E. B. WEDMORE, M.LE.E., F.lnst.P.

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4 PREFACE This work is not intended to replace the beginner's Guide Book. I t is intended for the beekeeper who already has all elementary - knowledge of beekeeping. He cannot get all the additional help h~' needs, either from the current journals or through beekeepe"" societies, for, frequently, he needs guidance forthwith and generally with more explanation than can be given in the corrl'spondcnce columns of a journal, or obtained at a general meeting of a society. The expert replying in the journal may say "raise a new queen" or "usc the Demaree method." Now highly condensed infi,rmation on Queen-raising occupies no less than 31 pages in this Manual and the Demaree system is treated in detail under no less than ten heads, with many cross references to other parts of the work. The weekly or monthly journal is invaluable and cannot be replaced by a manual, but needs supplementing. Even the experienced beekeeper will find in this manual many things he has forgotten, or on which he cannot readily lay hands, and for which he will seek in vain in the current textbooks. The majority of advanced hooks on beekeeping are written for the conditions prevailing in a particular country. Now, the advice given and methods described, not only need modification for use in other countries, but even for application in the writer's own country)' in parts where the conditions he deals with do not happen to prevail This work is written for the English-speaking beekeeper, wherever found, and is intended to give him, not only the most reliable and latest information in every branch of practical beekeeping, but such guidance as will enable him to select the hcst methods for his particular circumstances, be he north or south of the Equator; in warm, cold, wild or cultivated regions; whether he be keeping bees for a living or as a holiby; at home or in out apiaries; attending to them every day in the week, or only during week-ends. In planning juch a work a radical departure has been necessary from the familiar form. Written in the familiar form, this work would occupy five or six voluljes, and its cost would be prohibitive. All historical matter and re ~enccs to the great names of history ha,'e been omitted from the body of the work. If Blank were alive now and as lively as he used to be, surely he would brfng his "method" vii

5 VItI PREr_~CE or uloystcm" up to date in some particular. Instead, therefore, of describing Blank's method or system under his name, with many others of equal merit, ano equally l;mitcd in appljcation-a CDurst> which would invof,,{' much repetition and confusion-the author ha.<.; taken from cach worker the contributions of novelty and permanent value in his work and prcscflrcd these features in an orderly arrang(:ml'nt, each ill it~ appropriate plate. 'ra make this mass of iuformation illtdligihk and useful, guidance on the selection ot mt'thod i~ giv(,n in each section. ~rht author, therefore, het-.rs to make acknowledgment once for all to the many workers of the past upon whose knowledge he has so fully drawn, and upon whose experience and efforts the whole of modern beekeeping rests. 1\1"uch unncrcssary rept'tition has been avoided also by giving detailed instructions for all the common manipulations in one section, thus securing at the same time that those bearing on management and otht:r larf!:l' mattcr~ shall convey in brief compass the concentrated wisdom of the masters., undiluted and unconfused bv rcference to minor, though t."sseil~ial, details of procedure. ' In a book which ailsw(.'h' probably 10,000 questions every word ~hould count. The }x'ginner is warned" therefore, of the importance, whl,,_ rt precise instruction is given, of observing every word. In the many cases where alternative methods prc,,"ail it has been the author's endeavour, supportcd by a long experience of critical work in other t;dds of applit'd Sl..'il'IlCC, to give only the best method, and to rely mainl.r upon evidence and very little upon opinion. 'Th<.: work has grown out of an attempt, commenced some years ago, to jot down the established facts of beekeeping, and consists mainly of filets or well-established procedure. A departure is made, however" in the introduction to the Section on Swarming. The justification for rhe introduction of the brief essay there appearing is given in its opening sentences. Here and there also new suggestions are made, but in such a way that they cannot be confused with what is well "",.blisll<.j. A beekeeper desiring illustrations of the numerous appliances he would like to see and handle can obtain them from the appliance makers, and in purchasing this book he does not have.(o pay for what he may obtain free of charge elsewhere. Illustrations, mainly diagrammatic, are included, however, where clarity requires. No attempt is made to deal with certain specialist suj,jects, such as anatomy, bacteriology and micros\opy, but essential information, within the capacity of any practical l!eekeeper to master and apply, is given on the ~iagnosis and treatment of disease. E. B. WEDMORE



8 SECTIONAL CONTENTS (The numbers rc{er to p~raf'raphsj. SECTION I WORKERS, DRONE., _-LVD QCTE_VS Stages if De,.. :riq,pment I, General; 4, Period of Leaving the Hjv~; 5, lmput{,mcc of Dew."Jopmcnt Periods; 6, Bees of Mixed Sex W{)rker Bas 7. General; 8, Development of \"orker };f'('s; 11, Weight of 'h'orker Bees; 14, Length of Tongue; 16, Honey Sac Content; 17, Length oflifc, 18. Effective Length of Lifej 19, COf15ervation of Energy; 20, Duties of Worker Bees; 23. Hive Temperatures Drana 28~ Utility of Drones; 29. Potency of Drones; 30, Location of Drones in the Hiyej 31, Starvation of Drones; 32, Reduction of Drones Qttet?ns 33, General; 38, Points of a Good Queen; 39, Egg--laying and Development; 40, Royal Jelly; 41, Rate of Laying; 45, Growth of Brood Nest; 46, Queen Failure and Supersedure; 48, Balling of Queen; 51, Finding the Queen; 56, Catching and Holding a Queen; 57. Clipping the Queen's \Ving; 60, Marking the Queen; 64, Loss of Queens and its Detection; 67. Tests for QueenlessIle3S; 68, Requeenlng; 74. Introduction of a Local Queen; 75 f Introduction of Travelled Queen) 79, Introduction of a Virgin Queen; 80, Vse of Nucleus in Queen Intro~ duction; 81, Methods of Queen Introduction; 82. Use of Travelling Queen Cage; 86, Direct Introduction; 87, Use of Pipe Cage; 88, Use of Water or Honey for Introduction; 89, Use of Artificial Swarm; 90, Introduction through ScreeD; 91, Queen Run In at Entrance; 92, Introduction of Virgins; 93, Two Queens in One Colony Laying Warken 94, General; 97. Destruction of Laying Workers; 103, Suggested Methods of Suppression Races and Strains of Bees 104, General; 106, Points of" a. Good Strain; 112. Racial Characteristics; 116, Italian Bees; 1.21, Cyprian Bees, 124, Carniolan Bees; 127) Caucas.ian Bees; 129, British Black Bees; 130, French Bee$; 131, German Swiss Beet; 132, Dutch Bees; 133, Spanish Bees; 134, German Bees; 135, Egypr;.n llees! 136, African Bees; 137, Syrian Bees; 138, Eastern Races; 139, Albino Bees xi

9 xii SECTIOSAL CONTENTS SECTION II QUEEN AND DRONE RAISING lntraductirm 140, Gene-r:.li 141. Att('ntion to Detail; 14:2, Small Scale \\"otking Qurrn RaiIing "'"Iithaul Intnft'rtnce 143. (rt-nrra!; 144, rnder Swarming Impulse; 147. Under Supersedure Impul~; 148. qut:'enrikht Supc"rsedufe; 150. To Replace Lost Queens; 151. How to Di.~tjn::uish the Impulse Qu 't'r. RaiJifl,( to Pion on a Small SCll/1" 1.11)2, (;j'm'ra]; 153. Rcduring the Swarming' InHinct; 154. Tim(' for Re 'lut"cninr,; 156. l!ll)l(}rtance of Parf'!1tage:, 157. Importance of Planning; 158, Mt'thod~ III (;l'l}cral; 15'), Simple Method for General l'~:, 160. More Ambitious Method; J61. Special Modjt]C;lIir)J}<;; 165. QuC('n R.iisill~ in Out Apiaries f!uurt Raising II} PIa" (Itt a Large Sc'ale IbS. Int.rmillction and Key Diagram; 169, Pa.renta~"C; 177. Laying and Hatchinl{ of the EgR; 180, FormatIOn of Queen Cells where the Eggs are Laid; 182. Raising- Queen Cells on Prep,u't'd Edge of Comb; 183, Raising Queen Cells on l'repan'd Strip of Comb; 185. R<llsing- (~uecn Cells on Prepared Surface of Comb; 18&, Transfer of lndi\ridual Eggs or Larva: for Queen Raising; 188, Transfer of Individual Lan'x, "Grafting", 1')4, Transfer of Individual Cells with their LattOZ'j 197, Starting and Rais:ng Queen Cells; 202, Developing Queen Cells in QUt-'CIlI('ss Colony; 210. Swarm Box Method of Starting Cells; 213, Partition Method of RJ.is~ng Cells in (~ut'en-right Colony; 217, EmergenCe in General; 2.20, Preparation for Emergt:>n\e of Cells Raised on Comh; 223. Preparation of ('olonk's tor EmergenCt'j 224, Emergence in Strong Colony; 228, Emt'rgl'nce in Nuclei; 233, Use of Small Frames in Nuclei; :236, Emergence in Nucleoli, "Baby ~{Jclei"; 240, Vse of Incubators; 241, Nursery Cages. Ftrti/izuh'on 242. (_\mditi.. ms FanJurablc'; 248. Proceduro':, and Period of.fertilization. 250, Eg~>!aying Drone Brading lsl, General; 254. Sdection of Drones; 255, Re~ction of Drones; 256, Raising Drones in Time' for ('sc; 257, Control of Mating; 259, Mating at Abnormal Hours; 263. Mating out of &-ason; 266, Providing Selected Drones to Mating Hive'; 2&7. Artificial ~1ating Tested and ljnl<'st~ d Queens 268, Classilication and Definitiooj 269, Notes SECTION lij COJfB, JrdX AND PROPOLIS C... 6 BuUd;"l 21:l. Method; 276, Building Drone and '''Qiker Comb; 279, Brare and Burr Comb; 281, I~clilUltiotl and Disinclination to Build Comb; 285, Cell Walls; 287, Cell Cappmgs; 11l9, Dimensions of Cells; 293, Importance of Dimensions. 395, S~ofCombsUl<lMethod of Using; 302. Use of Old Combs; 304, C~

10 SECTIONAL CONTENTS PoUeD~ogged Combs; 307, Weight of Combs and Foundation; 309, Repairing. and Cutting Comb; 311, US(" of Foreign Substances in Comb Ruildingj 31S, PresemIcion of Combs (Wn Moth); 319. Remedies for Wax Moth Euswal,' 330, Production; 334, Physical Properties; 340, Chemical Properties; 345, Rough Tests for Adulteration; 346, Bleaching \-Vax Wax Rt'nding 347. General; 350, \Vax Extractors; 356, Wax Capplngsj 357, Capping Mdtet"5; 358, Water. Dross and \-Vax &parator; 359. Wax Moulding; 360. \Vax for Exhibition; 36t, Judging Wax Propolis 362. Use of Propolis; 363, Sourc(' and Colour; 364. I'ropoli~ and Wax; 366. Removing l'copolis SECT/ON II' /loner-part I Crops and H01lt'.y Gathering 367, Times, Distances and Temperatures. of Flights, 371. Daily, Climatic and Seasonal Changes in Honey Flow; 375, \\'tights of Honey Taken; 380. Weight of Honey in Comb; 381. Yield per Acre; 383, Yield from l;se of Drawn Combs and Foundation; 386, Statistics of Honey Production Composition and Propertiet of litmry 390, Water Content and Density of Nectar; 394, Water Content and Density of Honey; 396, Changes with Composition and Tempe-rature; 398, Use of Hydrometers; 399, The "Densitaster"; 400, Chemical Analysis; 403, Food Value and Medicinal Value; 4OS. Acidity Hl>IU'_vdf'<'lt: 4-09, Sources; 4-10, Characteristics; 411. Collection and l'st' Sourca of Ront]' and Pollen 412. Introduction; 413, Principal Sources of Honey and Pollen; 419. Lists Nos. I to III, Sources of Honey; 561, Lin No. IV, Sources of Pollen; 607. Li,t Ko. V, Sources of Objectionable Honey Sources of Horzry in Difft'rent Cuuntrit:S 611. General; 612, Greal Britain and Ireland; U.S.A. General List; 615. Eastern States; 616, Southern States; 617, California; 618. Northern States; 619, Canada; 620, Australia; 621, New Zealand; 622, South Africa; 613. Tropics ani! Sub~ Tropics SECTION V HONEr-PART II Taking a~ Groding Homy 6U, Taking Comb Honey; 625, Extracted Honey; 628, Use of Super CJearen and the Like; 632:. Supers Stuck Together; 633, Supers Containing Broodj 634, Grading Honey; 638, American Standards; 639. U.S.A. Section Honey; 650, xiii

11 xiv SECTJO.sAL COXT1:~TS C.S.A. ShaUow Frtlrrlell ano Chunk Honey; 652, U.S.A. Extracted Honey; 65K. C.S.A. Colour Standard~ for Extracted Honey; 659, Canadian Standards; 660, Australian Grading; 661. '!'\('W Zealand; 662. Great Britain; 663, Irisb Free State, Scrtioll Honey; irish Fret' State, Extracted Honey i::xlra(fjrm if Ha11t)', Chun): Haney 669, Extracting- Honey. Temperature; 670. Uncapping Knives; 671. t::llcappin::;; 673. Centri$.,""ufal Foret';. (J75, eappings; 676. Use of Ripener; 67i, Bottlin~; 678. Cart' of Extractor; 679, H{' 3.ther Hone),; 681, Chunk Hone:; Grarud:/lioft and Fermt'ntati(ll1, licatj;'lg and Sterilizing 686, Granulation of HoneY, 687. Production of Large Crvstak 688. Ptoduclion of Fine Crystals; 689. R;1pidity of Granulation; 690. Temkllc}' to Cranu~!:ttl'; 69[, PreV'{'ntlon of Granulation; 61)3, Treating Honey already Granulated; 694, WhiPfX'd Honey; 61)5. FerrrwntatioDj 696, Prevention of Fermentation; 703. t 1 se of Fermentl.'d Honey; 704. Heating and Sterilizing Hom'~'; 705. Time and TemperJw/"{'j 706, Dcstructioll of Bacteria; 707, Putting up fnr $;,1t'; '10. Destruction of Diastase Stormg, P,1.. hnr:, St'/ling and Sh{)llwing HtmI'J' 712. Storing- Honey; 716. P.lcking Section and Comh Hon!;'y; 718, PJ.cking Extrat:"tcd HOllcy; 722. l~<lht'l~ ltlr Tjns and Bottles; 726, Selling HOl1c~;; 730, Blending for Sale; 737. PUn" Food 1,3.ws, 738. Honey for Show-Exrnrred Houe:-y; 742, Section Honey; 747. Points for Judging esc; ~r Honq 749, Vse ill CO(lkec~' dnd C()nfecti(lner~'; 750. Sug,u Equi~ 3.lent, 751..\\,"'Utr'3~ iilin!.! Acid; 752. Icing; 153, Preserves," Sauces, Drinks; 754, Ice Cream; 755, Toilet Preparations; 756, Anti~freezing Mixtures SECTIOS n THE APURY-:1JOVI.VG BEES Th..!.4piar:y i57. Location Dc.!r Honev $OUtCCSJ 759, Pollen and \\'ater Supplies~ 760, f'rt'vailing: V.'ind; 761, riood~. Fire!'> and Vibration; 762, Fencin ; and Shelter; 763, Ljabiljt~, to?-:ejghbour~ and others; 766. Out Apja.ri~~s; 767. A.piarjes in Orchards; 769, Payments by Fruit Growers; 770. Spraying in Orchards; 771, Package Bees fur Orchard \('/ork; 772. TO'9;'D and Garden Sites; 773, Pr\!para~ tion of Stands; 774. ~"':rrilngement of HiYes; 780. Honey House or Sheci; 781, Windows; 782. \Yalh and Flour.; 783, General Arrangement; 786. Winter Cellars Start~g an Apiary 787, Starting in a Small \YaH 788, One-man Apiary; 789, Escatiab of an Apiary; 790. Influence of Good and Bad Years; 'j'91~ Obtainjng Bees; 792, Colonies and Nuclei; 794, Partnership and Renting.r ~'UO"t:ing Ben 795, General; 796, Aids to Noting I...tt:acion; 797. Influenee of \"eather; 800, Long Distance Mo\"es; 802, Critical!)istancc; 803, Preparation of One Piece Bodies; Prepatation tlf Hives with Outer Covers; 80S, Securing Frames; 801, Heary Hh'eSi.ws. Cart, Motor and Railway Transit; 809, Moving to the Heather; 810, A Sw"",,

12 SECTIONAL CONTENTS SECTION I'll mres AND THEIR ACCESSORIES HiTes and Tim',.. Purts 811, Use of Skcps and Early Types; 812, Silt: of Hi\'c in General; 813. Hi"c~ Too Small and Too Large; 814. Site in Relation to ManabYl'ment. 8J6. Types of ~1ovablc Frame Hiyej 821, Pcrpcntiicul,{.r ';:'. Parallel Way (Cold <t-'. \Varm Way); 824. Horizontal 'V. Vertical Extension; 826. "The l..ong Idea" Hive; 828, Single 'ri. Double Walls; 830. Outer (ast~s; 834, Fillets Pm'ts and Fittings 83'7, Floor Boards; 839, Lq;s and Stands; 841, Alighting Boardsj 842, Special Floor Boards; 844, Entrances; 847. Brood Chamhe.r!l; 848. Shrinkage (If Wood; 849, Supen;; 850. Frame Runners; 852. Propolizmg of Ltlg~; 8M,Metal Runners; 856, Section Racks; 857, Dummies; 858, Di\'isin!l Hoards; 861. '~UilLS and irmt::t Covers; 862, Material for Quilts; 863. Glazeu Inn~r Cover; 864, Hive Roofs; 865, Keeping out Water1! 867, Keeping out B('t's; 868, Escape Boards and Su/)(~r Clearers; 869. Return Holc; 870, Faulty '&'1' Escapes; 871, Ventilated Escape Boards; 872, Suggested Improved Escape; 873. Queen Excluding; 814, Queen Excluders; 877, C se of Excluders Packin,c" rmti!ation and Tempt'ratun: Contt'O! 879. Packing in General; 880. Too much and Too Dulc Packing; 88). Degrees of Protection; 885. Packing at Top; 88B. Packing at Sides; 889, Wooden Winter Cases; 893. Tarred Paper Covering; 895. Packing at Bottom; 898, Ventilation in Cold \Veather; 900. Ventilation in Warm Weather; 901. Floor Ventilators; 902, Temperature Control Hi<'.;e Patterns and Materials 963. Particular Makes of Hi\'e; 904. Standardization of Dimensions; 905, Maximum and Minimum Dimensions; 907. Present-day Prar.tice; 910, The Langstroth Hive; 912, Dadant Hives; 914, British Standard Hives; 917, Other British Hiyes; 919, Bolton or Heddon Hives; 920, Non-swarming Hives; 922, Double Hives; 923, Bee Houses; 9:24. Observatory Hives; 925, Use of Glass Walls in Hives; 932, Top and Middle Entrance Hives; 936, Materia.ls Used in Hive Construction; 938. Objects of Hive Painting; 939. Keeping out Damp; 940, Creosote "''';. Paint; 942, Finishes of the Future; 943, Painting Hh'es; 946, Repainting a Hive; 949. Colour of Hives SECTIO.v VII] FRAMES, SECTIONS AND FOUNDA1'ION 950, Fdmes in General; 951, Preference for One-piece Combs; 955, Combs in I! State of Nature; 956. The Form of the Brood Nest; 959. Unimportance of Cubical Fonn; 'l60, Further Advantages of Large Frante!l; 961, A \Vorking Compromise; 962. Form in Relation to Management; 963, Frames for Supering; 964. Dimensions of Frames; %8. Comb Area in Fnmes; '%9. Honey Content of Fra.tne5; 970, Spacing of Coq1bs; 977, Divided Fra.tnt!S; 980, Assembling Frames; 982. Fixing Foundation; 983, Split Top Bar; 984, Top Bar with Wedge; 985, Fixing with Molten Wax; 98', Useful Tips; 989, Cutting Foundation; 990, Wiring Frames; 992. Method. of Wiring; 994-, imbedding the Wire; 995, Use of Wood Splints; 996, Wired FdundatioD; 997, Dimensions of Sectiom; xv

13 xvi SECTIOXAL CO~-TENTS t (000. Rtt-way and No Bee-way; 1001, Folding Sections; J002. Inserting Foundation in Sections; 1007, Choi~ and Can' of Foundation; toll, Foundationmaking in General; pf't'parino;: Wax Sheets for Foundation; Rolling Foundation SECTION IX APPUANCES ASD THEIR USE 1021, Protection of the Person; Veils; 1027, Gloves; 1028, Subduing fke.s; 1030, The Smoker; 1033, l:se of Carboiic Cloth; Remedies for Stinp; Tl'{"attncnt of St-riou!> Ca5Cs; 1037, Destruction of Toxins by Heat; Stin;! Prt"\'t'ntiy~s; 1039, Bee Stint:s and Rht'llmatism; Minor Tools,and J)t\'ICes; 1M], Hi'\.'(' Tool; Bee Bru!'h; 1043, Vaseline Pot; lndic:ttor<: and Cards for N()tC!'>; Apiary Barrow; 1046, Comb Holders; 1(147. S('ak Hive; Cheap AJrcrnatin'; 1051, Feeders; 1054, Improved Dummy Feeder; 1055, Construction oftraveliing-hoxcs; 1057, Use of TravellingbnC\:es; Shipping Rees in Skeps; 1060, ShippinK Swarms; 1061, Drone and quc'en Traps; 1063, Robber Screen; 1064, Care of Appliances and Cleaning Mt,tal Parts; 1067, (,oating- Woodell and Metal Vessels with Wax SECTfOS.\" SE.1S'JN31..\UN.;CE.IIE.vT Introduction 1068, Tht' Problem of Presentation; 1069, The Problem Treated; 1010, Sy!!tems of Managrment.j 1072, Single tv. Doub]t~ Brood Chambers, ~:asonal Management Spring 1080, Springtime Management in General; 108t. Early Flights; External Examination and Re-arrangcment; Use of Candy and Spring Feeding-, J086, First Internal Examination; Second Examination; 1094, Stimulating Brood Produ(,tion, 1098, Other Activities in Spring-time Summer Summer Management-Principal Object; 1102, Removal of Surplus; U06. Making Incl't'3$e; ll07. Merirs of Extracted, Comb and Chunk Honey Pt(~duction; 1111, Management fot Extracted, Comb and Chunk Honey. Autumn 1120, E.arly Autumn Examination ~nd rv1anipulation; 1123, Importance of Autumn Feeding; 1124, Stores suitable for \Vinter l'se; 1127, \\."eak and Queenless. Stocks; Old Combs for Wintering; 1130, Amount of Stores for Wintering; 1135, Arrangt'lllC'nts for \Vintering lrittur 11"'0. \Yinter Conditions; 1141, Genera&n of Heat and Size of Cluster; Causes and Provention of Winter L&ses; 1145, Keeping out Damp; 11.7, ProducUoo of Damp; U48, Dse of Packing in Mild Climates;: 1149, Top Pack.ing and V&tilatiQD; 1150, "'-inter Flights; 1151, Freedom from Disturbance; 1152, "loving Hives in \Vinter; 1153, Floor-board Indicaton

14 SECTIONAL CONTENTS xvii Cellar Winl~"ing 11M, Conditions; 1155, Construction of C~'llar; 1159, Cellar Tempentul't'$; Moving Bees into the Cellar; C()ndition~ in the Cellar; 1167, Removal from Cellar SECTJOS Xl SPECIAL J1.1NAGEMENT 1169, Introduction; 1172, Relation of Manaf:"crncnt to Flow Periods; Inftuence of Longevity of Bees; 1180, Working to Produce Bee$ v. Honey; 1181, Special Case of Largt' Apiatie~; Influence of Di$Case; ClaS!lification of Districts; 1189, Bees suited to the' Conuitions.; 1190, Principal Flow Early;. 1197, Principal Flow Late; Early and Late Flow with Gap Bet\\--een; 1207, Prolonged Heavy Flow; 1212, 1m gular and UIH-crt:tin Flows from Spring to Autumn; IllS, Flow continued 111 Winter; 1217, Week-end Beekeeping SECTJOS X[[ FEEDING-ROBBING-PACKAGE BEES Fl"t'ding 1120, General; 1121, Water Supply; 1224, Giving Water; 1227, Pollen Supply; 1229, Pollen Substitutes; 1234, Honey Supply; 1238, Feeding Honey for Storage; 1239, Sugar Feeding; 1244, Note on Sugar and Use of Acid; Feeding Sugar Syrup for Storage; 1248, Stimtllati... e Feeding; 1253, Stimulative Food Recipes; 1257, Summer Fet"ding; 1259, Winter Stores; 1206, Outdoor Feeding; Making Candy; 1275, Making qu(,( n-cage C:tndy Robbing 1278, General; Detection; 1283, Hip.dering Robbing; Stopping Robbing 1290, Use of Package Bees; 1292, Bargain with Produc:erj Shipmt"Dt of Package Bees; 1301, Treatment on Receipt; J306. Dri\'en Bees SECTION XIII SWARMING AND SWARM PREVENTION Ther»y of Swarming 1307, Importance of Theo.ry; 1309,.DeYelopment of Instinct; 13U, Deve}op~ ment of Slf'U"ming by the Honey Beej 1313, Earliest History; 1314, The Social Species; Development of Honey Comb; 1318, Cells of Differing Form!; 1319, Habits of Early Colonies; 1321, Development of Modified Females; 1325, Advancer.!nt of the Imperfect Female; 1328, Flight of the Old Queen, 1334, Co-ope:.tative Flight af Workers and Queen; 1335, Special Forms of Queen Cells; 1339, Habits of Relatives of tl}e Hooey Bee; Rda.tion Between Swarming and Prosperity; 1345, BrooJ Food Theory; 1347, The Trigger; 1350, Relation of Swarming to Drane Raising; 1353, Drone Raising [he First Act; 1355, Effect of Suppression of Early Drone Broodj 1359, froduction of Drones in Excess; Conclusions on Swarming.

15 XVl11 SECTIOl'l:AL CONTENTS Formah'rm, F!:zilt an,! Scttlt'men! of S'7..!)arms fi Preparation for Swarming; Queen Cells for S... 3.l"ming and Super ~dutt; 1369, Issut' or the Sw:mll; 1374, Issue of Casts; External Signs of b-sllej Delaved Swarm<;; 137 t J. Settlement of the Swarmj 1381, Bee-bobs; 1383, :\ttracling a Swarmj Final Flig-ht of Swarm ilnd Legal Owncrshjp Tultng and Hh.ling Sr,J.:arms Settlement of tl\(> C!u::tcrj Taking a SWJ.rm in a Skep; Swarm~ ill [Il{'nrm~nient I'iac('':>, 1"-\93, G$e of Bag- Xet; Temporary R( ~ting.. pla('e; Sending Swarms Long Distances; 1397, Hiying a Swarm; 1401, ~{'w Methol! of Hi,'mgj 1402, Manipulation of Supers; 1403, Hiv-ing I.:lt(' Swarm in Pan'nt Hive "li.;tl'ljan, ous Notn Clipped (~U('CIlS; Swarm }{eturning to Pll't'rH Hive; Sigm of Cf's~:!tiotJ of Swarming; Factors Tending to Enmur:lgt.' Swarming; 1410, Fartors Tending to Binder Swarming; 1412, Swarm Trapsj General Managemcnt and Prevention of Swarming- SECTlON XIV J!.1SlPULATJONS-PART 1 Common Manipulations Manipulations described elsewhere; 1425, Object of :Manipulation: 1426, General Obserntiol1sj 1428, Examining a Frame of Bees; 1430, Examin~ iug the Comb~ in a Brood Chamber; Shaking Bees off a Comb; 1437, Brushing Bet's off a Comb; Destroying all Queen Cells; 1440, Destroying all Queen ('(.'l1s hut Ont'; Changing the Strain throughout the Apiary; 1446, Treatment of Comhs containing Dead Bees; 1450, Manipulations with Double Hives; Wintering with Two Queens; 1464, Use of Building Comb; He-arrangement of Brood Combs before the ]yla.in Honey Flow; 1472, Crowding lk--es on Eve of Honey Flow; 1476, Getting Comb Honey from Shallow Frarri{'Sj 1479, Preparation of Section Racks; 1480, Supering with a Single Brood Chamber for Extractt'd Honey; Supering with a Single Brood Chamber fot' Section Honry; Super-ing with a Double Brood Chamber for Extracted Honey'; Supering with a Double Brood Chamber for Section Honey Swarms and Swarm Prt!'"vention Discoyering the Parent Hive; 1496, Preventing Cas~; 1498, Preventing Early Swarms Re-swarming later in the Season; 1499, Delaying Flight of Swarm; 1501, Stupping Swarming by Destroying Queen Cells; 1505, Checking Swarming by Remol'al of Queen; 1508, Checking Swarming by Remov.a1 of Brood; 1510, Checking Swarming by ~mol;ra1 of Brood and Queen; 1512, Checking Swanning by Continuous Transfer of Brood and Confining Queen; 1524, ~ontrolling Swarmiug by continued Exchange of Brood; 1530, Doubling without In<:rease; 1535, Swarming without Increase; 1541, Returning SWa.rtl\_ tq Parent Hive; 1545, Combining Natural and Artificial Swarming without Increase; 1548, The Demaree System of Swarm Control; 1549, Notes on Damaree System; 1556, Re-queening with the Dem.:uee System; 1559.linding the Queen; 1562, Modified Demaree; 1563, Re-Demareeing Pseudo-Demaree; 1569, Preparing a Strong Stock. for Demareeing; $jmplifi.catiod with Prolinc Stocks; 1511, Dema.reeiug when ~rking for Section Honey

16 SECTIONAL CONTENTS XIX SECTION XV MANIPULATIOSS-PART II ['niting General; 1580, eniting Scented Bees; 1581, rniting- after Exposure to Light; 1582,!\ewspaper Method; 1585, l'se of Super Clearer for tlniling; 1586, Cniting Swarms; 1587, {Initing Driven Bees to an Established Stock; 1588, Adding Young Bees to a Stock or Nucleus; 1590, Adding Flying Bees to a Stock l!janipuiajions GhJil1g ]nrtt'osr 1596, When Required; 1597, Natural 'l', Artificla.l Increasej 1598, Giving Queens C;_'. Queen Cells; 1603, Feeding- for Increase; 1607, Avoiding 1,.{)S!l of Harvest; 1609, Seasonal Differences; 1616, Increase by Robbing Stucks; Spring Dj\'i~jon; Increase with Artificial Swarming; 1621, Making Thrt"e Stocks from Two; 1622, ;\1ultiple Incrc'l.<;t'i 1623, ContilJued Incrc.:lsc from One Stock; Kuc1ei from Stork Superseding; 1627, Continuous Production of Nuclei; 1631, Combining Increase with Queen Raising; Rapid Autumn Increase, t:sing Old Bees for Autumn Increasc; 1637,!\:uclei in Cool \\'ea:ther; 1639, Increase when Demareeing A1onipuw/ions far Dealing with Acarine Dismse 1640, General; 1642, Preferred Manipulations; 1643, Destruction of Affected Bees; 1647, Salvation by Division; 1651, Exchange with Healtby Colony; 1654, Tre2tment by Swarming,; 165.5, Experimental TttiJtment Transftrring 1661, General; Bees Transferring- Themselve~, from Skep or Box Hive; 1665, 'J ransferriog from Skcp or Box by Drj"ing; J675, Combination Method; 1676, Transferring Bees from Roofs, Old Trees, etc. SECTION XVI DISEASES AND PESTS Diieases 1680, GeneraJ; 1682, Examination for Disease; 1686, Examination of Dead Bodies; 1687, Brood Diseases in General; 1688, Distinguishing Symptoms of Brood Diseases; 1692, Incidence and Effects of Brood Diseases; 1696, Destruction of Germs and Virus; 1697, Treatment of Sac Brood; 1698, Treatment of European Foul Brood; 1699, Treatment of American Foul Brood; 1703, Formalin Treatment; 1707, Formalin and Chlorine Gas; 1711, Minor Brood Diseases; 1712, Diseases of Adult Bees in General; 1713, Dysentery; 1714, Acarine Disease; 1719, Diagtiosis of Acarine; Treatment of Acarine; Nosema; Amreba. Disea!e; 1734, Spring Sickness; Fungi; 1736, Disappearing Disease and Parah "Sis; 1737, Septicemia; 1738, Hairless Bees Peru 1739, General, 1746, Braula cocca; 1745, Moths; 1746, Birds; 1749, Toads, Dragonflies, Wasps, Spiders and Lizards; 1750, Ants; 1754, Rats and Mice; 1755, Drosophila ampelophilos; 1756, Apimyiase angellozi; 1757, Rondaniocestrus apivorus

17 xx S.ECTJ()~AL CO!-lTE!\TS SECTlG.V XVII /1vI"ENTIOXS.1SD DISCOVERIES Fortword; 175Q, ltl\r,)du{'tiou; 1761,!\atural History of the Hone-y Ike; Queen Raising-; W:u-, Comb and Honev; 1770, Hivts, Ftames "Ilti Appliancc~; &-e DiS("ases

18 LIST OF TABLES 'P AB1X I ~tages of Development of Bees PAItAGRAPH 1 11 Period of Development for OUtslde!)lItU!~ 111 Development of Worker Bec~, I V VI VII Weight of Worker Bees V rdngue~length of Honey.Bce$!\lonna! Durie,.; of Worker Beef, in R!"ldri{lll,,, Age ~umber of Frames in Brood Chamber III Rdatioll t\) Egg-1aring Capacity 4.2 VIII Key Diagram to Queen Raising 16~ IX X XI Points in Judging Beeswax Weight of Combs of Honey Yields of Honey per Acrt' XII Water Content and Average Dellsities 01 H'lllC;'S 3(}7 XIII Densities of Honey Solutions at 20 C. XIV Scale of "Densitaster". 399 XV Relation between the Seasons in!\. and ~. licnmphc.res 414 XVI U.S.A. Colour Standards for Extracted HoneY 65'" XVII Safe Speeds for Extractors. XVIII Points used in Judging Honey XIX Dimension of Langstroth Hives XX XXI Dimemions of Modified Dadant Hives Dimensions~of Frames XXIl Comb azea of Fr.uIleI, in Square Inches %8 XXIII Maximum averagt'! Weight of Honey in a Full Comb, in pounds %9 XXIV XXV Numher of Sheets of Foundation per lb. Destruction of Disease Germs and Virus ui ~\9M % %


20 LIST OF fllihtrt\tions PtATI II BntJ~h Brad. kee-~ An Apiary and a fin" Fann /.1onK P(~f(t' F,,01ltijpi~CI' I,fi FIG. 1 Larva: of Variou~, Age~ 2 Key to the A boyt:' Good Frame of Brood 4 (iuf't'n~raisidg Applianr('~ FralTlt' uf good Queen ( ( li I) eappings :\-lelter 7 \Vater, Dross and \Vax Separato! 8 and 9 Honey Sheds. 10 Hjve Fmer and Alternatjye ConstrllctiotJ IT Special Floor Board for Nuclei. Runners and ~o\nti-propolizing Construction t) To Make a Cushion of Given Dimension!> 14 Dimensions of Langstroth Hives 15 Design of British Brood Chambers 16 Design of British Standard Hive with Outer Case. 17 Irish. Scottish and British-American Hives IS. Top-entrance Hive 19 Middle-entrance Hive. ::to Forms of Brood Nest in Springtjme 1.1 Dimensions of Fr.unes H Spacing of Com~ in Nature xxiii farmg facing (acing farim,: PACI,I, 11,I, 9 0 9',6: '7 6 '79,8, '9 0 '97 '9 8 '99 :00 :06 > facitrg no

21 XXIV [.ls'r OF ILLUSTRATIO~5 JiJl" 21 New Divisiblf' Fran)(_','4 Wiring Frarnc~ l'l Weighing a Hive with <1 Spring Ralan,\' z(, Ventilatiog Coven; fot T ravcuing--h:.',,\ PAGE 226 Hiving a Swarm ~R How w Examine- hoth Side~ of it Framt f;uin~ :;::", ~9 SUIX'ring with a Singlt'-tl!,(loc\ ('lumber 11('. 10 Supering with a Douhlc-hroml Chamber 33~ \ I Continuous Transfer of Hroud, qul't'n ('onnrwd 144 1::! Duublin.,' without IncreaSt' 1+8 j, Combining Natural and Artifici:tl SW:lnll1no:: 'l.vilholll In{"ft',l~t' 150 H Re- Demareeing. 354 H Adding Flyin~ Bees ro :1 Stock -\1ultiplt Hin",61 16 Adding F!~'ing- Bt'e~ tn :l S[(li'k.~'pair of IEv('!'- 36:.17 Spring J)jvi;;inn. 16& 13 Increa!W by Artifiei:tl SWarmillL; 367,q Making Thtt'e Stocks from TWd J68 40 Driving- Bee<; from a Skt p facing J78

22 A MANUAL OF BEEKEEPING General SECTION I WOR.KERS, DRO.VES AND QUEE.\'S Stages of Dtve/opmmt 1. The following table gives representative figures for the number of day, required for each stage in the development of queen, worker and drone bees respectively, from the time the egg is laid to the emerbing of the perfect insect: TABLE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OP BEES Stage., i IEgg... "i Larva-before sealing.. ; sealed and spinning. j quiescent.. lpupa-~ormation to sylph., ; qulesctnt... I I Total from lay~ng of eg;:-=i i i genre of image or perfect insect.! 15 days! It days 1,.4 days 2. While the figures given above are the common experience, the exact periods vary somewhat with the race, but more considerably with the conditions under which development takes place. Good feeding causes speeding up, while low temperature and shortage of food cause delay. Eggs have been observed to hatch in 66 hours (2i days), but M~.»

23 2 WORKERS, DRONES AND QUEENS if delayed by cold they may take 6 days, and perhaps considerably longer. In temperate climates selected eggs may be sent by post' and good queens raised from them by the recipient. The cells containing the larva of worker bees may be sealed under favourable circumstances in 4 * Jays, sealing taking about half a day. Thus cells may be scaled 71 Jays from the laying of the egg, but again scaling may be delayed until the twelfth day. Some shortening of tlw pupal stage of worker bees may occur so that the total period of development may be reduced from 21 to 19 days, especially if the lam" have had a full share of royal jelly. Orr the other hand, the total period may be extended to at least 26 days. 3. The development of queens may be reduced to 14 days or extended to 17 days. No doubt slower development would be possible, but, on emergency occurring, the queen cells are better looked after by the becs than are the worker cells. Period of Leaving th, Hi", 4. Bees do not, as a rule, leave the hive for several days after emergence. 'Yorkers do not become field bees normally until the fourteenth day (20). Queens arc ready for mating about the fifth day and drones are potent in about 12 to 14 days. We thus obtain the following reprcsentative figures: TABLE II PERIOD OF DEVElOPMENT (IN DAYS) FOR. OUTSIDE DUTIES Qut"c.n. \Vorkt:r. Dr()lle., 5 5 l4 '3 Total (days) Importance of Drollopm",! Periods 5. The above figures are of great importance in the econon of the hive and in most manipulations. ' From the above it will be seen that of the 21 days required 1 They "''!'ltd be.".wly [aid and packed in tbe piece of comb in which ti were laid, wrap!,<\! in.. m-al thic_ of aoft crepe paper and iruerte<! iz light wooden box tor tmwt.

24 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT 3 raise worker bees, the egg stage lasts 3 days, the unsealed larv", 5 days and the cells arc scaled for '3 days. Now if the queen has been laying uniformly for at least 21 days, the number of eggs, visible larv"" and sealed cells must be ill the ratio of 3 : 5 : I 3. There would be nearly twice as much open brood as eggs and nearly rhn'c times as many scaled cells as open cchs containing la.n':e. 'l'ht' eggs would occupy one-seventh of the cells in usc for!m. ( ding, open cd!s otlcquarter and sealed Ct,_ lls morc than half. If this is not the case we can deduct: :IS follows: If the rate of bying is increasing there will be more eggs jjl pro portion, perhaps one-third instead of one-scvcnth of thl:' total. }\'wcr eggs than one-seventh indicate a diminished rate of Jaying, at any rate in tht last 3 days as compared with the average of the previous 18. Fewer lam" with a proper ratio between <1;1,'" and scaled cells would indic.ah a reduction of laying somcwht:'n~ bctw(~cn -4 and 8 Jays previously. Fewer scaled cells would only indicate recently increased activity of about a week's duration. A quecll that can iay to cover both sid(.'s of two combs with eggs can build up a fourt~~~n~ comb brood nest) and if well covered, this may n. prl sent 60,000 brood and eggs or, with 5 weeks' average life, a colony of 100,000 bees (18 and 42). The same kind of observation Can be made relative to drone breed... ing, noting that the ratios of eggs to exposed larva: and sealed cells are 3 : 9 : 12, when breeding has proceeded steadily for at least 24 days. Bm of Mixed Sex 6. Certain defective queens produce bees intermediate between workers and drones. Such bees, called gynandromorphs, arc a nuisance, but fortunately they are uncommon. The workers dri\fc them aside, and where they collect they consume the larval food, causing the production of dwarfed workers. They will even rob queen cells located at the bottoms of the frames. Frequently, the departure from normal form is not considerable, but may generally be observed by examination of the hind legs, which are, of course, markedly different in the normal worker and drone, and comparing them with the normal. A queen producing gynandromorphs should be replaced forthwith. No queens shoul1l be raised from her eggs. Her drones and drone brood should be destroyed outright. Her sisters should be replaced as soon as practicable, and the source of the strain regarded with suspicion. A research station would probably offer someth'ng for a queen producing abnormal offspring.

