colleges OF Agriculture and Home Economics AT Cornell University EVERETT FRANKLIN PHILLIPS BEEKEEPING LIBRARY PROCEEDINGS
The African e-journals Project has digitized full text of articles of eleven social science and humanities journals. This item is from the digital archive maintained by Michigan State University Library.
January 13 th, 2019 Sample Current Affairs 1. Harappa grave of ancient 'couple' reveals secrets of Marriage What are the key takeaways of the excavation? Was marriage legally accepted in Harappan society?
The Euphrates Valley Expedition HANS G. GUTERBOCK, Director MAURITS VAN LOON, Field Director For the third consecutive year we have spent almost three months digging at Korucutepe, the site assigned to
2 Saxon Way, Old Windsor, Berkshire An Archaeological Watching Brief For Mrs J. McGillicuddy by Pamela Jenkins Thames Valley Archaeological Services Ltd Site Code SWO 05/67 August 2005 Summary Site name:
Archaeologia Cantiana Vol. 11 1877 ( 123 ) CELTIC EEMAINS POUND IN THE HUNDRED OP HOO. THE twenty-seven, objects drawn in miniature, upon plate A, are all of pure copper, and together with ten lumps of
PENDERGAST: THE MacDOUGALD SITE 29 J. F. P E N D E R G A S T ( A C C E P T E D FEB R U AR Y 1969 ) THE MACDOUGALD SITE ABSTRACT The report sets out a detailed description of the site location and the artifacts
AREA C HENRY 0. THOMPSON American Center of Oriental Research Amman, Jordan Of the 1971 work previously reported,' Squares 4,5, and 6 were not excavated in 1973, but work in Squares 1, 2, and 3 was continued.
Proc. Hampsh. Field Club Archaeol. Soc. 47, 1991, 253-257 NOTE A THIRD CENTURY ROMAN BURIAL FROM MANOR FARM, HURSTBOURNE PRIORS Abstract by. David Allen with contributions by Sue Anderson and Brenda Dickinson
Control ID: Control 001 Years of experience: No archaeological experience Tools used to excavate the grave: Trowel, hand shovel and shovel Did the participant sieve the fill: Yes Weather conditions: Flurries
This assignment will be due Thursday, Oct. 12 at 10:45 AM. It will be late and subject to the late penalties described in the syllabus after Friday, Oct. 13, at 10:45 AM. Complete submission of this assignment
Figure 1 - The Jawan tomb as photographed from helicopter by Sgt. W. Seto, USAF, in May 1952 The Jawan Chamber Tomb Adapted from a report by F.S. Vidal, Dammam, December 1953 I. Description of work and
Can You Dig It A Summer of Surprises: Gezer Water System Excavation Uncovers Possible New Date Posted: 14 Sep 2016 07:29 AM PDT By Dan Warner and Eli Yannai, Co-Directors of the Gezer Water System Excavations
THE AMERICAN NATURALIST. VOL. x. - FEBB UARY, 1876. - No. 2. INDICATIONS OF THE ANTIQUITY OF THE INDIANS OF NORTH AMERICA, DERIVED FROM A STUDY OF THEIR RELICS. BY DR. C. C. ABBOTT. THE stone implements
GREATER LONDON City of London 3/606 (E.01.6024) TQ 30358150 1 PLOUGH PLACE, CITY OF LONDON An Archaeological Watching Brief at 1 Plough Place, City of London, London EC4 Butler, J London : Pre-Construct
Abstract The Lucerne (48SW83) and Henry s Fork (48SW88) petroglyphs near the southern border of western Wyoming, west of Flaming Gorge Reservoir of the Green River, display characteristics of both Fremont
Fort Arbeia and the Roman Empire in Britain 2012 FIELD REPORT Background Information Lead PI: Paul Bidwell Report completed by: Paul Bidwell Period Covered by this report: 17 June to 25 August 2012 Date
THE EXCAVATION OF NON BAN JAK, NORTHEAST THAILAND - A REPORT ON THE FIRST THREE SEASONS Charles Higham 1, Judith Cameron 2, Nigel Chang 3, Cristina Castillo 4, Dougald O Reilly 5, Fiona Petchey 6 and Louise