25 WORKERS, DRONES AND QUEENS IVorl" Bm GC1Jeral 7. 1~h(" worker bel' i:; a female with sexual organs imperfectly den loped (for laying workers see 94), and does all the work of the hive except rhe layinf!" of cgg.s, fertilizing of queens and destruction of ri\"al queens. \Vorkcr~ rontfol the queens and the drones, possess sting", and defend the hive again!-.t r{)bbcr~ and other enemies. VY'orker bces normal!.\, keep to their own colony. If they attempt w coter other hi\'(:s [hn' will be dri\'cn off unless thev arrive loaded with honey, having mis"taken their way. \\'orkcr b{~t."5 drift in this war bv accident and in strong wind's. "rhus black bees may be fou"nd III a colony of Italians (796). Development of U'or/'cr Bus 8. The illustrations facing give a clear idea of the size reached by larva! during the first tew days of their existence and a.re especially useful for reference in selecting Ian'", for queen raising (Section II). The egg stands on end when laid. On the second day it slopes considerably, and on tht_ third, lies on the cell bottom. The age rna\' thus bt' estimated bv careful observation. 9. The figures in th~ first column below haye been given by Nelson & Sturtevant and are here presumed to refer to a strain of American-bred Italian bees: TABLE III DEVELOPMENT OF WORKER B ES W(ight in!\1iuigram8. Number per Ounce. I W("ig-ht of ("ltg, flt'w laid 0-3:: Ii,SoO.. just before hatching- O'O8-0'lO Jr,soo.. btl'x, end of first dol\". 0, second 'dar 4' thi.rd da,"' 25'0 1,1:3" fourth day 95'0 '99 fifth day'- 15 '0 189! l;vei-~ht-~~-l~~' se:~~~ ~m~e:~~ -~ ~ '0 '0+,,,",. completed 157'0 '97 on ninth day reduced to 133'0 21 " 3 ofaee(}n~ng '53 "

26 fq!. 1. Kn- HJ Tl-JI "ami, '\(,fe. Tilt' figult" gn(- th'_. agh of the Jan'ae in da,n- The hrllod \' mo~t irr~l;t!lar. Compan~ WJth Fig. 3. rl)r qut-en-rol:,ing- chorxf. i:tn\'w I to '1 djv old


28 WORKER BEES From the above table one mav calculate that a British Standard. Frame capable of holding, say, 5,800 cells from corner to corner and carrying in fact, say, 5,000 eggs laid in 3 days, should incrt"a... l~ in weight by I 4 lb. in 5 days from the laying of tilt" la" egg. The nurse bees have to provide food wcighin!,! considerably more than this i()f this one comb. "V"}l(;'11 the queen is laying steadily {or each I,000 eggs per day, tht. nurses must tlnd food for tht, larva' to cover an im:r~as(' of weight of over 5 ~ oz. P('f cia,v (160 grams). Onl' nurse can attend to the fceding of several larvt.. H";ght ~f frorker BUJ 11. 'I'he weight of the worker bel' varil's with circumstances. A well-fed larva in a large cdl may produce a bee as much as 8 p"r cent. to 12 pef cent. ab(n;c normal, whilst a bee raised under unfavourable conditions as to temperature and fet ding and in an old comb with small cells may fall short of normal by as much as 50 per ('('nt. Larger bees so produced have been obscncd a~ of a morl~ stocky build but with a tongue longer in proportion over all. Larger bce~ arc produced in the summer than in early spring. Some races of bees arc larger than others, but individual bees of a given race differ more amongst themselves than do the average figures for the different races commonly employed. 12. The weight of a worker bee varies greatly with its age, race, history and content of its honey sac. l\jany figurt-s have been published but without much detail. The following are representative; TABLE IV WEIGHT OF WORKER Rn:s Stage. Wright in M illigram~. Numh~r per Pound. \\'eight of bee on emerging 110 4t too I ",. "" eighth day ,900 " " " at 3 weeks old ,500.. "old forager.... So 5,700 Average weight of field bee empty " )0 "" I loaded t i \Veight of old starved bee, say 60 9,000 I' This figure was probably taken during a good harvest. The general average would be much below this (see 16). The load carried would be nectar and the aoove represents a good load, although a bee loading up from a honey cell can carry away j

29 6 WORKERS, DRONES AND QUEENS considerably mofe, owing to the higher density of honey, the maximum being about 100 milligrams. We thus get a range of more than 2. : I in the weight of worker bc('s. 13. The round figure of 5,000 bees per pound frequently quoted represents an an' rage weight of 91 milligrams and the number is clearly an over-estimate. F or ~en('rai lise, it is likely that 4,000 to 4,500 per pound, according to the strain or face, would be nea.rer the mark except f()r bel's running v{'ry sma!! in size. F Of bcc':l going our with a swarm and loaded with honer for 2 Of 3 days' consumption, the tlguf(' of 3,500 per pound is neafer tb!: mark Of +,00(' for the smaller ract.-:5. Length of Tangu, 14. Short-tongued bees cannot reach the nccta~ies in certain flowers, notably some of the doycrs, and arc at a disadyanta.!c, 'The tong:ut>length may be measurej hy anatomical dissection, but there appears to be no common agreement as to precisely what should be measured. For practical comparative purposes, a de\'ic(' is used on the Continent of Europe, consisting of a honey trough with sloping bottom covered with wire gaul.(' and having a scale showing the distance from gauze to bottom a.t points along the incline. Honer is put in and the bess to bt., tt_"'stcd are given access to it, l~hey wiil dear au they can reach, thus removing the honey to a certain le\'el which ma), be read on the scale down the incline. The device is known as a glossometcr,!l1istakcs hare been made in the past in breeding for length of tongue at the expense of other qualitil"s, but in places where certain crops abound requiring: morc' than the a\"erage tongue-length, the long-tongued bee has an advantage, 15. Skorikov gin's the following average figures for tonguelengths, showing a maximum figure for bees from the southern end of the Caucasus: TABLE V TONGl.:E~LENCTH OF HmrEY BEts Central European, It:Ui~n. ~ Cyprian. Grus.inian., Abd... ian! hfingrelian 6,0-6'5 mm, I 6'43 6'/3 6"9 7'10

30 WORKER BEES 7 Other Caucasian bees lie in the middle range. Probably the British black had a shorter tongue. ~rhe Cyprian stands high, haying regard to its small sizt, and possiblv controlled hybridization with larger long-tongued bec might produce a new maximum. Honcy Sac Conim! 16. A bee can load up possibly 100 milligrams of honey, but the average load of nectar deposited per journey is mote like 20 to 40 mg.,. corresponding to 12,000 to 24,OOC journeys per I lb, nectar. Prob~ abjy 1 lb. of hoi1c'y represents 10,000 to 50,000 bee journeys, dep(,~nding upon the nt'ctar and the conditions, there b(~ing a large loss of weight when nectar is converted to honey (392). A loaded bee carrie.,; its hind legs well forward under the body. A bee with empty honey sac stretches its hind legs out behind. The honer sac will hold SCI'tral days' supply for individual use within the hive and will hold pollen as well, the usc of which is under control of the bee. Pollen once entering the stomach is digested and reaches the colon in about 2! hours (see also 1261). A flying bee probably has to find its fuel as it goes, from hour to hour. Length of Life 17. The life of a bee is not determined so much by the passage of days as by the hours of work done. Heavy nursing duties take most out of the life of a bee. The life in days or weeks of an individual bee could be measured only by marking the bee and making a daily search for it, but valuable data on bee life is obtained by statistical methods. When a colony is neither decreasing nor increasing in strength, the ratio of eggs, unsealed and scaled brood, will be 3 : 5 : 13, corresponding to the number of days required for each stage of development. Now if the number of bees remains steady at, say, twice the number of cells occupied by eggs, larv:r, etc., then the average life of the bee would be 2 I X 2 = +2 days. Of the bees Hying, many may be lost by weather conditions or eaten by enemies, and thus die young, so that others would have to live much longer than +2 days to make up for this. In the case supposed, however, to maintain a given number of bees in the colony, half that number of eggs,"ust be laid every 3 weeks. If the bees are of a more hardy race, a smaller amount of brood will suffice as fewer will die young, though their normal full term of life, bar ae<:idents and bad bee weather, may remain the same. If again their normal life period is longer, a smaller amount of brood will suffice.

31 g WORKERS, DRO)';ES "SP QUEE),;S Effecti", Length of Liff 18. The 42 days in the above example may be described as the eff't,"cri"c lift', and thi~ is the quantity the bcckeeper should aim to kc{'p high. ()f ('\,cry hundred bees flying to han-cst, several per cent. mav fail to return. If 3 per cent, do so, this would make the averare h'.j.~n ~tinf! lift.' 33 jounh:ys and, say, 1,000 bees might be lost per pound of hof)('.l," gathned. This figur(' is nm abnormal, but is gn'atl.v reduced under favourahle cotldition~. In f!ivinf..!,: thl" life of the Italian bee as about 5 wc{'h in the hcij.!ht of tllt' ~w;lsnn, it is this dfertin" life that is meant. T'hc old British black bn' had an cffcctin:' life nearer 8 weeks. 'rhis was of great value in an uncertain climatc, as less food and energy was consumed in maintaining the working f(>rcc oyer a long period; bees raised in the spri ng honey flow were a.vailable for the summer harvest. While the effective life of the modern honey bee may be 5 to i weeks in the height of the season when then: is much nursing, bees raised btl' in the season and quiescent in the winter wil11in: through into the sprin~ and work to build up a strong colony again. Weak bees and bel's under unhcalthl" Of diseased conditions wilj, however, dwindle rapidly in the sprin~.. ConSt'r7HllitJ!l of Enl'rgJ' J 9. Bees instincth'e)y conserve themselves, adjusting their activities to the conditions with whic.h they arc faced. Thus a check on the food supply is at once answered by a reduction or cessation of bret ding and bv general inactivity. Again, with only a small supplv of food in reserve, the colony will not build up in the spring until a honey flow is manifest. A stock abnormally without brood has bc(,11 known to last in this condition, maintain~ng a precarious exlstence whicll came suddenly to an end in about 12 months. Duties of Troder Bus 20. The schedule on following page gives the approximate periods of life which bees in an active colony in mid-season will devote to various purposes, and is mainly due to ROsch. 21, Ne"ertheless, in the complete absence of older bees, bees 5 and 6 days' old will gather water and nectar and build comb. Bees emerging too late to be required as nurses in the autumn can do good nursing in the spring months, but in the height of ~he season are of little use as nurses after 3 weeks, and bees 5 or 6 wetks' old, hardworked, cannot raise a Queen, 22. Bees engaged in one duty, say as water-gatherers, or as guards, will keep to that one duty for many days together, as will bees gatherinr; "'oney from a particular source, but the number so engaged

32 WORKER BEES 9 TABLE VI r\oltmal Dl'TIES OF WOlKER Bns IN REI.AlION TO AGr P~riod. First thrtt days. Third to sixth day. Fourth day. Sixth to te'ntn or fifteenth About seventh day. Eighth to sixteenth ]\;jnth to eightttnth Twelfth to eighteenth.. Fourteenth to twentieth About twenty-fifth Employer! in dc~lfling n:lb and incubation CommeOi'(' tn feed old larva', Fully developed stinging power Feeding yount! luvx First flight to U~ their wint!~ if weather S\l!tahle, but may occur as tarh- a!: the third. but normally' about the tcntl~. First receiw' honey and propo!ls ;Lnd polkn brought in by field workers. Ct'ase to act a.,> recciven< of goods Droug-ht ill. Engaged in wax-making. I First engaged as t:l1lraot'c guard, and in for~ aging for honey and pouen...,''''ieh artinties arc continued until dc;nh O("Cllr!l. Fif'$t engaged in gathering propohs. i~ changed continually according to rc9uiremcnts. It is believed that bees once engaged for several days as harvesters do not return to nursjng. Hive Tempera/urn 23. The temperature in the hive may be above or below that without. The bees raise the temperature by the consumption of food and lower it by the evaporation of moisture. The making,,[ temperature measurements requires expert knowledge if accuracy is required. Even an accurate thermometer will only give correct readings if the surrounding temperature is uniform and steady. Where temperatures vary in space or with time special knowledge is required. The figures given below should be taken as indicative and subject to modification with more precise observation and the usc of better apparatus. 24. If a bee's temperature is reduced below 4-50 F. (t C.) its life is endangered. Bees will fly with a shade temperature of 45 F., but only ill the sunshine and at considerable risk. Within the hive the bees form a duster in cold weather to maintain their temperature within safe limits, with a minimum consumption of food. The cluster is packed closer and closer as the temperature &lis (956). The cluster is formed if the bee's temperature falls to about 57 F. (14 C.), the temperature outside being perhaps 48 F. When the outside temperature rises to about 45 to 50 F. ill the shade, activity

33 10 WORKERS, DRONES AND QUEENS commences and Righrs may occur for dearing the bowel and later for fetchinf:!, wa.ter, then pohen and nectar, as conditions improve. 25. The working temperature in the hive for general duties is from, say, 6e" to tl;" F., averaging 70" F. (21,- C.), hut higher temperatures arc neccssa.ry for deposition of {_'ggs, care of brood a.nd wa..,,<-building. F~g-la\'in;: requires a temperature of 85' F. to 93' F. (29~-34 C.). '1'h(.' normal tempnature in cells containing worker lan'~ is in the neighbourhood of 92" F. (331 C) and possibly I' F, lower in drone cc1h., After scaling, a lower temperature is pcrmissiblt"l and it mar fall to 80 F. (26 0 C.) without injury to emcrg:ing br{)()d. 26. A temperature of 95' to 98' F. (35'-37' C) is required for wax secretion, but sustained temperatures of 98 F. upwards (3i O C) arc fatal to brood, especially if much moisture is prc'sent. 27. During swarming: a general temperature of about 95 F. (35" C.) is reached. Serious disturbance in the hive may cause a local temperature as high as 1030 F. (40" C). If through exposure to sunshine or other cause the temperature approaches I 40r, F. (6o C C.) collapse of combs and other serious trouble mar be confidently expected. Drones Utility of Drones 28. It is belic\'cd that the sole useful purpose of the drone is that of fertilizing the queen, which, as a rule, is done once only, during the marriage flight, after which the drone dic's. Droneraising commences before queen cells are built, drone eggs being laid generally 2 or 3 weeks earlier than eggs are laid in queen cells. Thousands of drones are produced. The reasons for this are not fully understood. The strongest and best fliers will alone catch the queen. It is likely also that the numerous drones flying around while the queen is out greatly reduce the chance of her being snapped up by birds (see also 1360). Polme! of Drones 29. Drones fly from the hive within a week alter emerging but cannot fertilize the queen until the twelfth or fourteenth day. Black drones are generally stronger Riers than thl: Italian. L()cattrm of Drones in the Hive 30. In the hive, drones are generally found on the outside of the brood cluster where the honey is, and where they are out of the way of those engaged in the business of brood-raising.

34 QUEENS Drones will be admitted into any hive that will tolerate the presence, of drones, thus considerable drifting takes place. Strange drones will be found frequently in a hive containing a \'irgin queen. Start-'ation of Drones 31. Drones are driven out to die on signs of a serious short;lgc of fix){.!. l~()wards the close of thl' summer season, when there is no ChalKl: of starting. new colonies, th<.:v arc driven out cyt'n from hin'~ well stocked with food, hut cxccpt ioll is mild" in ca.<;(' the hive is queenless. Yen' strong stocks han', howcn'r, heen ohserved to suffer the presence of a few drones in the wimer. Reduction of Drones 32. If left to themselves, bees will raise many thousands of drones. This is most wasteful and should be pr~vented by the use of worker foundation and certain details of management (255 and 1061). It is) howcl-'cr, good to ler each colony ra.ise ~omc drones as bees arc apparentjy uneasy if they have none and arc liable to tear down good worker comb to start drone-breeding. II Quems Gmeral 33. The main business of the queen is egg-laying, ller capacity to do so being controlled by the extent of the food given her by the worker bees. The queen alone destroys rival queens, but whether she is permitted to do so depends upon the worker bees. It is doubtful if the queen exercises any control at all in the hive. Queens take no part in the other activities of the hive, but have been observed modifying a queen cell to their liking before laying therein. The queen flies for mating when about 5 to 8 days old, if the weather be favourable. A quiet day with shade temperature above 60' F. (16 0 C.) is desirable. A queen is rarely mated successfully after the twentieth day. If mated at all she is liable to fail early. Such queens are not to be trusted and should not be sold, or, indeed, any not mated in 16 days. 34. The queen normally commences to lay on the second day after mating. She may commence as early as 36 hours after mating. She may be dela,ed to the third day, or later by cold. It is said that if mated late in the year, just before a cold spell, she may be delayed even until the early spring. Generally in favourable weather, the queen will be found laying 10 days after emerging, but she may lay on the seventh day. 35. The queen leaves the hive fvr mating or to go with a swarm.

35 12 WORKERS, DRONES AND QUEENS She will make a few short excursions to familiariz,e herself with the location of her home before leaving for the mating Bight, If there are but few drones about she may make several Rights before heing mated. Queens have been observed to make a second mating Right after th(> first mating, and presumably on account of the first marin!! being: imperft:ct, perhaps insufficient. A well-mated queen should he capable of laying, say, 1 S million eggs. 36. A queen returns to the home colony after rh{' mating Right. If sh(. misst'~ her way and ft'achcs a strange hive) she will almost certainly he destroyed and cast out. When a hive is opened the qu<:'cn cncie:h'ours more or less actively to hide hcrseje. Queens (if some strains are most SUCCC<.i::.ful in hiding) a most incnnvenient charactcrisril". Others stay quiet on rhe combs. 37. T'lle queen bee has a long cun'cd sting which, with very rare exceptions, she usc's only to dl"stroy rival queens. \\-Then a Hew queen is about ready to emerge from its cell the old queen may be hcord piping, calling pc-e-ep, pe-e-ep, pe-ep, pe-ep, peep, to which the ri\'al queen utters a reply of a rougher tone described as: guahk, qljahk, quahk, Points of a Good Queen 38. A good queen should be large and active with long deep abdomen, not wide and Rattish, or short and blunt, The abdomen is, of course, smaiier in a virgin or in a fertile queen not in futi lay. 111 the Italian variety the colour should not be too yellow and there should be but little darkening at the tail. In a hybrid more colour will show on the tail and back, The whole queen may be darker, more (opper-coloured or ('''en b1ack with copper-coloured rings on the segments, In the black races colour will be found only in the legs and perhaps one ring of the abdomen, Purity of strain shown by uniformity of character of offspring is also a valuable feature. Egg Layillg and Droelopment 39. After successful mating, a vessel in the queen's body, called the spermatheca, is found charged with the male element, spermatozoa, The eggs laid in drone cells do not receive the male dement; thus the drones hatching from them are derived from the queen and her ancestry alone, and are unaffected by the race or qualities of the drone with which the queen has. mated. All eggs laid in worker cells and in queen cells, except those Izid by a failing queen, are, however, fertilized at the time of laying, by the male element, a spermatozoan entering the egg as it is laid, through a minute orifice at the upper end, which orifice closes shortly afterwards. The eggs laid in queen and worker cells are identical, their

36 QUEENS 13 de,"elopmcnt into queens or workers depending entirely on th,',ftn treatment of the lan'a". Queerl IanTz are ted entirely on royal jelly, a hif:hly concentrated and nourishing food produced by young (physiologically young) worker b('("s (17), while worker larva' recein' fi)od of the same character only llntit the third day, dlirilll!; and after which theit diet is changed to ~ mixture of honey 'diluted ~ith water and pollen. An unmated queen lays after a whik, but dwill" eggs only. " Royal Jelly " 40. The royal jelly is believed to be a p:landular secretion ()f, the nurse bees. That fed to worker larvir in the tirst 3 days is, r[(her in proteins and contains less fat than the avt'rag:c fcd to qucl'tl larva-. rrhat fed to drone lan'a: contains more prott:ins and fat and Ie-s5 sugar. Raff 0/ Layil1g '41. Queens have been observed laying 6 eggs per minute which is at the rate of 7,200 per day) but probably 5,000 is a maximum for sustainl'd laying. Queens are frequently met with laying 3,000 per day for 2 I days or more, but 2~OOO is a good performance for the period of heaviest laying and represents a maximum colony of 84-,000 bees on an average effective lift: of 6 weeks (sec 18). 42. The following table shows the approximate number of combs required in the brood chamber, according to the average continuous daily rate of laying of the queen. Combs. in CXCl'SS of the upper figure provide unnecessary storage room, whije the minimum number represents a certain amount of crowding: TABLE VII NUMBER OF FRAMES IN BROOD CHAMBER IN RELATION TO EGC-LAYING CAPACITY OF QUEEN Su~tained Dally British Modified Lnlgstroth. Briti~h Deep. Average. Standard.- Dadant. --~-.-- "----~ i , "';; 5"';; 4-5 1,5 0 & "';; 2, &-'0 7--<) ,5CQ ""2 9"''' &-,0 3, ll-l "''' 3, , & tz.-i 5 5, The frame here assumed is one with a I-inch top bar.

37 16 WORKERS, DRONES AND QUEENS but the queen should rhen be caged for a time and the condition of the stock seen to. 50. To avoid balling make the minimum of disturbance in the spring, making any necessary full examination when honey is coming in or after feeding, and stop if signs of balling occur. The more excitable dark races are the most likely to ball their queen. Finding thl Q,mn 51. Queens of the yellow races and hybrid queens are always li!!hter in colour than the worker bees and are thus more readily distinguished than those of the dark races. In the latter there r.. very little colour difference and the principal feature to look for is the long abdomen extending well beyond the wing-tips, and for colour in the legs. With dark bees especially it is of assistance to mark the queen (60 to 63). 52. The queen is most readily found in the middle of the morning when many of the bees are foraging. Open the hive quietly after' using only a little smoke and pausing a minute or two. Remove an outside comb or two so that the others may be well separated, then examine one by one, looking first on the face which was covered just before removal, and while lifting out one comb glance at the face just exposed of the next. The queen will probably be found on a comb in which eggs are being laid, so give special attention to combs with vacated cells and young brood. The queen endeavours to keep out of sight away from the light, and if disturbed or frightened, may hide amongst the bees, or around the edge of the comb between the comb and frame. 53. The presence and activity of the queen may generally be judged by examining the brood and eggs, and it is not necessary to see the queen herself. If, however, she must be found and this proves troubjesome" remove and examine the combs one at a time, putting them into a spare body. Examine also the empty hive in case the queen is hiding amongst bees on the wails. If the queen is not found, shake the bees off two or three combs into the spare body and return these combs to the hive and cover with excluder with an empty body or super on top. Shake all the bees on to the excluder and watch for the queen, who cannot go down. Finally, return all the combs in their original order. 54. In a large and difficult stock with daek queen, insert a frame of foundation and 3 to 4- days later open quietly and separate the frames away from this and then lift it out at once. The queen will most probably be found'upon it. If not, then next search the combs on either side. 55. Another and more effective device is to put one selected



40 17 frame with emerging brood into a hiv(, body placed at a distance and fill up with frames with foundation or starters and shake in all the bees. The old bees will Av to the 01,1 stand and old brood. Next day the quet:n will be foul~d on the selected \.:ofhb. Alternatively, place the bod)' with queen and bees PVCf an ('xduder on the old bod\' until the second day. ~rhe tirst method should onlv be used wh;n nights are warm a~ll.l involvcs risk to the brood. ' Catching and Holding a Quem 56. The queen should be held h, the thorax between tin:,:cr and thumb, taking cart' not to press upon the abdomen. Queen forceps at(, sold, so made that undue pressure cannot be applit. d. Again, the 9ueen n1.1..'" be persuaded to walk into an empt,'" match-box Of queen cage, or a pipe-cage may be placed over her and a card slipped underneath (see also 58-9 and 61).. Clipping the Quem', "Ving 57. This is sometimes done as a method of mark in;;, but luore ;i!! generally, to prcrenr the queen Rring with ;l swarm. If the dipped queen follows the swarming bees she falls to the grouml ncar the hive, where she will be found unless perchance destroyed by an enemy or unless she has crept back into the hive. The bees, finding themsch'cs queenless, will return to the hive, and the beekeeper being informed of the attempt to swarm, will take steps to deal with the matter (1404). Failing means of notification, the beekeeper must periodically.examine all hives for preparations for swarming The bees, however, are liable to take things into their own hands and supersede the queen, in which case the swarm will issue later and be lost. The use of this practice is fast diminishing, other methods of swarm control and of marking (60) being preferred. 58. If, however, it be desired to clip the queen, she should be lifted in the right hand by the thorax, taking Care not to press on, or otherwise injure, the abdomen. She is then transferred to the left hand, the left thumb being placed under the thorax and the forefinger above. Held in this position the wings and abdomen project away from the finger and thumb. About one-half the area of wing on one side is then removed with a small sharp scissors, cutting mainly from the thin portion and avoiding the thick part of the back rib of the wing, and, of.o;ourse, the legs. To further mark the queen, queens raised in years ending with an even number may have the left wing cut, and the right wing of those emerging in odd years. 59. Another method of holding the queen is to let her walk on to any convenient surface and hold her down by means of a small forked stick having fine elastic stretched acr06ll the fork. The queen is Il.B. C

41 WORl'~ RS, DRONES AND QUEENS 1 under tl1<" elastic p",ing,across the back of the thorax. Or, again, he queen is caused to walk on a surface sticky with honey, she slowlv alit! lift her win~ in an effort to get free, and they I ~o,y then be cut. far/.:iur tht' QUNII boo A di,till;ui,hing. mark may be put on a queen so that she av \1<" re"elilv found. Wing.-clipping. is 'caccelv adequate for this."pose. In the races with yellow markin~s and even in hybrids om them, the queen usuallv has sufficientlv \.lrgc or prominent light,arkil\~s on the abdomen to enable her to be readily detected. 1:1 he ca;e of black bees, however, the queen is fr~quently hardlv listinguishabk bv colour and is also generallv more shy. It is "cful, therefore, to mark all black queens with a brightlv coloured,>atch on the thorax. When wing-clipping is practised (57) the wing cut mav be used as an indicati0l1 (,f year of birth. When coloured markin'gs arc used, the same result is ~ot by using. each colour for one ycar and cmploying two or three colours in rotation. 61. The queen must be held (56) for marking and long enoug.h for the colour to become dry. 1 have seen worker bees remove gold paint immediately after ;ts application. For a regular user of dark bees a cotwenicnt device for marking is a cage like a pipe-cag.e, but with a flat cover of open mcsh netting or open wire gau7>e by which the bee may be held down. A wire fork may be used having an clastic thread across it near the prongs. The pron~ arc thrust into the comb on either side of the queen with the thread across her back, not prcssing on the abdomen. The place to mark is the middle bl. of Colotlted the thora.x. sealing-wa.x is frequently used, dissolved in rectified spirit to the consistencv of cream, but if ether is used as a solvent the paint will drv more quickly. Some of the enamels sold, made with a celluloid medium, the solvent being amyl acetate (smelling of pear.drops), are also good and quick driers. Ordinary enamel paints are of no use, they dry too slowly, but some of the gold and silver paints arc good, those known as " Ardenbrite," for example Good results arc also obtained with Canada balsam dissolved in xylo and coloured with powdered coloured chalk or other convenien pigment. E>'l'eriment first on a worker bee. 63. The German-Swiss beekeepers employ a \irillian t mal k whic can be seen even with, the light that shines down between comb This is obtained by fastening a piece of coloured bright tinfoil the queen'. back. Shellac varnish made up with rectified spirit used, bjth th..- and foil being painted and brought together wh.k_ ""rnish is tacky. The fnil should first be moulded somewl

42 QUEENS 19 convex so that the edges may be readily secured WitllOU! undue pressure. The bright convex surface catches the light and appears to shine like a small lamp. Lou ()f Queell! and iii DeI~tti()!l 64. ~rh(' Joss of rhe queen is a S('rious matter. Work in the hin> is brought sometime:.. ncarly to a standstill, Brood-noaTing ceasl's. The population rapidly dwindles. 'rill' death of a qm'cil may occur through: (a) Crushing during careless manipulation; (b) Balling (see 48 to 50) after manipulation; (,) Destruction or Joss of direction during mating- flight; (d) Dt."Struction on returning to the wrong hive; (e) Old age. A queen failing of old age will, however, be superseded by the bee, and then destroyed. 65. The internal signs of queenlessnes> are absence of eggs and young brood at a time when such would be expected to be present. Moreover) on opening or disturbing the hive, quct.'ni{ ss bet s make- a distinctive "' roar H of distress which should be particularly noted. Presence of eggs may, however,) be due to the presence ()f a laying worker, following: quecnlessness (94). 66. Other external and internal signs of loss of queens arc the following: (aj Bees running over the flight board and front of the hive seeking or awaiting the queen. This is set:n,luring,he mating Bight or an hour or morc after the removal of a queen by the apiarist, or on a swarm returning without queen. (b) Drones retained when they hal'e been destroyed in other hives. This is one of the common<.. 'St external signs, but is not con~ elusive as very strong stocks have been known to tolerate a few drones out of season. (c) Bees listless and idling when other stocks are busy. This, however, may be caused by discase. It is, thus, a sign calling for examination of the stock. A careful beekeeper will keep a look out for qucenlcssncss, especially about swarming and mating,ime, and again, when closing down for the winter. Tn! for Qu""lnm:n 67. If the hive is thought to be queenlcss, the apiarist will take steps to remedy the defect, or if the stocle is much depleted he will unite it with another. Following the above signs, the apiarist may be reasonably sure of queenlessness, but before introducing a valuable

43 WORKERS, DRONES AND QUEENS :en a final and conclusive test is desirabl<~. A comb contatnini!, ching 'Kg;; should be introduced from another hive, care being :C!l to avoid chill If no queen is present, then on examining this mb three davs later, shaking off the bees, queen celb will be found Irtcd. l~lw queen may then be introduced. The l.:omb with cells Hted should he rcmnn d at the same timt.'.. Failure, howt.'ycr, to lilt! cdb in such a comb docs not absolutely pron." that a queen is ~csent, as thi!oi failure mily be' due to the pn.."scnce of a laying worker }4) whose activitie!'. ~h()uld be ~ought for. Do not, however, ntroducc a valuable Guccn unless queen cells are built, unless, pf oursc', there is other proof of qut'cnicssness, a:., for example, WhClf he beekeeper himself has just removed the queen. R'-qutfn;ng 68. The queen is the most important thing in beekeeping. What the bees will be and do depends upon what the queen is. Even in the best strains queens vary greatly. A queen that is doin[: badly from any cause should be replaced at once. In comparing queens, however., it is necessary to take into consideration the size of the colonies. A weak colony nc\tt develops as fast as a strong one (1087). 69. \Vh(.'11 the performance of a stock is below the average of the year, the queen should not be retained for a second season. Some beekeepers r''-qucen every year, but the best queens of I year's ser.. vice will average better in the following year than the new ones, SO the beekeeper may c"-peet to keep one out of every four or ii"e to advantage for a second ycar unless he has very proli fie strains. \Vith the dark races a greater proportion may be kept. In warm climates, however, where breeding is almost continuous throughout the year, it is best to re-queen every year. 70. It is not easy to raise good queens very early or late in the season, and late queens are apt to be thrown out in the spring. Th, best time for re-queening is generally several weeks before the hone) flow ceases (see howeyer Section XI). \I,'hen there are two flow queens may be raised between them. Queens raised in nuci, during the late /low can be introduced by uniting the nucleus t the colony to be re-queened after the flow has ceased and stimulatir the queen to continue laying (1248 to 1252). Such queens w lay later than queens introduced in mid-summer or before and a less likely to swaru;l the next spring. 71. Nevertheless, with some good non-swarming, long-ii, strains of even quality, superseding is left, to advantage, largely to I btu themselves. More superseding occurs than is known to b L... who do not mark their queens.

44 QUEENS When destroying a queen some b""keepers Ict the bees smell her, believing that they thus become more quickly aware of their statt: of quecnjessncss. 73. Except when a queen in fu111av is imroduc( d then' is alwan. risk on re-queening, \.vhethcr with a q~('('n or a quc'en cdl, of qtle~n cells being raised and swarming following" unlt'ss th(.'rc arc no eggs present and no young brood. Introduction of a Local Queen 74. Before introducing a fll'w qtlct:n the old QUl'('!1 should be deposed. A flcwquccn in lay may be introduced dircctly from another colony (stock or nucleus) without any precaution, if the fc'ceiving colony is in a prosperous state with hom. ~, (or fnod) coming in and the transfer is made straight from the ()ne colony to the other. ft is best to ptacc the new-comer on the Same place Oll the same comb from which the previous queen was removed. The mo,t hopeful way of introducing a qu(>cn into a hi,'c having: laying workers is to introduce a queen in full lay straight of!" a comb from another hive (see also 103). Introduction of Travelled Que", 75. As a rule, the queen to be introduced cannot he taken straight out of another colony, but has to be brought from a dista.nce in a queen cage so that she is not rcady to lay immediately and is liable to a mixed reception. To ()\:crcomc this a number of precautions are necessarv as detailed in the remainder of this section. 76. The first requirement is that the bet s must be aware of their qucenless condition. They are then in a favourable condition, and especially from 6 to 12 hours after removal of the old queen. After a while, however, they plan to raise queen cells and are then on, say, the second day, less favourably disposed. After the cells are well started they are again in a favourable state, say from the third day, but the cells started must all be destroyed before introduction ( ). If, however, the bees have been Icli: queenless for more than 10 days they may even have raised a new queen; a virgin may be at large in the hive. This state is quite unfavourable. If, however, the bees have been long without a queen or hope of raising one, this again is a relatively favourable state. It is well, however, to test for quec~ness (67) a colony suspected of being in this state, as they may have a defective queen, which would produce an unrnvourable condition. A colony may be brought into a favour. able state by the temporary removal of all young brood and egg> when the queen is removed. Brood removed may be put into a body stood on top of the hive and united later when the queen is

45 22 WORKERS, DRONES AND QUEENS well established. No flying becs need be lost. The brood frames should be examined and queen cells destroyed (1438-9). 77. The second requirement is that the bet.'s should be in a prosperous condition especiaily as far as food is concerned. Unless there is a honey flow on, the colonv should he fed slowlv for at least 2 days hefore" introducing the queen, and feeding c~ntinued for sen'raj days afterwards: in the spring until the honey is Rowing again j in autumn., until laying is web established, say, 5 to 7 days. It is hetter not to examine for 5 to 7 days. In an out apiary, it is dearly dt..~irablc to n. -queen during a boney Row Another important factor is the age of the bees. It is often not appreciated that emerging bees cannot feed a queen. Young hees do not normally produce royal jelly until the fifth day. A new ljut'cn is most readily accepted by young: bees not more than 10 days old. l'he next most favourable age is over 30 days old, but there should be amongst them bees which) through gueenlcssness, did not exercise their nursing functions (21). It is the bees from II to 29 days old, bees well able to build queen cells and in no desperate need of a nt'w queen, that cause the difficulties. Introductiofl of (.l Firgin Queen 79. The introduction of a virgin queen presents especial difficulty. She suffers under all the disadvantages of being a stranger, and of making no immediate demand upon the sympathy or services of those who later would attend her. A virgin normally arri, cs in the hive as a newly hatched queen, and when introduced from without is most readily accepted if under 24 hours old, the younger the better. I t is always easier to introduce a ripe queen cell, however) than a "irgin queen. If the virgin is older than 24 hours it is desirable to make up an artificial swarm by shaking bees of all agcs in front of a hive containing empty combs and one of brood unsealed and either drop her amongst the bees as they are run into the hive, or alternativelv, shake the bees off several combs into a well-ventilated body or box, with food and water; an empty hive with empty combs except for some honey and water, may be used; when the bees have roared for an hour, run in the virgin through a small hole. The bees are then hived as a swarm (1497 to 1501) and after the queen has been fertilized (242,t stq.), and is laying, the lot may be united to the colony requiring the queen or built up as ~ new stock. A young virgin may,)lowever, be introduced into a colony having nearly ripe queen cells, preferably by the method described in 86. Us< of N,IHlna,;p glum llfirodmctitm 80. From the above it will be seen that a favourable condition

46 QUEENS 23 for queen introduction can best be produced in a colony prepared for the- purpose. A nucleus may be formed of three or four combs, including one mainly of emerging brood and one of uns~il!l'j stores and pollen, but without egg,; or youn~ brood. The nudeus is brought into a prosperous condition by slow fceding and warm packing. The old bees will return to the parent hive. If the colony is prosperous before the nucl<:u!, is fi)rmed, then the qw.'cn can be introduced a few hours aftl'r formation) {{>('din!!, hl'ing continued as above. Alternatively, the nucleus can lx fcd for 3 days, au qut't.'u cells then destr()\,cd ( ) and the Guccn introduced, but there should be no e&-,as or young Jan;r in the nucleus on this thjrd Jay. In either case, when forming the nucleus, the reignitlt: (iuccn must b(~ found and the' comb on which she is mllst be set aside while forming the nuc1('us, and then returned to the parent hive. 'The nuclt us method is the best for fe-queening during a late boney flow, the nucleus being united with the parent stock later (Section XV). ll4ethod, of Queen Introduction 81. Several methods of carrying out the introduction of a queen to a strange colony are described below, of which the first is in most common usc, and the two first are generally to be preferred. 'The act is not difficult or risky provided the more imp()rtant conditions above indicated have been observed. In purchasing a valuable breeding queen it is better to have her jn the nucleus in which she emerged and either unite this with a colony (S<'Ctio11 XV) or build it up into one. It is better to introduce queens in the evening than during the more active period of the day. Use of Travelling Queen Cage 82. The travelling cage in which queens are shipped with attendant bees is closed on one side with wire gauze and furnished with an exit, plugged with candy and covered with card or mctal at the outer end. The usuaj plan, on receipt, is to remove the card or other cover off the candy and any cover Oller the wire gauze and to insert the cage on top of the frames in the hive, so that the bees have a<:cess to the queen through the wire gauze and access to the candy. In a day or two they will release the queen by obtaining access through re"'oval of the candy. The Latham cage is improved by the addition of a second exit furnished with a snorter plug of candy and a queen excluder formed of two pins or pierced metal. The bees obtain access first through the short passage and can pass in and out only one at a time and thus come in contact gradually with the queen.

47 24 WORKERS, DRONES AND QUEENS 83. It is desirable to remove the attendants before using the cage if there is any risk of Acarine disease. Experience shows that the risk of unsuccessful introduction is reduced by their removal. 'Thert.: is no fcar of the queen being starved so long as the bees in the hive can rt:ach her. '[0 remove the attendants, wait until the queen is in thl: middle portion of the cage ami prevent her return hy inserting: pins., then let out the attendants then in the end compartment. Remove a pin and when the bees are conveniently redistributed, insert pin and repeat release. Repeat again if any workers remain. 84. ~rhc abov{' method of releasing the queen from a cage is uncertain as to time and manner, and some prefer to release the queen by hand. In this ca.se, all attendants must be removed and the exit should remain covered and the cage left in position for 4- or 5 days. At the end of that time open the cover and let the queen walk on to a fram,' of emerging brood. If well received she is safe, hut if a bet' gets on her back, return her to the cage for a second attempt a day or two later. This method jnvolves more attention, but reduces the risk of failure to a negligible quantity. 85. A good cage should have the candy chamber and exit coated with wa.x and the exit coi'ered with a waxed card, as the bare wood absorbs moisture too readily from the candy and is apt to make it too hard (for Candy-making sec ). Six attendant bees are enough to look after the queen. Some use more to act as a buffer and prevent injury to the queen in case the cage be dropped in transit. A queen in cage equipped as above can travel safely for as much as 10 days, but for such a journey, a laying queen should be put in a nucleus for not less than 24 hours to reduce her laying before she is put in the queen cage. Direct Introduction 86. This method, due to Simmins, gives excellent results even in difficult cases, and is dependable if properly carried out and if the general conditions outlined above are made favourable. The queen is separated from all attendants and food for 30 minutes before insertion, which should be done just after dusk. Put the queen in a clea.n odourless receptade which has not' been used before, such as a testtube with ventilated cork or a tubular queen cage, witho!ll; food, and in a warm place, such as the vest pocket. Approach t1ie hive quietly and open without vibration. Use a minimum of light, shining across the top of hive. Fold back one corner of the q\li!t at ~ point, if possible, remote from the cluster, then immediatcly and ~,!et ti)i:, l1ueen ~~ in. Close down a.nd leave all for 3 or +

48 Use of Pipt Cagt QUEENS 87. The method last described" good for home us( where tht beekeeper does not care to act as in 73. Alrcrnativdy, the queen (.. caged in a pip<.~ cage, so called, which is thrust into the sur{;l.c!.: of a comb, and the bees have to eat ht'r out. I t is, however) lx'st to cut ;1 hole in the comb first and fill it with candy (1275-7), and in"'rt tht cage ovcr it. l\1cthods 73 and 86 are more convenient and inl-'oivt.: no material10ss of egg-laying. 'Ire of fpater or Honey for Introduction 88. The queen is soused with wat<:r or hon(~y and water, and dropped into the midst of the bees, whu atteno to het at once and shl' acquires their scent during the procc'ss. The Sndgrnvc procedure is as follows: Put the queen in an empty match-box. Fill with luke-warm water near the hive. Empty the box forthwith and tif the wet queen amongst the bees. Honey is used in a similar way. A spoon or cup is used containing a teaspoonful of warm water and honey. The queen is thoroughly immersed (avoiding; all pressure on the abdomen) and the whole lot is poured into the duster oj bees. Use of Artificial Swarm 89. A queen may be added to an artificial swarm made up from a queenless stock. For example, shake most of the bees on to th(' alighting board or an extension of it as when hiving a swarm (1398). As soon as the bees commence to run in, drop the queen into tht.: midst of them and she will run in with the bees. Introduction Through Scrnn 90. The queen and attendants may be introduced to a come of emerging bees placed between two combs of stores arranged ave! a wire screen over a strong colony which supplies the heat. Afte! a few days the comb with queen laying and young attendants may In inserted in the colony below. When using this method, it is essenti., that the attendants be left with the queen as the newly emergcj bees cannot feed her. When the cage is in position and the coverin ready to place over it, remove the end cover to make a hole in Ih, candy. that the bees have a direct exit. If tire screen elflployed has a controlled orifice (869), this may be opened to let the bees below become acquainted with the queen above. Quem Ran in at Entranct 91. A queen may be run in at the entrance of a recently queen-

49 z6 WORKERS, DRONES AND QUEENS less stock in the spring during a honey Row, especially a queen in full lay. Introduction of Fir gins 92. Virgins arc difficult to introduce (see 79). \\'ith many strains introduction by queen cage is not satisfactory, the risk of a bad reception being too great. Home-raist..~d virgins should be fertilized bet,"e introduction (342 tt uq.), or introduced before Jeaving their cells. Two QUNns jn Onr Colony 93. As a rule, a qut.~en will kill any rival in the same colony unless prevented by the worker bel's. Bees about to swarm will prevent the queen from killing a rival which may have emerged before the swarm has been able to leave. \Vith some strains a failing queen may be found in the same colony as her daughter raised t~ supersede her, both laying. 'rwo queens may lay in two colonies in the same hive, the brood nests separated only by a comb or two or by a super, but there is always a great risk of battle unless the queens are separated by a queen excluder board with two layers of excluder so that the queens cannot reach each other. Such a hive should be worked with a double entrancc, i.c. an ea"tra entrance to the upper portion, which can be cut into the excluder board (see also 842). Laying Workers General 94. If some strains of bees are left queenless and without any means of raising a queen, for a period of 7 days or more, a number of the worker bees experience a development of their ovaries and in 7 to 15 days evidence may be found of workers laying in the brood nest. The darker races appear to be more disposed than the lighter races and the less domesticated than the more domesticated. Within a month, in a bad case, most of the workers will be found under dissection to show some lje,'e1oprnent of the pr"'iously atrophied ovaries. r t has been found that bees that have reached the full development of their nursing glands (which requires pollen) can del ellil' their ovaries on a sugar diet without further pollen. 95. Recent observations have shown that in a colony troubled with Jaying workers there are large numbers of worker bees hal'ing ovaries developed above the normal, though not to the laying stage. Further, it has been found that the ovarial development in worker bees reg;ns'w show as soon as the laying of the queen passes its maxi-

50 LAYING WORKERS mum or is seriously checked in other ways. That is to say, the development of prospective laying workcrs commenct's simultan('ollsly with the reduction of the duties of the nurse bees. Further, it has been shown that in a colony showing a large percentage of abnormally developed workers, the provision of excess hrood at onre checks the development, and, if continued, results in the reduction of the number of bees showing such development, tht' reduction lx:ing apparently too fast to be accounted for by death and feplacement, st't'ing that it is young het's that show the development in question A faying worker is indistinguishable from a normal worh'r in outward appearances and behaviour. Laying workers arc, therefore, very difficult to find. Laying workers show similar characteristics in th(~ir laying to those of a badly failing queen. They lay more or less irregularly and sometimes more than one egg in a cell and all the eggs laid produce drones only; these drones are undersized. --fht worker cells arc found capped with the convex capping characteristic of drone cells (287). The workers may even endeavour to raist' queen cells from the eggs, thus further deceiving the beekeeper, hut the inmates remain sealed for 14- days after scaling instead of 6, and are often destroyed before the full 24- days arc completed. Destruction of Laying IVorkers 97. Laying workers generally cease their attempts, or arc stopped by the workers, when a laying queen has been accepted, hut in a strain prone to the devclopment of laying worker; they may appear at swarming time. Furthermore, a colony having laying workers is most unfriendly to a strange queen, and especially to one of an alien race. Introduction is frequently unsuccessful, but the following procedures, if carefully followed, are generally succes;ful. Choose the middle of the morning for the operation. 98. In a mild case such as more generally occurs with the yellow races, a method of direct introduction often succeeds and saves much time. It consists in taking a vigorous queen of the same race in full lay directly off the comb in which she is laying and putting her at oncc on a comb taken from the hive containing the laying worker or workers. The stock should first be fed for at least 24- hours unless honey is coming in, and well smoked. 99. In a rruld bse in which young bees are still emerging, or were emerging within a day or two, feed the be"" as before, then give a queen cell, or better still, a comb of emerging bees with queen cell. If a separate queen cell is given, it should be furnished with a wire guard. Insert the ccli or comb between frames of young bees In a more severe case, take the hive A to a distant stand

51 '28 WORKERS, DRO~ES AND QUEENS in the afternoon after feeding the bees in the morning. Plac(' an empty hive B on tho old,tand. Lift the combs one at a time from A, shaking or hrushing the bees into A until not a single one is left on the combs and transf(:f the combs to B, save that one frame containing egg- should be lef, in A. Close down A and proceed '0 re-queen B~ prc ferably by direct introduction (86). The active laying worker; will make for the comb left in A, and the flying bees will return to B. l\1any potential laying workers may return to B, but the colony is disorganized and will generally settle down with the new queen. If long:. disorganized, it is better to place a comh of emer,?:ing bees in B. After the queen is laving, the bees left temporarily in A may be united with those in B A colony containing laying workers may be united wi,h a s'rong colony containing a fertile queen by the newspaper method ( ), putting the defective colony on top of the other If the colonv is mueh diminished and consists of bees of flying age, feed them well with honey syrup, then break up,he colony, shaking the becs off the combs in the height of the day and removing the hive. The bees will eventually find their way into other colonies where they will be welcomed as honey-bearers. Suggested Methods of Suppressio" 103. In the light of recent research referred to in 95, it would appear that the abnormal development of ovaries in underworked nurse bees may be «'<luced by gi"ing them heavy nursing duties, and further, that the nurse bees in such a stock, though old in days, need not be physiologicallv old, i.e. if they have been relieved from nursing duties they mav still be able to do good duty as nurses. It would appear, therefore, nor only a wise plan to give any such stock two or three frames of eggs with some very young brood a few days prior to any other treatment, but it is suggested that a bad case might even be restored to normal if given a full comb of eggs every 2 to 3 days for, say, 2 weeks and a ripe queen cell with the last or last but one frame of eggs. The laying workers have to take cleansing Rights, thus by exchanging the position of the hive with a normal stock the laying workers would probably lose their way on flying. RattS and Strains of Bus Gtntral 104. The average Italian bee differs less from the average Carniolan, British, French or other leading race than does the worst be.. in any of these races from the best of the same race. Exper-

52 RACES AND STRAINS OF BEES ienced beekeepers write about French bees as evil tempered, Carniolans as inveterate swarmcrs, Dutch bees as grey, and so forth, yet others have French bees of the most tractable, wr1liolan that do not swarm excessirelv, and Dutch bees bandt d with colour. Som(' indication is given below of the general cxpericikl' with bt't's (If different races, and particulars of noteworthy ditf(:f('nr('~, hut tlw purchaser must beware. The more imp()rt~nt l'haractt'ristil.''s arc, therefore, discussed before races, and tht purchaser ~hould sc(:k what he wants by performance rather than by race Beekeepers arc a friendly people so Jonf!; as dt(')' are not a\1pcaring in the torrespond('nce colijmns of certain journals, and ~1 little inquiry amongst those in your neighbourhood will!.how what cah be bought to advantage. Bees should not be imported from a warm climate for use in a latitude of 60'\ although rhl're ar< bees ill the Hebrides which can be wintered out of doors without heavy packing. On the other hand, those hardy bt"" adapted to the local. conditions would make a bad showing in the south of Spain, where there is again a local strain which gives a good return. The return, after all, js the principal thing. Buy from a succes,o;;ful holll:y producer, or from one who supplies to successful honey producers. Fancy names, fancy colours and funcy pedigrees are uuimportant. Points of a Good Strain 106. The principal characteristic required of a strain of bees is the ability to make a good harvest over a period of years. This, then, is the supreme test of quality. It is frequently obsen'cd that the colony making the heaviest return is not the one with the most bees. The prolific races are most useful where there is a sure large harvest. In a region where the climate is hard and uncertain the strajn required is one adapted to and prol.'cn under such conditions. In particular districts length of tongue (sec 14-15) may be a contributing cause of good harvests Stamina, power to resist unfavourable conditions of wind and weather, cold and damp, and especially disease, giving a long effective life, is a most important characteristic contributing to a good average harvest per colony. Stamina is transmitted by heredity, but may be injured by disease and by inbreeding too closely A characteristic of the first importance, both to the professional and the amateur beekeeper, is manageability. The bees should be gentle and quiet and responsive to good management. Some are nervous and run over the combs, ball the q.ueen, and sting the operator and other living things within a considerable distance. Others are almost stationary on the combs under examination; can be handled almost like tlies and, when well managed, are indifferent

53 30 WORKERS, DRONES AND QCEENS to the presence of quiet strangers and animals. All becs require good management. Only some respond quickly and with reasonable certainty to the beekeeper's aims and manipulations. Only some answer quickly to t~hangc of drcumstanc:e$. t09. Bees which arc untidy builders, producing irregular combs, much brace and burr comb, and employing more than a little propolis, arc ohjcctionablc-. Propolis ;~, however, a natural sealing medium used in c(lntrouing ventilation and non-propolizcrs nccd the assistance of good and careful packing above the brood n{._~t in cold weather A tenoency to produce laying- workers is a great nuisance to the practical beekeeper Lastly, there is to be considered the swarming propensity. If considerable, it is bad in all conditions as with such bel's it is. h("cs, not hotjc'y, that is the main product of their activities. "There ~_rc, however, two styles of managcm('nt, in one of which the aim is to avoid swarming altogether, whl'fcas the other requirt"s it. The beebuyer must be guided accordingly and ask for the type he desires to employ (153). Ratial Chartuta/slia 112. ''''"here bees have been located in certain region:s for hundreds or thousands. (If years with litrlc or no opportunity for interbreeding with bt'es in neighbouring regions, owing to separation by water or mountain ranges, they tend to exhibit uniform characteristics, and on the basis of the H survival of the fittest" they become adapted to the peculiar conditions of the region. It doc's not follow, however, that no other bees could do so well in the same region, for there are deep-seated differences established away back to the beginning over hundreds of thousands of years. Thus, while the British black bee was peculiarly adapted to prosper in the British Isles, there is no question that bees from some other stocks are better home cleaners, better resisters of disease, and easier to manipulate. Nevertheless, the characteristics of a p.:1.rticular strain, wherever it comes from, must be more or less especially adapted to the conditions of the dimate and flora irr the region where it was developed. In different parts even of a small island like Great Britain, different characteristics are required, hardier bees for the north, and adaptability to circumstances where the only harvcst is late and of short duration, or both early and late with a long gall betwc<'n Nowadays, races are becoming mixed all over the world through the interf&ence of man, and crosses are being produced showing a mixture of good points, not, however, always stable in their qualities, (170, <1). T lie ",-mution of the various races and their entomological signi-

54 RACES AND STRAINS OF IlEES 3 1 fic.ancc is not dealt with here; we are concerned rather with the ques.. tion of the peculiarities of the more useful race:;, as now found, and their importance to the practical beekeeper. ~c\'erth{'less, onc or two broad observations may be made before dealing with individual races. ' 114. Bees belong to the old world. Those found in America and in Australia and New Zealand hat'{' heen imported by colonizers in compararjn'jy recent times. "ria: wild bl.1ck bcl's jn Austrajia and New Zealand are mainly descended from the British black bee, while those in America are more akin t(l dl(' GL'rtnan H('ath bet", In general, the bees in the colder regions are dark in colour and cap their combs with a white capping whirh allows room for expa.nsion of the honey by moisture absorption without sweating. l'hose originating in warm fl'.'gions in gene...,ti have more: or k"'ss yellow, orange or light brown in their colouring, and Glp their honey without an ai r space. ltolion Bees 116. Italian bees, or strains with a strongly marked Italian element, arc more widely used for profit than any others, til{' representative racial characteristics bc::ing modified more or k-ss by crossing with other races The representative Italian bee is slightly smaller than the European black or brown bee, the difference being especially noticeable in the drones. The queens, being very prolific, may develop larger abdomens. The worker is characterized by the pos5<..."ssion of yellow or tawny bands in the fi.rst three segments of th!; abdomen (the first segment in a bee's abdomen being small and next the waist). The underside of the abdomen is of a tawny shade. The so-called Golden Italians have been bred for colour and h"'e m()fe thar. three yellow bands. They may be suspected of Cyprian blood The segments of the abdomen are fringed with,hort hairs tinged with yellow. The legs are brown. The queens run from almost pure golden or tawny or leather colour to coppery hues and dark shades, resembling the brown queens, but the latter have probably some dark blood. Generally, more or less of the end of the abdomen is dark and sometimes there are dark rings or spots elsewhere on the abdomen. The legs are yellow or tawny as a rule These be~ are "ery prolific and can build up rapidly under natural or forced stimulation, but are shorter lived than some of the dark races, and liable to continue breeding during a dearth of honey. They are not much disposed to swarming, answering readily to manipulations tending to check this activity. They do not choke the brood nest with honey. They a,e disposed to robbing and have

55 32 WORKERS, DRONES AND QUEENS developed a corresponding instinct of defence. They are also good house cleaners and cope with disease better than the dark races They arc eas)" to manipulate, requiring but little smoke and remaining quietly on their combs if well handled. They arc good comb builders tending to finish their work as they go, but poor cappers, although this latter feature is k"ss noticeable in some strains and when there is a rapid flow. 'They require b(:tt('r willt<..'r protection than races developed in colder region:::;. Cyprian Sees 121. These arc mentioned next because they han' sometimes been interbred with Italian to produce a golden strain, although seldom used in the pure form on account of a tendency to vicious temper during a dearth of honey and to excessve building of queen celjs. The race has) however, been improved in recent years The Cyprian much r<"sembies,he Italian bee, but is smaller and brighter, the abdomen being somewhat more tapered, and the orange colour extending o\'cr more than three segments. The hairs arc longer and the thorax coloured, especially the forepart, altogether a very handsome bee. The underside is light in colour so that the bees arc somewhat transparent \Vhen well disposed they remain quiet on their combs under manipulation like the Italian. They are good comb builders but bad cappers, their combs being suitable only for extracting. Carniolan Bas 124. These bees have much to recommend them, being very docile and hardier than the typical Italian bee, but in most places larger returns in honey are being obtained from strains with Italian blood. The Italian Carniolan cross is favoured by some giving a hardy docile strain, building good sections. The cross generally recommended is one between the Italian drone and Carniolan queen The Carniolan is a large bee, larger than the Italian, generally greyish black, but those from some parts show a little colour. The hairs are longer and whiter than on the European brown or the I talian bees. The queens show colour in the legs and sometimes in rings on the abdomen, tending to brownish r~ The Carniolan bee is very prolific and must be assured of ample room if swarming is to be hindered. In their native country they are accustomed to a long season. Like most dark races they make fine white cappings. They breed late in the season without stimulation and_ start early. They hold well on the combs, being

56 RACES AND STRAINS OF BEES 33 more difficult to shake than most, but arc rclativ('1 y poor defenders against robbing. Caucasian Bus 'hcsc are receiving attention on account of the l'xccptional length of their tongues (15), their exceptionally sweet temrx.'f and their hardy disposition. 'rncy arc, however, prcdispos(.'d to excessive usc of propolis and inclined to robbing. Undt.'f scicutifi{: crossing. thel' should prmt useful hybridi,,, rs. i28. There are, in fact, scvcml distinct races in the Cauc.aslis dfftcring in colour and in more important characteristics. We may distinguish between the grey bers of the mountainous regions, the light yellow bee's of the north and Abkhasian [wos which hav( dark yellow or ora,,!!.c markini?'" The grey bees arc the largest, though small. They arc prolific though moderate swarmers, inclined to give one large swarm. They 'arc not disposed to robbing. They work well in bad weather and winter well Their eappings are not white. The light yellow bees on the other hand, much like small Italians, arc bad swarmers, white cappers, build much irregular and burr comb, and are good robbers. They will readily raise queens from fertile eggs in the presence of laying workers. The Abkhasian bee, however, has commercial value, answers readily to manipulation and swarms in moderation, but is inclined to give trouble with laying workers. British Black Bee 129. Although doubtless of the same stock as the brown or black bees of the adjacent Continent, this race had been established probably without intermixing for thousands of years before the nineteenth century and was well adapted to the climate and methods of beekeeping in vogue. It showed good results under improved methods of beekeeping, but has now become merged with bees introduced from all parts of the world. Although much less prolific than the more generally favoured races, it makes up for this by increased longevity and would gather more honey especially in a bad year than larger stocks of more prolific races. It failed, however, to withstand diseases, such as foul brood and acarine, was a poor house cleaner and defender and not so quiet under manipulation as the imported bees, but its comb capping was perfect, although even in comb building it was outdone by other races, being disinclined to work in the sections and lea"ing many unfinished. The body was blacker than most of the so-called brown bees, the M~ D

57 34 WORKERS, DRONES AND QUEENS hairs being short. The queen had reddish legs and some indication of red in the thorax and {on'pan of the abdomen. The abnvc is written in the past tense, but there are many bees at least approxim.. 'ltinp; to the original to be found still, especially in Scotland, and cro~sej strains are common. F"(nch Bus 130. These appear to be of the.european black or brown t)"pe, l";1fring much in different parts. The more primiril.-e bees arc fn'quently vicious, but the best dt:tcjopcd strains have much to commejld rh(. m, hc::ing hardy, prolific, casy to manipulate, not excessive SW~lrm(:r~, and product:rs of beautiful sections, but inclined to run on rh<: combs, making it almost essential to mark the queens. 'Those from the Gatinais district arc amonhy5t the bl'st. German Swiss Bus 131. This is a noteworthy strain produced under careful control for home consumption by co-operative beekeepers. They arc dark bees like the British black, long lived, hardy and adaptable, the queens having a useful life of several years. They are greatly disinciinl'd to swarm. It is only rccentlv that thcv have been tried in other lands, but they have die habit ~f running on the combs and require more subduing than Italians and Carniolans. Dutch Bees 132. These arc of a grey colour, but those from some parts show some resemblance to the Italian. "rhev are of medium size, hardy and active and good comb cappers, but un~ertain in temper and, above all, have a strong tendency to swarm, being prolific and having been kept for generations in skeps. Th= skeps have an entrance half-way up the side and the bees do not always take willingly to a modern frame hive. Large numbers were imported into Great Britain during the \Var to replace stocks lost through disease. Spanish Bm 133. These are brown bees of a medium shade with many grey hairs, Jarge and prolific, slight swarmers, somewhat aggressil'e, and doing better than imported bees under the co(,dition of prolonged harvests and warm winters characteristic of the country. They might be worth trying in Northern Australia. The Ballearic Isles produce a very different bee of no commercial value, small and of a grizzly colour, builders of twisted and otherwise irregular combs.

58 RACES AND STRAINS OF BEES 35 GffMon Bets 134. The German brown bee is generally similar to the British black, which soc (129), but not so dark; but there' arc also the heath bcc~, a much less desirable race, b<_ ing bad swarmers, poor house cleaners and disease rl'sist(.'fs, running badly under manipulation, great droll\' breeders and inclined to fall ott the (..'omb'i, but gathering: Jatc and wintering well, and producing whirl' cappinb"s' Egyptian Baf 135. These somewhat resemble tl\(' Cyprian and having been kt!pt since time immemorial in small hives (of t.'arthcnwarc,) arc inveterate swa.rffiers. 'rh{t sting furiously and cannot he suhdued bv smoke, but carbolic is more effective. Fcnile workers arc of frequent occurrence and arc tolerated in hh cs having laying queens, They form no winter cluster. African Bees 136. The prevelant race resembles the Egyptian, but the bees are of a more reddy-brown colour. In South Africa, however, there are bees less bad tempered, building relatively few quc('n cells and good combs, but inclined to mig-ratto 'rhcy sometimes produce laying workers sufficiently de"eloped to be partially fertilized. There is a black race in Togoland and in i'viadagascar. In Tunis the black Punic bees are found, good fighters, bad propolizers, using a watery capping and wintering badly. Syria" Beu 137. The native bees somewhat resemble Italians, but otherwise their characteristics are much like those of the Egyptians. They swarm excessively and many virgins Iea"lo'e with onc swarm, 1ivjng together until mated, when they may swarm again. They do not winter well. Eastern Races 138. There are many races in Asia, some possibly forerunners of the European races, but having no special merit or other than local interest to the practical beekeeper. Albino Beef 139. Some strains have been called Albino due to a covering of many light-coloured hairs of greater length than usual, but the true Albino is one lacking in colouring matter, and accordingly, when the eyes are affected, almost blind. Such have been met with, however.

59 34 Gefltral SECTION II QUEEN IfND DRONE RAISING introduction 140. Volumes have been written on this suhject, it being one of the first importance to successful beekeeping. The essential details of the numerous methods arc here reproduced in such a way as to minimize repetition, the whole being brought into convenient compass by the omission of all that is mainly historical, of much argument and unnecessary description of details which can be seen in any Catalogue of Appliancl"; and by the orderly arrangement of the parts. Some repetition has been necessary mainly for the sake of the worker on a small scale who has no occasion to master the details of methods employed by the professional. In connection with this, and indeed any, section of the work, the author will be glad to hear from anyone able to add information of importance in the practical art, furnishing any improvement or useful addition to what is here given. Attmtion t. Detail 141. It will be understood that in such a condensed account every detail matters. The beekeeper who substitutes six days for three through some other engagement, or omits to feed where feeding is advised, or who in fact fails to observe any of the numerous details given, will deserve the results he will get, but they will not be the best, and no beekeeper can afford to have any but the best queens. Small Scal, W qrking 141. At the same time, let not the small beekeeper hesitate, if he so desires, to raise the few queens he requires, let that number be half a dozen or less, for he can raise them by simple measures in his own hives with!>ut special appliances, adding greatly to the interest of his hobby and his reasonable pride in his results. He has the advantage over the professional queen breeder that his queens do not.lave to suffer the common handicap of more or less detri- 36

60 QUEEN RAISING WITHOUT INTERFERENCE 37 mental internment in cages at a critica.} period, and transit by post, but the disadvantage that his results mav be largelv influenced by his neighbour's drones. The subject is first treated in a,imple way for the small man, and is thon developed in full detail. QUl't'n Raising frithout Inferftrtnu Gmeral Queens atc raised by bet.'~ (0) undt.'r the swarming impulse; {bj to supersede failing queens; and (r) to r(,place Clue-ens )05t from any cause. Under Swarming Impulse 144. When the colony has expanded in th,> spring and drone ~ells are reached or built, following the commencement of a spell of milder weather, drone eggs are laid. This is a nen'ssary first step because the drone takes longer to mature than the queen (4). In latitude 50 to 55'\ except in severe climates, this generally occurs in the beginning of April in 'he northern hemisphere, October in the southern hemisphere, and may occur tt'en before this Queen cells are next started, and, in good wcath{'r, eggs may be laid in,hem when drone brood is well advanced, but 'his may be deferred any time up to about midsummer. This depends upon the wea,her, the strength of the hi,'o and the swarming tendency of the strain. Swarming occurring later than this is due to bad conditions such as excessive heat and overcrowding (1408). Swarming is most likely '0 occur in,he normal course shortly after the maximum brood production is reached (1345) Queen cells built under 'he swarming impulse are buil, out on 'he sides or bottom edges of the expanding combs, but if frames full of comb are used, places may be made for them by the bee's by cutting away comb on the face or edge. The cell is commenced as a cup resembling a small acorn cup, opening downwards and outwards, and the completed cell hangs downwards. Several are started in succession. The egg is laid in the cell after the cup has been formed and the presence of such newly formed cups is a sure indication that any neighbouring completed cells have been prepared under the swal'lning impulse. Say six to twelve are generally built, but some bees build fewer and some fifty or more. Undn- Supn-udllre Impulse 147. When a queen is found to be, or thought (148) to be, lziling, arrangements are made to supersede her. This is done by

61 QUEEN AND DRONE RAISING the worker bees, new queens being raised from selected lame of suitable age in the cells in which they are growing, these cells and their surroundings being suitably modified. A few cells here and there arc cut down at about the same time and then opened out and neighbouring cells cut away and emptied, so as to Icave room for the depending portion of the queen cells. ~rhus the base of these cells is the thin mid-rib of the comb, whcrca" the base of queen cells built under the swarming impulse when lneared on the face of tilt, comb is a substantial cup located, say, half an inch from the midrib. Queenright Supersrdurr 148. If a portion of the brood becomes separated from the remainder where the queen happens to be, by a substantial barrier, such as combs of honey or a queen excluder, such portion including eg!:-,'s or young larvx, the bees in that portion arc likely to raise queens from young larv~ in the manner above dcscribed. Such a colony is clearly not queenless. The queen may be in full lay and able to continue so. It is not clear, therefore, whether the partially isolated portion of the bees consider themselves qucenless or to have a failing queen. It is difficult to believe the former, as the bees do not have to search even the outside of the hive to find her, and in the writer's opinion the bees in the portion of the hive in question conclude that the queen is failing, and he calls the impulse "queenright supersedure." The apiarist discovering such a case must not be misled into concluding either that the queen is f.'1iling or that swarming is the impulse, although there i~ a risk of swarming occurring:, as there is with normal supersedure Bees disinclined to swarm sometimes tolerate a failing queen while her daughter is becoming fertilized, and even after she commences to lay. To Rep/au Lost Queens 150. A queen lost in swarming, or through careless or iiladvised manipulation, will be replaced by the bees by one raised from young worker larvre, as in supersedure. While such queen bees are maturing no young brood or eggs will be found in the hive. Such queens are sometimes raised in too much of a panic from iarv::e over the suitable age (8). The beekeeper sl1uuld be suspicious of any queen in an undersized cell, or taking a day or two more than the usual 15 days to mature, or failing to show the characteristic smail head, large thorax, relatively short wings, large abdomen and plain legs of a go<j<i queen (6).

62 QUEE" RAISING TO PLA" ON A SMALL SCALE 39 How to Distinguish the Impulu 15t. Queen cells raised undcr the swarming impulse are new ccil~ with a thick acorn bottom (ormej generally on the edges of the combs; they arc started in SULc("Ssion so that they are found in various periods of development. Drone brood is prc~ent. Egg-laying is generally reduced. Supersedure cells are extensions of c\isring worker cells and ha\'e no thick bottom. They generally c()nsi~t of a batch starred at one timt.:, though not all on one comb. Drones are usua1!y already flying some time before they arc started. Quct. nright supersedure cells are laid under conditions des{~rjbcj in 148. Supersedure cells to replace lost queens are found in hives without cg),'s (other than those which may be laid by laying workers), with diminishing brood, and, of course, absence of queen. Quem Raising to Plan on a Small Scale General 152. For queen raising the apiarist may utilize queen cells raised under either impulse above mentioned, destroying those he docs not require, but to do so rcq'lires as much supervision and inv0lves as much disturbance as docs any well-con!'idered plan and is less certain in its results, save in the case of onc who encourages swarming and relics on this, with his system of management, for the production of queens as well as the production of honey. For such a one the main requirements are a prolific strain, regular but not excessive swarming, and disposition to make one large swarm. He will raise a new queen in the parent stock where required, and from his best stocks may take further queens by removal of cells. For further management of the removed cells see Reducing the Swarming Instinct 153. The majority of beekeepers, however, desire to suppress or, at least reduce, the swarming instinct, and such should not raise queens ~nder the swarming impulse, because thereby they will eliminate, by breeding out, the very bees having, or tending to have, the very characteriotic they desire to retain and strengthen. They should utilize the queenright supersedure or queenless impulses (147-51). They should not await the manif~tion of these impulses by the course of nature, but choose times and seasons profitable to themselves, and bring about what they desire by appropriate procedure.

63 34 WORKERS, DRONES AND OU.EF.l\I" QUEEN AND DRONE RAISING Good queens may be raiscd under the queen right supersedure impulse during certain manipulations to prevent swarming (e.g. 1548). Tim! for R'-quetning 154. In general, however, the best (ime for fe-queening is in tht, late summer or autumn, not so late that the queen does not have a fine opportunity of mating and a chance of showing h~rsclf as a tested queen (sec 2(8) by the production of brood, but so that she may come through into the spring as a young queen able to develop a large brood nest of the finest bees without material risk of failurt. A failing queen in late spring is both a nuisance and a cause of serious loss Queens raised, however, during the swarming season and not required immediately for re-queening may be kept in nuclei during the late Rowand when the flow is O\'eT united with the colonies to be re-queened. Importunce of PurmJpZ, 156. To the worker on a small scale, from the standpoint of results, the question of parentage of his queens is of as much importance as it is to the man in a big way, and in some ways more so, as he may ruin his strain by one mistake, whereas the professional will check out and reject the result of the mistake and not feel the loss. The section on parentage may be studied with ad"antage, but the essence of the matter is to have drones as well as new queens raised from eggs laid by the mothers of the most successful stocks. Imporla,,«of Planning 157. All operations should be planned in advance in detail, a schedule of approximate dates and other details being prepared to fit the convenience of the ~keeper and circumstances of the season. Before commencing any operation all appliances and material likely to be required should be ready to hand. The bees themselves may be relied on to be methodical M~f"ods in G",.,..ol, 158. Supersedure queen cells may be raised during either of the manipulations described below, and those so produced in the best stocks may be saved and employed for re-queening. The procedure for mt.nagemt!lt during "emergence" and "fertilization" will be found under the$e heads in and

64 Qun" RAJSJNG 1'0 PLAN 0" A SMALL SCALE The following course is recommended to the small heekeeper as the most generallv applicable and requiring a minimum of skill. Some variants arc suggested later for particular circumstances. Simplr Mtthod for Gmeral Us< 159. Obtain a comb or comb, of eggs of suitable age from the selected parent as describea ill and 181. Start the queen cells as in 182 in a colony t~mporarily n'njcf('d quecnkss for the purpose and raise them in the same or in que("j]~ right colonies ( ). Provide for their cm<:rgencc in the ccj\onies in which they arc required (224) or in nuclei, 228, and for their fertilization as in Mort Ambitiou,.Method 160. The more ~mbitious beekeeper wishing to rai,e a d01.en or morc may \"ish to use queen cell cups and grafting (186-93), or 'he may usc individual celis (194--6) and avoid handling the larvx. The cells may be started in a queenie,s colony, 182, proceeding later as above. In using such a colony set aside for the purpose, he will find advantages in the horizontal support to receive the cells, using also a card with it, on which the coments are noted as to age and origin, but the vertical frames are more commonly employed as yet. Special Modifications 161. The details must be adjusted to the method of management employed, but it is convenient to recognize four types of district requi ring different management. The first or commonest is that in which there is an early Row, say from fruit blossom, and a late flow, say from clover and lime) and more or less of a quiet gap between. I t is good to raise queen, on the beginning of the late flow, if not too late, and go into late autumn with young queens in the hives. Again by raising them as soon as warm weather sets in, in the spring, one may check swarming more effectually. If the gap between early and late flow is long and the late flow good, the stocks may be developed and divided on the early Row, new queens being raised. Stocks are then united, keeping only the new queens, just before the late Ilow, thus obtaining very strong supplies of h:uwesters for the main crop and going sufficiently strong into winter quarters (llol et seq.) 162. The second type is that of a prolonged Row throughout the season, without any serious set-back, and sometimes even beginning early and finishing late. This type goes with continuous heavy breeding and makes a great demand upon the queen. It is best to 4 J

65 34 WORKERS, DRO!',as AND QUEEN AND DRONE RAISING combine queen breeding and non-swarming ma.nipulation and requeen every year (1207 et seq.) The third type is that in which there is little or no early harvest. This i~ a t~ying type as the swarming season is rendered uncertain and troublesome. ~rhe bees arc apt to fritter awav stores, breeding to no purpose. See 1197 for general management.. Quetns may he raised in the early summer) fceding beinf! necessary. Aim to get the peak of brood development just before tht' harvest is due to commence, Use bees for breeding that suit the conditions (105 and 112) This latter is still more important in the rdati\'elr r<trc fourth type in which there- is little or no late harvest, but ~ good early onc. This type, howc\-cr, may occur when type one is expected. In this case early breeding is essential and voung queens should be inserted in the autumn and the stocks must go into winter quarters rcally strong. LOl1!!-lived bees (17 and 18) are desir:lblc, and if the hives become strong after the profitable harv~:;t is over,divicie them, raising the necessary queens, and unite for winter under young <lut'cns. Tvpcs 3 and 4 arc not conducive to profit, and high skill in management will be required to secure good returns. Queen Raising in Out Apiaries 165. The condition here is that the operation must be carried outon infrequent periodic \'isits. If the out apiary consists of onlya few hives, as, for example, in an orchard, it should be re-queened from the home apiary, but the characteristic out apiary is one commenced when the home apiary is already a large onc and haying:, say, thirty to a hundred Of more hives. Queens may then be raised at home or in the out apiary. Suitable procedure for use in the out apiary is outlined below. The first method below suits also the week-end beekeeper If lame are raised as in 182, they will be ready for cellstarting in 7 days as in , and can be timed for making provision for emergence (217-32) i days later, or up to 10 days, ;n the colonies ill which they are to be used (224). A period of honey /low must be chosen for the operation Again, choosing a period of warm weather and honey Bow, grafting may be practised as follows: pre!",re a hive body with two frames of honey and four of sealed and advanced brood and stores with the bees thereon. Put the hive body on the old stand from which brood was removed, removing the' remainder of the comb. and -the queen to a new stand. Graft a number of cells (186-93) the.ante day and insert in frame in middle of stock. All

66 QUEEN RAISING TO PLAN ON A LARGE SCALE 43 flying bees will return and help crowd the stock. See that there are no queen cells and preferablv hut few egg> in the combs used. On the next visit, the cells should be nearly ripe and f{'ady for removal to the colonies requiring re-queening. Where queens fail to emerge, mate and lay, stocks will h;1.\t to he united on a later visit unless spare queens an' to hand. To pro\'id( against this, the ~uccn-ralsing colony may COI1\'t'niently he: divided temporarily into two or three nuclei, thus gi\'inf! olle or two (o;parc queens; or any other convenient colorn' mar he so di"ided t<:mr;>rarily, or us~d to provide a temporary'nucll:us. Introduction Qurm Raising to Plan on a Lo't"ge Scalf 168. It is customary to d('~crihc detailed plans a~ practised by, their authors. This involves much unnecessary rcp(.,dtion and in some cases description of details which have been superseded by b( ttcr methods. The business consists of a series of stages in most of which thctt~ are several possible alternative good methods of proceeding. The whole is cm'cred by the diagram on the next page which serves also as a key to the portions in which the various details will be found set forth. Parentage 169. In raising new queens parentage is by far the most important factor, as through the fertilized queen mother the new queen derives all her qualities. Her progeny will derive qualities al,o from her drone mate. This aspect IS dealt with under H Drone Breeding" (254). A fenile queen used for the production of new queens is known as a breeding queen, and her suitability is decided mainly by examination of her behaviour and progeny (see also 138 and 2(8). The estimation from examination of the progeny is by performance and requires that the queen should have been laying for at least 12 months, so that characteristics of the workers in all seasons and under most conditions may have been observed and noted. The principal factors to be observed are: (a) Honey production in comparison with that of other stocks fucing the same conditions. This will automatically cover such prolificness as is conducive to heavy harvests. A heavy return from a small stock indicates vigour or stamina.

67 ~, ~._ 44 ~ j ~ :;! " ~ 0 _, ::: '" ~ ~ " QuEE!\" AND DRONE RAISING t~ '.!.<o:;' ]~.~~ '" '~~ "" c ;::. ~ C..3 "'::J~ ;;~ C ~ ~~ ~~ 5 ]~,... ~~ ~ M~ 8 I-~.- c ~ ~ 0 " ::l; 0 '" ~-" ~ "" 'C ";:::.2 '" 'i'i ~ "'-.:;.::: ~ ~.5.e ~,20 ''0 os -""t-.s,.;: on - = ""'" ~-;.5 ~ ~ 15 = ".5 ~ g~ c N 0 ~ ~.". 7 t ~ N 0- -" N ~'" N voo '- Cl 0 '" ~, ~- on '0 c tf ~ '~r c _M4 -" c «~-:.2 = c '" :::.~ c c t 0 = «u ~ ""~ ~ - ~ u 0 ~ ~ ;.:... P- p:: -e.5 ~ Q "" ~ on ~ "" c c.~ ~,5.~ 3 j woo _c '0 OS E ~" 0 U<:> 'E~ coo ~- :;- ;.D u c a] ""0 N G = u <:>.~ N :5 u.::. ]~ OIu " "" ~ N~,--" i c u ",-e s:::.2 = u 0 ~ ~.~.~!I, -e ~ u u N "ad g ~... C"' ".0- boe.s.~ 8 a- 15 r<l

68 QUEEN RAISING TO PLA 111 ON A LARGE SCALE 45 (h) Hardiness, especially as shown in building up early, wintering well and resistance to disease. (c) Disposition, especiallv a5 shown by little tendency to swarm, good temper and quiet behaviour under manipularion, freedom from robbing, active house-cleaning and ahscm:c of exccssiv'e propolis and honey dew In the future when the laws of heredity its applied to becs arc better known, probably more attention will be given to pedigree even than performance, for no observatiolls and conclusions of pcrff~mancc of parents can ht complete even in 12 months, and the value of queens of the Same parem:ag<..' raised und<..( identical conditions may vary greatly. ~rht followillg may be provisionally noted: (d) Variations among offspring arc greatest the greater the difference between the bees mated. 1~hc sudden introduction of entirely new blood introduces so many possibilities good and bad that it should not be attempted except by breeders on a large scale who call afford to sort out the nuffi('rous bad dements and secure and develop the few good results. (b) On the contrary, crossing of like with like tends to reduce variation and therefore increases the probability of daughtt r resembling mother. Inbreeding is practised for this rcason and without deterioration, but it is well to avoid too frequent crossing of bees very closely related, by running several colonies of the same strain for breeding purposes. The introduction of new blood tcnds to hardiness and good health. (c) While perpetual selection takes advantagc of minot variations, undoubtedly certain characteristics depend upon the definite presence or absence of certain factors carried by the eggs and spermatozoa, and thesc characteristics may be definitely fixed or definitely lost through an individual crossing. They do not proceed by small progressive steps. The small breeder must therefore start with bees definitely poss<-ssing desirable characteristics in a high degree. The large breeder should study the work of Mendel, and researches on bee breeding arising therefrom, or he may suffer deterioration of his b~ng stock There is a third and equally important factor in sclective breeding and that is the system of management to be employed and the conditions under which the bees are expected to work. Bees bred to give good results under a given system of management

69 QUEEN AND DRONE RAISING and a given set of local conditions of honey flow and climate can hardly be the be'st for use under totally different conditions The breeder who raises his own queens tends to develop a strain which suits his methods and his locality. For example, it is undesirable that bees should build up too early when the honey flow is late, but th,'v can"ot build up too quickly where a good early flow is to be secured. For comb honey we must have queens whose workers make white eappings and do not leave many unfinished sections. Again, swarming may be controlled by suitable manipulation of bees that will stand it, or by the use of a strain which seldom swarm~ even in the quecn's second year. The breeding of the latter typt' cannot be conducted except by using a strain in which the characteristic is already fixed or by breeding only from queens worked for two full seasons. A queen gi\ring bees with a short working life may give better results where aca.rinc disease is prevalent) but a long-lived bee may be expected to show greater economy under other conditions Curiously, if breeding out the swarmint; impulse be successfully pursued, the beekeeper is left with a strain in which the queen-raising instinct has been So diminished that the bees reguire a decided stimulus to raise queen cells. He can no longer rely on queenright supersedure. He must remove the queen and all brood froln the queen cell raising stock, to which the selected larv~ are given, or he may fohow an equivalent procedure by means of the "Shook Swarm" method, Some Swiss beekeepers have carrit:u the business So far that they can raise numerous queens and have them all emerge in the one hive without any lighting It has not yet been established what correlation there is between longevity of the queen and of her workers, but it is worth noticing, by the way, that some of the shortest-lived yellow bees come from strains raised where it is customary to re-queen every year, and long-lived blacks are the progeny of queens able to give several years' service. It is probable that a queen will give her best results in her prime, judging by experience with other animals, but it is certain that the more important characteristics other than the highest stamina are carried in the gene and will be transmitted in the egg as long as the queen is able to lay fertilized eggs. By keeping valuable queens in nuclei as breeding queens only, one secures also that the longest lived of them have a chane,," to show their real quality It is essential to commence with bees having in the highest degree the characteristics the beekeeper desires. He may then hope to maintain a high level of quality, and may even improve it if he exercises skill and care. To avoid excessive in-breeding he should

70 QUEEN RAISING TO PLAN ON A LARGE SCALE.of. 7 occasionally purchase a queen from a breeder of bel's having similar characteristics to those of his own strain Parentage is more important than impulse. Queen!) raised uolkr the sup<:rseoure impulse from a strain addicted to swa.rming: will prouw::e bet.'s that wiu swarm more than will queens raised under the swarming- jmpul~(" from.a. stra.in little disposed to swarm. There is no proof that the impulse' itsdf in a particula.r case has any effect, thoup:h it may "\0; nor is there l'\,idt:ncl' that the nurse bees have any inllucnc<: ~n the tt:ndcncics of the qu(. t:n they nurture, but they may ha\-'c. L:J)'ing and Hatching of tht Egg 177. Althou1;h quct:ns t"411 be raised from eggs laid in worker ({'lis by control of the food supply, some hold thar then,: is a ditfcn:nce hi.,twten a larva fed from the commencl'ment as a qut.'cll and il. larva started in a worker cell. It is true that the term 'I royal jdly"covcrs 'a food yariable in its content. For example, the food given to maturing queen larva: differs at least in th<.: propoftion<; of its constituents and in consistency from that given in the first few days, hut it is generally held that there is no discoverable differenci: in tht' bodies or practical difference in performance of queens raised as queens from the egg, as compared with queens raised from worker lan'~ of suitable age With the latter, L"Specially when controlled by the beekeeper, there arc risks of ill feeding, chilling and other detrimental conditions which may cause morc or less deterioration, but experience seems to show tha, as good queens can be flroduced from young worker larv:e as from eggs and lame destined from the commencement for the production of queens. The only kind of difference 1.Vhich could ffiiitter is one of performance, t:d:en in its widest senge. ]\"ow,he fj<'rformance of queens of the same parentage similarly ma,ed under conditions as identical as it is possible to make them varies so much that any proof by performance would require observations on a large scale under closely controlled conditions conducted with freedom from bias and with a better knowledge of statistical science than has hitherto been in evidence It would appear to be commercially impracticable to reduce the swarming instinct by selective breeding and at the same time to raise queens ~lely from eggs laid by the queen in queen cells. There is nothing, however, to prevent those who wish to, raising queens from selected eggs instead of selected larv:e, by following with the egg the same procedure as is followed with larv:e raised in the cells in which they were hatched (194-6). The principal practical objection to the procedllre when conducted on a large scale is that it

71 QUEEN AND DRONf. RAISlNG involvl's the employment of a much larger number of worker bees per queen raised than do the methods more generally employed. The breeding queen having been selected, we may consider the formation of queen cells under two heads, thus: (0) Formation of queen cells where the eggs are laid, commencing in 180. C t) Formation of queen cells from individual larva: or eggs remm"cd from the comb in which they arc laid, commencing in 186. Formation of Q",en Cclls,there the Eggs art Laid 180. Queen cd Is raised under the swarming impulse may be used for operations on a relatively small scale and where there is no dt'sir(: to minimize the swarming impulse. In this case the cells are not disturbed until they are scaled and nearly ripe for hatching. The cells are then cu, ou' and dealt with as in 220 and followin". On a larger stale it is,. however, customary to cause the breeding queen to lay in a con... enient comb, which is then prepared in either of three ways described below, particular note being made of the date of laying of the eggs or age of the larva; used (8) for guidance in removal of the sealed cells later (220--4). In each case the operation must be carried out with precautions to ensure that the eggs and young lan'''' are not exposed to sunlight and that they are not chilled, especially the lame. The most favourable temperature is at least 75 to 85 F. (25 0 to 30 C.), and it is best to transfer the comb in a warmed receptacle to a warm operating-room, and return it to the queen cell-raising hi\'e with similar precautions, unless the shade temperature is above i SO F There are several methods of procedure as follows: Method (I) due to Cowan and Miller. The cells are started on the prepared edge of a new comb (see 182). Method (2) due to Alley. The cells are started on a new comb, a strip of which is removed and prepared (see 183). Method (3) due to Pechaezek and Hopkins. One face of a new comb is prepared and used" generally in a horizontal position (see 185). I t will be observed that method (I) invokes the least risk but does not produce so many queens from one COJ:lb as do methods (2) and (3). Raising Quem Cells on Pr,par,d Edge of Comh 182. Insert in the midst of the colony containing the breeding queen, a frame Ii~ed with foundation u"tenrung only half-way down

72 QUEE!< RAISING TO PLAN ON A LARGE SCALE 49 from the cross-bar. Leave for 7 days, seeing to it that the bet.. have plenty of open stores. 'Vhen removed, the comb will be found filled with eggs and young la...",. With a sharp knife trim the bottom edge of the comb, cutting back so as to expose cd Is with eggs or preferably young larvz I! days old (8). This mmb is given to the queen cell-raising colonr (197). A larger number of cells per comb may be raisc-d by using several V-shaped pin:.s of foundation hanging from tht~ cr()ss~bar with their bases about an inch apart and their angular ends reaching within one and a half inches of the bottom bar, but the compi<tcd cells arc more readily cut out from the one-piece comb cut with a straight or wavy bottom edge. The comb should not he out of the hive long'('r than uec('ssary, 10 minutes at the outside, and must be protectccl from direct sunshine and from winds. If inner boards and no quilts are used by the beekeeper it is well to put a quilt of sacking or canvas over this particular comb and its neighbours when inserting it for ccli raising. Raising Quem Cells on Prrpartd Strip of Comb 183. A frame fitted with foundation is inserted ill tho colony containing the breeding queen as in 182 above. When removed in 6 or 7 days strips of comb arc cut from it. Each strip should contain larvre of I t to 2 days old (8) in one continuous row of cells. Examine both sides of the comb and choose that showing the best strip. Cut the strip about i inch wide with the selected cclls along the centre. Trim the mouths of the selected cells with a sharp, warm (but not too hot) knife, so.. to leave the cells about! inch deep. With the head of a match or an old toothbrush destroy two out of three of the larv"" leaving every third one. With a conically ended stick open out a little the mouth of each cell containing a larva. All this should be done on a convenient fiat surface The strip is now ready to be mounted in a frame for insertion in the cell-raising colony (197, etc.). The frame should be one with a horizontal cross-bar in the middle, with comb above it, which may contain sealed brood, but no larva: under 3 or 4 days old. This is prepared beforehand. The prepared strip is glued to the under side of the cross-bar with glue or melted wax, so that the selected cells hang aownwards and avoiding heating the larvz_ Alternatively, an empty comb in a standard frame may 'be taken and the bottom cut away, leaving a suitable straight or convex surface on which the strip is secured. This method is more complicated than 182 above, but utilizes many more of the larv,", raised on the prepared comb. M.B.