Pilot Point Site Revisited Copyright 6/22/05, Revised 5-29-09, Mary E. Gage Historical Documentation In 1705 Captain Joel Chandler surveyed the Mohegan hunting bounds. During the survey he recorded and
SERIATION: Ordering Archaeological Evidence by Stylistic Differences Seriation During the early stages of archaeological research in a given region, archaeologists often encounter objects or assemblages
A Sense of Place Tor Enclosures Tor enclosures were built around six thousand years ago (4000 BC) in the early part of the Neolithic period. They are large enclosures defined by stony banks sited on hilltops
New Composting Centre, Ashgrove Farm, Ardley, Oxfordshire An Archaeological Watching Brief For Agrivert Limited by Andrew Weale Thames Valley Archaeological Services Ltd Site Code AFA 09/20 August 2009
Mr. Carlson Room 107 7 C World Cultures Going on a Dig Tools, Customs, and Daily Schedule Tools The most common tools archaeologists use are the hand trowel, hand pick, brush, dental tools (for delicate
Drills, Knives, and Points from San Clemente Island Frank W. Wood Limited numbers of chipped stone artifacts that might be called finished forms were recovered from the 3- excavations by UCLA. These artifacts
From: Paul Tritton, Hon. Press Officer Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Tel: 01622 741198 The first men who dug into Kent s Stonehenge Francis James Bennett (left) and a colleague at Coldrum Longbarrow
Excavations at Shikarpur, Gujarat 2008-2009 The Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, the M. S. University of Baroda continued excavations at Shikarpur in the second field season in 2008-09. In
N THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PHILIPPINE EXPEDITION BY CARL E. GUTHE EARLY a decade ago, the late Dean C. Worcester encountered fragments of Asiatic ceramics in caves and burial grounds in several localities
LE CATILLON II HOARD CELTIC TRIBES This is a picture of the tribal structure of the Celtic Society CELTIC TRIBES Can you see three different people in the picture and suggest what they do? Can you describe
Tell Shiyukh Tahtani (North Syria) Report of the 2010 excavation season conducted by the University of Palermo Euphrates Expedition by Gioacchino Falsone and Paola Sconzo In the summer 2010 the University
ARCHALOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS IN INDIANA AND KENTUCKY.1 BY F. W. PUTNAM. TiHE following abstract of a special Report, made to the Trustees of the Museum conveys a general idea of the articles obtained and
Xian Tombs of the Qin Dynasty By History.com, adapted by Newsela staff In 221 B.C., Qin Shi Huang became emperor of China, and started the Qin Dynasty. At this time, the area had just emerged from over
1 The East Oxford Archaeology and History Project EXOP TEST PIT 72 Location: Bartlemas Chapel, Cowley Date of excavation: 6-8 November 2013. Area of excavation: 0.8m x 1.2m, at the eastern end of the chapel.
Results of Archaeological Program (Interim Report) Background The proposed excavation of a services basement in the western half of the Peace Hall led to the archaeological investigation of the space in
REPORT FROM THE ANTIGUA ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY ARAWAK CAMPSITES ON ANTIGUA by M. Fred OLSEN Secretary, Antigua Archaeological Society Our first excavation of Arawak sites in Antigua was started in December
www.arkansasstateparks.com Knapp Trail Guide Toltec Mounds Archeological State Park Toltec Mounds Exhibit Area Toltec Mounds Exhibit Area Special interpretive programs for groups are available upon request
Tepe Gawra, Iraq expedition records 1021 Last updated on March 02, 2017. University of Pennsylvania, Penn Museum Archives July 2009 Tepe Gawra, Iraq expedition records Table of Contents Summary Information...