73 50 QUEE!< AND DRONE RAISING Raising Quem Cills on the Prepared Surface of a Comb 185. A frame fitted with a full sheet of foundarion is inserted in the colony containing [he breeding queen. The queen should be laying well, as a full frame of eggs is desirable. Remove in 5 to 6 days. Choose the face most evenly covered with larva: of even ag" (8). With a sharp, warm knife or chisel cut away the cells in horizontal rows down to the mid~rib, leaving every third Of fourth row, then cut these down to 1: 1 (. inch (5 mm.) with a sharp, warm knife, then cut across, leaving every third or four cell stanclinf!" giving preference to any containing a larva! well developed as compared with its neighbours. Destroy with an old toothbrush or match stick all lan'oe'discarded. Finally, open out the mouths of the cdls somewhat with a conically ended stick. The comb is now ready to be placed in the cell-l'dising colony (197, etc.), horizontalh- above the brood frames therein with prepared cch~ hanging: downwards, the whole supported on a temporary wood surround, raising the mid-rib Ii inches above the cross-bars. Cover OV('f all, snug and warm. This methoj is more economical of material and simpler in cxccu... tion than that described under 182 above, where large numbers of cells are required. Transfer of Individual Eggs or Larva: for Queen Raising 186. Individual larvre of suitable age raised in the colony containing the breeding queen may be removed from their cells into artificial cells conveniently arranged. This is known as grafting (see 188). Alternatively, individual cells may be cut out each containing a single larva, or even an egg, and mounted in a way convenient for the formation of queen cells (see 194). The ad"antages of the procedure are that it is always possible to lind a number of larvre of suitable age (8) in the colony containing the breeding queen, and the queen cells may be built directly on convenient individual supports facilitating handling them in later stages. When the larva is removed in its cell there is no risk of direct injury to the larva, and its feeding is not interfered with. The operation of mounting is simple, though not quite so easily done The work should be done in a warm place in a temperature not below 75 0 F. or above 85 0 (25 0 to 300 C.;-and with the air not too dry. Take care not to chill the la",re. The comb of selected brood should be removeq under cover to the. work-room in a warmed box, unless the shade temperature is up to 75 0 F., and the prepared cells handled in a similar manner. The Ia",re must not be exposed to too dey an <mnosphere. A travelling box warmed by inserting

74 QUEEX RAISING TO PLAN ON A LARGE SCAU: one or two frame feeden tilled with warm water is very suitable for carriage of combs and cells. The larva! removed should be about I ~ days old (S) to give the best results, but if the cells arc cut out younger larvre can be safely used. Eggs even 3 days old may be refused. If the larvre differ much in agc the lx.,.. may make a selection. To secure the maximum number of act'eptancl"s the lar"", should au be about the same age. This facilitates later calculations also. "'-_ I n a large area (If brood of cven age hefe and thett a larva will be found somewhat larger than its neighbours. Such arc stronger 01" bf..~tter nourished and may be gi\rcn preference. TrallSfer tf IlIdi,!idual L(}rv,"-"Grajiing"' 188. The larv;e are lifted from tlwir native cells (which the bt-g:innt:r may first cut down somewhat) by the usc Hf a qum or. toothpick cut like a pen with the point turned up, or a line camelhair brush moistened in dean water and dried, or one made of a strip of soft wood. The end should be spoon-shaped. Quill should be dipped for a minute or two in boiling water for shaping. The end of a wood stick can be bitten until soh, "fhe lan'a is scooped OUl, Roating on the jelly in which it is immersed and deposited, jdly and all, in the bottom of the proposed cell, the spoon being applied to the convex back of the larva. It us( d to be customary to prepare the cells by inserting in each a small amount of royal jelly, using the contents of one natural queen ccii a few days old to supply fifty or more cups. Incidentally, this renders the safe deposit of the young larva! easier to the beginner. "[he bees, however, promptly remove this food and provide food of proper consistency, and for this reason it is now more usual to employ so.. called dry grafting, i.e. the larva has onlv as much food as may be transferred with it. To ';"'ure a good start with ample and suitable food some go to the length of double grafting, i.e. the cells arc grafted with any young larv", for a day and thcse arc then removed and replaced by the choice larv",. If, however, the receiving colony is well prepared, there is no risk of underfed larv", ;n dry grafting. The air in the operating-room as well as in any receptacles in which the lar."" combs or cells are placed, should be kept moist. It is advantageous to have the queen cells warmed up in a hive before grafting Queen celij once used are more readily accepted again than new artificial cells. For small-scale work old.queen cells cui down in length have been employed, also old drone combs used once and cut down. The earliest artificial cells were moulded on a stick of hard wood, with smooth rounded end Hinch (S! mm.) diameter at the end and slightly tapered, say, H, one inch from the end

75 QUEEN AND DRONE RAISING /,25 mol. from end end). The stick is wetted, then plunged /([2 mm.) into melted wax. When the wax is set the stick is,d again, and so on, about seven times in all, each time not quite so,jr as the last. Cups so formed, but with a heavier supply of wax in the bottom, were stllck into wooden cross-bars with melted wax f()f insertion in the frames. Later they were stuck into wooden cups for easier handling l\ow the cell is generally moulded ill ti'e cup. For this purpose a cup is sold in the form of a wooden cylinder about i inch (16 mm.) long and -Ilr inch (If mm.) diameter, bored about Hinch ([0 mm.) for a depth of i inch ([0 mm.). These cups are fillcd to the brim with wax and allowed to set. Thev arc then warmed uniformly until the wax is soft. The cells ar~ then formed by pressing the wax moulding stick into the wax, leaving a projecting rim on removal of the stick. The cups arc sometimes furnished with projecting pins at the back for mounting, but the better form is that with a flanged end The more substantial cups designed by Perret-:Haisonne""e, used in France and elsewhere and shown in Fig. 4, may also b(.: employed as carriers for moulded cells,. which arc inserted in the mouths aftcr moulding. Their form is such that plent)" of spare wax can be furnished for the use of the bees in building up the cell and very fine cells are thus produced The cups may be mounted in vertical or horizontal frame's, the latter being the later, and probably the better, method. For vertical mounting, frames are fitted with horizontal bars to take the cups, about 2} inches apart, the bars being drilled with holes to receive flanged CUp5_, which are inserted from the top so that each cup rests on its flange with the cell hanging downwards. Genemily the upper part of the frame is occupied with comb, free from eggs or young larv;e. The best results are got with not more than two rows of cells per frame. The lower bar should be at least 3 inches (75 mm.) from the bottom of the frame. The frames are inserted in cell-raising colonies as described in 197, etc. A frame of good queen cells is shown, by courtesy of 1I1r. Gilbert Barratt, in Fig. 5 (facing p. 16) For horizontal mounting a shallow box is used about J t to 2 inches deep over all according to the <.::11 mountings, which can be inverted over the top of the brood frames ir. the cell-raising colony. The inverte~ bottom is perforated all over to receive the cups, which are inserted from above and rest on their Ranges as before. So placed, the bees have free access to them, the position is warm 'Uld ~ly ventilated by the bees, and a large percentage of

76 = , Cell.mouldilll!: tool. 1. Enl.ar3er for rnodelliog mouth f.f :s and 4 Md -mlan;mg looutb 01 naturaj f~jl. 8, Tubular cutter for ~ worker cdt. 9 fx~.r to pusb Ct!'ll from [; in/(! J ar 4. 53

77 QUEEN AND DRONE RAISING acceptances and good cells is secured. Free access is obtained for removal of cells from the top. The whole is made snug and warm by packing with warm quilts or a cushion. The box can completely cover the broad chamber or only a portion of it according to the number of cells it is to carry. Space may be left for a feeder, or a feeder can be placed on top, giving access by omitting a cell, or through a special feed hole. Tramf" of Individual Cells with their Larvd: 194. Continuing the direction in 185 above, the procedure is as follow>: The individual cells with the Iarv:r they contain are removed from the comb by the use of a cylindrical pun'eh in the form of a thin tube! inch (12 ~ mm.) internal diameter with sharpened edge, used at a temperature taken from the surrounding atmosphere, or the vcst pocket of the operator. The comb is placed on a flat surface and the selected cells punched out, the punch passing right through and being given a twist before removal. Each cell as punched is removed from the tube by passing a rod through it from the top end. The cell is then ready for mounting and trimming. It is best to avoid old comb in which a previous generation has been raised and essential to avoid cells having honey at the back of them The cells should be mounted in supports convenient for carriage in vertical or horizontal frames a..<; in the preceding section, the supports protecting the back of the cell, the bottom of which should be not more than ~ inch (3 mm.) within the mouth and with wax around for the bees to mould in continuation of the queen cell. If too much cell is left or the mouth is not opened out the bees may continue it as a worker cell Probably the most convenient form of mount is a cylindical wooden cell with Range at back and narrow mouth, drilled through so that the wax cell may be inserted from the back and pushed through to the proper level The back end of the wax cell is then packed and sealed with soft wax. The hole should be * inch (II nun.) diameter in fronland slightly larger at back, say, linch (IZ! mm.) The Perret-Maisonneuve cup described in Fig. 4- is suitable where its size is not objected to. After inserting the cell containing the larv"" the projecting portion is slit up ani! opened out with a conical-ended stick. I t is advantageous to well wax the wood cup beforehand. The bees will soon mould the cell and wax together and use any surplus wax in building up the cell, it not being their practice to build up queen cells from new wax as in the case of worker cells.

78 QUEEN RAISING TO PLAN ON A LARGE SCALE Starting and Raising Quun Cells 197. FnfsucCt"SSful raising of queen cens it is nccessar\' to S<'lect a prosperous colony and keep "it prosperous. The colony 'should be one disposed to raise queen cells, as in swarming-time with advanced drone brood prescot, or it should be forced to realize du' ne<'cssiry of raising: qu(>('n cells as in the swarm box method dtos<::ri[x..d below, Of to a ksser degree in the p.utirion method, or in a combination of the two, as dcscrihed later (sec 215). It i~ ("%5(,lltial that there should ix, no queen cells existing where the rl'quirt'd cdls arc to be raised (1438-9) and that ther("shall be no cl'-(;s or lam" on other combs in the same compartment. The surest way of avoiding the pn:st'th.'c' of eggs and young la.rv~ is by remo\"a! or t'xc1usion of thl' queen from the combs to he used, as described in greater detail helow It is necessary to note that it takes from 7 hours to 7 days to prepare the queen ccli-raising hive, according to (he method.employed, and steps must therefore Ix- taken in ad\'ancc of pn'paration of the prepared frames of cups or larv", which arc described in prc\ ious sections. Further, although under rhe swarm box method a hive may be prepared in 7 hours~ it is customary to transfer the cells. to another colony the next day, and this must be arranged for in advance The queen-raising colony should occupy not less than eight frames, but a stronger colony crowded on t() twchte Ja.rge frames is none too good for raising, say, 100 cells on the horizontal plan (185). Do not make the mistake of assuming that newly hatched bees can nurse queen larvre. They are not able to until 5 or 6 days ()Id. Nurse bees are at their best for queen raising when I to 3 weeks old. It is a good plan to feed the colony an hour before inserring the prepared frames Where "carine disease is present, queen cells should not be started in the presence of old bees. The colony should be neated so as to be substantially free of acarine (see Section XV) or, at least, it should be given frames of emerging bees and moved to a new site a week before use so that the old flying bees will have been removed. They may be received by a neighbouring colony moved somewhat towards the old stand (796-9) The full procedure is described under three heads below as follows:. (aj Us< of Colony Rmdered Quemlus: This is the commonest practice, but may not give satisfactory results with bees disinclined bv circumstances or nature to raise queens freel y (see 262). (b) Use of Swarm Bo" Method t. Start Ctlh: This method is the 5 S

79 QUEE:-; A!':D DRONE RAISING most certain for ensuring acceptance of a number of cells, but they have to be finished in a queeniess colony as in or behind a partition as in 210, below. (e) Uu of Quun-right Colony: The queen cells are raised behind or above a queen excluder partition. Fewer cells are raised than with the other method, but they receive good attention and the strength of the colony is maintained by the laying queen. Acceptance can be forced as dl'scribed below, but the method is best adapted for work on a small scale, for which it is very good (see 213). Developing Quem Cells in Quemlus Colony 202. Make a prosperous colony queenless 7 days before the prepared frame is to be inserted. Feed with ~ lb. syrup or diluted honey every day. Destroy all queen cells raised (1438-9). Alternatively, remove queen and a/i ergs and brood under 4 dars old at least 12 hours before inserting prepared frame, filling up with store combs at the outside with some unsealed honey, or with frames or emerging brood if morc than one set of cells is to be raised. Use only fully built-out combs, as queenless bees tend to build drone comb. Sec that there is a supply of fresh pollen Insert the prepared frame or place on top if horizontal. It is preferable to continue slow feeding. If the frame is horizontal a vertical frame feeder will he found convenient. If the frame is vertical a lloriwntal feeder on top may be used Instead of removing eggs and young brood, some prefer to remove all brood combs, which is safer as a few eggs may be missed. In that case, the removed brood combs are put in a temporarr body or stand and replaced by empty frames, first ensuring that' ample stores and pollen are present; then all bees are shaken back off the removed combs and the brood given to another colony to care for. Leave quiet for 2 or 3 hours before inserting the prepared frame of eggs In 6 to 8 days e~mine, destroying any badly formed cells, and taking note of the number of good ones, so that timely arrangements may he made for the emergence of the queens (223). On the ninth or tenth day after insertion of the prepared frame it must be removed and the queen cells transferred to the colonies in which the queens are to emerge. If it is cefinitely known that the lam:e in the prepared frame were not more than I day old the cells need not be removed until the eleventh day. If it is essential to use nurseries (241) the cells may he put into them any day not hefore the seventh. lg6. For continuous working the removal of the queen 7 days

80 QUEE~ RAISI~G TO PLAN ON A LARGE SCALE 57 in advance gives the best start, as it ensures a supply of nursing bce-s for say 4- weeks after insertion of the first frame. A GuccnlC'Ss :-;.tock is a liability, not an asset, save for starting cells; and if lar~c numbt'rs arc to be started, it is desirable to use the stock only for this purl""", the cells being transferr('d to queen-right colonies for complt:tinn (213). A convenient arrangement is to put them in the top super of a Demareed colony (Section XIV) or sil1lila.rl~' iu a body box phcnl abm'e honey supers and containing young hrood. but no quct.:n or queen cells, the queen being left below with comb containing emerging brood and empty combs. There should nt' hofh'y and pollen in -the top super. For emergence, however, se(' 217, etc For continuous working in the quecnlcss ctll-starring colony, it is necessary to maintain the supply of bees and ('Specially young bees. A comb of emerp:ing bees may be "dded, Combs of emerging bees may be added at the rate of,!-oar, two full combs per week j or, alternativdr, well-fed bees nuy be shakell at the entrance, when the young ones' will be accepted a~ti the: old ones will RI' hack home When the queenless colony is w be used only for one Jot of cdls it is more ~onvcnicnt to remove brood and qutcn and restore them 10 days later, uniting by the newspaper method. Th( quct'nraising colony mllst be kept on the old stand so as to rcccil'c the flying bees and so be kept strong. Unless the weather is good and nights warm the remov(:d brood and queen wi!! require fceding and keeping Warm as, for example, by placing them over a perforatl'd partition (842) over a prosperous colony Incidentally, a. prosperous colony containing only a newry hatched queen and having no queen cells may be used for starting queen cells, but the cells should be removed before scaling and the colony must be kept prosperous. Swarm Box Method of Starting Cells 210. A swarm box is used, taking five to six combs, because it is conveniently arranged for ample through-ventilation and for c1 r>sing the entrance, but any hive body similarly arranged may be employed. Say the hive is arranged to take five combs, three combs, free from brood and without a single egg, are provided containing honey and pollen. Water is put in one of them. These are arranged one on either side of ~e body and one at the centre. The hi,'c is placed handy to a strong stock which is to furnish the bees. At nine-thirty to ten in the morning the centre comb is laid aside and the stock hive is opened up. The queen is secured, or the comb containing her put aside, then the bees from six frames are shaken (1435-6) into the swarm box. The centre comb is replaced and the box

81 QUEEN AND DRONE RAISING closed, leaving ample through-ventilation. The swarm box is then placed in a cool shady corner In 6 to 8 hours after enclosure the bees will be ready to receive the prepared frames, and two may be inserted in the spacl"s left for them. AI! ventilators are then covered except one at the bottom or over the Right hole, and the bees left to the next day. ExpericlKt' shows that under this procedure a vigorous start is made at raising qu('cn cehs. T'hc cdls arc then transferred to cell-raising colollies, described under the preceding heading for completion, or to partitioned queen-right colonies as under the heading followinp: If a horizontal frame is to be used covering morc t[,an five or six combs, it is convenient to use an ordinary hive arranged with ventilating floor board and cover and means to close the entrancc. Remove all unsealcd brood, replacing with empty combs, putting water in one of them, the removed brood to be given to another stock and the queen also placed elsewhere. Close down and put in the shade as before for 7 or 8 hours, then insert the horizontal frame, replacing the stock on the old stand. Next morning open the entrance and leave the colony to complete the cells. Partition Method of Raising Cells in Queen-right Colony 213. Cl'oose a colony with young queen, to reduce the risk of swarming. Divide off not less than four combs, one of stores and three of brood, by means of excluder zinc so arranged that it is impossible for the queen to pass the division. It is better to ha"e these combs end on to the exit, provided the exit portion is also fitted with excluder. Leave for 3 days, then insert the prepared frame between two combs in the portion from which the queen is excluded, examining all combs in that portion for any queen cells before insertion of the frame and destroying them all ( ). By this also, if the operator desires to employ royal jelly in his cups (see 188) he has the opportunity to secure some on the day that it is wanted. Do not attempt more than twelve cells, and all may not be accepted.. Examine for any badly started lots on the third day. Do not disturb unnecessarily. Proceed later as in For continuous work a further frame may be inserted between two brood combs when the cells previously inserted are sealed. It is desitable to have adjacent to!be comb with newly grafted cells a comb of emerging brood and a comb of honey and pollen.. F tames can be inserted, each between two brood combs every 2. of 3 djoys in a strong colony, but the number of acceptances is reduced imd the conditions must be maintained, and stray queen

82 QUEEN RAISING TO PLAN ON A LARGE SCALE 59 cells regularly sought for and destroyed. For such rapid working the frames are removed to colonies rendered quc.cnlcss to complete them. Some divide the colony in half and transfer operations from side to side about C\'cry 7 days In a strong colony requiring more than one brood box, the upper box may be divided off hy an excluder and worked as above. This gives better results, as tl;c Ct)lol1Y GUlf10t be too strong, Alternatively the colony may be Dcmareed (see ) ami the upper brood chamber used, the frames being insl'rtt,j afrer atly queen (e1l. formed therein have been destroyed. Acceptance will be assisted by utilizing in part tht' idea of the swarm method. After the 3 days' pause the bec." in the divided portion are confined by the insertion of wire gaula.~ comple-tdy CO\'cr~ ing the excluder, 4 or 5 hours before insertin~ the prt'par<:d fmme, leaving the gauze in position until the next day The success of the partition method is dept'ndl'nt Upl)f1 a continuous flow of food. I f the weather turns bad rh(' bees may decide to destroy the queen cells even tholl~h artificial fceding is resorted to. When using a horizontal queen excluder it is desirable to provide a flip:ht hole in the upper body for the c'scape of drones, a small h"le which can be closed later with a cork. Emergence in General 217. The emergence of a queen from a queen cell is sometimes described as hatching, but the pupa is not an egg. F or emergence the queen cells should be inserted in a colony prosperous according to its size, well fcd with honey and pollen. The colony may be any size, from a large one in which the queen is to remain, to a small one containing even only a d07.en bees, as detailed below. Except where nursery cages are used, the colony must be queenless and definitely in need of a queen. Ripe cells may be examined by holding them so that the sun shines through them, when the pup'" may be seen and cells with dead larv"" if any, rejected. Do not expose them for long. 218, A queen at large in a colony will normally endeavour to destroy any other queen whether in a cell or not. It is essential, therefore, to secure that the cells raised are removed and distributed amongst the colonies in which the queens are to emerge, before a single queen hatches from anyone of them, and if two are put to emerge in one colony both must be covered temporarily with cages so arranged as to giye the emerging queen access to both honey and pollen.

83 60 QUEEN AND DRONE RAISING 219. Queen cells raised in cups or on other individual supports arc ready for tramjer to the colonies in which they are to emerge, without further preparation. Queen cells raised on combs require further preparation: Preparation for Emergmre of Cells Raised on Comb 220. Unless one or two cells are to be gi\'cn to a colony on the comb on which they wen: raised, each ccli must be cut out individually by means of a sharp, warm knife, kaying ample wax round the base of the cell, so as to avoid au risk of injury to it, and rcmemberinb" that the bases of supersedure c{'lls, depending from the face of a cdmt-, run back to the mid-rib. The best cells are of full shape but not stumpy. Care must be taken in handling queen cells that they are not jarred or chilled, but they can be laid on their sides without harm. A temperature of:, 5 to 95 F. is most suitable. At lower temperatures there is serious risk of chilling, but work can be done with shade temperature at 5So F. with special precautions Cells are sometimes cut out attached to a piece like a dovetail, to be dovetailed into a comb in the receiving hive. There is no need for this, however, and in fact the best place for the cell generally is not at the bottom or edge of a comb, but at the top where it is better protected A cell cut from a comb is sometimes provided with some protection at the base. Cell protectors are marketed in various forms, a wire spiral being in common usc. This spiral needs backing with a small piece of tin or celluloid slipped behind the cell. The free end of the wire is used to support the cell. A cell well backed with comb may be beld in place without protection by tbe use of two long pins. Protection is, however, desirable in circumstances cited below. The Perret-Maissonneuve universal cupule (Fig. +) will take a completed cell and afford both protection and support, and is adapted to take a special form of cage in addition when desired. Where queen cells are. inserted in a colony having eggs and young larva: from which queens could be raised, it is desirable to protect the whole ceu with a wire spiral leaving the tip exposed. Preparation of Colonies for EnurgmCE 223. Arrangements may be made for <the queen to emerge in the colony in Vl;"hich she is to remain (224), in a nucleus (228), or in a baby nucleus or nucleole (236). The first plan is obviously mainly suitable for occasional home use. The nucleus is most commonly,used. Nuclei can be maintained with but little attention and require fewer workers. Standard combs are generally used in

84 QUEt;\" RAISlNG TO PLAN ON A LARGE S.CALI:: 61 nuclei, so that they can be added to, on short notice, or built up into stocks at any time. A queen can be tested in a nucleus. Nucleoli (small!loudci) are suitable for use mainly in an apiary devoted to quc:en raising on a large scale, with climatic conditions favourable. They may be used on a small scale, however, by anyone who will master the essentials and not j("opardize n.'sults by omittitl~ any. The procedure proper to each type is detailed below: Emergenct in Strong Colon), 224. A queen cell may be given to a strong (o]ony preferably 24 kours after the colony has been made quecnlcss, all cell:; existing in the colony being destroyed (1438-9) whcn the colony is made queenless. If the cell cannot be gi,'cn within 24 hours, it is safer to wait until the bees have started cells. Th"se should thell be d,"stroyed and a cell inserted about 3 hours later... A queenless colony will, however, generally accept a queen cell under any condition unk'ss of a different race. FailuH~ is more likely to be due to the beekeeper than to the bees, unless there is a laying worker present. Emergence in lvuclei 225. In making up a nucleus from a stock it must he noted that most of the old bees on the combs removed will fly back home, so additional bees must be shaken in, first seeing that 'the old queen is safe. The return of the old bees can be prevented by putting the nucleus in a cool place and dosing it with ample ventilation, or hin. dered and reduced by putting an obstruction across the entrance (796). In making up several nuclei, it is frequently convenient to use a single strong stock for the purpose. "[he queen is removed 2 or more days before the nudei are formed and 3 or more before they are wanted, the colony being fed before and after division. When dividing into nuclei, set each lot in the shade and close the entrance, well ventilated however, for 2+ hours, when the nucleus may be set out where it is to stand. If the nuclei have to be carried some distance they get well shaken and may be opened on arrival immediately after setting out in their places In case it is not practical to wait several days and destroy any queen cells then.rmed, the cells inserted must have cell protectots. It is more simple to wait, say, + days, before dividing and then cells can be destroyed while the combs are being sorted out N uelei can be made up from the combs in the upper portion of a Demareed stock 3 or more days after they have been placed there.

85 2 QUEEN AND DRONE RAISING 228. A nucleus may be made up of three Langstroth or British tandard fr~mes, two well filled with brood and one with honey nd pollen. A larger nucleus tends to build up, but may be used if ncrcase is desired. A smaller nucleus requires care and attention o maintain it, and should be used only if there is a shortage of cmnbs md bet's. It is desirable however to have room for at least a fourth fn.l.me ill a 3-framc nucleus box :?,\'uclel are fr('quently made up, two, three and more in the same bod)\ having independent entrances well separated. A standard body can be used with a special floor board, having the ncct."'ssary entrances cut in it on three or all four sides) and divi~jon boards rcaching to the Roor board. The spaces beneath the lugs on the division boards must also be dosed with felt or other packing. Separate quilts or other covers should be used. Such a body and Roor can be arranged for mounting above a strong stock which will help provide heat. The bees in adjacent nuclei also materiallv assist each other in maintaining a proper temperature, thus reducing food consumption and increasing efficiency It always pays to feed nuclei and to keep feeding them, but they must not become dogged with food so that there is no room for egg laying after fertilization. For fertilization see If there are more queen cells available than nuclei, two may be inserted in one nucleus and covered with cages (218). The queens should be examined as soon as possible after emerging and the better one retained (38). An imperfect queen should, of course, be destroyed To prevent robbing when there is little or no honey How a small entrance should be used. The entrance can be reduced. to one bee space, but a floor-board ventilator is then desirable. Use of Small Frames in Nw:le; 233. The use of standard fl'ames enables nuclei to be made up from frames in working colonies and working colonies to be made up from nuclei. This advantage should not be sacrificed without securing some definite comperisating advantage. With the nucleoli described in the next section this compensation is found in the much reduced number of bees required with the very small frames employed. There is, however, a useful intermediate stage, having certain advantages. N udei may be built up of spec;'l frames of about half the size of a standard frame and adapted to be used in pairs as or in a standard frame, so thar they may be interchangeable with standard frames (977-9) Such. half-size frames may be arranged in a doubte row in a modified hive body having two entrances available, both at the

86 Qt! ~ RAISING TO PLAN O!\" A LARGE SCALE 63 front and the back, so that not only is the hi,'" divided " nf(thwise hut each half may be further subdivided by inserting small division boards. Ea~h side should carry six to ten haif-frarnt'$ and di\'i~iol1 board and the walls, Roor, etc., should be thick to conscrvt; tht' heat. Either half can be worked as a sdf-sllpporting nudcll~, but 011 euu:rgency the ser can be conn'ned inrn four small nuclei, mutually supporting and adequate for emergence and fertilizatiott Provision should b(' ma.. k for dosing complckly, or with gauzc of queen cxduder and \Tnti!:tting throut!h the floor hoard and of course for the insertion of qw,'en cdls. When a qui~cn is layi'lg thl' entrance of thl. sc sm.j.ll hives shc)uld 1lt:,:ll)",nl with ~'xdl1dl'r, a~ the bee... rna)' swarm jf the queen needs mon room. If the centre division and divisi\)ft hoarj.. arc pierced widl several f-inch (3 mffi.) holes near the top anj bottom, the bees a~(llli r<~ the same scent and there is no difficulty in rearrdngillg the combs and divisions at any time. Emergrna in Nucleoli, Bahy,Vue/fi 236. 'ro prevent robbing and to control mating, nucleoli should be located in an apiary employed primarily for queen raising and at least three-quarters of a mil(" (1,250 metrt"5) from any other apiary. Entrances one-bee space wide should be employed, and care exercised tllat the 5maH frames employed, when not j1) use, aft' protected from wax m(jth ( ). For the mating of queens, frames as small as a standard section (ft' x ft') have been employed and as few as a dozen bees, but for satisfactory use for emergence, mating, and h.>sting for fcrtili'lation,. it is generally necessary to use a much larger number of bees, except where rhe night temperature is uniformly high. The supply of bees must be kept up, but the greatest,uccess ill quick fcrtili7.ation is obtained with a moderate number, not more than, say, five hundred N udeoli must be fitted with frame feeders, and should each h..'e one small comb with food, pollen and a little water to start with, and room for building a second. The bees "rc furnished by shaking from a frame into a box and shaking or shovelling a cupful into the nudeoli. For continuous working the supply of bees must be kept up. The nucleoli should he prepared the day before the queen cells are to-be inserted and the entrance closed for 2+ hours. Nucleoli can only be used for emergence, fertilization and imme. diate sale of "untested" queens (see 258) As soon as may be aftcr a queen commences to lay, sbe should be removed, when another cell may be inserted, preferably

87 '4 QlJEl~ AND DRONE RAISINC,rotteted (<Jr after 3 d;rys a virgin queen will be accepted for ferili'l.atiun) \ ucleoli must be well packed for warmth and should )11 no account be openl.!d or disturbed when the shade temperature is below 5';' F. (12' C.), indeed, much higher temperatures arc desirable. I t will be seen that nucleoli require constant L\pcrt attention and an: suited only to the needs of the breeder working on a large scale. U,e of I1Icubators 240. Incubators as usc'd for cllicken raising can be adapted for usc for the emergence of queens. "The temperature should be adjusted to a maximum of 98 F. (360 C.), and the humidity should be about 52. The queen e'ells are inserted in separate cages furnished with Good's candy (1275-7) for use by the queen on emergence. The young queen should be introduced as a virgin (92 and 238) into a colony for fertilization as sao" as pouible after emergence. Nurstry Cages 241. These arc designed to enable one colo~y to look after a number of emerging queens, but if uniform success is dl.-'$ircu it is not good practice to keep a young queen caged longer than is absolutely necessary. Each cage should contain its own supply of Good's candy (1275-7), so that a queen may not be left without food, as she will have to feed herself. The use of such devices affords temptation to bad practices. There is a danger of cells becoming chilled jn nursery cages unless well placed in very strong colonies. Some cages have per~oration covered with excluder zinc or celluloid to admit attendants, but it is more convenient to ha\'e no attendants. with the queen when the cage is removed for introducing her elsewhere. Fertilization Conditions Favourable 242. The mating /light normally takes place from the colony in which the queen has emerged, though on occasion a virgin hatched or held elsewhere may be inserted in a colony, large or small, for fertilization (92).. _ 243. One of the most important requirements is to secure that the virgin queen returning from her mating flight shall find her way back to the colony she left, for if she enters the wrong hive she will be killed and her own colony will be left queenless. To this end it is useful to ha,', mating hives painted a variety

88 FERTILIZATION of colours and arranged in groups in a distinctive manlll'[. Tilt" queen is greatly helped by distinctive feature's in the neighbourhood of the front of the hive in the linc of Right, and these should be prm. jded where none exjsr naturalh'_ \Vh('tl ~e\'eral colonies an: located in one hire body it is important that the entrances should be well scpar.ucd, and Whl'TC tht, Right boa,rd is common to two or more, they should be separated hy vt'rticaj partitions (,xtending from the hin: boj.,," to tht: t.'uf!:t" of thr Right hoard. The surroundings of the entrance rna.", he brightly (olourcd. Somt' nuke the entrance itself con:;picuous with hllck paint If several mating colonies arc to be located in one hive bodv the divisions are sometimes made with hole') to ajlow intcrcha;lgc of air (and s..::ent), either a number of holes i inch diameter (3 mm.) are used, or larger holes. covered with wire gauze. 'This giv("s the bcc~ a common scent go that combs of bees m.1.y be intcr ~hanged and rearranged freely as between compartment and compartment. 'The division boards are fh:qucntl_v madc.. movable w allow of varying the capacity of individual compartments. With such a hive it is however found important to secure that au the cefls furnished should be of the s.1.l1jc agt:, so that a.s far as possible the queens may be fertilized thl' same day. This furnishes evidence of the importance of the condition of the colony (sec 246) The colony with bees and qu"cn to be fertilized is sometimes placed for warmth above a normal strong colony. This is best done by the use of a bottom board for the mating colony having a large hole in it covered both sides with wire h'<lu1,c, with not less than i inch between ga)lzes, letting warm air through but not allow. ing the bees to pass. This board should have a Right hole let into it and a small extension to act as Right board. It will then stand on and receive standard hive bodies without any cutting of cntranc{'s, etc., in them The condition of the colony itself i. an important factor in successful fertilization. Everything that helps to render the colony aware of the need of a fertile queen favours fertilization. This is evidenced by Pratt's success with minute colonies of old bees and by the fact that fertilization may be seriously hindered by maintaining a supply of young latv"'. Nevertheless, a colony having decided to supersede its queen may raise a virgin and have her fertilized and laying befot! destroying the old queen (93). Conditions &vourable are a temperature above 64~ F. (18 0 C.) and a supply of fresh pollen and thin honey or syrup. At such a temperature a supply of nectar will generally be coming in, but it i. helpful, specially with small colonies, to supply a small quantity of stimulative food (1248,t uq.) about I i hours before mating may M~ p

89 66 Q1JEEN AND DRONE RAISING be expected. Except during a good honey flow there is danger of robbing and ;mall colonies should be stimulated with sugar syrup rather than with honey as it gives off less scent At a suitable temperature drones should be flying freely, but it is advantageous to give slow stimulative fceding to the dront: brcedin;; colonies at the same time as to those containing the virgin quc'ens, Except for the period of special stimulation it i~ advantageolls to use candy and pollen or scaled honey and pollen. Procrdure and Period of Fertilization 248. A virgin queen will not fly for about 2 days after emergence and may conveniently be examined during this period to see that she shows no sign of abnormality, defert or deficiency. Circumstances not being unfavourable,. the mating Right takes place most frequently on the sixth or sc\,cnth day after emcrgenc(.~, but may take place as early as the fifth day. If fertilization is not accomplished by the twenty-first day, it is unlikely that really satisfactory fertilization will take place and it is better, indeed, to discard the queen not mated by the sixteenth. These tlgures apply to the races of bees in general use for honey production. If a queen is only partially fertilized in her first mating she may fly a second time shortly after. This is exceptional, but has been observed and if the drones arc of different colour, will lead to a change of colour in her progeny after she has been laying for some time Mating flights generally occur between I I a.m. and 4 p.m. (SummerTime), and most frequently between I and 2.30 p.m. The flight usually lasts 4- to 10 minutes and drones and queens take flight about the same time. N e\'ertheless, there is evidence of queens mating with drones from apiaries four or five miles distant. Where many drones are flying the queen is usually mated on her first flight, but in small apiaries and during indifferent weather several flights may be necessary. For Controlled Mating see 251. Egg-laying 250. The queen generally commences to lay about 2 days after fertilization. These 2 days must be added to the figures above to determine when eggs may be expected. _. Eggs should generally be in evidence within 10 days of emergence of the queen, and they may appear on 'the seventh day. Very late in the season, if the honey flow ceases about the time of fertilization, laying may be deferred until the spring, but this is hazardous and may lead to loss of the queen. In a nonnal case of supersedure and assuming

90 DRONE BREEDING the larva chosen is :1. days old, ew from the new queen.. re gencralll' in ('vidence within 3 w(-' cks As soon as h!'ing COmlt1en(l~ In d. nud::.-ole or a s.mall llllcieus, it is desirable to close the t'fltrancl' with queen cx(ludcf :ls, if the queen la(b; b..dn~ span', dw bc(", :lh' :lpr to sw.a,rm. Gettf'ral 252. If i~ import.wt to secure that queens an' mated with dron~ of.,. good strain a!> til(> workt.'rs raised from her egg'!' take their characteristics from her and her mate. It is generahy a~s('rwd th;t.t tlll' bees inherit their disposition mainly from the mall', 253. Dark JroI1l:s arc generally stronger flyers than tllosc of the I talian and other races~ so that yellow queens arc very lia.ble to become crossed with dark dronl"s where there arc any such, ~rhc results or such a cross arc not favoured, tending to sho~ bad h.'rnper (though J10t necessarily doing so), but the r(.'sults of cros~ing of a dark queen with a drone of a yel10w strain are generally satisfactory. Selection of Dnmts 254. In selecting a colony for drone breeding it should be remembered that the male parcnt of the drones in that colony is not the drone that crossed with the queen mother therein, but the drone that. fathered that queen. One must not look so much to the characteristics of the worker bees in that colony for (.'\"idcnce of the quality of its drones as to the workers produced by the mother of the.queen. One may, however, also examine the drones themselves for such evidence as they may show of race and vigour. Drone breeding should he encouraged in selected colonies by giving drone comb or opportunity of building same. Drone breeding should be rigorously suppressed in other colonies by limiting the drone comb to very small proportions, say, 2 square inches or so per hive. Colonies without any drones generally become disheartened. Reject;"" of Drones 255. If, however, any colony has shown vice or disease its drones should be trapped (1061-2) during the mating period, even though the colony has been re-qlleened, and as drones drift from hive to hive it is best that all drone comb should be scarified by scratching with the point of a knife or bya scarifier sold for the purpose, as soon as found, and the operation repeated at least every '4 da}'l'. Comb with drone cells should be removed from snch a stock except for a few square inches. As the bees will not be happy without some drones and

91 68 QUEEN AND DRONE RAISING :;:omc drone comb, if is a good plj.n at the time a clearance is effected to insert a marked comb (1044) of drone brood from a prepared stock. If a new <lu('en is to be raised in and fertilized from that colony, then mature drones from a selected stock may be shaken in near the outer combs Of corners of the hive. ~ Drom.-"S do not show any strong attachment to the colony in which they emerge, and frequently wander to other colonies, especially t() tliosc ha\ jng queen cells. Railing Drones in Time for Use 256. The eggs of drones required for mating should have!jeen laid at least 51 to 6 weeks before the drones are wanted (4). Control of Mating 257. The only method of absolutely controlling mating is by artificial insemination. Such a method not only requires special training and apparatus and considerable dexterity, but is likely to remain too hazardous for commercial use in fl:rtilizing queens for sale. It should prove, however, of immense help to those engaged in unravelling the complicated laws of hereditary transmission and ultimately of \"aiuc in establishing pedigree stocks of breeding queens and drones of,"arious classes suited to the needs of different districts and methods of working Meanwhile, not much more can be done towards the selection of drones by the working beekeeper than is indicated above under" Drone Breeding," or need be done, if he already has a uniformly good strain and is not troubled by bad neighbours or wild bees. An occasional misrnate can be thrown out jf the home strain is of a distinctive type. Where, however, more is required and the circumstances are favourable one or more of the following devices may be employed: Mating at Abnormal Hours 259. The weather being favourable, both queens and selected drones may be stimulated to fly abnormally early on a sunny day by stimulative feeding at 7 a.m. to 8 a.m., leaving other colonies severely alone or giving them extra shade overnight. Flying may be expected between 9 and loa. ffi Alternatively, and with greater certainty, the hives containing the queens anti the selected drones may be closed before 10 a.m. and put in a cool place, free ventilation being provided through Boor ventilators or the like. Feeders are placed in position and sti.nulatiie food given about half an hour before the drones

92 DRONE BREEDINC from freely exposed l.:olonil"s are known to Cease Aying. At the end of the half-hour the closed colonics arc exposed on their original stanj~, which are h<..-st put in a position f;tcin~ towards the sun late' in the da_r, and op(:m. d. There wilt he great activity of the bee~ ~(Jtd m"ti0i! generally occurs forthwith. If ncce~i s.lry, a st'(.'olld attt'mpt may bt., maul' in a similar manner the next day SomL' simplific.1.t1on is obtained by providing tht. hivt's ~,(Hltaining- the \'ir~in queens with it stlpply of two or thrc(.' dozen ~clcctcd drone-:; of ~uitable ap:e, say, 2 to 5 w<:cks old, thus avoidin~ the necessity of clo~ing the hin's in which tht dron(,s arc bred. 2tJ2. Some close the entrances with quc('1! excluder only, rhus aliowill~ tht worke{!. free Right and contlnint!, only the qu{'tils and drotlt.'s. 'rhi~ is not quite ~o effective in st'curing flight of the quecn at the dcsirc"d time. Mating out of S,ason 'fhis is based on a similar idea of ~{'Cttring mating when um-elected drones are not flying, but is 1C:-'5 certain, as a wild colony may well be a prosperous and vigorous one, '!:It'IlJing out early drones, whilst less desirable quecnlcs.<; colonies may send out drones Jate in the season. Furthermore, queen raising very early or late in the sca.~on is a hazardous business For mating early, the colonies selected for drone breeding mllst be built up early by adding combs of bees from other colonies, feeding and packing warm and given drone comb towards the outside of the brood nest, noting 254. Queen cell raising can be commenced with eggs laid not less than sixteen day' after the drone eggs.have been laid For mating late the drone-raising colony must be made queenjess before the late honey Row ceases and drones are massacred. It should be kept queenless, but provided with any necessary brood and united with another colony after the drones are no longer required, or re-queened with a laying queen if worth keeping as an independent colony. PrrrJiding S,/ecttd Drones to Mating Hive 266. This has been touched upon above, (261). Some breeders make a point of furnishing a rew dozen selected drones to each hive containing a virgin queen. This increas<:s the chance of, but does not ensure, correct mating. Artificial Mating Besides instrumental instmination of the queen by hand as practised by Watson and previously by McLain, Howard, Bishop

93 QUEEN AND DRONE RAISING and others, painting the vulva of the queen with drone sperm has been tried by Hub. Barratt and Quinn have obtained individual queens of controlled parentage by painting drone eggs with sperm under a suitable technique. A tt<:mpts have been made to confine the queens' flight in various ways, the least unsuccessful being the usc of l.rge barn-like cages or similar enclosures in which both queen and drones arc ff{~{' to fly. Such methods are mainly for scientific use. While: f!oing to press good progress is reported in the hand mating of queens without the use of instruments. l\1ore will be heard of 'this. Tested olld Untested Quems Classification and Definition 268. A Pirgin Queen is one unmated, but should be sold as soon as possible after emergence (see 79). A SelNted Pirgin Queen is one selected by appearance (sec 38) and heredity and obviously cannot have been tested in any way. An Untested Queen is a mated queen that has begun to lay (see 259). A Selected Untested Queen is one that has been selected by appearance (see 38) and heredity. A Tnted Queen is one that has been laying for more than 3 weeks in a satisfactory manner and whose progeny show correct mating. A Selected Tested Queen is one selected by appearance (see 38), heredity and performa.nce. A BrudilTg Queen is one whose progeny have shown excellent results and characteristics for at least a full year, and selected for the raising of new queens on the e\'idcnce so obt;uned and according to its heredity and appearance. Notes 269. The.bOl e definitions have no authority behind them, but will be recognized by iny good breeder. A laying queen in full lay should not be sent by post without her laying being first temporarily reduced by transfer to a nudeus. An untested queen from a reliable source is generally as good an investment as a tested queen, as it is likely to suffer less in transit which lhay more than offset the risk of a bad mating In judging the progeny of a queen by appearance, particular attention should be given to recently hatched bees as, especially during a ~oney fiow, young fiying worker bees frequently drift from one hive to another and might be mistaken for her progeny.

94 TESTED AND VNTESTED QUEENS 271. A queen should not he passed as fertilized until somt of her brood has been scaled with the characteristic flat capping proving that siw i!:l not a drone b.ycr. 'I'he buyer of an Ufltt..'StCJ qu('cn rakes the chance of m($matin~, but rhe sdk'r of a fertile queen is rc~pon ~ihk for her being mated and ~houjd ;tt least rcpla~t. free of charge any queen pff)\"jng dl.:fectin' in tili:-. n:~pt.'ct.

95 SECTIOX III COMB, WAX ASD PROPOLIS Comb Building illcthod 272. Bees build their combs outwards from the surface all which they start and generally downwards from the more or less horizontal roof of the chamber they have for a home. To fill vacant spaces at a lower level, for example, between wideiyspaced crooked frames, they will build out from the side wall, even though vertical. If hindered from building in the normal way, they can build upwards Building is commenced by accumulating on the chosen spot a small body of wax, moistened with saliva, masticated and toughened. This wax is moulded from opposite sides, hollows being worked, which, when nearly meeting, bottom to bottom and side by side, form respectively the commencement of the mid-rib and cell walls. The first cell walls arc built at right angles to the surface on which they are founded. Thus, comb depending from a horizontal surface, as it most commonly does, is found with its hexagon cells having two vertical walls. Comb built on a vertical face, or one sloping about 30 from the horizontal, will be found to have cells each with two horizontal faces. It frequently happens that through stretching, or some irregularity in building, a comb started with cells placed either vertical or horizontal way, undergoes a transformation during construction. The bees have a natural preference for a substantially horizontal surface from which to depend their combs, but no preference for the vertical or horizontal cell wall per St. The comb is, in fact, equally able to carry the weight whichever way it be built. The mounting of foundation in frames to give vertical walls gives the bees a better start from the top bar, but a more difficult job at the sides. If a full sheet is mounted the other way, the bees will make a job of the top fixing and finish the- sides more readily While the above is the normal procedure in building, the bees can, in fact, construct comb, starting by tracing hexagons in wax, un a vertical flat surface.

96 COMB BUILDING The finished wax comb is white, but is treated bv tho boes before use with a balsamic or resinous substance, gi"ing it a yellow colour, the material being obtained possibly from pollen or from other vegetable source, l Building D,WU and 'Vat'ter Comb 276. In nature a swarm starting a!lew (olnny tirst builds worker comb, but when a good brooo nest is huilt up, drone comb is builr on the outer ma.rgins and used for drone raising, ('ady ill the ~wason, 1)1' honey storage, later ill rh(' season.!\ext spring drone egg" arc laij.., when, or soon after) tile brood Ill'~t has... xpanued to the drom' comb. "This is not the whole story as drone romh may be built on the edges of the brood nest befon: futl expansion of the nest. l\.1ofrover, a first swarm hived without foundation ma" build drone comb within 3 weeks of hiving) especially if there is hut'little hofu;y cnmin~ in. A swarm on foundation will build worker tells for about 3 weeks, but the usc of worker foundation gives no absolute ~uaratltl'l' that drone cells will not be built. If the swarm is headed by a qutc/l of the same year, drone comb is seldom built until the next spring. Queenless bees will build drone comb One must remember that drone comb is required mainly for raising drones and will be built whenever the bees desire to raise drones. Even with a young queen th,' bees apparently like a few drones, against emergency. They do hot work so well if they arc allowed none. They will tear down worker comb to build drone comb if thev desi re it and there is no other place for it Where the beekeeper has to contend with crooked combs, he Can get good /lat combs by having them drawn out between other '/lat combs, preferably between sealed store combs in a super. For economical wax production, see 332. The best worker combs from foundation arc built by young bees in a full brood nest or in an upper chamber, where two or more combs are used to give them a start, and the queen is confined below. Combs so built are far more frequently carried down to the bottom bar than where the bottom bar is next the floor. Brace and Burr Comb 279. These terms are sometimes confused. A brace is a mechanical contrivance;oa fixing botween two parts to give additional mechanical support. Thus, after moving a hive some distance one frequently finds many pieces of brace comb built, from hive wall to comb and from comb to comb, to resist further shocks. If a comb. threatens to break loose from any cause, or a frame shows a tendency to swing, the bees build brace comb to secure it. Brace comb gener-

97 7+ COMB, WAX AND PROPOLlS ally takes the form of an extension of the cell walls at a junction between three of them, carried out to an adjacent surface to which it is secured, thus avoiding blocking any cell Burr comb is a term applied to any odd pieces, nc,t part of the regular structure, generally found in gaps of more than a bee space, or as the commencement of uncompleted combs) on the hin' wall, or oil a division hoard. inclination and Disindination to Build Com!, 281. Comb building requires a high temperature (26) and honey sacs well tilled with honey or sugar syrup (332 ana 1239). IIJ/;leed, if the bees are web filled and confined so that a high temperature ib reached, probably the production of a considerable amount of wax goes on automatically. Hence, the necessity of giving some opportunity for comb building (1410 and 1464) In a hive with the combs arranged parallel to the entrance, the bcl"s are less readily disposed to draw out foundation placed at the front than at the back ~hc normal direction of extending a comb is downward~ as the cluster of bees expands, the cluster conveniently overlapping the edge. Bees will expand upwards in case of nece;,ity but object to breaking the cluster, as this im'olves loss of heat. For the same rcason, in expanding at right angles to the comb surface, the normal procedure is to build the next comb immediately adjacent to the last so as to hare no break in the cluster. This shows wh y the becs object so strongly to building in those little section boxes 'so beloved by the beekeeper, and why they will make a better start if attracted by partly drawn comb, say by a shallow comb, adjacent to the sections For the same reason bees object to enter a super fitted with foundation when that super is placed above the occupied combs, although they will readily enter the same chamber if placed below. For this reason a super fitted with foundation should first be started below the brood chamber, or, alternatively, below a super of drawn combs already occupied. 'This latter arrangement breaks the cluster, but the bees will not willingly forsake the super they have started in, and will work downwards from it into the new one inserted below it. Alternatively, the bees may be attracted upwards by putting two drawn combs or partly occupied combs in the middl. of the super, together or on either side of a frame of foundation. The bees will then spread sideways from these combs, which they do more readily. CIII Walls :t85. The top and bottom walls of cells intended for breeding

98 COMB BUILDING 7S purposes are built out substantially horizontally and nearly at right angles to the plane of the mid-rib, but cells provided for honey storage are given a slight inclination upwards towards the mouth., which assists in retaining the nectar. Occasionally the indination is very considerable, even 1 in 3. When celjs in the brood lj("st are extended to receive honey, some upward inclination is given The mouth of the cdl is always thicker than the walls. As the cell is extended, material is Ii"t added around the mouth and then thinned out and extended by moulding from within. The thickening at the mouth scrrt.-'s to protect the thin wax from injury anti also stiffens tbe whole structuf(.', hclpillg to prevent distortion, t'specially in the lower parts of combs, which part~ may not be s(.."curcd to the side wails. Cell Gappings 287. The cappings of cells containing brood arc porous and 'contain a certain amount of pollen. "-rhose of worker cells are prac~ ticaljy flat, sunk portions being a sign of foul hrood (1688). The cappings of drone ceils~ of of worker cells containing drone brood (96) are markedly convex, alrnost herni-spherical and are thus readily distinguishable eappings of honey cells are built with wax, but many Co" uin pollen grains also. They are slightly porous. The darker races produce a white capping with an air space beneath, which adds greatly to the appearance and makes some provision against expansion of the honey by water absorption during the winter. Italian bees and yellow races in general from warmer climates, frequently fill up their cells to the capping, which is wetted thereby, but when honey i. coming in quickly they also may leave an air space; some stra.ms more so than others. Comb honey with white cappings, with an air space beneath, is preferred in the market for its better appearance. Thus the yellow races can be used for the best section comb production only during a rapid flow, and then only strains that show the desired characteristic. Some bees, notably the French bees in certain districts, produce bright yellow cappings, the colouring matter, it is believed, coming from certain Rowers, e.g. the dandelion. Dimnuions of Cells 289. The cell tends to a true hexagon, although many irregular cells are built. The cell bottoms are still more irregular, to accomm<>date differences in the two sides. The size of a hexagon cell i. generally measured across the Bats. The diagonal dimension across the corners is larger in the ratio of ' '55 to I 000. The length

99 COMB, WAX AND PROPOLlS of the side is half the diagonal dimension. If the dimen,ion aero" the flats = f, then the area = ' Foundation for worker brood is generally made to give comb with about +1 to 5 cells per inch run (measured across the flats), the latter more commonly, and + cells per inch for drone brood. ~rhe art'a of the hexagon of a cell then becomes such as to give 26 to 29 worker cells per square inch and 18'5 drone eells, in each case coullted on one side of the comb, and not allowing for stretching In nature the inside dimensions of worker cells across the flats may vary even as much as from,say, o 195 to 0'235 inch with the same lot of bees, and will vary still morc as between races h~l\'ing the smallest and largest bees. Similarly, in onc lot of bees drone comb may run from 0'22 to 0.26 inch In new comb the cell wall in worker cells may be less than 0'004 inch thick and more than 0'006 in drone cells. There is not much data on this, but the average cell wall in used worker cells exceeds 0'00+. Owing to rounding out of the cells where the flats meet at a corner, the diagonal dimension within a used cell is reduced by about 0'015 inch, more or less. Importance of Dimensions 293. If the cell diameter is such as to cramp the bee, the workers produced therein are undersized and particularly in tongue-length and size of honey sac. Foundation running 5 cells per inch is not the best for the larger strains and that running 4i per inch is not large enough to give the best results with the largest bees. When the cells arc already too small, it is stated that an increase of 5 per cent. in diameter., i.e. 10 per cent. in area, may give an increase of rr inch in tongue-length. Too large an increase in cell diameter involves increased size of brood chamber and some loss of economy in wintering, the cluster being less compact. Undoubtedly the be,;' keeper needs to study foundation in relation to the size of his bees Finished new worker comb measures about t to it inch (23 to 25 mm.) from face to face and drone comb about It inch (3 I mm.), the depths of the individual cells being rather more than half these ligures. Old comb with thickened cell bottoms will be thicker overall in a corresponding degree, but sec 302. Sizt of Combs and Methu of Using 295. In hives the.size of comb is determined by the size of frame. In nature it is determined in part by the size of the cavity in wbich the comb is built and in part by the ability of the wax walls to withstand.he dependent weight. Where support can be obtained from,.},,.. '"ti~ nfsll Nlvih1 _'" 11"\ i"r"h~ 'UJ"irl... 00::. in ~ hnlln'm' t-1"pp,.},p l... nn+h

100 COMB BtJILD1NC may run to several feet. Where the weight is (onsidera.blc't tilt' upper part of the comb is found strengthened bv additions of hard propolis. The upper P;}Tt used for honey ~torj.g:(. is also wider from face to face than the base used for brood fearing. This increase also assists in obtaining security and strc:ngth to carry the weight below, Comb fu1,l of honey, from face to face runs nearly i~ Ih. PCf square [o:)r per lneh of thlckncss (4 kg. per l,ooo ~q. (In. per 2.~ ('lh. thickness). Bees will build odd pieces of comh in which to ~torl' h{)lw~') ill any odd outlying parts adjacent to the brood and qorl"~ gcfi(:rallv', but foj'lbrood raising they prefer to proyije large tonti/lu()u~ ~1/rf..1fe~ ovet which the queen may foam with()ut hindrance The qucc~ does not pass rcj.dilv fmm one chamber to another above it, across an intcf\'cninf! g:ap, and acro\:- the edges of the frames, neither docs she pass readily from nnf' comh to anoth{~r parallel comb if there are two or more combs of honey and poucn between. Barriers of this kind arc apt to lead to thl" r.~jsijlg of supersedure cells (148). Thus the bees prefer large continuous surfaces limited only by the inherent strength of a comb, huilt with due economy of costly wax. Thus while a bn spa,,"e at the side of a. frame is respected by the bees., a bee space betwecj1 frames vertically one above another, and especially between brood frames, is disliked and a more Or less persistent endeavour is made by the bu! to bridge the gap. In extreme cases, where the comb~ an: out of align.. mem, the lower part of the upper comb may ('\"en be n:collstructed to overhang its frame and extended downward to join the top har of the frame below. Where th(" combs in two bodies ar(~ in vertical alignment, the bees tend to build rows of cells between them and OH~'r the top bars and adjacent bottom bars (see use of Vaseline, 1043) In the winter, when the bees are clustered closely, the cluster tends to the spherical form. In the spring, when the cluster first breaks, the brood is spread over a larger area, frequently of fewer combs, because with a higher temperature surrounding the brood nest, a relatively few bees can pack the edges of the spaces between combs to conserve the heat and the combs themselves serve as adequate packing in the other directions. We may at that time find, for example, three patches of brood 8 inches mean diameter, with eggs and young brood on the margins and old brood at the centres and small patches of old br<!l:>d on two adjacent combs with no eggs, clearly showing that a transition of form is taking place. After this period, in hives with the largest frames a gi,'en amount of brood which would fill a large number of smaller frames will be found spread over a smaller number of the larger frames, snowing the desire for large patches and consequently for large combs.

101 COMB, WAX AND PROPOLIS 298. Comb, larger than the M.D. are not very practicable for the beekeeper. The justification for the use of smaller combs such as the Langstroth and British Standard, is their use in double brood chambers in a different system of management (or incidentally with a less prolific strain of bee). (See ) The division of the bro()d nest may') however, tend to the production of supersedure queens, and temptation to swarming (148) As another example of the bees' objection to a comb not continued in one piece, may be cited the difficulty of getting bees to take to a super provided only with starters, a difficulty often flot appreciated bv the apiarist (284) In nature, having built a large enough brood nest, the becs build drone comb outside it and utilize this for drone raising and honey storage. Honev is stored also in worker comb the upper part of which is built out for the purpose as the comb is extended downward. I t is true, therefore, to say that the bees build drone comb for storage, but it is equally natural 'for them to store in worker comb: 301. It is somewhat easier to extract honey from drone comb, but if drone comb is used in supers accessible t; the queen~ there is a risk of an excess of drones being raised. This necessitates the use of a queen excluder, but if drone foundation is used built out in widely spaced frame's for storage, and not cut down to the normal breeding depth when extracting, the bees are much more likely to utilize it for further storage and excluders need not be used (see 873 and ). On the other hand, nectar is more readily evaporated in shallow cells and it is doubtful if there is any material saving of wax by the use of drone comb, as the cell walls of drone comb are made thicker than those of worker comb. Use of Old Combs 302. It is commonly taught that, with the raising of successive bees in the same cell, the cell walls become thickened more and more by the deposit of Ian'", skins and cocoons, gradually reducing the diameter of the cell. On lhe supposition that the cells must soon become too small, many good tough combs are destroyed unnecessarily every year. The fact is, the bees limit the reduction of diameter. by stripping the walls, letting the deposit accumulate, however, at the bottom of the cell as this is readily compensated for by extending the cell mouth. In time the mid-rib may ttlu. be thickened to i inch or more and such combs are most excellent for the winter cluster. The writer has seen old comb with thickened surrounds to the cell IN)uths.wd greatly thickened mid-rib, but is waiting to see one with over thick side walls. Dr. Miller wrote to the same effect.

102 COMB BlJll.DI!W 79~ 303. At the s.ame time) there is flo doubt that undn-sizcj b( ("S :lro:;' produced in small cdls anj that with a reduction in diameter the,j're of the b,'c will he "ffected (293), but it is not yet known how far rite be(,s will earn' this reduction. Dr. :\'IiIlcr~s ('Jbsen'atiom: WC*f(' probably made with American Italial1 b('l'~ which afe good IlPus!..' cleaners. S{'\rnc of the dark races which a.re not Sn may be at fault ill rl~pt:-ct til surh deterioration of comn, but the writer has yet to sec proof. Clt'rming Po/lm-c/o-,(l!td Cr;mbs 304. 'rhe utility of comhs wei! t:h.lrgl...! with good pollen is d('~!t with in '1\1..' beekeeper wiii, however, ()cta."iionaliy ha\c" pnlkn-dogg(_ J comhs he wishes to clt:ar. Ifput in til(' middle of tht' broou n{',::>t of a :-ltrollg: stnl..'k or ~w.lrm) tilt, h~'c~ wiil dear them om. Be careful, however, to wijtch that the het's do not raise U!lL'xpcctcd qut:'en n lis In the bwou nt'!'>t on tll{" side f)ll which the queen 1<;' nor Jarlng- :",cc' 148) If it he desired ro fl'nio\ t' the pnl)t.j) hy ha.j)d~ rhe comb should be soab:d for 2+ hour~ in rain-wj.lt:r and thell!>yring( J or put in an extractor, or the comb m~ly be placed in a warm dry place to ;hrink the polk'n which may tllt"n he ('xtracrt,d ill an extractor, or shakt:o out by holding flit.: frame and striking the far edge gently ag,linst the cdg(: of a horizontal wooden SUPport1 a table or box, \Vhcn the pollen is con'iolidated with honey, a syringe may be used, The comb should then be well dried and the pollen shaken (jut. Again, a n:frigerator may be used to loosen the pollen The best time to rcmm'c old and poor pollen is probably. when an ample supply of new pollen is coming in. If there is honev abo in the comb, let the bees have access to the comb behind a divzsion board until they h;n'e dearu-d it out, Wright of Combs and Fa,mdation 307. The wax in new brood comb runs to about 650 square inches per pound. Thus a pound of wax will be found in: British Standard Frames say 6 frame, British Deep Frames o4! Langstroth Frames 5 " Modi fied Dadanr + This is with cells running about 5 to the inch. The weight may be somewhat less or appreciably greater. The weight'is increased by additions of propolis and later by additions of cocoons. The above corresponds to about 37,000 cells per pound. This figure may run from 30,000 to 50,000, the latter only with bees making rather

103 80 COMB, WAX AND PROPOL!S small cells. The smaller cells take less wax pcr cell hut more wa;.: per square inch. The comb in a section weighs about one-fortieth of a pound, more or less, or say one-thirty-sixth with cappings l\jejium weight foundation well worked out by the bees will provide about two-thirds of the wax required in building brood combs. If hca\cicr weight foundation is used some bees frequently fail to thin down the bases and thus wax is wasted. In melting down old combs, the weight of wax obtained will be somewhat less than the figures in 307, even with the assistance of a wax press to follow the use of steam or boilinf!: water. If the combs exceed I inch from face to face, or the ccll walb are unusually hej.\,v, the weight will be increased. I 'or weight of foundations," sec also RfPairin,~ and Cutting Comb 309. If it be desired to secure repair of a worker comb, as for t:xamplc after cutting out a queen cell or portions of drone comb, the comb should be given to young bees for re-building, as for example, in a super, but not where the bees may be endeavouring to raise queen c-ells. To make more sure of a good repair made with worker cells, it is, however, desirable to trim the damaged portion neatly and insert a portion of worker foundation accurately fitted. This is readily done if it be remembered that accurate placing is more important than securing: contact at all points. The bees will make the j unctions good To cut comb cleanly dip the knife blade in methylated spirit. To prepare sections of comb to show cell walls, etc., embed the comb in plaster of paris, cut with a fine hack saw and finish with fine sandpaper. The plaster should be poured separately into each cell and the lot shaken down. Uu of Fortign Substanus in Comb Building 311. The bees add a. small amount of foreign material, for example, propolis, to their combs, so that commercial beeswax contains such. The bees will, however, use considerable quantities of foreign material which they can mould in with the wax if given the opportunity, such as bitumen of suitable consistency, harder waxes of the paraffin series, and others. Such adulteration should be avoided, however, as such additions are sure to find their way into the meltingpot sooner or later in smaller or larger quantities, and may spoil the market for pure beeswax, an article which already finds none too high. price..having regard to the cost of producing it Some foundation is marketed containing a layer of tough

104 COMB BUILDING vegetable w.u: of,lightly higher melting-poim than beeswa.\. )t, usc is subject to the objection that such wax cannot be again separated from the beeswax and the mcitings ought to be sold only as a mixed wax suitable, for example, for part u'"" in foundation building. For adulteration of bet.coswa.x in general, SCt.' If bcc-swax is reduced to tine scrapings, the bees will gather a.nd use them in romb bujl(~ing 'rhc remarkable and l's!:'cntiai property of b('cs'wax, that it,hould be mouldaplc by the bees at a tcrnpcroltu;'(" at which it nt'\'l'r~ theiess retains sufficient rigidity to support tht' depending weight, ma~es it diffitult to replace by other materials, It is essential that any material uscd in place of bn-swax in c(lmh building, ~hall not flow at temperatures ill the neighbourhood of 100:' to ] 0:f',F. under rhe llca\"y duty of sustaining the weight of honey and brood, yet on the appji~ation of a somewhat greater force it must flow plastically. It must not be too brittle at the lowest hive tempera.tufe and must not.ffcct the taste of honey or the health of brood. Prrurvation of Combs (/Vax.I1olh) 315. rrhc principal danger (0 wax combs is the wax moth, of which there arc two kinds. -The larger, Galcria mdiondia, measur~ tbout I I inches across the open wings, a :..oft~l(xjking, pale drab ;;:oloured moth with darker brown markings over the upper win,b"ts. The grub is about 1 inch long. The smaller, Achroe grisclla, measures about i inch across rhe wings, being light drab or fawn :oloured all over with but little marking The larv;e are almost indistinguishable when young, but those of the larger moth run when disturbed, while those of the ;maller moth feign death. They feed upon combs and cocoons and "efer old combs, but although they may not lx, able to live on wax done, they will attack unused comb, and to some extent, the ""ood frames, the surface being gnawed where the cocoon is to be iecured The larger moth takes 4- weeks to rl'<loh maturity, dating 'rom the egg, at a favourable temperature, say i 5' to 85' F. (25-30 C) md 20 to 30 weeks in the winter. The smaller inscu matures rather nore quickly in the summer. The larv:e are killed in about 3 minutes.t a temperature of 4-0 C. (104- F.), but there appears to be no,ecord of what the egg.;. will withstand Eggs laid late in the season may not mature until the next,pring. I t is not safe to store combs for the winter on the assumption :hat they are ftee of wax moth unless stored where hard frost will -each them. The eggs are killed by severe frost (time and temperature :ondition. not established).

105 82 COMB, WAX AND PROPQLIS Remedies for IVax Moth 319. Bees which arc good house cleaners will not tolerate wax moths. The moth gets no hold, save in weak and diseased colonies, but they readily and rapidlv attack combs in storage if care is not exercised to prcvent this occurring. 'T'lw wax moth will not lay eggs in comb freely e).'poscd to the light. 1 f one side is exposed and the otll{'r is against a wah or another comb, the moth will choosp the protected side. Light, however, docs not destroy the larva::, and when the eggs arc laid the mischief is bt gun. It is likely that the use of lighted brood chambers (sec 925 it seq.) will assist the bees in checking wax moths The true remedy and preventive is the application to the combs at the time of storage of a substance which will destroy the eggs as well as larv", and moths, if any. The larv", could be dealt with by heat (sec 317), but further data is necessary Sulphur is cas)' to get and frequentlv employed. It produces fumes on burning which rise in the air. The combs are treated in the bodies or chamber in which they are to be stored, placing an empty body or two at the bottom and a cover on top. Unless all parts fit well, the cracks should be sealed with strips of paper. The gummed strip sold in rolls for sealing parcels is very convenient for the purpose. The sulphur is burned at the bottom of the chamber, using 2 oz. for e,'ery r 0 cubic feet. The empty bodies at the bottom keep the combs from too close contact with the burning sulphur. Sulphur alone cannot be relied on to destroy the eggs and it is desirable to repeat in a fortni!(ht, the combs being stored meanwhile in a warm place. It is said that the eggs' can be destroyed in 6 or 8 hours by well mixing with 2 oz. of powdered sulphur, 30 grains of nitrate of potash, the whole being wetted.with a little wood alcohol. This burns quickly and raises the temperature A convenient non-inflammable solution for killing the larv", consists of three parts carbon tetrachloride by volume to two parts ethyl acetate, used at the rate of 2 oz. per I 0 cubic feet. This will not kill the eggs. The materials described below are preferable, however, as they may be relied upon to destroy the eggs and are easier to apply Carbon disulphide, sold in liquid form, giving off an intlammabie gas heavier than air, is good for the ptttpose. After storifying the combs, the liquid is placed in a Rat vessel, or poured over Rannel or rags, on top of the pile and the cover then replaced, all cracks being sealed. The fumes spread downwards. The amount generally employed i. :li oz. per 10 cubic feet Ethylene oxide has been used as a substitute for carbon

106 BEESWAX disulphid(', hcing mon' powerful,! 07.. lx ing sufficient for I (' nibil" feet Calcium cyanide gives off a poisonous gas readily dissipated bv ventilation and has been used tilt destroying I.. r,,,, and eggs, also diseased bees..'\bout p"r cubic foot is required, the powder being put at the bottom and ahowed to absorb moistuf(' from da~ air. Honey is not affected b~' It Anotntr convenient and dfecti\'c sut,.;,tanct' is p3.radidllornbt'n7,1ne in the form of crystals, giving. off a vapour hca\,i<_'r than air~ and therefore to be inserted at tile top of,.hc pile. About per" 10 cuhic feet are required Where wax moth is not ttoubk'somt: l dean combs may he stored with a small <1_uantity of either of the last two suhstanct~ or naphthalene balls, to keep out the moth. On a small scale wrappi"g in l1cwspap<"r is effective, 328. It is useful to note that the formalin treatment recommended for foul hrooj (1707) kills wax moth lar",,, and eggs It is interesting to note that spiders will attack the moth and certain centipedes will attack the larv"" and may even be used for a clean up. Betswax Production 330. Beeswax is produced by the bees as a secretion in the form of scales extruded on the segments of the abdomen on the under side.. These are masticated and saliva added during the process of comb building. Comb as first built is quite white. Young bees then work over it, polishing the surface, and the comb then has more of a yellow tint, very yellow in some cases, and it would appear that the bees have made some addition (275). The bees produce wax on a honey diet, and e,'en more abundantly on a sugar diet. The requirements are a fuji honey sac and high temperature (26). The bees form a compact hanging cluster for wax production, which takes about 24- hours. This is a voluntary act, but it is thought that the process is involuntary if the circumstances are favourable to wax production. The provision of space fflr deposit of wax by comb building is recleoned amongst the hindrances to swarming. Bees ready to swarm are at any rate loaded with wax It is estimated that in the production of 1 lb. of wax the bees will consume from 6 to 20 or more pounds of honey and 10 or I I is generally taleen as an average; so wax production is a costly

107 COMB, WAX AND PRO POLIS business to ti,e beekeeper. Xo wax should be wasted (see Wax Rendering, 347 tt Itg.J As against the abow figures De Layens claimed that a certain amount of wax could be produced each year without loss of honey. He claimed that colonies given a few sheets of foundation in tt{{' supers early during a heavy flow in hot weather showed as good ajj average harvest as other similar colonies provided with drawn combs throughout. 'rhe experiment Tt,'quires repeating with a larger numher of stocks. l~h(" statement involves either that some wax is produ("cd and wasted if the bc<."s han: no combs to build, or that the production of some wax is indirectly helpful to the b~ es. It may he true. At any rate, it is easy to get good combs made under the conditions stated, and it is probabiy the cheapest way. Foundation is also drawn out quickly while syrup feeding if inserted between combs of brood onc sheet at a time The production of wax for profit may be undertaken where labour is cheap and a good low of inferior honey is available. Frames with starters should b{' inserted hetween store combs in supers and withdrnwn when half or two-thirds completed, any honey being fed hack to the bees. Physical Properties 334. Beeswax has remarkably high resistance to the passage of heat; two or three times as much as other good heat insulators such as the resins, varnishes, bitumen and rubber Wax cooled rapidly is quite brittle at 60' F. (I5!0 C.J, hut after rolling at 100 F. (380 C.) it becomes quite pliable and remains tough when cooled. When melted and then cooled rapidly, the density of the solid wa.x depends upon the temperature to which the wax was raised when melting. When preparing sheets for foundation making, it is desirable not to raise the temperature above F. When heavily rolled as in the "\Veed" process, the wax becomes transparent. At hive temperatures approaching 103 F. (400 C.) beeswax retains sufficient strength to support a considerable weight of dependent comb, yet at 97 to 98' F. (36 to 37 C.) it can be moulded by pressure of the bees jaws It is difficult to see how bees could have experimented with secretions until by some physiological process they arrived at a material having not only the desired dtraordinary mechanical properties but also the remarkable thermal property above referred to. An analysis of the wax scales as first produced would show whether ceratin is a constituent of the original product or is a later. addition. The.latter would be a solution of the problem much easier to understand, as the bees can and do experiment with additions.

108 BEESWAX 337. The speci fie gravity of commercial beeswax is about 0'96 to 0'97, i.e. it is a little lighter than water and weighs about 62 lb. per foot cube Beeswax becomes friable at 120" F. (49 0 C.) and melts at about 147" F. (6.>,' C.). 'rhe meiting-point of white wax from new comb or from white cappinp should be as high as F. (65" C.). Figure'S as low as 14.0" F. (6o V C.) have been got for commercial beeswax, due to admixture of resin from propolis added by the bees. TIl(' meltingpoint rises somewhat with age, two or rhn'{' degrees Fahrenheit, wirhin a few months, and bleaching br t'xposurt" to the sun is said to raise the melting-point several degrc('~ BeeSWAX should always bc' melted over a water bath to prevent overheating. It loses its nature at about 2500 F. (120" C.) and more so as the temperature is raised further. It do~s not boil ""ith further heating, hut decomposes, giving off smoke. Apparent boiling at lower temperatures is due to the eyaporation of the water content. Chemical Properties 340. Beeswax is frequently stated to consist mainly of myricin, with about one seventh part crude cerotic acid. Small quantities of myricyl alcohol and certain esters are found also, hut it is also held that commercial beeswax normally contains, say, 10 to 14 per cent. hydrocarbons. 'The cerotic acid call be dissolved out in hot alcohol and precipitates in line crystals. Cheshire gave 172' F. as the meltingpoint of cerotic acid and 1270 F. for the myricin, but the latter should. he,62 0 F., suggesting that Cheshire's myricill contained resins commonly added by the bees Under chemical tests, beeswax (as taken from the hives) shows characteristic properties as follows: Acid value. Saponification value Iodine value 16! to 12 86! " ~ " 12 the values depending upon the source Water and cold alcohol have no effect upon beeswax, but alcohol dissolves the reainous matter in propolis quite readily. Hot alcohol dissolves also the cerotic acid. Virgin wax scales dissolve freely in turpentine; white virgin comb dissolves less freely, but comb which has been worked over assuming a yellow colour resists turpentine hut dissolves ultimately. The yellow colouring is removed by cold sulphuric ether, which

109 86 COMB, WAX AND PRO POLIS brc'aks Up the comb. When viq:>;in comb is broken up in sulphuric ether, it is partially dissolved. The yellow colour disappears under trtatment bv nitrous oxide. B~eswax 'is saponified by caustic alkali. Propolis resists caustic alkali, i.e. it docs not dissolve, but the removal of the wa..x causes the propolis to crumble readily, hence it can ht~ removed from metal tittin~~ hy alkalis. B(.'cswa.x readily dissolves in carbon tetrachloride. It will dissoh'c in hot benzine, bout a large part separates out in cold benzine 'Wax extracted from the refuse of the wax press (slum gum) hy chcmjt~al soh'cms shows an altered nature, the acid \'alue being rnateriah.v increased and the iodine value by several hundrc:d per cent., ;ind suffers by loss of aroma ~rt'stjng wax for impurities is a difficult matter, even for the!>pt cialist. Any material addition of single adultemnts is readily llt:tectt'd, but by a judicious combination the properties for which the chemist usually tests can be reproduced by a mixture of adulterants, some tending to give higher figures and others lower than normal on test. The author suggests that a careful study of the mechanical properties would be of considerable assistance in detecting expert adulteration. Rough T"sts for Adulteration 345. It is useful, in making most of the following tl""sts, to test at the same time a piece of wax of known purity for comparison. Beeswax when fractured shows a fine-grained dull surface; when <'lit with a knife it shows a glossy surface; when chewed it does not stick to the teeth. \Vhen handled until plastic it moulds readily and pieces readily weald together, showing no cracks on furthe'r working. It has a characteristic aroma and taste. A material addition of resins gives a glossy sheen to the fracture. Resins can be dissolved out in cold alcohol The presence of resins is detected also by melting wax in a little water containing, say, a tenth part of sulphuric acid. The resin produces a red colouring with the acid, which is stronger the more resin is present. Hard fats reduce the density, which may be detected by comparison with a good sample. Float the good samplt in a small quantity of water and add spirit SlbW/y until the sample JUSt sinks. A sample of lighter density will then Roat in the same mixture. Wax dissolves completely in carbon tetrachloride, which is therefure a goo<i ~leavser tt" wax-soiled articles. When dissolved any solid impurities will be found in the dear liquid.

110 WAX RENDERING Wax dissolves completely also, but slowly, in turpentine, leaving no deposit. Solid impurities, Rour, colouring substances, etc., will separate out if the wax is melted in a water bath and allowed to cool slowly..'\. little wax dropped on a hot shovel so that it fumes, gives off the characteristic smell of sulphuric acid if acid has been improperly used in its preparation, or the characteristic smell of burning fat (acreoline) j fit con tai ns f.'us, Dissol\'c about 24 grains of wax in I oz. of warm alcohol and filter into a vessel. Add an equal quantity of water to the filtrate and' insert a piece of blue litmus paper. It should take about! hour to turn red, and the liquid should become opalescent. Fun instructions for the detection of ca.rnauba wax arc given in the American Bee Journal (or March, Bleaching Wax Beeswax is bleached by exposure to the sun. To expose a large surface the wax is melted and poured as a fine stream into a large vessel of cold water so that it solidifies as it flows. Unless rainwater is available, a little vinegar should be added to prevent the lime in the water combining with the cerotic acid in the wax. Add a teaspoonful to the pint or I oz. per gallon. Wax may also be bleached with chloramine which is powerfully disinfectant) without detriment to its use in making up foundation. Hydrogen peroxide, animal charcoal and ozonized air are also used in wax bleaching, as well as more powerful and less harmless chemicals. tvax Rmdering Genffal 347. Water is used in wax rendering and unless clean rainwater, or other soft water, is obtainable, it is necessary to add acid to prevent the lime in the hard water from combining with the cerotic acid in the wax, which would lead to waste o( wax and of labour in separating the spoiled portion. For this purpose vinegar is convenient, and at the rate of I oz. per gallon. Sulphuric acid is sometimes employed, at the rate of! to I oz. per gallon, hut is said to affect the properties of the wax to disadvantage. When the water is comparatively free from lime less acid may be used. The water should be SO treated both for use in the vessel in which the wax is melted or separated and any into which it is allowed to pour to solidify. Where the steam alone comes in contact with wax, hard water may be used without acid, as the lime is not carried over in the steam.

111 88 COMB, WAX AND PRO POLIS 348. To keep the colour good, use vessels of copper, tin, or glass, and avoid iron and l->speciall!" rusty iron, but a clean iron saucepan kept in good condition is sometimes used, or smooth galvanized ware. Glan'd earthenware and enamellcd ware may be used to receive wax in acidulated water. If acid is used in tin-lined vessels the tin should fin be rubbed with mutton fat. \Vax i~ coloured dark brown in contact with iron rust and may even he Jiscnltlun:u somewhat in contact with dark honey and with "defectin: tinned iron vessels. Zinc and galvanized war~ [end to produce an olive-green stain; brass a green (vcrdegris) colour, and even copper all orange colour, which, howcver, is reduced on re-melting the wax and!!ranulating bv pouring into cold water Where much wax is handled, it should he sorted, as the lighter sorts fetch more money. Clean wax of excellent quality is nb[ainablc from cappings, from \'jrgin comb and from recent comb in which no brood has been raised. 'Fax Extraefm's 350. A solar wax extractor will serve for the small beekeeper and for saving odd scraps in a large apiary. It consists essentially (see Catalogues) of a wooden box with double-glazed cover, the two sheets of glass being separated by an air space. The box is provided with a metal tray for combs, generally of tinned iron, which slopes to let the wa:\. run down. A grid is furnished to stop the dirt and comb following the wax and a vessel in which the dripping wax accumulates. A screen is put over the vessel to catch the dirt. All odd bits of comb are thrown in as found. 1'0 improve the colour for exhibition the cake of wax may be re-melted set'eral times For commercial work on a large scale, large steam extractors are employed, also large presses, and even chemical solvents to secure the la.."t remains, the solvents being evaporated and recovered by condensation; but there are several devices and methods suitable for general use on a moderate scale Before rendering combs, break them up and soak for I or 2. days in soft water. This will saturate the cocoons, pollen, etc., and much less wax will be left in the debris. The crushed combs may then be placed in a weighted canvas bag and boiled in water, the wax rising to the top. The debris from ~ or steam extractor will still contain wax, some of which may be extracted in a press if there is a large quantity to be dealt with, but if the combs have ""'=n well soaked before heating there will not be much waste. A steam extractor makes the most complete job, with a press to follow if the quantity j usdies this.

112 WAX RENDERING 353. If it be desired to save a wired frame complete with its wiring, the comb may be melted by pouring boiling water over it. The beekeeper will readily devise a wire mesh tray to hold the comb and allow th,' wax and water to return to the boiling vessel. A large spoon or other dipper is used to apply the boiling water, and a guard keeps (IIl(' corner of the vessel clear of wax for dipping 'The rough cake hrst formed may have debris on its under side. This should be scraped off and accumulated for re-melting and straining, but if rain Of acidulated water be used, there will not be so much to remove. Sometimes some of the wax on the under side gct~ water-sodden and granular and is mistaken fof refuse. It may be nearh- pure wax and should be re-melted with the next lot of combs. A scum' sometimes forms on the melted wax which will sink if blown to the side of the vessel V.Thcre a steam-heated wax press is not available a press as u.sed for heather honev may be employed (see maker's Catalogue for apparatus). In applying canvas, use it so that the part ncar the bottom plate or exit plate is free from folds and all is wdl wetted so that tht: canvas will not absorb much wax. IVax Cappings 356. On a large scale, wax cappings collected when extracting honey may be rendered in a special apparatus (see 357). In smaller quantities they should be drained of honey, and for this purpose should be stirred occasionally to break them up well, or put into wetted canvas in a honey press. They may then be melted in a vessel, preferably one with sloping sides, and in a water bath to avoid. risk of overheating. The honey which accumulatos below the cappings is necessarily somewhat overheated (705), but may be diluted with water and used for feeding. If there is any risk from foul brood the diluted honey should be boiled for half an hour. Alternatively, the cappings may be washed clear of honey in the first place in warm rain-water, saving the washings, and then melted in water to form a cake. Cuppitlgs Melten 357. In Australia devices worthy of wider adoption are used for rending cappings and saving the honey. I refer to the Beuhne and Bartlett Miller cappin~ melters. The combs to be unc.pped are uncapped right over the machine, the eappings dropping straight into it, where they are melted forthwith and the honey separated, the wax and honey being run off through separate orifices at appropriate temperatures. The apparatus is adjusted for continuous operation and is eminently suitable for commercial working, but would hardly

113 COMB, WAX AND PROPOLIS be worth while for a beekeeper with less than, say, +0 hives, unless manufacturers can produce a successful baby model. A diaf!ram illustrating the principal features of these devices is given ill Fig. 6 from which it will be seen that a steam-heated vessel is provided which receives steam from a boiler, which latter may be used also for steam supply to steam-heated knives. In the upper part of the Jc\,ict, towards the left, in the figure, tl1cre is a grid of tubes of rriangul;{f section, the tubes nearly touching at their bases. 'These tubes dcrin: their heat from the steam which enters ncar the top and condcns('s in them. 'rllc combs arc uncapped above the grid, the cappings falling on to the grid where they are quickly melted anj fall through. A wire screen is sometimes inserted below the grid. The honey and wa.x flow along the inclined base of the upper chamber l'ul.'/t_et":or f!el...uv7.t7 lctw:.'cs SCcev'1:.?,.re 1'-, i!_\~d.d l~) I FIG. 6.-CAPPlNGS MELTER-SECTIONAL DIAGRAM. and discharge into the receptacle at the end. Here the honey and wa.x separate by the action of gravity and some dross accumulates between the two. The receptacle is in contact with the condensed steam chamber so that the temperature is maintained without overheating the honey. The wa.x discharges over a spout near the top. The honey is discharged through an adjustable orifice, the adjustment of which secures that the dross does not flow out ei ther at the wax or the honey orifice until work has ceased. The steam Bow may be adjusted so that tbe honey comes away at a temperature not much over F., although it may be heated above this for quite a short time while in the melter. The degree of enclosure and the sealing of the honey bv the wax is such that there. is no appreciable loss of aroma... In the "iagraril, the adjustable orifice for honey outflow is shown.