Excavation of Tomb M28 in the Cemetery of the Rui State at Liangdai Village in Hancheng City, Shaanxi Excavation of Tomb M28 in the Cemetery of the Rui State at Liangdai Village in Hancheng City, Shaanxi
E A PREHISTORIC VILLAGE SITE IN GREENUP COUNTY, KENTUCKY BY WM. S. WEBB ARLY in August, 1926, a member of the staff of the State Geological Survey called the author s attention to the recent. discovery
Archaeological sites and find spots in the parish of Burghclere - SMR no. OS Grid Ref. Site Name Classification Period SU45NE 1A SU46880 59200 Ridgemoor Farm Inhumation Burial At Ridgemoor Farm, on the
SUMMARY REPORT OF 2009 INVESTIGATIONS AT OLD TOWN, LANCASTER COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA by R. P. Stephen Davis, Jr. Brett H. Riggs, and David J. Cranford 2012 Between April 29 and June 12, 2009, archaeological
NUBIAN EXPEDITION Keith C. Seele, Field Director Time for contemplation is seldom available in the field during an Oriental Institute season of excavation. But matters are scarcely better after the return
Marble (granite) figure More than 4,000 years ago the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers began to teem with life--first the Sumerian, then the Babylonian, Assyrian, Chaldean, and Persian empires.
Earliest Settlers of Kashmir R. N. KAW KASHMIR is a saucer-shaped vale with a length of 134 km. a breadth of 38 km. at its broadest point and a mean height of 1800 m. above sea level. It has a temperate
A NEW ROMAN SITE IN CHESHAM KEITH BRANIGAN AND MICHAEL KIRTON THE site under discussion was first noted in 1958 and since that time several discoveries have been made. Its investigation has been pursued
The Exploration of a Burial-Room in Pueblo Bonito, New Mexico by George H. Pepper (1873-1924) This PDF is provided by www.flutopedia.com as part of a collection of resources for the Native American flute.
ROYAL MAYAN TOMB 93 Royal Mayan Tomb Jennifer Vander Galien Faculty Sponsor: Kathryn Reese-Taylor, Department of Sociology/Archaeology ABSTRACT Little is known about the Mortuary practices of the ruling
An archaeological evaluation at the Lexden Wood Golf Club (Westhouse Farm), Lexden, Colchester, Essex January 2000 Archive report on behalf of Lexden Wood Golf Club Colchester Archaeological Trust 12 Lexden
BULLETIN OF THE Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society Volume Eight SEPTEMBER 1936 Published by the Society at Abilene, Texas COPYRIGHT, 1936 BY TEXAS ARCHEOLOGICAL AND PALEONTOLOGICAL SOCIETY
Proc Soc Antiq Scot, 128 (1998), 203-254 St Germains, Tranent, East Lothian: the excavation of Early Bronze Age remains and Iron Age enclosed and unenclosed settlements Derek Alexander* & Trevor Watkinsf
Changing People Changing Landscapes: excavations at The Carrick, Midross, Loch Lomond Gavin MacGregor, University of Glasgow Located approximately 40 kilometres to the south-west of Oban, as the crow flies
FINDING LIFE FROM GRAVE GOODS Summary: In archaeology classes it appears that students are often told what the correct answer is, rather than being forced to make inferences themselves based upon archaeological
The Palimpsest Volume 15 Number 10 Article 4 10-1-1934 In the Day's Work Charles Reuben Keyes Follow this and additional works at: https://ir.uiowa.edu/palimpsest Part of the United States History Commons
AN ANCIENT PERUVIAN EFFIGY VASE EXHIBITING DISEASE OF THE FOOT BY ALBERT S. ASHMEAD The accompanying reproduction, froin a photograph, of a specimen of Peruvian pottery, represents without doubt a diseased
Unit 6: New Caledonia: Lapita Pottery Frederic Angleveil and Gabriel Poedi Facts Capital Main islands Highest point Language Government Noumea Grande Terre, 3 Loyalty Islands and numerous reefs and atolls
Old iron-producing furnaces in the eastern hinterland of Bagan, Myanmar. Field survey and initial excavation. Bob Hudson U Nyein Lwin. 2002. In November 2001, an investigation was made of a number of sites