114 WAX RENDERING as a [x,nt pipe entering a bushing in which it can be rotated by swinging the long arm, thus raising or lowering the level of the honey outrow and consequently the level of honey and dross in the rccept.. ;Lck. Enough warm honey should be inserted at the start to cover the inner end of the outlet pipe. The oudet is raised until the vl's.'"d 6lls up and wax orcrrows. It is then lowered until honey Ji~charges also and lowered further on anr indicae-ion of overflow of dr()s~ with the wax.. frater, Dross and Wax Separator 3i8. ~rhi:, is anothn useful Jcyil':c used for largc.scalc working with steam wax-rending: plant (sec fig. 7). 'rhe wax, dross and watt'r,, FIG. 7.-WATER, DROSS AND WAX SEPARATOR.. leaving the wax exit of the wax-render fall into the separator which has an over Bow for pure wax and an overflow pipe rising from the bottom to an orifice about a quarter of the height below the wax orifice. At the commencement warm water (acidulated if necessary, see 347) is put in to cover the lower end of the water outlet tube. For effective separation the inflow of wet wax shoul4 be sufficiently rapid to keep up the temperature of the water above the meltingpoint of wax, failing which the de,oce should be heated from below. In another design a honey gate is used for letting out water and dross. Wax Moulds 359. Moulds of convenient size are made both of metal and of hard wood. The latter should be soaked in soft or acidulated water

115 COMR, WAX AND PROPOLIS (347) before usc. The former should be lubricated to prevent the wax ~tickingo A. litde soft soap may be used, or glycerin, or flour paste. ~cn'r o\trhcat the wax <lnd always let moulds ~ool slowly, preferably by sta.nding in hot water, well covcred over. lr'fix for Exhibition 360. '10 0 projw..':t: an exhibition article the whitest C:1ppings alone :-.hou!j bl" used, for cxampk, those from clcwcr honey and free from stains. 'fhe wax cake may b( improved in colour by passing through the solar wax extractor. For mouljing, the cake should be melted finally, avoiding m'crheating., and the wax passed through a tl!tcr of whitl: flannel Of other fine white fabric, which rna\, be secured over an aluminium funnel. --rhe mould should have sides nearly,", rtical so as to avoid making a brittle edge, and should be lubricated with yellow soap, ruhhod off to a polish. The wax should Row in gfmtly so as to a\'oid making air bubbles. Any air bubbles appearing should he broken while soft by holding: the heated bowl of a spoon ncar them. The muuld should be supported in a large vessel of warm water, hot enough to melt the wax, and when the wax has cooled so as to set on top, water may be scooped up and poured in gently, then the whole covered and allowed to continue to cool slowly. The wax will float up when cold. All water used should be clean rain-water or acidulated with white vinegar. The cake may be kept in light-coloured honey to retain the aroma until required for exhibition. Needless to say, e.xhibition wax is not a commercial article. Judging Wax 361. The quality of wax on exhibition is judged mainly by appearance and colour, also by aroma and texture. The fonowing points are used in the places named: TABLE IX POINTS IN JUDGING BEESWAX Quality. Irish Fret' Statf'. Colour Appe.rrante Aroma Texture. Transparency Tenaci~1. '5,0

116 PROPOLIS 93 Prof>Dlh (j_,r of Prop.li, 362. Prnpolis is the Ilame; given to a resinous suhstance used by the bcl..."s as a lute for sealing cracks and prcycnting air leakage and the ingress of damp through porous parts of the hi,,'c and for smoothing rough places. It is used also to strengthen comns both at the point of attachment and in the corners of the n Jls, and in cornbinarion with wax a~ a structural materia! for m()dif\'ing the entrance.."oura and Colour 363. Propolis i!;) colkct(:d hv the bl'{'::' from trees, shrubs, etc., exuding a resinous substance and is a cause of coloration of beeswax. That from poplar imparts a bright yellow, that from Rax a rich red brown. From the ngais tree in New Zealand, propolis almost black in colour is obtained, colouring the wa.x red. Other common sources arr the elder, birch, chestnut, pines and willow, but thcst~ arc but a small selection of the sources dsited. Other colours arc scarl('t, green and brown, and ther:: arc many shadc~ bctwcl'i"l Bees will also gather and utilize resinous, gummy and balsamic matter from many other sources, turpentine, pitch, bitumen, varnish, boiled oil, etc., as opportunity occurs. Propolis is carried in pellets in the pollen baskets on the hind legs ill a similar manner to pollen. Some races gather large quantitie~, others use but little (sec 104 et seq.). Propoli, and IVax 364. Propolis as collected from b, e-hiccs, by scraping frames,.hive bodies, etc. always carries with it a certain amount of beeswax, say 15 to 60 per cent. The propolis proper consists mainly of resins with melting-points from, say, 140' F. (60" C.) or Jess to F. (100 0 C.) or more, the higher figures generally predominating. On melting together beeswax and propolis they combine to a certain extent. If allowed to cool slowly some separation occurs, but the waxy portion is found to have changed in character, being tenacious and adhesive, but more plastic than pure beeswax In wax rending by steam from old combs, the inclusion of a certain amount of propolis in the wax is inevitable, and common commercial beeswax always shows a certain amount. The effect is to reduce the melting-~int from, say, ISO' F. (67 0 C.) to or ),1_5 F. (64 0 or 63 0 C.) The lowering of the melting-point is of no importance in itself as under working conditions the highest temperatures are 40 to 50 F. below the melting-point, but loss of strength at temperatures of 95 to 1050 F. is a more serious matter. This aspect appears to

117 94 COMB, WAX ANlJ PROPOLIS have received \'cry little attention, save that in commercial wa.x rendering f(tr founda.tion making, steps are taken to remove' excessh'r resin. Rtmr)'uing Propolis 366. Propoli' is readily soluble in both alcohol and petrol, and these may be USi'd for cleaning purposes. When handling frames, much propolizcd, the linger-tips should first be lightly "aselined or talc powder may be employed. Lard may also be used to soften prop"lis before w.shin/, the hands with soap and water (sec also 342).

118 SECTION IV HOXEF-PART Crops and Hone.\' Gathering. Times, Distances and Temperatures of.flight; 367. Bees engaged on a particular duty (20-22) such as gathering nectar from a particular source frequently pursue that duty for many days. ''I'he foil owing are representative times of journeys from time of exit to time of return to the hive. After return, the bees spend some time in the hive: After water-gathering say 5 minutes " pollen-gathering. ), honey-gathering.,, " Longer times arc taken under unfavourable conditions, for (.'xampie, if there is no suitable water source near the apiary; there are generaily long waits in the hive between journeys, sometimes fasting for some hours. In fine weather also bees will sometimes rest outside the hive, being absent for 2 or 3 hours per trip Bees will fly about 15 to 2S miles per hour, but if there is a wind exceeding 15 miles per hour, few bees will fly. Bees have been observed, however, chasing swallows, which shows what they can do when roused Bees have been known to flv 6 to 8 miles to an isolated but very favourable source of honey, th~ scent of which was probably carried to them by the wind, but they will not, as a rule, fly more than about 2 miles. The economical distance for honey-gathering is about I to I t miles, that is to say, unless they can secure their supplies within an average radius of about a mile, undue wear and tear and risk is involved in gathering and the returns will begin to suffer. The economical radius for pollen-gathering is very much less. Bees will carry pollen long distances, but in placing hives in orchards it i. found necessary to furnish a hive per acre to secure the most effective pollination. In the spring, bees will not fly more than about 50 yards if they can get pollen nearer home, and if hi yes are placed not 9S

119 HONEY-PART I more than io yards apart each way, this will give a maximum radius of 50 yards to the centres of the squares so formed. Bees seldom Ry when the shade temperature is below 50:) F., but some hard\' bc(."s will fl.v short distancl... "S in sunshine, for water or to evacuate rhe bowd, w{th a shade temperature: ~ low as 45 F. At such a tempcrature, if the bee lands in the shade and reaches shade tempnarure, it is likely to be chilled so rhat it c.'wnot return. In cool weather, bees return rapidly to the hi\'(, when the sun becomes covered with cloud, even though there be no threat of rain (sec Fecdillg, 1220 et seq.) 370. Nectar \('n be gathered at any temperature at which the bees C,.1.11 fly) but there is vcry little to gather at the lower temperature. A normal colony will not increase in weight in the spring l~ntil the shade tempnaturt' is, on an average, in the neighbourhood of 63 F., or say 65 F. in the summer. Above this limit, th(~ daily increase is greater the greater the excess temperature, but the rate, of course, is dependent upon the preo:;ence of honey-bearing plants in season. In n'ry bleak regions, the limiting temperature is lower. Probably, however, a day temperature of about 80 F. with cool nights after a rainy spell gives the heaviest takings. Da;~v. Climatic and Seasonal Changes in Honey Flow 371. The principal honey Rows occur between, say, 10 a.m. and I o'clock and between 3 and 6 ("summer" time one hour earlier). The best condition is with the air not too dry, thus warm days and coo1 nights arc good, as the air is then moist at night. Rain is bad as it washes awav the nectar. Wind is bad if it hinders Rights (see 368). (For Temperatures, see 367.) 372. Seasonal changes a.rc of great importance considered in relation with the normal flowering periods of different crops. The. beekeeper should ascertain by inquiry and observation the principal source's and their seasons in his locality (413). Crops and weather reports should be watched and the situation judged. There is no fixed order of appearance of flowers. For example, in an early year, apple is followed by hawthorn in Great Britain, and that by sycamore, whereas, with a retarded spring, the honey flow from these sources may be almost simultaneous. In one year, fruit and clover may give a large return, but hawthorn, sycamore and lime give hardly any owing to the vagaries of the weather;.. r vice versa. The next year, apple, hawthorn and sycamore may give a heavy yield nearly together, the apple and hawthorn blend having an almond-like flavour Between crops, colonies built up rapidly on the earlier' crop may starv before the later one comes. The flow of pollen r

120 CROPS AND HONEY GATHERING 97 is equally important for building up stock and maintaining stamina. There is always some pollen with the honey flow, but in some districts early pollen is hard to come by, and it may b,' llecessary to plant specially to secure it (for sources of pollen, see 561) In studying the weather and weather forecasts, it is useful to note that a blanket of clouds acts somewhat differently in summer and winter. In the cold months, it is t'onducive to warmth and a falling barometer ushers in not only rain but warm air which has travelled at a low altitude. A line sky then represents low temperatures. In the warm months, on the other hand, a blanket of clouds red uces the action of the sun and leads to a general reduction of temperature., at the same time hindering radiation at night and keeping the temperature more uniform. Thus signs of rain arc welcome in the early spring, but not in the summer. Weight, of Honey Taken '375. During a good /low, hives should increase in weight several pounds a day. The gross increase in one day may be much more tha.n thi~ but a Ja.rge part of the water taken in, ;n the nectar, will be e"aporated within the first 36 hours. Based on hive weight alone, a fine record of increase in weight in one day was taken by W. B. Wright, of Souris, S. Manitoba, who recorded 25 lb. In Grdt Britain, Grant, of Cheltenham, has noted 17 lb. Doolittle recorded taking 66 lb. in 3 days, which cannot be readily compared with the figures just given. Increase.,; of 10 lb. per day are not uncommon, weighing at the same time each day, and thus allowing for what is evaporated at night. Ha"ing regard to the heavy takes?f honey in 377 to 379 much larger daily ligures must have been reached Small beekeepers able to show an average take from season to season of 50 lb. per colony extracted honey, or 30 sections, are doing well, but for commercial work it is essential to choose good districts. With good management considerably higher averages can be reached from year to year, and colonies may well average 100 to 170 lb., according to the district, except in extreme northern regions. In Vancouver, 80 lb. would be good, and less in the Kootenays. 37'1, Individual beekeepers have recorded some extraordinary takes trom individual single colonies, that is, colonies having a single queen and receiving no b~ or bees from other colonies. This last condition is not easy to ensure, as the end hive of a row frequently receives a considerable accession of bees from other colonies. However, R. A. Morgan, of Vremillion, South Dakota, claimed 803 Sections from one colony (Caucasian) in In 1925, he had a record of 616 sections. Y.

121 98 HONEY-PART I In 1921, C. B. Hamilton of Michigan, reported taking 577 finished sections from one colony of American Italians, and in 1929, F. Marquette of N. Dakota, reported 593 lb. honey from one colony of Caucasian bees. W. B. 'Vright above mentioned took 496, lb Brother Adam of St. Mary's Abbey, Buckfast, S. Devon, England, nl1.dc a remarka.blc record for Great Britain in He had 39 stoeb. A heavy flow of clover was on and a stock was reiicn:d of about I cwt. and fresh supers of drawn comb piled all. The flow continued for 5 days and then the weather broke and it commenced to rain and tht st-ock was not examined until the tenth day, when 135 lb. of scaled honey was taken in the supers, and it is reasonable to suppose that substantially the whole of this was taken in 5 days, or at the average rate of 27 lb. per day. It is noteworthy that out of the 39 stocks, seven or eight others did nearly as well Australian record::;, howc\'cr, put all others in the shade, enormous crops being obtainable from the honey-bearing forest trees. An (lv,rag' weight of 610 lb. pcr hive has heen obtained in a good season in an apiary of 66 hives. In Victoria, one' colony has been known to collect 824 lb. in the Eucalyptus region and another 807 in an apiary showing 480 lb. average. In Australia) however, bet."s have been seen flying by moonlight. li"tight of Honey in Comb 380. This depends in part on the density but may be taken roughly at 7lIb., per square foot per 1 inch thickness face to face. On this basis and allowing bee-spaces between, a super of combs full of honey would show the average maximum weights in Column A below, the weight of honey alone being, say, 3 per cent. less: TABLE X \VEIGHT OF COMBS OF HONEY r---~---! Make of Frame. - British Standard Frame, metal ends Deep Frame, metal ends. Shallow Frame, metal ends " " "wl ends. Langstroth Deep Frame, Ii spacing " Shallow, J i spacing M.D. Deef' 't.pacing Col. A. CoL B. i, I ~-I--lb-.-: :t!i ~t I 4t 31 i s. I 4* I ~t 'I!t I "', 8.!

122 CROPS AND HONEY GATHERING 99 but such combs are seldom seen, and the average weight of honey taken would be about 80 per cent. as in Column B above. For honey in Sections, see 649 and 665). Yield per Acre 381. An apiary in a fair district may be built up to, say, 100 hives before the takings pn hive appreciably suffer. In a good season at 100 lb. per hive and I! milt,s radius, this represents an awrage annual surplus yield in the district of 9 lb. per acre, and probably a total yield of, say, double this, allowing for what is used ill hro.. d production. There arc 110 very rdiable figures. According to an American beekeeper, yields of 10 lb. per day per acre of clover or heather arc not uncommon, however. Thus a beekeeper can afford to offer frce seed to a farmer to plant sweet or white clover near his apiary The following figures are taken from French source's. The yields from various crops depend upon the climate, the soil and the individual season: TABLE XI YIELDS OF HONEY PER ACRE Plant. Yidd, lb. per Acre. Buckwheat : Sainfoin, Il5 i Lucerne. 18-zz Trifolium inc. 14-U White Mustard Alsilre. 9 Yield from Us< of Drawn Combs and Foundation 383. It is estimated by experienced beekeepers that for every 100 lb. surplus obtained from bees building their own combs from starters, a further 30 lb. may be expected if foundation is used in all supers, or 60 lb. if drawn combs arc used throughout. Put the other way round, a beekeeper able to take 100 lb. surplus with drawn combs will lose about 20 lb. if he has to furnish foundation throughout, and nearly 4-0 lb. if the bees have to make their own combs as required. This does not mean that in gathering and storing 60 lb. of honey, another 40 lb. is used in wax production. Some of this 40 lb. is honey not gathered and most is the coot of 'producing and maintaining a large number of bees which might be gathering, but are occupied in comb building during the honey

123 100 HONEY-PART I flow. In 100 lb. of honey in the comb, there are, say, 3 to <j.lb. of wax by weight, which at 10 lb. honey per pound of wax produced represents another lb. of honey to be consumed for its making. In using drawn comb to receive it probably 5 lb. of honey is enough for repairs and sealing, while with foundation, say, 25 lb. would be wanted and 40 lb. with starters only. These figurt""s are indicative only, but highly suggestive, as they clearly show that it must pay well to provide foundation and to save all drawn comhs most ca.rcfullv For every six pennyworth (12 cents worth) of honey stored in a drawn comb the wax in the comb has cost twopence (+ cents). An adjitional farthing will cover the cost of wax for sealill". This shows the high vahle of drawn combs. If the cc>mb is to be sold with the honey the value of the wax has to be added to that of the honey. This largely accounts for the difference in value between section and extracted honey The honey sold has to pay for all Costs before there is a profit, but when the profit stage is reached, any further honev so18 has only to bear the cost of handling and sale. The use of foundation adds to this profitable margin, and if the honey is being sold retail bl' the beekeeper at IS. 8d. per lb., foundation is certaillly worth i as. per lb. to him, or if sold in large quantities wholesale at, say, fivepencc (10 cents), then the foundation is still probably worth 4S. (a dollar) per lb. F oulldation for sections is worth considerably more than this. Statistics of Honey Production 386. So large an amount of honey is produced by private beekeepers for home and local consumption, the amount of which is never recorded, and the methods of compiling statistics are so varied, that it is di fficuit to give any accurate picture of honey production. The author believes that the following figures are on the safe side and will welcome the receipt of more reliable and detailed figures from beekeepers relating to their own countries. It is safe to say that the annual production of honey by beekeepers employing modern methods exceeds 400 million lb. per annum and probably reaches to,ooo,ooo in value (i.e. $420,000,000). There are probably more than i million movable frame hives in use by more than I t million beekeepers, together owning equipment worth more than 20,000,000. Wax production by these beekeepers probably exceeds 10 million lb. per annum, not including what is wasted, and f"trh... about f8~o.ooo. In addition, very large quantities of wax a. LIBRARY m bees kept by primiti.ve meth~~ TNAU, Colmbatore _ 3 ' likely th~t the figure glven for wa II 11I11J11IIIIII_1I1111 II III e productlon from all

124 COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF HONEY 101 sources and, say, IO per cent. added to the ligure for honey. The a, crage market value of good honey is under 3 per cwt. and of wax about America heads the list with an annual honey production of probably 200 million lb., Russia is stated to produce nearly 100 million lb., Canada comes next with over 30 millioll, Austria 12 milli(ln, Australia 9 million, l'ew Zealand 6 million, Italy 5 million,,lilt.! Austria, France, Germany, Great Britain,]apan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland 2 to 4- million lb. each, and others not stated In Great Britain the local market value of good honey is ndrcr 6 per cwt., and the best honeys fetch from IS. 6d. to 4S. per lb. locally, the highest price being obtained for fine Scottish heather honey in the comb. Great Britain imports nearly 8 millien lb. annually and exports about one-fifth of this quantity, against a home production of, say, 3 million lb It is not unlikely that the honey production of the world will be doubled before '940. Composition and Proper!itS of Hon,y TVat,, Content and Density of Nectar 390. Bees gather nectar from flowers, nectar being a watery solution of sugars with small quantities of salts mainly phosphates, fats, albuminous matter, aromatic oils, etc. (400), varying much in density in the neighbourhood of X'X2 to, say, 1-30 at normal atmospheric temperature, but sometimes as low as I '05 from a rapid Row during damp weather The sugar content is mainly sucrose (or cane sugar) hut is "inverted," i.e. converted into dextrose (grape sugar) and levulose (fruit sugar), by the bees by certain additions made to the nectar as it is being carried by them, the change being aided by heat. The modi lied nectar is spread over a large area of comb to expose a large surface for evaporation and is concentrated mainly by evaporation of the water assisted by vigorous ventilation (900). The nectar is moved into a smaller numberof cehs duringconcent:ration and during moving further additions are made. After a period of some days, the liquid (now honey) is sufficiently concentrated and is sealed over If concentratlfd from, say, 1 I2 density the volume is reduced in the ratio of about 4 to I, whereas with a nectar density of '.30 the reduction would be less than 3 to 2 in volume to bring the density up to that normal for honey. The change of volume is common! y 2 or 3 to The original moisture content varies with the source and the atmospheric conditions. The final moisture content varies

125 102 HONEY-PART J to some extent with the source, but to a small extent with tbe atffi(klpheric conditions also. Honey from fruit-trees and lime-trees (bass), for example, gathered quickly, in a moist atmosphere, is likely to bl' sealed with an excess. of water, introducing: a serious risk of fermentation. II -uhr COlltfllt and D(flSi~y of Honf_"r' 394. It is difficult to find reliable data on the moisture content of honey in relation to its density and composition, Some of the W:Her requires a temperature considerably above the boiling-point of pure water to drive it off. The basis of figures and even- the density scale used and temperature in question arc seldom given by writers, but it is common practice to usc H sugar" tables for the purpose of estimation. T'hc figures may be corrected according to the proportions of dextrose and levulose present, but in fact there is fn.:quelltly present a material quantity of salts and other matter sufficient to introduce errors into the figurcs. The author would welcome reliable detailed information from his readers..l\1canwhile, the following approximate information may be given The moisture content of sealed honey, ungranulatcd, varies from, say, 15 to 27 per cent. The U.S.A. pure food laws set a maximum limit of 2S per cent. During granulation, water is first given up by the dextrose and mixes with the levulose content which remains liquid, and this liquid portion, therefore, loses density and is in danger of fermentation (sec 686 and 695), hence the importance of seeing that honey is properly ripened and especially honey that is expected both to granulate and to keep. Average densities do not have much meaning without reference to the honeys averaged. Taken the world over, however, and averaging the principal sources, it is safe to say that corresponding to a water content of :2.2 per cent. (sugar tables) the density is about J'398 at :2.0 C. or J'f01 at 60 F. (15iO C.) Changes with Composition and Tempn-aturt 396. Most of the sugar in honey (see Analyses, 402) is in the form of dextrose and levulose, the latter having the higher density. Honey from fruit-blossoms generally has a lower density than clover honey, but for the same water content, it bas a higher density as it contains a larger proportion of levulose and smaller proportion of dextrose than does clover honey. For the same water content representative honeys rich in levulose run to densities about 0'003 higher than are given in the following rable, while those rich in dextrose ';.lin t<> lower. Comparison of the densities given for :10 0 C. and 15t O C. show a change of approximately for

126 ---~-~ _-,------_. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF HONEY [03 4-!' C, or 8' F, It will be seen, therefor., that for accurate work in estimating water content, it is necessary to control the temperature of the honey and to know something of its analysis, Within the limits of tht' table a change of I per cent. of water corresponds to a change of 0'006 to o'ooi in density, thus if water Content be estimated from density in an ordinary room without regard to temperature or source, it is easy to make a mistake of + or - I per Cent. figured on the total weight, or 31 to i per (ent. on the water weight. If, however, the temperature bt noted a correction may be made directly on the water content, of 1 pet cctlt. for every 9 C. l)t 16 F., remembering that the J(:,lltiity decrt,l.si. s as the tempera.ture increases. By attending to temperature but still m:glccting ~ourcc thc error is likely to be halved at least, 397, In the following table, columns arc included to show readings given by the Baumc hydrometer. Here again c.aution is ncc{.'s ~ry, as there is no universal standard for these instruments. The tables arc based 011 a modulu~ of 145 now widely used,. and standard in America for some vears, but these instruments have been calibrated with a modulus as 10';' as I H and high as 14-6,8, giving proportionally lower and higher readings, TABLE XII Water. Per cent, '5,6 '7,s '9 2I '3 >4 '5.6 '7,8 '9 30 WATER CONTENT AND AVERAGE DENSlTIES OF HONEYS _--_._---"-_._ Density, grams. Demitvat Baum!' at per CoCo at 60'" F, zoo c. 20 C. ('Sr e,)- :>I -o_.145_ I 1'4-45 " '-439 1'442 44'4 1'431 1'43) 43'9 1"425 1' '4 1'418 l',g! 42" J'414- 'Po'5 1'4-05 1'4-07,p'o "39S 1'401 +1'5 1'392 "395 41'0 " :;88 40'S 1'379 1' '0 1'372 "375 39'S "366. "369 i 39'" 1'360 I 1'363 38'S 1<353 I " '1 1'347 I 1'350 37,6 I Correction + "003 muimum for levolore in eu:eu. - o()()3 maximum for dextroae in e:xc:ea. 8atlmeat '.I!' C, (60" F,), M = 145' 45'1 44,6 44" 43,6 43'2 4-2",P'l +1'7 41'~ 40'7 4-0'~ 39'7 39'3 38 '8 38'3 37,8

127 104 HONEY-PART 1 Use Of H_ydrometer 398. In using a hydrometer not calibrated to read density directly, it is ncc{..'~'-'sary to ha\'e a reliable table for converting readings to density. As ~CL'n by comparison of the last two columns above the change of dcnsit.v with temperature within the range of the table is a decn:as{.' of approximately 0'003 for 4" C. ris(_', or 0'001 per I ~ dcgrtts, 'Thus if a hydrometer scaled for usc at 20" C. is used at 23') C., the rise of 3 degrees ncc~sitates a correction of 0'002 which must b(> "iubtractcd. If used at I 7 C.,. 0'002 must he added to the rcadillf!:. \'\7ith the Fahrenheit seak, the correction is approximately 0'003 for 8 dt:grc<.'s. The following short table gives an idea of the densities of diluted honey solutions: TABLE XIII DENSITIES OF HONEY SOLl..'TIONS AT' 2.0" C. Water. Per cent. Sugar. Per cent. Density ' ',p2 3 D 7 0 1' '286 5 ;0 1' ' D 1' l'0si 90 IO 1' 38 The HDnzsitaster" 399. A hydrometer known as the "Densitaster" is offered, haying an arbitrary scale, reading five divisions on either side of an assumed zerq line. Based on density figures furnished by the vendors, the indications are as shown in Table XIV (opposite), reading from top to bottom. The scile of this instrument is too coarse for the accurate estimation of water content and the normal mark is at too Iowa density for normal honeys. Honey to be granulated and kept without danger of fermentation should show a + reading approaching 2. on the above instrument (see 695 and 686). Chtmical Analysis 400. Published analyses more frequently give the source of the honey analysed by country of origin than by the botanical name, so there Ya lack of information on the differences between honeys

128 COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF HONEY 105 from different Rowers. In giving values for the other constituents a uniform water content of 20 per cent. is here assumed for convenience. The figures gjven are reprcsentath'c and indicative. The ligures for content other than water necessarily depend upon the watt'r content. If this is reduced or increased, whilc the rdative proportions of the sugars, etc" amongst rhcrnsch'cs will not be affected, their percentage values will be affected to all extent corresponding to the difference in water content. AnaJ"scs nf tlumbcrs of commercial honeys show average water contents h~'low 18 per n:nt.) althou/!h a figure as high as 2j per cent. may be reacht:d) if not exceeded, in honpj' sealed ovcr by the bees. TABLE XIV SCALE Of "DF.NSITASTFR" Division. Density at 60 F. AVt'rageWat("t Content. - 1 N'ormalo Per cent. 1'22 52 J' '28 4' 1'3 1 )6 1'34 3 ' 1'37 '7 1'40 hb 18 l'46 IJ 1'49 9 1' Sucrose (cane sugar) is found in honey in small quantities, but tends to disappear with time, being converted to levulose (fruit sugar) and dextrose (grape sugar) by the action of heat in the presence of acids and invertase found in the honey. From! to 2 per cent. of cane sugar is not uncommon in honey, but larger quantities are permissible. The pure food laws of the U.S.A. set a limit of 8 per cent. which, in fact, is high enough to allow for accidental adulteration, but probably low enough to secure against deliberate and serious adulteration. A "limit is set also of t per cent. for ash The principal constituents of honey are the inverted sugars, levulose and dextrose. Levulose is generally present in the.greater proportion, the amount genera!! y lying between 33 to 40 per cent. with dextrose lying between 39 and 32 per cent., the increase in levulose being largely balanced by a decrease in dextrose. The

129 106 HONEY-PART I darker honeys generally contain the more levulose. They dow more freely when of the same density, levulose solutions being less l'jscdu5 than dextrose, and both Jess viscous than cane sugar solutions. Equally important arc the aromatic constituents, oils, gums, and other scented matters obtained from the flowers, of complex composition, which give the honey its aroma and distinctive flavours. Then, again, valuable assimilable salts of iron, phosphorus, lime, sodium, potassium, sulphur and manganese account for perhaps onefifth or more of I per cent. Less important contents such as dextrose, albumin, waxes, 1.ts, formic and malic acids, substantially make up the balance by weight, but complex dip;estive enzym~s are present in minute quantities capable of converting sucrose to dextrose and levulose, starch to malt~) (>tc. Food f/"iue and Medicinal f/ alue 403. The protein found in honey is associated with the pollen content. The quantity is negligible from the standpoint of food value The vitamins in honey are also associated with the pollen Contl"nt and are not sufficient to be of importance in assessing the food \'alue The larger part of the food value in honey can be absorbed directly into the human blood-stream without further digestion, hence its great value ill stomach complaints such as ulcers and in malnutrition, especially with children, and in typhoid fever. Honey is a great producer of hemoglobin in the blood. It is useful in liver and heart troubles and does not produce gas. It is good wherever maltose or sugar of milk are indicated. It may be used in baby feeding, for example, to advantage, for a nine months' child a teaspoonful being added to every 8 oz. of whole milk. As a stimulant use honey in hot water One pound of honey of average composition has a heat value (when the honey is consumed and converted mainly to carbon dioxide and water) of about 3'2 gram degrees C. calories per gram or 1,450 per lb Honey from certain less important sources, such as the horse chestnut and dandelion, especially the first mentioned (a valuable source of pollen) is found to contain a much smaller proportion of sugar and more proteids. They are good bee foods fer spring use, but poor as a source of surplus. WllI!n nectar contains as little as about 8 per cent. of sugars, it is neglected by the bees as it is apparently not worth the labour of gathering, hence the serions check to harvesting caused hy rain. Honey is much used in toilet preparations for the skin and hair, owing to its va:1ue as a skin food.

130 HONEYDEW Acidity 408. The acidity of lloney is commonly attributed to formic acid, but malic and allied acids arc present also, varying in amount. The available information is Yag-ul' and the subject still one for the scientist. Expre-ssed in terms of ph valu(' the clovers run about 3'45 to 3'55, the fruit honeys generally higher and sage hoill')', for examplt\ lower. Sow-;cs Ha/uydew 409. Honeydew is a sweet substance derived from two entirely distinct sources which must not be confused. Alan}' trees and plants-for example) fir trees, willows, balsams, vetches., and laurels -exude a sweet substance generally around the petioles where the k~in~5 join the stems, which attracts insects. Where the tree is damaged by insects, a similar discharge may occur, notably with the ash and the eucalypti. This substance, dark in colour, but otherwise not unpleasant, is comparath'cjy free from objection in smah quantities, although undesirable as a winter food. The other source of honeydew is the aphis, an insect which exudes a sticky sweet substance from its body, much beloved by ants, which latter keep and tend the aphida! as cows. This secretion i~ unpleasant and dangerous as a likely cause of dysentery. Characteristics Honeydew can be detected by its dark-generally dark green or blackish-colour. Once seen, it is unmistakable. It can be detected in the comb by holding up the combs before a good light, as when grading before extracting. Collection and Use 411. Honeydew is, in general, collected by!xx.,; only when there is a dearth of honey. This, however, frequently occurs in some districts between crops, and in dry seasons. If taken for immediate consumption, no harm need be anticipated, but if sealed, it is best disposed of by destroying the sealing by scratching or scraping in late August when the bees will use as food the honeydew so exposed. Some of the dark races of bees in certain districts are addicted to gathering honeydew in quantities. Careful supervision -is necessary in such districts as honeydew is a bad food for wintering. It also causes discoloration of otherwise good extracted honey and of sections.

131 los HONEY-PART I Sour", of Honey and Pollm introduction 412. All hollcy-producing plants produce some pollen and all pollen-bearing plant; some honey. For practical purposes, however, onc scht:dulcs the two separately according to their chief usc. As a ruk, there is no dearth of pollen while there are honey plants. Particular pollen-bearing plants arc important, more especially for ~pring breeding. 1t is much casicr to find a honey substitute than a pollen substitute. Early pollen sources are essential to provide fresh pollen for brood-raising, when stores of honcv carried over from the winter can be used to supplement what {lttre nectar is coming in. 'The dandelion, fof example, gives a stimulating Bow of honey, but is valued mainly for the pollen it supplies at a critical period. Plants are scheduled below separately as honey and pollen producers, according to their chief usc, but in cases where they have value for both purposes, from the practical standpoillt, this is indicated. Principal Souru! of lioney and Pollen 413. A surplus may be regularly secured in certain district, from some plant or plants grown there in quantity, but in order to make a living from beekeeping, it is essential that there should be within reach (369) plants giving ample supplies of nectar. The plants in List I are of that class, although some of the most important of them are not too reliable. It is generally desirable to have one or morc of thesc sources in abundance within easy reach. List II contains plants which are useful sources 'of honey, giving occasional surplus, some of considerable local importance, and most"f common occurrence. List III, which might be greatly extended without difficulty, contains plants mainly of secondary importance. Very many wild and cultivated tloweos might have been added to this list. List IV gives important sources of pollen In each list are given the most common names, also the generic name and the species known to be important. The species given are not exclusive, but are either imponant or indicative. The author would be glad of reliable data for improvement of these lists in a future edition and particularly data relative tl) time of bearing, nature and colour of honey, and territorial value. On an average the difference in season between regions in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres in 6 months as shown in the table below, but where more precise information derived by other means is availalile as to any particular source of nectar or of pollen, it is given in the detailed lists following..

132 SOURCES OF HONEY AND POLLEN TABLE XV 109 RF.LNrlO~ nf..twn" SEASONS IN NORTHERN AND SOUTH~:RN HtMI51'IIEf(r::. RY MONTHS ;'\ orl}l~ rn Soutilenl!"\orthertl South('nl }!t'mbphl'ft'. Jit'mispht'r(\ }femi~p}lt'rt. Ht'ml~plJcr('. ).l1luary Juh' July )anll;l.ry }'cbrua"n Augus! AUg'u!lt Fchrll:1n" ~1arch September September :\1Jrch Apri) October Octo}~r April :\4"ay :\o\'embcr ~o\'ember!\1,l',-' Junc Decemher Dccember Jun"e Honey generally contains grains of pollen from the sa.me source, but frequently contains grains from other sourtt"s. If, however, bees are known to be working a particular source and honey in the hh'c is found to contain pollen mainly from that source, it is good evidence that that honey came from that sou rce. For the identification of pollen grains in honey it is nect'ssary to compare them with grains from known sources which have also been immersed for some time in honey, as such immersion affects the appearancep The colour of pollen grains must be determined by examining the pollen itself. The stamens may show a different colour at the tip, say, red or brown, while the pollen itself is pale yellow Honeys of too strong or otherwise undesirable flavour are not to be despised where they are or can be blended with milder or other appropriately Ilavoured honeys (see Blending, 730) 417. There are, however, a few sources to be avoided. List V contains a few such, but is doubtless capable of considerable extension when the subject of the properties of honey from particular sources has received more attention. 418, Lists associated with particular countries follow List V LIST I-HONllY SOURCES (Far ExpiaMti... see 413 and 414) Northern Hemi.pher~. Acacio. Wattle, Catclaw, Mimosa, Huajill.. Havardia. Acada greggie, wrightii.~ nujiij, etc., etc. (Tree) Honey very pale and very slow to grauu )ate. Good for pollen. Important in Auatralia, Califoraia. Arirona and furthu south. May to July. South~rn Hemisphere. Novunberto January.

133 lid HONEY-PART J 420. Alfalfa. Lucerne, Span~h trefoil. Medica.r:a sativa, dmticulata, lupu/ina. (Perenni.al) Honey light colour, mild and mintlike flavour; granulates rapidly. Of almost universal importance. ~n t:.s.a., west of the Mississippi; in British Columbia. the dry belt Alsi~(. A white, pink.-tip~d, or pink, clover, much branched Tn/alium hjbndum, Honey pale of gaud fiavour. Of universal importance. (Perennial) Appk. No alternative names. P)'TUS malus. Honey light amber of superb fiavoi.lt. Pollen pale greenish yellow. Period depends upon the district and sea..o,on a.nd variety growing. Box. Red, yellow, etc. (Sec Eucalyptus) Buckwluat. No alternative names. Fagapyrum t'scuuntum. (Annual) Honey strong in flavour and dark in colour, even of a purple brown sometimes. Flow occurs early in the day. Important in Europe and the Northern States of U.S.A. and Canada. In the colder regions the flow ceases in August. Not much in evidence in the Southern Hemisphere or in Great Britain. Citrus. Orange, Lime. Lemon. Grape Fruit, etc. Citrus oruntium, etc. (Trees and Shrubs) Honey delicious, pale and dense. Pollen pale yello,.. Important in warmer climates, S. Califumia, New Zealand, Haiti (D«:ember to April). CbJ'VLr. Swut. Bokhara clover. Branches with tong slender racemes of ftowers. M'Ii/otus alba (whi",), DjJiriruUiS (yellow). (Biennial) Mtli/otu, iodica (yellow). (Annual) Honey pale, g=nisb yellow, slight cinna" mon flavour. Of univenal importance and of inaeasing importance in the Northern StateS and Canada. B.C. dry belt. C_, Wlrit<. Dutcll~. SmaIllea... and,short~ Northern Hemisphere. End June to August. Mav to O~tober, especialjy June. Later in Minesota and B.C. April to June. June to September. March to April. June to s.plember. Southern Hemiapheu. End December to February. ~ovembe'r to April, especially Decetnber and January. December to March. September to October. De<:ember to March.

134 SOURCES OF HONEY AND POLLEN I r [ Northern Hemisphert'. Trifolium repms. (Perenni.al) Honey pale of superb fla.vour and g("nerally slow to!''1'anulate. Of universal irnportanc't", forming the principal crop in most part.~ of Great Britain. many parts of U.S.A., Northern Australia, and larg~ areas in New Zealand and Canada. The red form, trifolium pretense, is in Mid run(' (0 general, too long jn thr corolla for the early honey bee. Augu!l.t Danddion. No alternative name. Leontodon dentatum, Taraxacum officinak. (Annual) Honey golden. Pollen bright orange. March to Included in this list as a most valuable May Qr Bower in early spring producing some September. honey and much pollen Eucalyptus. Blue gum, E. globulus; Swamp Mahogany gum, E. Robusla; \\-'bite Ironwood or Iron bark, E. k"uc~'lrm; Red Ironbark, E..tideroxybm; Red ~Box,. poryantlumo$; Yellow Box Or Honeyscented gum, E. melliodoraj White Box.. hnniphloia albtu! or odorata; and many others. Honey golden and generally dense. That from yellow box (a favourite) is paler.and that from red box very denst. Eucalyptus honey has a characteristic flavour and odour. From some sources it contains considerable nitrogenous matter, albumen, tannin, requiring heating and skimming and being unsuitable for winter food. For this reason certain species are placed in List II. The Eucalypti are the most importatlt source of honey in Auttralia and of value in Southern California, Haiti, etc. The Ia,-gu part of the Australian hod<y comes from Vreroria and 90 per cent. of boney from Victoria comes from the April to forest trees. July Firtwe,d. (See Willow Herb) 431. Gum. Blue gum, Red gum, etc. (See Eucalyptus) 4.D. H,at/rer. Ling. CoJltma """garis. (P"",DDial) Honey dark gclden brown colour of pronounced characteristic flavour, much liought _. It bas to be ematted in ap... Southttn HcoUtpherl,'. December to February. OctO!)I!f to November and onwards. October to January.

135 liz HONEY-PART I Northern Hemisphere. An importanl ~ource in Scotland and other parts of Great Britain and Ireland. July to The Heaths, Erica cinna, etc., September, are sometimes wrongly described mainly heather. They add to the flow. Augu~t /ronhark. Ironwo~d. (See Eucalyptus) 4;\4. Ll'mon. (See Citrus) 435. I.im,'. BJ.sswood, Linden, Bee Tree. Tilia Americana, Europoca, h terop~rlla, cordata, vu~r;aris. (Tree) Honey of pronoullcc-d flavour somewhat minty, light amber or somewhat greenish, density apt to be low. Pollen greenish yeuow. Of univenal importance. The flow generally lasts two to three weeks and is somewhat uncertain. There are early and late species. In Europe T. cordata is the most reliable. Flow in June in June to N. Dakota and July in Minesota and Great Britain. July or August Luunu. (See Alfalfa) 437. Omng~. (See Citrus) Sainfoin. No alternative names. Ol'lob1)'ChiJ sativa. lio::ley lemon yellow. Pollen brown. Universal. related to the clovers, gives nectar at a low temperature. Late June to August Sycamore. Allied to the Maples..4ar psfudoplatanuf. (Tree) Honey pale with sometimes a greenish tinge, probably from admixture of honeydew; indifferent flavour. Important in Great Britain, giving a short flow, somewhat uncertain, follow~ April to May. ing the apple Tlriff1~. Canada thistle, Star thistle. Card"u! arvnj!is, etc. Honey pale and. of good flavour. Universal in uncultivated areas. Important in Australia, Canada, California, and many other parts. June to August T.Jip Tnt. Tulip poplar, yellow poplar, white wood, cucumber tree. Liriodmdrrm ttdiptftra. (Tree) Honey dark amber of a pronounced flavour. A reliable source. Important in Eastern States of U.S.A., Ohio Valley, Appalachian Mountains. May to June TlIP'k. Soor Gum. Nyassa "'J"'2Iica, sftvatica, bifl-z. Hr... yamllor, line, rarely granula... Southern Hemi~p~n.. December to January or February. December to February. December to February.

136 SOURCES OF HONEY AND POLLEN Important in Eastern Stales, U.S.A., a.nd in the South. Wattk. (See Acacia) Wi/l()fW Hrrb. Fireweed, Rose BaY, Bloom w ing- Sally. ' Epiiobrum cmgu!ltfolium and montanum. (Perenn;al) Honey white and of good fla, our. Favours a dry soil and flourishes in ground burnt over. Of universal importance. Northtm Hm)jspbrrt. April to June. July to Frost. LIST II-HONEY SOURCES 113 Soutbtrn HmniJ.phv.e. January [0 Ftost. " "54. (For Explanati(#f, see 413 and 414) Aster. Michaelmas Daisy, etc., etc. Aster ericoides, novae-anglita and innumerable others. (Perennial) Hone} amber, rather proo..junced flavour. The later species are the more valuable Bea,.b~rry. Kinikiwi Manunita. AnlOJlaphylo! u'va-ij.ni. (T.ree OT Shrub) California, Southern. "7. Bergamot. (See Horsemint) 448. BiAckkad. Knapweed. Cmtaurea nigra. Honey golden, thin and sharp fta..'oured. Important in Ireland Black Mangrove. No alternative name. Aviunnia nitida. (Tree) Said to be the heaviest known honeybearer. Important in Florida and Porto Rico. BfJlUut. Tboroughwort. Eupatori.,. p"foliatum. (Perenn;al) B()f"Q.ge. No alternative name. Borago 'jjici.aiis. (Annual) Important w~ in occun in quantity. &dl;"',.,.. Coffee Berry, Cascan Segrada. Ritanmus ul1nartua. frangula. purlhiana, calif...mca., (Bu,b) Honey dark, slow to granulate. Important in Canada and Florida. Bfi,glou, riper$. Salvation Jane, Patterson', Cune, Blue Weed. Ec;';"'" vtdga,.., viola<erun. (Annual) Universal, important in Ontario, New South Wales, etc. Cantpamd4. Bell Hower. ~~I~~ett. N~~ _.,._ July to October. May. June to September. August, September. June to Frost. May to September. July to September. January to AprH. December. January to March.

137 HONEY-PART I Honey white and of nne flavour. Important in tropical regions. Cuba Capt Irud. No alternative name (1). Hont"y golden. An jmponant source in Australia CaI(ara. (&-e Buckthorn) 457. Cmtury'. No alternative name. Aga""e americana, etc. Useful in semi-arid tropical regions Charlock. No alternative name. Sinapis am)ensis. (Annual) 459. Cherry. No alternative name. Prunus cerasus. (Tree) Useful minor source of honer and early pollen Ckmatis, Wild. No alternative name. CkmatiI figusticifolia. (Perennial) Honey light amber, very dense~ said to have a flavuur resembling butterscotch. Important in B.C. and California Clover, Crimson. :\ branched form. Trifolium incarnatum. (Annual) Honey similar to that of white or Dutch clover. Uni.usal at least in Northern Hemisphere Currant. Flowering red. and golden, cultivated red and black Ribu rubra., aureum, angui~m, nigrum. (Bush) Useful between main spring and summer crops. Univenal. Dogbane. No alternative name. ilpocynum androsoemifolium. (Perennial) Canada, B.C., West Kootenay. Eucalyptus, Grty Box. Candry wood, white gum. Eucalyptus h.miphkia. (Tree) Honey nitrogenous. therefore, poor for wintering. Important in Australia. Eucalyptus-Stringy Bark. Red gum. Eucalyptus amygdalina. (Tree) Honey nitrogenous, therefore, poor for wintering. ~ Important in Australia. Fwluia. No alternative name. Fuchsia, species.' (Shrub) A rainproof source of hcmey weful in Great Britain and important in Irehid. Pollen primrotc colour. NorthC"rn Hemisphere. July to August. April to 1 1ay. June to August. April to May. June to July. Early June. May to J tide. July to September. Southern Hemisphere. October to November. November to December.. October to January. October to January

138 SOURCES OF HONEY AND I'OLLEN Gold"" Rod. Solidago srpuln'oia and other late kinds. (Perennial) Honey pale, of good flavour, granulaks early. Vnjve~, jmportant in C.S.A Gooseberr f. Ribe.s irassu/aria. (Bush) Honey good and pollen important. Cseful in early spring when grown in quantity Htz<'.J.lthorn. May. North~m Hemi'phete'. July to,frost. April and May. Cratai"gus oxj drantha. (Shrub) Honey of nne nutty flavour. Important sometimes in Great Britain and Ireland. May to June H~a"lJ aje. Lady'$. Thumb, Smartweed. not the Viola. Polygonum persicana. (Annual) Honey light and dark amber of good but delicate flavour, granulating readily. August to Important in parts of U.S.A. and Canada. October. Southern J-Jemapht'l't'. Ft"hruatv to Frost. ' OCtober and Novcmbt-r HOlly. Gallberry. lkx glabra, qpaca, tkfuifo/iu1'1i, etc. (Shrub or T reel Honey pale and of fine quality. lmportant in Southern SUte$ and other warm climates. Elsewhere important for pollen. Horumint. Bergamot. Bee Balm. Mtmarda punctata, fotrjosa, djdyma, Mffltha citrata. (Perennial) Honey of good ftavour. minty. Important in Southern States of U,S.A., also in Canada, June to September. Knapweed. (See Blackhead) Labrador Tea. No alternative name. Ld.m glw1llandienril, palurm. (Shrub) Important in C.B. wet belt. Lt'mnanthis Douglasii. Butter and eggs. Li1ll114n1her Doug/aJii. (Annual) Important in Great Britain. Loaut. (See Robinia) Logrwood. No alrernatize name. H<#ftIaJoxybmt cmrtpechianulll. (T...) Honey pale and of superb quality. Important in Tropics. Mapk. No alternative name. Am cam~nra, etc. (Tree) Honey pronounced flavour. Good source of pollen. April to July. April to September. May and ]UI1<. October '" February.

139 116 HONEY-PART I Important in many parts, Canada, U.S.A" etc Midla~lmas Da;I)" (See Aster) 480. Milk'U.,'ud. Silk weed. Ascupia tuberosa, etc. (Perennial) Importallt in Canada. 48]..\fint. No alternative name. Il,fenr)za saticua, vi<7..'idis, fiperita.. rulegium. (Perennial) l'niversal Nudle Bush. Silky oak. Hakea kucop/era, GrN't'lla Tabusla. (Shrub) Important in Austr:a.1ia. (83. Oleasler. Silver Bern, Buffalo berry. Northern H~i$phere. April to June. July. August to September. Elaeagnus argentea,' aka. (Shrub) Important in B.C., East Kootenay and N. Dakota. A pri! Peach. No alternative name. PrunuJ perliea. (Tree) Honey good, important early source in warmer climates, including Northern April and New Zealand. May PennYrcl)'ai, Wild. No alternative name. Hedeoma puligroidl's,,,\ft'1ttha pulegium. (Annual) Honey dark red. New Zealand, Southern States, V.S.A., Florida. July to September Phaa/ja. No alternative name. P. tmaatifolia, hispida, etc. (Annual) Honey flows freely, granulates quickly. Important in Europe and California. Tune to. August Plum. No alternative name. Prunus damtstica, etc. (Tree) Minor source, valuable for early pollen as well Radish, Wild. No alternative name. Raphattus rapjumistrium, SahvtJ1. (Annual) Nova Scotia., etc.. April to June. July Rapt. No alternative name. Marta Brassica nigra, napus. (Annual) August, Honey good, granulates rapidly, impor~ tam where grown in quantity. especially July to ~90. Raspberry. Wild raspberry. August. Rulnu strigosw, idacw, etc. (Bush) Honey of fine flavour. Good intermediate crop where abundant. May to July Rattz TtU. No alternative name. HODeY white. (Tree) llliportadt.in New Zealand. Southern H~misphere. January to February. October to December. November to February, especially Jannary, February. November to January.

140 SOURCES OF HONEY AND POLLEN 1' Robinia, Locu!.t. R. pf~udacacia. (T~) Honey white, dense, of fine Savour, granulating slowly Saw_ Black hajj or button. whjt~. purple. Ramona stadryoidrs, polpl.zchya. nivra. (Perennial) Salvia o.fficinalis, mrllifera, apid7lcl. Honey white, slow to granulate. Pollen greenish. Of wide importance in C,S.A. and parl~ of Great Britain Sallat, Winter green, salla!. Gatdth~n'a shallorr. (Shrub) Important in B.C. wet J.x.lt Siberian Pea Tree. No alternati\'t name Caragana. Important hedge plant in Canada Sill<ow<ed. (See ~1ilkweed) Silver Berry. (See Oleaster) 498. Smartwud. (See Heartsease) 499. SnCIWberry. No alternative name. s,_"'mphon'carpus racemosus. (Shrub) Great Britain and Canada, etc Sou""J.,'ood. Sorrel tree. Oxydendrum arboreulr.. (~hrub) Honey light in co}c)ur, granlilatiog slowl)'. Jun..: Spanish Needle. Tick, Burr marigold, coreopsis. Biden:; inevolun-aja, an'stosa. Correopsis species. (Annual and Perennial) Honey amber, dense, strong in flavour. August. Important in warm, moist soils in U,S.A. September.... ~l!'.f'.d.~.a.lj.r.~"..na!.i;v.t'.t4l.itlf'. Centromadia pungms. (Perennial) Important in California Sumac. Sumach, Poison ivy. Rltus gkbra, radictm!, typkina. (rree) Honey pale amber of nne flavour. Important in Ontario and where found in quantity T Q Tru. Manuka. LL'ptospumu", lanig('ttlm, fcaparium. M 14- UJca. (Tn:e) Brown boney of su.b consistency that a press must be used. Important in New Zealand. 50S. Prtdt. No alternative name. Visi'a vijlosa,fab~ crtl ca, etc. (Perennial) Honey resembles clover boney. Important in B.C... t belt, parts of G""'t Brilain and eloewher., if widesptead. Northern Hemi'phere'. l'oby to June, April to July. June to August. August and Stptember. June to August. June to August. Southern Ht>mi'phert', November to De~mber, October to January.

141 lis HONEY-PART I Northern Ht"m.ispiaere Viux. No alternative name. Piux (Chinese species). (Tree) Early spring A reliable, continuous and beny yielder. to autumn. Southern Hemisphere. LIST Ill-HONEY SOURCES (Fc:Jr Explanation, see 413 and 414) 507. Aconite. Friar's Cap. Aconitum nape/lus. (Perennial) January to 'Useful in Great Britain in early spring. April Ailanthus. Tree of Heaven. Ailanthus glandulostl. (Shrub) Honey of poor flavour. California and Eastern States. August to September Allileria. Pin Clover. Erodium cin:utarium, moschatum. (Annual) Europe and U.S.A., especially California, April to September A.~ptlragus. No alternative name. Asparagus officinalis. (Perennial) Honev amber Aubreti~. No alternative name. Aubretia, species. (Perennial) :March to Great Britain, useful in early spring. July Banksi<1. No alternative name. Banksia, numerous species. Amber honey. Useful in Australia Blu~btrry. \VbortIeberry, Wimberry. Vaccinium, species. (Perennial) Important in East Canada. and in parts of Great Britain in the summer. May Bluf Ver~vain. No alternative name. Verbt'1ta officinalis. (Perennial) June to Canada. Frost Box. (European 1 Dot Eucalyptus, which see) Buxus sempem.';mu. (Bush) Useful in Great Britain il? early spring. pale yellow pollen. March to May Box Elder (related to Maple and Sycamore). Negvndo cahfornicum, etc. (Tree) U.S.A., N. Dakota. Late April Broom. No alternative name. Citisru sn~parirts. (Bush) Uae{ul in Great Britain. May to June B.ffab Bnry. (See Olcastu) 519. B_ &uk. No alternati.. name. C..pltaUntlnts occidnwlis. (Bush) Honey mild in flavour, light in c:oj.our. C..IIlado, SWampy regions.

142 SOURCES OF HONEY AND POLLEN 119 North~rn Hem.i!phereo, 520. Cabbage. No alternative name. Bra.rsica oltraaa.. (Annual) Useful univenauv where cultivated. May to Juli' 521. Cahn;n!. No altet~ative name. Cala.mintha officinalls. (Pertnni.a.l) Piquant flav()ur. good addition to mild honeys, granulates :!moothly. Great Britain and elsewhere Ceanothu!. Indian currant, Brick Brush. White lilac. Ceanolkus cuneatus. Symphon'r:arpos, racemosus. Ftbruary to (Bush) May. California. 5l3. Chicory. No alternative name. CidJomm illtylu.r. (Perennial) Important in t~ E.l!tern States of July to U.S.A. October. 5::4. Cltina Tn:t. Pride of India. Melia audar-ach. (Tree) Important in Texas ChristrnaJ Berry. Californian N. Coast and Bay Region Cleo'ffU. Spider flower. Cleame serrulaja) spinosa. (Perennial) Illinois, Rocky Mountains and Sll b Tropics Coconut Palm, and Thrinax palm and others. C(}('os nucifera. Important in West Indies and Florida. Am ber honey. All the year Cornflu:wer. No alternative name. Lichnis githago, Centaurea ryanus. (Annual) Pollen pale yellow. Useful where growing e;ttensively CotOMarter. No alternative name. ColtJrleart~r vtdgaril. March to Useful in Great Britain. May Cotton. No alternative name. Gossypium Airsutu.m. Imported in Southern States and parts of Iu"" to California. August Figvxrrt. Simpson's Honey Plant. July to 532. Scropbularia. species. August. Gtr"'""'" family, C'i=bill, Herb Robert, etc., etc. G.,.".;"m and EroJiom, pr_, Ro- b<rli"""... plu:nl, Hop. No alternative name. H""""'" btpubu. Hooey pale, pollen good. Austnlia and 'IOben: cultivated. (Pemmial) May to July. July to Augult. Sl)uthern Hemi'pbn<:. November to January.

143 120 HONEY-PART I Northern Hemiapherc HordJ<mlrd. No alternative na~. Jl,.farrubium rvu~~are. (Perennial) Dark amber honey of strong flavour. U nivenal, important in California Hound's Tongue, No alternative name. C)'nog/os!um o./ncinalc. (Perennial) U.S.A., Ontario 'Jamaica Dogwood. NQ alternative name. CornU5 florida. Important in Florida Juneber,)'. Service berry. March to Amelanchier canadmsis. (Tree) May Lima Bean. No alternative name. P hal.'cq/:u lunatus. California, Southern MradtY'..L'Sweet. No alternative name. Spiraea latifolia. (Perennial) July to Useful in Great Britain and U.S.A. August Afef<juite. No alternative name. Prosopr'Qs glandulosa,}ulijlora. (Tree) Light amber honey, granulates quickly. Useful in Southern States. April to July Metopium. No alternative name. Important in Florida. (Shrub) February '\fist/doe. No alternative name. Phoradrndron, wscana album. Useful in Southern States. Early source of pollen and some nectar. December to January Jloca. Cabbage tree. Geoffroeajamaictnsis. Important in \\'est Indies and Tropics generally ]\[ot):e~.,vort. No alternative name. LI!ortu11l.s Cardiac-a. Canada "'.1wtard. \Vild mustard. BrassicQ a~.jtnlli. (Annual) Honey pale. inclined to granulate quickly. Pollen yellow. June to Important when grown in qua.ntity. August Pear. No alternative name.. Pyrus commrmis. (Tree) Honey good. Important fol' spring pollen. Pollen is greenish yellow not April to crimson., May Pi. Clover. (See AlfiIeria) 548. Pynu ']4;"';'.. No alternative name. Some: use in Great B,ritain for pollen and April to bo"",y. June Ragwort. No aitwlative name. Smmo jacob«a. (Pezennial) J""" to H( liey ofil1ferior flavour and rolour. September. Southern Hemisphere December to February. October to Nowmber.

144 SOURCES OF HONEY AND POLLEN 121 j Northern Hemiaphe« R~d Bal'. No alternative narne. P~rl;a Ooro()1tia. (Shruh) Apdl to (:.S.A. South and East. June Royal Palm and many others. Roystcmea. etc. (Tree) Amber honey. Important in Tropics. W. Indies, etc Sa'"cC PaLmetto, No alternative name. Sabal mrgararpa. Hone\' light.lmber, dense. Impo~ta:nt in Florida Sea Gmpe. No alternative name. Cocco/Qba rwiftra_ Florida Spid" Flow". (See Cleorne) 555. Sunflowa. No alternative name. Heliunthus, tuberosus, annuu!, etc. (Perennial and Annual) July to Australia and Florida. Frost S<U.wt P~pper. ]';0 alternative name. Ckthra aliufolia. (Bush) Honey light amber, dense. New England, New Jersey, I;wampy July to woods. August Ti-ti. Leatherwood, Buckwheat. Cyrilla racemiflo, a. Chftonia monaphylj.a. (Shrub) Honey red and of strong flavour, lost in rain. In Florida February to March..\1ay to July Tobacca. No alternao\'e name. July to NiJ:otiana tabacum. (Annu:d) August WaU.fi(1W~r, cultivated and wild. Cheiranthus. species. Match to Ponen greenish. May Wlwnkbmy. (See Blueberry) Southern Hmlispher~. January to. February? Sept.embuto November. LIST IV-POLLEN SOURCES (For Exp/anati..,. '" ) 561. AU". Black Alder. Abttu ittcana. (T~) A unh'ena1 early source Anenulu. No alternative name. Am"""" 'l"in'[lli/oiia, ltc. (perennial) Unh-enal Arabis. No alternative: name. Arabi., species. (Pettnnial) Pollen gtten. Useful early source wb~ cultinted in April to quantity. June.

145 rzz HONEY-PART r Northern Southern Hemisphere. Hemisphere Ash. No alternative name. Frarinu.r ~xcelsior. (Tree) 565. Banana. No alternative name. MUM sapientum. (Tree) Useful in Tropics and $ub-tropics B(lrb~rry. No alternative na.me. Berberis japonica, <t:ulgaris, trifoliata, etc. (Bush) March to May Beech. ~o alternative name. Fa,ffUs sylvatiea. (Tree) 568. Birch. No alternative name. St'tuia alba, etc. (Tree) Gives a yellow honey, afso pollen pale March to yellow. April. Universal, important in New Zealand Blackberry. Bramble. Rubus frutica.>us. (Bush) Pollen greenish white. Honey of coarse flavour. June to December to Valued in Great Britain and Canada. Septem her. March Buttercup. No alternative name. Ranunculus bulbosus, etc:. (perennial) Pollen orange. April Catnip. No alternative name. Nept7ta cataria. (Perennial) Canada Celandine. No alternative name. Ranunculus /ican a. (Perennial) Pollen dark orange. Important common wild flower. April Chestnut. Sweet Chestnut, Spanish Chestnut. CaslafUa dn'tata. (I'ree) Gives a yellow honey also. May Ckmoti,. (See List IV) 575. Collifoot. No alternative name. TUl1ii4go laifara. (Perennial) Pollen orange colour. Marcb to Important early source. May Corn/l~r. No alternative name. Lic/mis githago, CmtaJlrea cyamls. (Annual) Pollen pale yellow. July to Locally a useful source of honey also. August CrootS. No alternative name. GrtKru sativus, etc. (Bulb) Pollen bright orange. February to August to Important whetever cultivated in gardens. April. October Em.. No alternative name. Ubnu c".!lris (Tree) Pollen ~owish gn:en. Jni-w, early OOUl'CO. February. August.

146 SOURCES or HONEY AND POLLEN r2 3 Northern South.em Hnru,pbere. Hemi.pbet'e Gon~. Fune bush. Ukx Europ"". (llu.h) Pollen is dark oran~ brown. A useful source of paiien throughout the seasnn in Great Britain Ilnd important in Ireland. All the )'C'ar Gourds. Pumpkin, S9uash, Water Melon, Cu<:umber, etc. Cucurbita pepo. etc. (Annual) Pollen golden yellow. July to Important in California. September Groul1dsel. No alternative name. StTucio vu/gans,jacqbaea. (Annua.l) March Pollen bright golden yellow. onwards Hellebore. No alternative name. Htlkborus niger, hiemalis, foeh'dus, <viridis, etc. (Perennial) December to Pollen. pale yellow. May JIemp. No alternative name. Cannabis sar;eva. (Shrub) Useful in Eastern States Hirkory. No alternative name. Carra, species. (Tree) 585. Hop. (See I.i" Ill) 586. Hornbea/'JI. No alternative name. Carpinu.r caroliniana. (Tree) February. AugUJt. 58'7. Horse Cltestnut. No alternatj~-e name...daculus ltippocastanum. (free) Pollen crimson. May Ivy. No alternative name. Redera "'fix. (Climber) Important late source of pollen and October to April to honey. December. July Larch. No alternative name. Larix, species. (Tree) Honey granulates in a few days Lilac. No alternative name. Syringa vulgaris. (llush) Pollen yellow. June MalIuw. M... h Mallow. Malva sylvestris, rotundifalia. March to (Perennial) August Mapk. No alternative name. Acer,.pecies. (Tree) Giv~ also 4 light gnenish yellow honey. Important tspecially in Canada and part8 of U.S.A. April to May M1I1berry. No alternative Dame. Menu nigr>z, alba. (ll"'h) ~!;CU. Nut. Hazel Nut, Cob Nut. Corybu...wJlan4, etc. (Bush) Pollen pale yellow.

147 HONEY-PART 1 Northern H~isphere. Useful early source of pollen and tome February to honey. March Oal. N~ alternative- name. Querclls, species. (Tree) 596. Pint. Various. (Tree) Early. Some give honey of good ftavour, but nitrogenous Plantain. nibwort. Plantago ianceo/ata, etc. (Perennial) llseful source of pollen in Great Britain. May to July Poplar. \Vhite Poplar, Black Poplar. Papulu! tremuloidt s, niger. (Tree) Pollen greenish. March to Important source. May PopPJ'. No alternative name. Papaver. species. (Annual) March to Black pollen. September. boo. Pn vtt. No alternative name. Ligustrum vulgare, etc. (Bush) Useful late source of pollen and of boney of unpleasant flavour. Pollen pale yellowish green. June co July Ra~ed. No alternative name. Ambrosia elatior. (Perennial) May to Pollen deep golden, honey rank. August Sage BT1lsh. No alternative name. Arlmluia (alifornica. (Bush) Imported in California, Southern Scilla. No alternative name. Scilla, species. (Perennial) Pollen bluish colour. April WainllJ. Black Walnut, English \Varnut. Juglans nigra. ngia. (Tree) Pollen gttenish yellow. ApriL and Source of honey also. May If'iU(7W. Sallow. Salix, species. (Tree) Pollen dull greenish yellow. March to Of universal importance wherever grown. May rt'w. No alternative name.. Taxus baccata, etc. (Tree) March and Pseful early source. April. Southern Hemispbere. ~ovember to February. September to ~ovember. LIST V-SOURCES OF OBJECTIONABLE HONEY 607. rltorn Aplit. DtZIMra stralllo1fi:1llll... Honey poisonous RMdINitodrrml~. ~=~. (For Explanati..., set 416 J"d 417) (A Herb) (Bash)

148 late. SOURCES OF HONEY IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES [ Trip<lukia pamculat4. Honey poisonow. Japan Nor;r! Hrmty. Leaves a most bitter taste in the mouth. South Africa. S(}UTeeS ~f Hont'~'Y ill Different Countries 611. General. I n the lists which foilow the sourc<:s arc given under common local Ilames only. :For convenience of reference they arc arranged in the order of Lists I, II, and III, in which particulars are given of each source. III cases where a partil..:ular source is recognized as of importance early or la.((: in the season, this is indic1.tcd by a letter in heavy type, following the name, E 00 early, L «- The Author will welcome criticisms of these lists from those having local knowledge, and similar lists for other important areas. - GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 612. Hmey. Alsike, Apple (El, Clover (sweet, white and crimson), Dandelion (E), Hawthorn, Heather (L), Lime, Sainfoin, Sycamore, Thistle, \Villowherb (Ll, Aster (L), Blackhead, Borage, Buckthorn, Bugloss, Charlock, Cherry (El, Currant (El, Fuchsia, Golden Rod, Holly (El, Horsemim, Limnamhi., Mint, Plum (E), Rape, Raspberry, Robinia, Sage, Snowberry, VetciJ, Aconite, Allilcria, Asparagus, Aubretia, Blueberry, Box (E), Broom, Cabbage, Catmint, Cotoneaster, Figwort, Geranium family, Hop, Horehound, Hound's Tongue, Meadowsweet, :\!ustard, Pear (El, Pyru. Japonica, Sunflower (L), Wallflower Pollen. Alder, Anemone (E), Arabi. (E), Ash (El, Bearberry, Beech (E), Birch (E), Blackberry, Buttercup, Celandine, Chestnut (Sweet), Coltsfoot (E), Crocus (E), Elm (E), Gorse, Groundsel (E), Hellebore (E), Hemp, Hickory, Hop, Hornbeam, Horse Chestnut, Ivy (L), Larch (E), Mallow, Maple (E), Mulberry, Nut (E), Oak, Pines (E), Plantain, Poplar, Poppy, Privet, Ragwort, Scilla (E), Walnut (L), Willow (E). UNITED STATES Of AMERICA General List Hrmry. Alfalfa, Alsike, Apple (E), Basswood, Buckwheat, Citrus, Clover (sweet, white), Dandelion (El, Sainfoin, Thistle,

149 126 HONEY-PART I Tulip Tree (E), Fireweed (L), Aster (L), Boncset (L), Bugloss, Century (E), Cherry (E), Crimson Clover, Currant (E), Dogbane, Golden Rod (L), Gooseberry (E), Heartsease (L), Maple, Mint, Plum (E), Raspberry, Robinia, Sage, Sourwood, Spanish Needle (L), Vitex, Alfiieria, Asparagus, Cabbage, Coffee Berry (E), Figwort, Geranium f.'lmiiy, Horehound, l'vlcadowswcct, Pear, Sweet Pepper Eastern States: Acacia, Clover, Tulip Tree (E), Tupelo, Ailanthus Chicon' (L), Cocoanut Palm, Red Bay Southern States: Acacia, Citrus, Tupelo, Black Mangrove, Buckthorn, Hollv (E), Horsemint, Pennyroyal, Sourwood, China '"rrce, Cleome, Cotton, Jamaica Dogwood, Mesquite, Metopium eel, Mistletoe (L), Red Bay, Saw Palmetto, Seagrape, Sunflower (L), Ti-ti, Tobacco California: Alfafa, Thistle, Clematis, Phacelea, Spikeweed, Ailanthus, Alfilcria, Ceanothus, Christmas Berry, Cotton, Horehound, and in the South: Acacia, Citrus, Bearbcrrv, Peach, Lima Bean Northem States:. Bass, Buckwheat, Clover (sweet, white) Oleaster, Box Elder, Bugloss, Hound's Tongue. CANADA General List 619. Alfalfa, Alsike, Apple (E), Basswood, Buckwheat, Clover (sweet, white), Dandelion (E), Fireweed (L), Sainfoin, Thistle, Aster (L), Buckthorn, Cherry (E), Clematis, Currant (E), Dogbane, Golden Rod (L), Gooseberry (E), Heartsease (L), Horsemint, Labrador Tea, Maple (E), Milkweed, Mint, Oleaster, Plum (E), Radish (wild), Raspberry, Sallal, Siberian Pea-tree, Snowberry, Sumac, Vetch, Blueberry, Blue Vervain, Button Bush, Cabbage, Hound's Tongue, Oleaster, June Berry, Motherwort, Pear (E). AUSTRALL4. General List 620. Acacia, Alfalfa, Alsike, Apple (E), Basswood, Citrus (E), Clover (sweet, white), Dandelion (E), Eucalyptus, Sainfoin, Thistle, Aster (L), Bugloss, Cape Weed, Cherry (E), Currant (E), Eucalyptus, Gooseberry (E), Mint, Needle Bush, Plum (E), Raspberry, Banksia, Cabbage,. f!op, Pear (E).

150 SOURCES OF HONEY IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES 127 NEW Z ALA~lJ Cenrrul List 621. Acacia, Alfalfa, Alsikc, Apple (E), lh,~wo()d, Citrus (E), Clover (sweet, white), Dandelion (E), Sainfoin, Thistle, Aster (L), Bugloss, Cherry (E), Currant (E), Gooseberry (E), Mint, Peach (E), Pennyroyal, ;Plum (E), Rata Tree, Raspberry, Tea Tret', Cabbage, Pear (El. SOUTH AFRICA 622. Eucalypti, Orange (E), Apple (E), Plum (E), Pe. e), (E), Pear (E), Lucerne, Sweet pepper. 'TROPICS A~D Sun.. T'ROPICS General Litt 623. Citrus (E), Tupelo, Black Mangrove, Campanula, Century, Logwood, Cleomc, Cocoanut Palm, Moca, Royal Palm.

151 SECTION F HOSEY-PART II Taking and Grading of Honey Taking Comh Honey 624. Comb honey should be removed as soon as possible after it has been sealed, as, if left, the beautiful white capping will be stained by busy feet passing over it, and by additions of propoli.. After a rapid flow ceases, through change of weather, or through the fading of the flowers from which it came, unfinished racks should be removed and all finished sections taken out. They should not be left on in the hope of a change occurring. Unfinished sections may then he collected together in one rack, the least finished being put in the middle and the most nearly finished at the outside, and returned to a strong stock. If a super of partly finished sections be so given and another one of unsealed sections he placed above a board with a bee hole in it (a super clearer with the "return" open), preferably raised off the board by an empty rack, the hees will quickly empty the top lot and store the honey in the lower rack, thus securing for the beekeeper quickly cleared combs free from stain for use as baits another year, and quickly finished sections for immediate use. On removal of sections, they should he cleaned (see 1479 for use of paraffin wax) and may then he graded ( ) and stored conveniently in empty racks in a dry warm place (see 712). Extracted Honey 625. Combs for extracting may he removed at any time when sealed, but are generally left to the end of a flow, when they may he handled systematically in bulk. This saves labour and ensures full ripening. Combs two-thirds Bealed may he taken with the sealed combs, but cljrnbs unsealed or less than two-thirds sealed should he returned to the bees to finish Partiy sealed combs may be put through the extractor first, and the unripe honey gently extracted and used for feeding back. This procedure i~""useful at the end of the season, as it enables all the 128

152 TAKING AND GRADING HONEY 129 extracting combs to be disposed of at one time, and the hone)' rdurned will be stored where wanted in thl:' hrood chamber (sct', howey!'r, Feeding for Winter, 1259). It is undesirable to extract unscal, d and sealed honey together, especially just after a d,unp spell or in a damp situation, unless the honey is for immt.'ciiatc us<.' alld the sealed honey of good density, or a ripener is arailabk If scver~.j supers art' removed at one tim(' from a crowdt,j hive, addir"',a} room may he required for dw 1)('('S displaced. "[his may ht' given in the form of fresh supers jf the flow he 011, or of extracted combs to be cleaned up, or a box of (._'mpty rombs b('low the brood ("lest, Of, if late in the season, an empty box used as a lift below the brood chamber, which box may well remain through thc winter. Use of Super Clearers and tn, Like 628. The super clearer is inserted at least 12 to 14 hour!. he fore the honey is to be taken, being placed below the supers to be dcarcd of bees. See that the escape is clear and pass(:s bl'l:s freely one way onl!'. The inexperienced can tcst the ('scape by placing a few ""cs in a vessel placed against one side of the escape and turning the otlh:'t side to the window. Some escapes arc defective as sold and others become clogged. A defective cscape is worse than nonc at all. See that the "return" slide, if any, is closed before inserting the dearer It is best to insert the clearer when bees ate flying strongly, using a minimum of smoke. In fact, if section racks can be remol/cd during a flow, so much the better, the usc of smoke bcing conhncd to a JjttJe inserted where the bodies are separated for introducing the clearer. The supers can be lifted off on to the clearer, and the whok returned after smoking down any bees that would be crushed; or the super may be tilted to admit the insertion of the clearer part way, the clearer being then slid into position by the body of the beekeeper while he holds the supers just clear. Again, if the super be lifted on one side just to admit a bar of wood under its edge, somewhat thicker than the clearer, the clearer rna)' then be pushed home or nearl), home after smoking by lifting the opposite side of the super When returning combs for the bees to clear up, they are placed over the super clearer, still in position, and the return slide opened to give the bees acc;ss to the combs. After a few day' the return slide is closed and the bees are cleared in 12 to 24 hours through the escape as before. If there is no "return," or if it is rendered inoperative through propolis, it will be necessary to use the super clearer for clearing only, removing it when replacing the supers and replacing it for clearing purposes Another method of clearing is to remove supers to a shady N.B.

153 130 HONEY-PART U place) after :,muking uuwn most of tht: becs, placillg them on a fla.t surface, with J. board placed on top having one or two bee escape cones in it. Ally bet!. remaining in the supcr~ make their way towards the light and R y home. Some young: bee!. may be lost, however. Except whcn flying has ceased and the hi\'c is crowded, not man\, bct:~ will be fnund on the fully sl.:'alco combs. Great cafe must be 'exercised to avoid exposure of the hone\'., as this would start robbing. L:1te in the sca:.on it is especially desir:thl' to rcmo\'e honey with a minimum of disturbanc{."s and a millimuul of exposure, or robbillg rna.," hc set up> and the usc of a super detrcr is preferable to any other ml'thod. Supers Stuck Together b32. As explained under comb building (29b) the bees arc liable to join the super frames to those in the chamber below. ~rhc wax so llsed must bt broken when remm:;ng the super. 1'his sometimes presents considerable difficulty. 1'his may hi.: reduced in four ways. Firstly) see that there is not more than a bee-space allowed, sometimes excessive provision for shrinkage of new wood is made by the manufacturers; do not, howl'ver, reduce body boxes Of supers on this account until they han: been in usc for a seasoi; and ha\'c becom<: well shrunk. SecondI);, it is gl'l1crally found that fewer attachments arc mad\: if the frame's in the super CfUSS those in the body bdow, and the attachments made afc more easily broken. ~rhirdly, the ust.;' of vaseline, thinly applied with a paint brush) on the top and bottom bars of all frames, gives useful discouragement. Fourthly, sec that the frames, especially those in the brood chamber ha\'ing metal spacers, or the like, are fitted closely, and any free space closed with a dummy. This will enable a twisting movcffit.'nt to be gin'n to the super to break the connecting cells without displacing the frames. In a stubborn case, the usc of a dinner knife may be called for, or a wire as used for cutting so..'1.p. Supers Containing Braad 633. Bees will not desert a super containing any brood. The combs with brood will have to be taken out singly in case of necessity, and the bees shaken or brushed off, but the brood will be of course chilled if not returned promptly ~o the hive. Grading Hon" 634. On removing sections or extracting combs, they should be examined for colour, the lighter tints being separated from the darker. Sections should be graded further according to appearance, etc., accordillg to tile practice of the local market.

154 TAKING AND GRADING HONEY When extracting, tht lighter grad, s should he extracted tirst and run off into a ripener before the Jark<:r gradl''::>, and if hollcy j~ ro be solj according to source or kinj, the killu.s mu:,t be kept separate. In _f!cncral, it is, however, bettu to bh.'nd ami end('avouf tn pwdu(' a uniform distini.:tire t!,ood produ(:t from year to year, tht: poorcr~ Jark alld ~oa.rs(.. l1annm:d honeys, if any, heing kept st.-parate, and sold fi)f industrial purposes, t.~. SWt'<'tmakillg, fancy cakes, (.~H.'. Do not miss an opportunit~ of offering a. tavoured kind of hom'.v which, like a choice wim" will command a hi(1:h price It i" particularly import.tnt to study the practice of thc lot:.'ll marke\ ill the mattn of grading; but if local practice is poor.. till' adoption of h(:tter pra.ctic(~ mar put the ht:ekt'cpcr if) advance o( his local competitors. 1'ht: rn:.ekcepcr may be i{)rfunare if he liv(,!1 in a regioil wllcre co-operative selling: is pra... ti':>l'd. Ht. will have to,tudy and comply with the ruk><3 in f()fci 'rhe grading of cxttactt:u honey, t'''ipl'ci;lll:v as to cnjollr, l.nd the p:rading of section honey,) ~ to size, wtight, anj other features, ~hould be made the subject of international Jis('ussion, Hor only because the principal producing countries hare.a world market, but ';0 that each may have the benefit of the experience of oth('r~. 'The author suggests that the Lovibond colour glasses applied to a sample n a rectangular cell of appropriate thickness should form tht!.cicntific Jasis of colour grading, and this should he supplemented in each country )y the issue of suitable sub-standards. For exampk, in GrC'a.t Britain :hc usc of a particular tall I-lb, jar j" heing widely urged, and a sub.tandard glass giving a direct match with such a jar when the honey n it rcached the grade set by the standard, would be useful and (onicnient in grading, showing and selling. Again, where squat i-lb. JOts are widely used, su!>-standard glass('s could be issued for grading loney in those as well. For granulated honey opaque colour tandards would be required, preferably mounted behind glas;, unless he honey were graded before granulation. Immcan Standards 638. These are given first place as being the most complete. fhe information given in Circular No. 2.j., December, 192i, of the J.S.A. Department of Agriculture covers in full detail the grading,.olour standards and packin'g requirements for honey. Application hould be made to the Department for a copy of this or any later issue. t includes coloured charts illustrating the grading both of sections.od of extracted honey in squat bottles. The information on grading, briejly summarized below in the paragraphs following, but the,riginal should be referred to for details of interpretation and applica-

155 132 HONEY-PART II tion. '[he British reader is warned that an American gallon measures of a British gallon, bur to<;> pound avoirdupois is substantiall~' the same as the British. U.S.A. St."lioll HOIlf_)' 639. For homt U~t: the grad('s arc Fanc.r, ]\'0. I <lnd ]\:'0. 2, with an ExhibitiO!1 ~rad(' superior to Fancy. 'rhere is also an Export Grade in quality lying between Fane:' and 1'\0. 1, but differing ill certain details. 'rhe requirements art' summarized below, but in the orit:6nal document all the important t~"rms usej arc carefully defined and tolerances fixed. Sections which do not comp~y with the requirements of any grade are described as "unclassified." 640. All sections, except Grade No.2, must be free from cells of pollen (subject to a tolerance), and from (defined) damage caused by granulation, honeydew, poorly ripened or sour honey, any objectionable flavour from floral source, taint of smoke, carbolic: acid, other foreign flavours, odour, or damage caused by other means. No. 2. sections must be free from serious damage due to any of the above such as would seriously affect the edibility or shipping quality l"'her(;' arc no colour requirements for ~~o. 2 sections. No. ] sections not uniform in colour may be sold as No. I mixed colour. No. 1 standard sections and those in the higher grades must be uniform in colour, with, however, a tolerance in No. I sections Each section must conform to the requirements of the official colour chart as to colour of comb and cappings, freedom from excessive propolis and pronounced stains The sections must be new in appearance and of white wood. Fancy and No. I sections slightly below standard in this respect are graded down one grade and No. 2 sections below grade are sold with the defect specified. The sections are packed in new cases of twenty-four, save No.2 and Export sections. For the latter there are special packing instructions The comb must not project beyond the wood in any section The surface of the comb must be dry, free from any signs of weeping and from damage caused by bruising or by any other means. A lower standard is set for No. 2 sections, however, which must not be badly bruised, marred or leaking; holes cut in cappings and small broken surfaces being permitted In ~neral, the comb must be attached to each side of the section over at least half of the full area, but for No.2 sections attach-

156 TAKING AND GRADING HONEY 133 ment over half of the total area of all four sides is accepted. In Export and Exhibition sections, also in Fancy grade where the outer row of cells is not filled with honey, atta.chment is required over at least three-quarters, instead of half the possible area In 1'0. I and Export grades in three-fourths oethe sections not more than 31 lin~ar inches of through hol(';'s art' pcrmitu:d next the wood, and in the remaining 25 per Cent. not more than 41 linear inches. No dtv holes arc permitted in thf' bodv of the (:om.b. In Fancy gra"de the ilguresare rejw":('j to 2J a'nd 21 illches respectively, and ill }\;o. 2 grade they are increased "0 6 and 6 0 inchc~. In the-latt('r grade dry" holes (hole<:, larger than a cell) art" pf.:'rmittc'd but not larger than ~ inch if extending: more than 1 X inch (rom the wood. In Exhibition sections not more than four through holes arc pcr w mitted in three-quarters of the combs and not exceeding, approximately bee size, while in the remaining 25 per cenr. one additional hole is permitted or holes slightly larger In Fancy and Exhibition grades op"n cells (whether ('mpty or containing honey but unsealed) are permitted only in the row next the wood, and in Exhibition grade these are limited to twelve jn number in the outside row. In ~o. I grade at least half the section must have no open cells, save next the wood, and not more than half may have open cells in any corner along the lower edge, or in the row of cells adjoining the outside row, provided that exclusive of those in the outside row there shall be not morc than 25 in a comb weighing at lea':>t 12 oz. net, or 12. in an lito comb, and not more than 6 of these empty. In ~ o. 2 grade open cells are permitted in the row next the wood and 50 more in a comb weigh'lng at )east I I (n., of 20 in one 10 to I I oz. net. Not more than 5, however) may he away from those at the corners or edges, and barring the outside row not more than 20 may be empty. Apart from tlie above, the combs must be evenly sealed, save in N o.2 grade, and half the surface in NO.1 grade, in which latter the irregularities must be slight The standard minimum nrt weights arc a; follows: 12 oz., Fancy, Exhibition and Export Grades. II " No. I Gr~de. 10 " No.2 Grade. U.S.A. SholltJW Fr""" in Chunk Honey 650. Standards are set for comb honey in shallow frames si milar to Fancy and No. I sections.

157 J34 HONEY-PART II 651. Chunk honel' must consist of at least 50 per cent. comb honey of shallow frame standard and made up with extracted honey equal to Fane," grade. U.S.A. Extracted Honey 652. All graded honey must be packed and marked in accordance with instructions detailed in the C'omplete instructions. Three grad('s are fecognizt d,.fanc.v, 1\0. 1 and NO.2, the last covering iloilej's failing to comply with the higher standards T'hc holll'\-' must be well ripened and free from damage caused by overheating, fermentation, honeydew, pollen,,my' objt:ctionable flavour from foreign source, taint of smoke, carbolic acid, other foreign Ilavour~ odour or dirt, or damage caused by other means rrhc 1101w:, must weigh not less than 12 lb. per gajlon of 231 cubic inches at 60::> F. 'l"his is gin",n as +0'9 Baurnc scale or 75'1 (' Hrix, which correspond to I '39 I density, but the density works out higher on the weight given pcr gallon. The discrepancy is admitted by the Department of Agriculture, and all the figures in this clause arc being reconsidered The colour may be any of the grades of colour as measured by the standard honey grader (see 658) Containers shall be strong and clean and new in appearance and marked as required Fancy grade must be at least as free from foreign material as honey strained through standard bolting cloth of 86 meshes per inch at a tempt-rature not exceeding 14_00 F. For NO.1 grade substitute 23 meshes. Colour Standards for Extracted Honey 658. The colour standards are illustrated on a coloured sheet showing honey in squat glass jars. Six colours are recognized as in Table XVI opposite, wherein arc given the corresponding readings on two instruments. Canadian Standards 659. Large quantities of honey have been graded by the Department of Agriculture and regulations will probably be in force by the time this book is issued, controlling the grading of all honey for export. Further information should be obtained from the Department. ' Hitheno the colour grading of Cl<tracted honey has differed somewhat frqul the American, the following colours being recognized:

158 TAKING AND GRADING HONEY \Vater \Vhite, \Vhitc, Golden, Light.Amlx~r, O"k Ambor, n.rk. "r'he following featurc-~ afe being taken into accnunt ill grading: Flavour anj Aroma, Gral1uhti()Jl, COJ1~i~tl:lIC.v, Cleanliness, Containers. 135 CO/'Hlf sr,iildards ;U(' hl'!fll_..: s~t i~j!' bod! liquid ;Hld g-rariulat<'d il'ii1'.t. TABLE XVI V.S. 'i. COLoeR STA~'IMRI)5 for t:xiral'ttp HO."'F'/.') I'crct>rm.ge of Light trant'micte'd a~ fjl{"j~l1r('ll hy the Spectfophoto)TIctl'"r. Re'!Ll:ng~ with LO\eibond Gla'H's _._ ---_.. \Yater v,.'hite Extra White \\hite Extra Light Amber Light Amber. Amber Blue Yd!ow R!!d ~o. bxo. 64'0 77'0 81'S 60'0 76'0 XO'S',\:;'0 71'S> 7;.;(' ::; ";C)'c 77"; J'~ ls ::J 49'0 Bl\l~. Yt'Uow. i Rf'd, 0'54 r es 0'52 o'~k 1' I' I ~ )'00 t'31 1'7S ;'21{ I 9.~ I g9 )'Lf 2'1? 13'~') 4.0 Australian Grading 660. Systematic grading becomes necessary as soon as sales are organized on a commercial scale. Probably the infi,rmarion in this section will be superseded before this book is published. No systematic grading rules have been published in Australia at the time of writing. The Queensland honey-marketing board have decided upon a scale of points which gives due prominence to flavour, an item difficult to gauge but of the first importance to the buyer and therefore to the seller. Other countries will watch the development with interest. The points used in grading are as follows:. Flavour, 2.5; Colour, 25; Density 25; Brightness, 5; Aroma, 5; Processing, 10; Containers, 5; Total, 100. See also 728.

159 136 HONEY-PART II New Zealand 661. The grading of honey for export is controlled by the Government. Particulars of the practice and regulations of the Department should be obtained from headquarters. Grtaf Britain 662. For show purposes and for general u~c three colour grades arc widely recognized, "i1.. Light, :'vlcdium and Dark, the grading being determined by the usc of colour glasses obtainable from the British Beekeepers' Association. 'rhe glasses arc of the Slime Light Amber colour and are used for grading honey in tall pound., jars. Hont:y lig.hter than a single glass is light, that darker thall the two combined is dark and the intermediate grades are medium. Standards for British use proposed bv the Ministry of Agriculture arc under discussioll at the time of writing. Irish Frn StOfl'. Sl'Ction H!Jnl'.Y 663. (a) The wood of sectiods,hall nnt exceed in weight fifteen to the p()und. (b) 'I'hl' gross weight ofa section shall be the wt"ight of the wood, wax and honey., without the wrappings, glazing:, or ornament. (c) S('ction honey shall show no signs of granulation. (d) The comb of sections must be clean, free from bruising, from brood marks, from the least sign of weeping or tendency to weep, and the sur6cc of the comb must be absolutely dry on arrival at its destination. '. (e) Splits for holding foundation shall be properly closed. The sections shall not be out of square sufficiently to prevent them being properly glazed or packed for transit. The wood is to be clean, free from objectionable stain, and all adhering wax and propolis shall be removed from the outer surface. (f) Sections with cappings of a deep yellow colour, such as would be produced by ragweed, shall be excluded from grading. (g) The comb shall not at any place extend to the widest part of the wood. (h) In the following conditions the term "pophole" shall include any hole through the comb from face to face The following classes shall be recognized for Grading purposes: "Graded" (3rd) Yellow Label. "Select" (2nd) Blue Label. "Fancy" (1St) Red Label For "Fancy" Grade: (0) w,jght. -Not less than,6 oz. gross (663, oj.

160 EXTRACTION OF HONEY, CHUNK HONEY 13i (b) Attachment, Filling and Sealing. The comb shall be attached firmly to the wood all round. All the cells shall lx filled and sellkd except the row next the wood, and the section sholli not contain ~u(h unsealed holley as would invalidate it under part of General Condition 1 (d), i.c. "The surface of the comb must be absolutely dry on anini at its destination." Popholcs will bt permissible at co[m'p.-, fll':..::t the wood (lnl\'. (c) Fin'ish and Colour. Both f.kes of the comb must ht: fret' from marked unc\'l'ne~s or marked \'ariation in colour For "Select" Grade: (a)"rveight.!\ot bs than 15 oz. brn". (J;) Attathmmt, Filling and Sealing. 'fhe comh ::.hall bt.> attached hrmly to the wond on all sides, but may c~liltain popholes on any part of the surface, provided that ally popholc removed from the wood shan not exceed 1 inch. Attention is drawn again to that part of general Condition I (d), which rcads: "The,urface of the comb must be absolutely dry on arri\'al at it~ destination." (c) Finish. Slightly more unevenness of comb surface and of variation in colour than that authoril,cd for '''Fancy'' grade shah be permitted in this grade For "Graded" Grade: (a) IVeight. :-iot less than 14 oz. gtoss. (b) Attachment, Filling and Sealing. Exactly as for "Select" Grade. (c) Finish. As for "'Select" grade, exccpt that col1!.idcrablc unevenness of comb surface may be permitted. Irish Free State Run or Extracted Haney 668. (a) Density. The imperial gallon of honey shall weigh not less than 14. lb. net. (b) Cleam",. The honey shall be free from scum, sediment, or suspended matter. (c) Fermentation. There shall be no sign of fermentation. (d) Granulation. Granulation shall not exclude from grading. Extraction of Honey and Preparation of Chunk Honey Extracting Honey, Temptrature 669. Extraction should be done in a warm room, 700 to F. (20 0 to 40 C.), which should be made bee proof. The honey also should be warm and should be allowed to stand in the warm room for an hour or two according to the temperature. 1 f extracted at too

161 HONEY-PART Ii low a temperature, not only is the labour increased, but air may be trapped in the holley and form a wasteful scum. Uncapping Kni",l's 670. The combs arc uncapped with an uncapping knife. If the knife has a bcrdlcd i.'df!t:, flote that tlle ben:1 should be towards the comb, so that tht~ wax f. dis awav from the comb and the knife does not din~ to the damp surt~ilt or'comb. For Ilea\'}"' continuous work steam-heated knives are used. On a small!.:'r scale two knivcs may he used, one put to heat in hot watt'r while the other is in usc. '[0 heat the knife, a tall metal "esse! it> required, preferably with a b,urner under. A knife is sold, known as tilt;.. Hampton," which can be used cold. A sawing motion is required with it and work is not as fast or as clean as with heated knives. All knives should be as sharp as they can be made. Use a long knife, long enough to reach across the full width of the comb, which should be uncapped if possible with a single drawing Cut. I'vlost knives han:- blades curved at the end, which is useful for uncapping sunk portions of the surface, but the beekeeper should aim to get all extracting combs flat (278). Uncapping 671. The comb should be held yertically, with the surface to be uncapped facing the operator, and the cut made downwards. 'With practice the ""pping may be thrown off as removed. Many prefcr an upward cut, the upper end of comb overhanging the lower. The operator should then keep his hand behind the frame. It is dear, therefore, that a receptacle is required to catch the cappings, the drippings and to support the comb. Any large tray may be used 011 the top of a larger ripener fitted with a sieve. It is desirable to have a tra", or sieve in which the cappings can accumulate and drain, and a bar' across on which the comb may be stood securely. The knife may be wiped on the bar, and if water-heated knives are used, one end of the bar should be wrapped with cotton rag on which the knife may be wiped before returning to the hot water. If a heated cappings-renderer is used the combs are uncapped above it. Sooner or later, something, say the knife-handle, becomes sticky with honey. A well-damped towel is most useful for dealing with this and preventing the trouble spreading, which, with some people, it soon does, over clothes and cyerything within reach: A basin "f warm water may be useful When both sicres of the comb are uncapped, the comb should at once be inserted in the e>.-tractor, If the combs differ much in weight, endeavour to arrange combs of even weight on opposite sides of the e.<tractor; so as to maintain a balance. This saves wear and

162 EXTRACTIOX OF HONEY, CIIt'XK JlO:-iEY 139 tear, much unpleasant vibration and givc's quicker results. extractor should be secured to the Roor. Th. Centrifugal Farer 673. The force on the honey depends mainly upon the radius and speed, whilst that on the comh depends upon the weight alsq, It is wl'll, therefore, to co:nmence slowly, partly emptying: one side, So (15 tu reduce the w(. ight; thell rcvl'r~(' the combs and complt.,tdy empty the secdnd side, tinishing at a high spt"tu; tiwil, finally, rc\','rst' again and empty the fi_r~t side at high spn d. \\'ith radial pattern t..'xtractors, reversal is unnecessary, but the speed must bl' low until the weight is reduced '- The following table gives an indication of the maximum safe speed in revolutions per minute of the handk, for fully loaded Rat combs not exceedijlg It inches thick, in a warm room about 80 F. with extractors of various gear ratio.!l and radii. 'Th(' gear ratio is fl.)unj by counting the number of revolutions of the txtractor for one revolution of the handle, or by dividing the number of teeth ill the large wheel by the number of teeth in the small wheel. The radius is the maximum radius from the spindle to the edges of the comb. TABLE XVII SAFL SPEEDS r'or EXTRACTORS GClt R.a.tlO. 1 : 2~ 1:1 1 ;4-6 inches ' SO JO u 105 5' 4' 35, J3 ' '4 2O '5 Revolutions per minute of handle When the combs hav~ been roughly emptied on both sides, the speed may be doubled. It is assumed that the wire screem are properly supported so that they do not bulge outwards at high speed. Some extractors are defective in respect to this, and some do not allow 'the comb surface to lie against the screen. With such defective apparatus lower speeds must be employed.

163 HONEY-PART II Capping' 675. Capping; while draining should be turned about and broken up by stirring from time to time. After extracting: is over they may be put into the extractor in wire baskets, if there is sufficient quantity to be worth treating in this way. A considerable amount of wax particles will come away with the honey, and in a large commercial establishmcllt the horwy is strained in a centrifubral machine (see also use of cappings melter, 357). Usr of Riptner 676. ()n a. smaijer scale the hooer is run from the extractor, as jt accumulates, into a ripener through a strainer, separate dpeners being kept for light and dark honey. If in doubt as to the density, it should be checked as run in. The least dense honey will rise to the top in two or three days, and may be thickened by evaporation in a warm dry foom, the ripener being covered with muslin or a strainer. On occasion, the process may be hastened by hanging a small incandescent electric lamp in the ripener 6 inches above the honey. It causes circulation of air and reduces the humidity of the air somewhat. For honey heating, see 704. For treatment of cappings after draining: the honey, see 675. Bottling 677. The small beekeeper extracting only ripe honey in small quantities Can dispense with a ripener, using a fine strainer (muslin or cheese cloth) and bottling direct from the extractor. In bottling from the extractor or ripener, use a fine strainer, and to avoid the formation of air bubbles, tilt the bottle so that the honey runs down the inside, and allow only a small fall. Cure of Extractor 678. Within 2+ hours of emptying the exttactor or ripener, wash it thoroughly with warm water and dry in moving air. In case honey is left in the extractor for a day or two, remove the cages, etc., and wash them. If honey is left in, it causes blackening and ultimately rusting, and rust discolours good honey. This is a case in which a stitch in time saves ninety-nine. Nevertheless, the bad parts of a neglected extractor may be restored with a good-quality a1umi~ium paint, or beeswax may be used (1067). HtathlT Hon,] 679. H,eather honey requires different treatment, as, owing to its high viscosity, it almost refuses to Sow, save at high tempetatures.

164 EXTRACTION OF HONEY, CHUNK HONEY 141 It may be extracted in a warm room using considerable patil'ncc to avoid speeding up whilc the combs aft' still ht,:try, and to alil1w for tht' slow flow. l\lorc frequently heather honn' is ("xtractcd br fllt'ans of presses sold for the purpose, in whid't the c(;mb is inscrtt (\ ~rappcd in straining cloth, and the holley squcc"i.ed out, 680. On the contincnt of Europe a machine has f('ct:nt]v come to the front by means of which heather honer of the most 'viscous l:haractcr may be CXtract(~ll. It consists. of a foosener and extractor combined, co~taining losel)' mounted stout pin~ which enter and kavt" the cells. "rhe machine must be worked s1nwi" and will do about 4-0 lil. per hour agzinst, say, 1 Q0 with an 8-framt machine and tht' common types of honey. Chunk Honey 681. Chunk hoilt:}' is comb honey immersed in extracted honcy and is a well-recognized product in the American market.. \Vith chunk honey, the cost and labour of handling sections is sayed, and also the hindrance they prese:nt to the bees. "1'he comb honey in chunk honey requires for its production the same conditions of weather, location and climate as section honey: that is a rapid Row. It should be as clean and good as that suld in section, The comb is usually produced in shallow frames, and indeed if deep frames arc used it is usual to divide them by a hori'l'.ontal bar into two equal halves. Full frames of super foundation may lx, e::mployed, but it is customary to use starters only. ~1edium hro(xi foundation is used and under the conditions of high temperature pre~ vailing is thinned down while being drawn out. The use of starters, in fact, ensures a straight comb, as a full sheet of foundation which, of course, cannot be wired, is liable to buckle and especially if the foundation is fitted, as it generally has to be, some time before it i, wanted Starters should be I t to 2 inches deep. Unless the super is to be inserted below another in which the bees arc working, the bees will probably work up from the bottom of the frame and it i, therefore desirable to furnish one or two of the frames at the centre with a i-inch starter in the bottom as woll. This will secure a good start and carry the bees to the top where they will start adjacent frames from the top On removing t. super of combs and cutting out the chunks of honey, a starter should be left. If the frames are to be returned at once, leave up to t inch of comb as a starter. At the end of the season, however, cut close to the wood. The frames should be. returned to the bees for cleaning as in the case of extracting combs (869), then fresh starters are put in next year, so as to avoid propolis

165 HON}:Y-PAkT II and staining which is inedtable if comb is left and given for cleaning up. For fixing starters U5(' a wooden guide and wax them as in 'rile return of supers with honey to clean up causes great cxcitement; it should preferably be done towards evening and, in any case, do Ilot try removing full supers just after returning empty one:, to other hin:5. vvalt a day or two to avoid setting up robbing. G,.I/JZu!atio!l and Fl'rlflt'lltatirm, finding and Sttriliz.ing Granu.lation of Hone) 686. In course of time in most honeys the dextrose sugar first separates out in the form of crystals, giying up 10 per cent. of its weight of water. 'This puts up the water content of the remainder by about 7 per cent., so that if the honey has a density of 1 '42 at 20 C. the liquid portion after completc granulation will han' a density of only about 1'37, thus increasing the risk of fermentation (see 395). The levulose separates out later if granulation is forced, and any sucrose present will also separate out in time. Production of Large Cr_ystais 687. For the production of large crystals the granulation should be slow (see 688-9) and should take place in a good light. The temperature should be even and evaporation hindered. Some prefer large crystals, but the practice of honey judges at shows is to require fine granulation because it requires striving after and is most sought after. Production of Fine Cr_vstals 688. For the production of fine crystals granulation should be quick (see (89) and should take place in darkness and a variable temperature. The process is hastened by stirring and by quick e\'aporation, A Jow cemperatu.re is sometimes recommended. It has no effect on the rate of granulation. If, however, the temperature is high, it is difficult to..,aid the formation of larger crystals. Dense honey attracts water, so it must not be exposed to damp air,. Rapidity of Granulation 689. The rapidity of granulation depends mainly on the number of primary crystals present. If these are removed by heating (691). and the honey is free from dust, pollen and minute air bubbles, granulation au> be postponed for long periods., even for years. Thus

166 GRA~rLA.TI0~ ) FER:\IEXTA.TION, HEATING, STERILIZI:-;G 143 ~ranulation of a batch of honey is greuly acc:eicr;ltcu if some granu~ lated honey is extracted wirh it or deliberately ~tirrcd ill. Rapidirr of granulation is also assisted by exposure to light. Tendt'lli)' to CnJnu/atr 690. Honey from some sourn.'s granulatt'~ much morl' quickly than others. A very tlne dear honey from Rohinia seldom gralfulates and may keep clear for.\'t:ar~ without spt'(:ial tn:atnwnt. Honey from Dandelion and Charlock, on the other hand, frequently granulates in 2 weeks or less. 'rhe late-s(.'asoll horh:y~ are illciim.'d to granulattquicljy; Golden Rod and Willow Herb, for example, and Mustard taken late in s...:ason. In Australia honey from Clovcr, "fhistle and C"pe Weed all granulate quickly and that from l\cl'djc wood and Hop in about a fortnight. Clover and Ling honey mixed tog(.~thcr crvst;.\.lli1.c with a fine texture, but a mixture of cjovn and bell heather is ~apt to produce very large crystals. Pre'vent;on of Granulation 691. 'The primary crystals arc dissolved at tcmpcra.turc~ from 95 to I IS' F. (say, 3S' to 4S" C.), according to density, etc., so that hea::ing to 120 F. for some hours will completely remove them. St:crions containing granulated honey can be renewed by gentle h<..'ating for a long period, but an en:n tcmpaatutl" carcfujjy controlled or automatic-..a.llr maintained is essential, Of the comb will sag The crystals arc melted mort' quickly the liigiter the temperature, but above about 130' F. (S5" C.) the honey is changed somewhat, indeed it is unde~irablc to heat light-coloured honeys above 120 and for any length of time as they become darker. A temperature of I30~ F. is not enough, however, to prevent fermentation by destroying the fermentation yeasts, so although it dears the honey the use of a somewhat higher temperature for a short time is necessary to prevent granulation and fermentation. Granulation is checked at 1030 F. (400 C.), but not cured, as the crystals formed are not redissolved. A temperature of 1400 to F. (60 and 65 C.) is used. See heating honey, 704. Some use F. (700 C.) for t hour, and then cool quickly. Treating Hrmq aluady Granulated 693. In melting granulated lloney to prevent further granulation, it is particularly important to avoid overheating. The honey cannot circulate in the vessel until fluid and is therefore readily overheated locally. Large tins, 6e-lb. size, require heating for, say, 8 hours in it water bath at about 130 F., the temperature being then raised steadily to 150 F., and then lowered quickly.

167 HONEY-PA.RT II Whipptd Honey 694. "''"hen stirring honey to ontain fine granulation, it is somctimes whipped. This introduces air and gives a fin(' whitish colour, hut utlles~ the den~it\, is good the risk of f{:fme-mation is increased. Cnless it is intl'lhic{.( to introduce air in quantity it is better to stir round and round, so as to disturb the surface as little as may be, Fa mentation 695. The t:ommon cause of fermentation of honey is the prcsence of certain sugar tolerant ycasts (Zygosa.ccharomyccs and Torula) of which several kinds h;1\'c b('cn isolatt..'d. --rhe\' are normally cokectcd by ti){' bees with tilt' nectar and pollen and~ ~)f course, m~re readily from any exposed fermented honey. T"hey cannot multiply at temperatures below 50 to 52" F. (10 0 to 11 C.), but Jo So with increasing rapidity as the temperature rises abo\'e that limit; but when subjected for a 5ufficit.'Ilt time to a t<.:mpcrature in the neighbourhqod of 130' to 1400 F. (54'G to 6o' C.) the yeasts are destroved and fermentation Ceases. A temperature of F. (63 0 C.) will cause d(.'struction in ~ hour. Honey containing these yeasts granulates the more readily, possibly due to the yeast particles acting as dust particles dq in a crystallizing liquid. Prromtion of F~rmf1ltation ~hc yeast cannot propagate in a dense honey, as the dense hone.", attracts moisture strongly and robs the yeast of necessary moisture. 1.'hc danger-line is not accurately known, but if the density of hont:y before crystallization is below 1 '43 at 20 C., or if liquid honey free from crystals is below 1'40, there is danger of fermentation at temperatures above 520 F Fermentation by the yeasts mentioned is prevented also if the honey is sufficiently diluted: a honey solution containing about 80 per cent. or more of water being safe from fermentation by them at atmospheric temperature. The lower the temperature, the more the water required. The figures are but slightly different with cane sugar, so it is not clear why nectar does not ferment in the Rowers. It may be prevented by some effect oflight or extremes of temperature, changes of concentration, or more probably lack of time A dellse holley not sterilized, kert in a cool place and hermetically sealed will keep good for years, but if granulated honey is to keep well, say until the next season, the density must be good and the storage dry. Waxed paper vessels must not be used for iong storage. Fermentation is aided by the presence of nitrogenous matter (403 and 407) Honey to be sold in the liquid form will, howe"er, keep

168 GRANULATION, FERMENTATION, HEATING, STERILIZING 14S indefinitely in closed sterile vessels if it has been heat treated as above described, so as to destroy the ferments It has been said that honey scaled in the comb is sterile; but this is not so. Its keeping properties arc mainly dependent upon its density. The rate of fermentation depends mainly upon the density and temperature, but also upon the quantity of yeast particles present, and no doubt to some extent upon the kind During a rapid honey Row in a humid atmosphere the bees are apt to seal the honey before it has been concentrated beyond the danger limit, and fermentation may then set in within the scaled comb. The same will occur if the sealed comb is exposed to a humid atmosphere in a cool place The greatest danger to the bee is disease; to wax, the wax moth; to honey, unquestionably fermentation. 'rhcrc is much yet to be learned about the causes and prevention of fermentation. Uu of Ftrmtnted Honey 703. Fermented honey may be uscd for slow fceding in the spring diluted, say, I :, and heated to destroy the ferments and drive off any alcohol. The acid products of fermentation can be removed in a bad case by inserting in a muslin bag an ounce of slacked lime for every 10 lb. of honey when heating it. Heating and Sterilizing Honey 704. Honey is heated to prevent or greatly retard granulation and to prevent fermentation, also to clarify, this latter feature being more important with honey containing appreciable albumen, as do some of the Australian honeys, for example (464-5) Granulated honey sometimes has to be reduced to the liquid condition by heating. Honey is also heated for the pu rpose of sterilization. Except when diluted with water as for feeding, the honey should always be heated in a water bath, i.c. the honey container should be immersed in water, which water should separate the honey from the source of heat both at the sides and bottom. This secures against excessive local heating, due to the honey not circulating fredy. The temperature of the water must be controlled and should not appreciabl y exceed the maximum temperature to which the honey is to be raised. The process is accelerated by stirring the honey, and if this is done continuously the water may then be sever'al degrees above the desired temperature. Time and Ttmperatur. ;< The reduction of granulation or destntction of ferments by heating depend upon time as well as temt>e... ture, the time being greatly reduced by raising the temperature, or by reducing the quan L

169 HONEY-PART II tity to be heated. Some granulated honey in sections can be restored to the liquid (orm by heating for some weeks at a temperature of about 100(. F., but for commercial work in reducing granulated honey much quicker n:duction is required and a much higher ternpcrat ure i:; necessary, which would destroy sections. Temperatures up ro 160" F. are usual Greater or ptolonged heating is destructive of die aroma and commercial value of the honey, and wherever possible hl';tting should he kept within the limit of 140\\ to F. This, incidentally, corresponds to the meltin!;-poillt of beeswax, thus a small piece of wax floating on the honey may be used as a check. For further details, Sec 693 to 699. Destruction of Bacteria 706. Honey is sterilized by heating- only ill case there is risk of its containing foul brood germs. Honey so heated is 110 longer suitable fi)r sale for tahle U8(" but may he used for feeding bel's. 'To destroy all germs which may be prc~('nt, including spore's of American foul brood, it is necessary to raise the temperature of the honey to the boiling-point for at lellf! ~ hour. As it is to be used for feeding purposes it is convenient to dilute the honey first by mixing thoroughly with. an equal quantity of boiling water) when it may be boiled over a slow burner without danger of overheating. Such hom:y as a bee food is but little better than sugar syrup~ and for winter consumption is not so good. I t is better to use such honey without heating for home consumption, taking great carc to avoid exposing an",'ii of it to access of foraging bees at any stage, or the water in which the containers ffi3.y be washed. T'hcre is no risk whatever to human beings in consuming honey containing the spores of foul brood and other bee brood diseases. Honey destrovs all bacteria in the vegetative stage by robbing them o(water (plasmolysis). Putting up for Sale 707.,,",'hen honey is to be put up at once in vessels for sale, i.e. without blending, it is convenient to heat it at the time of extracting. This is also advantageous in the case of honeys liable to granulate quickly. Where the honey is to be blended, it is more convenient to collect it from the extractors in temporary 6o-lb. cans, each labelled at once to show content. Later these are teated, the contents blended in a larger vessel, and finally put up in tins or bottles ready for sale. The cans may be heated in a large water bath for about 2 hours at I soc F. (say, 6S c C.), but if granulated it will take 10 hours to reduce a 60-1b. can. The initial temperature should be 1300 F. for 7 or 8 hours, the temperature being then raised slowly to 150.

170 STORING, PACKING, SELLING AND SHOWING BONEY Special plant is made for honey heating in larger quantities, which saves time, the honey being caused to pass over OJ. large surfac(' of metal, heated by water or steam, on its way to the tank, the whole being regulated so that the honey leavl>$ the heater continuously at a temperature of, say, 150", 709. l'he honey may be passed through a clarifier, a long v{'ssd divided lengthwise by partitions reaching alt<:mativd.~' HearlI' to the top and bottom So that the hoil!'y flows over and undn, tht' ~i. um collecting at the top. ' Dtsfrlitttion of Diastase ito. It is said in somt quarters that any heating of honl"y abovc' I20( F. (say, 50'- C.) diminishc~ the food value hy the destruction of minute' quantities of certain digestive ferments. In GcrmallY tests are applied to ascertain the condition of honr y in this respect. UIJhea~cd hom'rs, howevcr, differ widely, and it is impracticablc to prove by test that honey has been heated above 120" F. The trlle food value of the digestives in question is problematical, anu it j:-. likely that the benefit of destroying harmful ferments by heating far more than compensates for the loss of probably negligible quantities of other constituents Heating honey for long periods at 1400 F. (60" C.) has no effect on the diastase content, but a temperature of 150'; F. (60" C.) will produce a detectable effect in a few hours, but probably no serious reduction, even in half a day. At F. (74" C.) some effect is felt at once and complete dc'struction is likely in half a day. Storing, Packing, Selling and Showing Honey Storing Honey 712. Honev must on no account be exposed to damp. It absorbs moistur~ readily from damp air. The exa.ct limits of moisture equijibrlum as between honey at different densities and air of different humidities and temperatures have not yet been determined, but as a rough rule good honey will keep where salt will keep dry. Honey ill the comb requires a higher temperature or drier air than bottled honey, as the latter is bette. sealed For bottled honey a dry dark cupboard with an even temperature of about 54 0 F. (120 C.) is excellent, unless it is to be granulated, in which case, see Granulation 693. A ~emperature a few degrees lower is preferable if the honey has not been heated to prevent fermentation, but is difficult to maintain. For comb honey a better to;mperature would be about 60 0 F. (Isla C.). The air is kept

171 l!o... EY-PART II relatively dry if the store-room temperature is above that of the outside temperature. All honey should Dc graded before storing If a really dry, cool store with even temperature is available, section holley rna)' br: glazed before storing, or protected with greaseproof paper, transparent Of otherwise, each section being wrapped separately and the whole packed closely in wooden or metal boxes. It is cu~tomanr, howen r, to store the sections so that they are freelr ycntil:ued ul1t{1 rcady for packin~ for early sale. There ~ill be som~ 10&<; of aroma, and it is essential to keep out insects and dirt. Sulphur fumigation is sometimes necessary to destroy moths and als~) f1ic"i, but this will not destrov moths' e~s (see 319) Extracted and chunk honey (pieces of cut comb with honey to fill up) is frequently s(,ld in tins containing, say, 5 to 60 lb., or in waxed parchment receptacles with press-in lid. 'The latter require special care in storing, as the lid is far from air-tight. They arc better adapted for use for earl)' sale than for home usc. Packing Section and Comb Hone} 71 &. Sections are frequently inadequately packed to the great annoyance and loss of both burer and seller. Probably the best mode of packing is by the use of cor~ugated fibre containers 'having separate compartments for each section and arranged to take, say, twenty-four sections. If each section is first packed in its own carton, or glazed and hacked, the fibre case affords sufficient protection for short journeys. But for long journeys the cases should themselves be floated in wood shavings or other springy packing and marked for careful handling. In the U.S.A. and elsewhere there arc special regulations for the packing and marking of honey, which must be obtained and observed Comb honey cut from shallow frames may be packed for transit bl' a method introduced by the Kalona HOlleI' Co. of Iowa. The cou'1b is cut and drained, th~n wrapped in cellophane, dipped in melted parafin wax and placed on a cardboa.rd to which it a.dheres and which serves to support and handle the comb. The pieces are finally packed in a corrugated cardboard sectional container. Parking EXh oct.d Honey 718. Where extracted honey is sold in small quantities in glass bottles, the bottles may be packed in fibre containers sold for the purpose in a similar manner to sections Honey in quantity is usually put up in lacquered tins of various sizes, which in turn are packed in crates, the weight of the... jloie being adjusted with an eye to convenient handling and to the

172 STORING, PACKI"G, SELLING A"I.) SHOWIKG!lONEY 149 schedule of shipping weights used by the railway companies. In Great Britain 28-Ib. tins are frequently used, two in a cra!~ representing t cwt., but tins are used also of 4 lb., i lb. and 14 lb. capacity. In the U.S.A., 6o-lb. tins are used, but mar b,' packed to carrv!,"wt. each and crated in pairs to weigh not mote than 120 lb In Australia petrol tins are frequently used and sh()uld tirst be cleaned by washing with hot soda Water. A rough form of churn is handy for washing large numbers Some dense honeys, well granulated, arc so hard that they may be sold in block form, wrapp< d ill grt':1w-proof paper.::tnd in cool weathfr may he sent hy post without any stiff cas(-:. Lahels for Tim and Bottles 722. Labels should not peel off and should withstand fungi. The paste used should keep. The paste may be made of rice flour or common Rour beaten into a smooth batter, afterwards ~tirrillg in boiling water to the desired consistence. As a preservative aud about half a teaspoonful of carbolic acid to the quart of paste, or add enough sulphate of copper to give a bluc tinge To prevent stripping and to improve the adhesive properties some additions may be made to attract moisture. For this purpose about I oz. ofhoncy or brown sugar ma~' be used; or ~ oz. of glycerine to the quart; or about 15 per cent, o::.oda p:!as~ (water gla...;;s) Thin labels of relatively soft paper adhere better than stouter labels or better paper Gum arabic is sometimes used and, with the additi<)i1 of glycerine as abm'c and an equal quantity or washing soda, is very effective as an adhesive to glass. S,/ling Honey 726. For both the small and the large seller of honey it is considered that the co-operative method of selling is the best. The local man with a good local product can sometimes get a better price in the local market, but such men arc beginning to feel the competition of the large co-operative organizations. The co-operati ve organization assists the individual by extensive advertisjng, Teaches a far wider and, indeed often a world-wide, market, and satisfies the buyer by maint.uning a better guarantee of quality and quantity than is generally possible for the individual Whatever the selling organization or methods, the seller must in any case observe the usual practices of good business if he is to succeed. His goods must be presented in an attractive way, allapted to the demand of the buyer, and where sold wholesale must be properly invoiced. The seller should be prepared to furnish

173 ISO samples, and the bulk must be up to sample. While such low-priced commodities as potatoes and bread are sold in an attractive manner, the beekeeper must not expect to get good results unless he also will devote thought and ca.re to offering his goods in an attractive form For the retail trade the sdln should experiment a little. For example, in a marker wht:re the buyers afe convinced honey user~~ but sharp buyers, large n:sscls of granulated honey can be sold; hut where the buyers arc unconvinced, arc not well-to-do and regard honer as a luxury, a good market may be found for small vessels, eve II i-ih. p"b l\,c' a distinctin" label, so that the buyer can ask for more of the same honey. H;n'l: that lahd represent a certain standard of yuality which yo~ can maintain. Nen~r let your customer down. I f you han' sold even only a small quantity who}csale to a retailer, do not bid against him in hi~ own [l tail market. Blmdillg for Sal, 730. Beekeepers should gin> greater attention to the blending of hom ys. Some honcys from distinctive and popular sources are best s.old for Vi/hat they arc: for example, ht'athcr honey, and so marked; but in handling large quantiti( s it is important to maintain a certain "t'tandard and one that the public wants. The owner's own preference may be for a very delica.tel~' fla\'oured or again a rather coarsefbtoured honey, according to his palate and habit, but the public wants what it expects nr something: rather better. If you sell honeys differing m.uch in quality, give them distinctive names or marks and watch their movements. l~ake the buyer into your confidence in this question of flavour and obtain his agreement, but observe his criticism. You have to compete with persons who are giving attention to flavour, aroma and blending Large quantities of sweet clover honey, for example, ate bought everv year on account of its mild Bavour, for blending with good honeys otherwise too strong in flavour. Bass or lime honey generally tuns on the thin side. Here an addition of an extra dense clover honey will recti(y the density and, if possible, improve the flavour A light honey added to a dark honey will show a good average colour. A teally dense honey ~dded to one too thin will reduce the risk of fermentation The article fetching the highest price is not necessarily that most costly to produce. It is always that for which there is a srrong demand, and generally something rather in the fancy line If, however, some of your honey is really poor and does not

174 STORING, PACKING, SELLING AND SHOWING HONEY lsi show up well in any convenient blend, then keep it for spring fceding (not winter feeding) or sell it for some other commercial U'$C than direct consumption (sec 749) For section honey the dernanj is for grades light ill colour. The darker honeys should be extracted. Usually, the late->easoll honc-vs are dark, and there is at tha.t timt' a difficulty ill any i,"~ls(' in secu~ing good sections.., 736. Finally, if you uo not get a ~1.tisfi\ctory price, makt.' inquiries and take ad\"ice. Do not undersell the market. Look at home for the C.1.U5(" of trouble and remember that from the s(."lling standpoint it is jm~ortai1t to blend clear thought with your hobey. Pure Food Laws \'1ost countric':j have pure food) and weights and measure's laws, with which tht.: seller of holley should make himself acquainted) also laws or regulations relative to marking fond and esp< cially imported food and to i;nportation. rrhc foljowing i!'i a recent enactment in Great Britain: EXTRACT FROM STATUTORY RULl',S,\NIl ORl)tRS, 19::8, No. S7t 1. It shall not be lawful to sell or expose for :'laic in the United Kingdom any imported honey, or any blend or mllt:ture of honeys of which imported honey forms part, unless it hears an indicarion of origin. 2. Tbe indication of origin shall be printed, stem i!ied. stamped or hranded on the container, or on a label securely attached thereto, indelibly and in a conspicuous manner, in plain block letters not less than one-twelfth of an inch in height when the greatest dimension of the package docs not exceed six inche&o. and not less than one-eighth of an inch in height when the greatest dimemsinn ()f the package exceeds six inches. For the purpose of this Part of this Order the expression "greatest dimension" shall mean the height, length or breadth, whichever is the greatest, of a rectangular or approxim.'ltcly rectangular package, and the beight or maximum diameter, whichever is the greater, of a cylindrical, oval or conical package. 3. The form of the indication of origin in the case of blends or mixture!> containing imported honey shall be, at the option of the person applying the indication, either: (4) in the case of haney derived entirely from countries within the Empire, the word "Empire"; and, in the case of honey derived entirely from foreign countries. the word "Foreign"; or (b) a definite indicacion of all the countries of origin of the honeys forming the blend or mixture; ot' (c) the words "Blended il'll!lorted"; provided that the indication "Blended im~ ported" shall be applicable to any blend or minute of honey, even though it contain boney produced in the United Kingdom. 4. This Part of this Order,ball not apply to exposure for oak whol=l<: if the person expo<ing the goods is a wbol=l<: dealer.. 5. The proviacions of this Part of this Order shall come into force at the expiration of six months from the date hereof.

175 HONEY-PART 11 Honey for Show-Extracted Honey 738. Honey for show will be judged by fla, our, density, colour and all that the judge can see. It must, therefore, be absolutely clean and c1tar and well put up in bright, clear, flawless bottles with clean polished caps and clean wads, got up according to the practice and rub of the show. The honev must be well ripened before taken, and ~hould be transferred from th"t_' c}\'tractor to a ripener standing in a W:Un1, dry room. 'This will assist the separation of impurities and allow rhe more dense honey to settle, but do not place the ripener whert' unevcn heating win cause circulation The honey 'should be run off slowly through a well-rlried, wdl-v,;armed strainer, more than once if necessar~', avoiding trapping air bubhle:.. Old flannel is good for straining. Prepare more bottle::; than arc wanted and select thl' best after the most minute inspection. 'A'arm the bottles before filling, and fill above the shoulder to allow of skimming off any scum. Store in a enol place when bottled The glass bottles may be given a final polish with soft paper moistened with methl'atcd spirit. The wads, if of cork, should be waxed or covered with waxed paper to prevent cork dust contaminating: the honey. \Vaxed cardboard wads are superior to cork Granulated honey must be fine in grain (688). It is liable to contract away from the glass leaving frost-like markings. I t is h(",t to fill the jars from a larger vessel, the honey being gently warmed through until it w1h flow. Pour it in and leave it for a f{;w w(:.'t'ks where it will not be subjected to sudden changes oftemperawr{'. Section Hone.y 742. In Great Britain the best cappings come from sainfoin or heather and exee)]ent honey from do,.cr. Lime is to be avoided as the density of the honey is lower. Generally /lora on hea't soils give good density Section honey must be the very best fancy grade, the woodwork made absolutely clean by use of the scraper and fine sandpaper, and the whole got up according to the practice of the district and rules of the show It is a good plan to use paraffin wax on the outside of sections (1479) and to paint the insides with melted beeswax which encourages the bees to build out comb to all four edges and makes it easier to remove any stains on the projecting wood Any honey in unsealed cells should be carefully removed with a camel's hair brush, as it may weep. Sections should be carefuuy examined by transmitted light for lack of uniformity and other. derel"ts.

176 STORING, PACKING, SELLING AND SHOWING HONEY The ambitious exhibitor must visit shows, examine exhibit. and ask questions. Points for 'Judging 747. The pratt ice of different shows and different judges must he studied, but the honey cannot bt' too good in any particular. Flavour, density and appearance are the thrct.~ most important features in order of merit from the buyers' and from the seljers' statldpoint. i'here an:, however, difficulties in fixing a standard of flavour Table XVIII gives the principal qualities judged and som" indications of tht: practice of certain countries in assessing these (for American practice, sec ). TABLE XVIII POINTS USED IN }UDC1NC HONEY Victoria. W. Au~- liritiah lrhh }'ret: tr,1l1i~. Columbia. StOlt". I Section Htmij: Aroma and Flavour '; Cleanliness \0 Absence of Pop Holes Cniformity of Capping " 25 " -, Thinness of Capping '5 Colour of eappings '0 Weight and Filling 2.5 '5 General Appearance '5 '5 Neatness " '5 '5 Extracted Liquid Honey: Aroma 'c Flavour 40 3, '5 '5 Density Colour '5 10 BrightneSlio 25 Condition Appearance Clearneos '0 'S Extracted Gr~d HrJM.Y: Aroma and Flav()ur Density (Firmness) 3 Fineness of Grain. 35 Appearance 15 Colour 30,0 Regularity of Grain '0 '5

177 SECTION PI THE APIARY-MOFING BEES The Apiary ~.)'.. ;" L()['ofitiJI nfor H/)n,! Soura! 757. Bees will Hyseveral miles for honey (369), hut it is not satisfactory to keep bees commercially except in places where there is an abundant source of supplies within a radius of, say, two miles, and preferably less. This radius should include sources such as are in List I (419 to 444) On account of the radius limitation, apiaries are genel1llly limited to about 100 stocks, and when this limit is exceeded out apiaries are started. In really good districts 200 stocks can be kept at one spot, and in the exceptional area of the Australian eucalyptus forests sevel1ll times this number may be kept without disadvantage. Pol/m and ffattr,'upplits 759. While access to good honey plants is essential, it is important also to have ample supplies of pollen, especially in the spring, and to remember that the economical distance for Hight for pollengathering in the early days of brood rearing is only about 100 yards. Bees will fly much further if they have to, but not without loss. Honey they can take from store, but fresh pollen and water they must get, even in poor weather, when breeding fast; as the season advances pollen may be gathered within say half a mile radius (see also 369, also 1220 tt seq.). Prroailillg Willd 760. It is advantageous if the apiary can be SO located in respect to the principal source of harvest that the tjrevailing wind is towards the apiary so that!light unladen will be against the wind and laden with it. Similarly, it is advantageous to have the apiary at a lower level than the crops. Nevertheless, bees have been known to rise 5,000 feet after nectar. It is also advantageous to have a site with 1 slope towards the morning sun. rs6



180 THE APIARY 157 }.~ods, Fi'f"tS and Vibration 761. Avoid land which may be Rooded, and in certain districts forest fires also are to be dreaded and avoided. Bees have been kept on railway embankments, but they object to vibration and art apt to build much brace comb (279), and are perhaps morc apt to ~warm. Fencing and She/t(r ~he site should be fenced so as to secure a!;ainst intrull;on of animals, and where the bees By over nr_:ig;hbouring: land it is web to havt, a high fence to direct them upwards. This necd not lx a dose fenc<\ a-; the bees prefer to avoid obstacles by rising abort.' them if the way is clear. I t is a gn:at advantage to have a wind break against cold winds blowing towards the hi\'e entrance, and tall tret's at one side giving shade during the middle of the day. Liability to "Veighbours and Others 763. An apiary of any size should not be established within two miles of another. It is not fair to the man on the spot or good for the new-comer. Tht' owner is liable for damage dolle by his bees to persons or animals. He should not keep ill-tempered be<'s or make good bees fl[ tempered. It is wise, however, to insure against accident. Particulars of insurance ~ch{'mes should be obtained from the Secretary of the nearest Beekeepers' Association Inquiry should be made for particular; of any Icg:islation relating to apiaries, through the nearest Bc(:kc("'pen,' Association, or this failing, from the appropriate Government Department. For enmplc, in Ontario, apiaries must be registered In Australia in the forest area, application may be made to the Conservator of Forests, l\1clbournc, for a site of about 10 acres ill which to establish a bee farm. For a further payment of about four guineas, a sole licence may be obtained for a "'bee range" of one-mile radius securing the occupier of the farm from competition in his area. Out Apiaries 766. Many of the above observations relative to location in general apply with increased force to out apiaries, as inspettion and' oversight cannot be so good as in the home apiary. Apiaries in Orchards 767. Where fruit-growing is extensive it is very desirable to : rl... }..<>""_h:,,,~~ ;... ~ ~..,.h....t:. Tn f..:..,....,l-.i,.,.-...,, 'It n.,in n{

181 THE APIAR.Y-MOVING BEES as much as 50 (5250) per acre has been recorded by the fruitgrower due to better fertilization brought about by the bees when seeking pollen. Complete pollination is necessary to secure that apples and pears shall be fully developed on all sides. Hi,'es should be distributed at the rate of one per acre For orchard work skill is required on the part of the beekl.'cpn to produce strong breeding colonies early enough in the spring and in extensive fruit-growing areas, to maintain them succcs.. fujly as the fruit-blossom fails. It is frcqucntl.v necessary to mon.~ the hives to other districts at this time, P a,_vments ~v Fruit-growers 769. Fruit-growers are willing: to pay competent beekeepers for maintaining bees in their orchards. In British Columbia a payment of $5'00 ( r) per hive is usual and where the conditions are difficult more is paid. The grower of apricots and peaches should not pay for bees as he has to thin the fruit in the ordinary course, but he may keep bees to benefit by the crop if the district is favourable for a later flow of honey. Spraying in Orchards 770. If poison sprays are used during the nectar Row many bees may be poisoned. Spraying should be done before the blossoms open and repeated just after they drop. This method is effective against the Codlin moth. The beekeeper should come to an understanding with the owner of the orchard,., spraying. Package Bas for Orchard IrQrk 771. Owners of orchards will sometimes pay up to 20s, to 4-os. ($ 5 to $ I 0) for a package of bees designed so that the bees can take care of themselvc"s for a few weeks. On receipt the package is set up with the entrance open and after pollination is over the bees are destroyed. Such owners generally learn later to save the bees and lx'come beekeepers ( ). Town and Garden Sites 772. Beekeeping in gardens and tow';s is carried on as a pleasant and profitable hobby, but hardly as a means of livelihood, Many of the observations above as to location apply with equal force to such apiaries, and especially the necessity of considering one's neighbours, Most of what follows as to arrangement also applies, but the,beekeeper will be able more readily to select suitable sites for a

182 THE APIARY Ie r,. 'w hives in a garden than he can make suitable sites in a lars<, apiary. Preparation of Stands 773. Permanent sitt.'s for hives should be prcpa.rcu, the ground being cleared and weed-killer used if nccessa.ry; also a good. lay{'r of a:.hcs applied, or better still, cement or cement slabs, ~l't in the ground, :'0 that the grass l)f weeds between may be mown. Sheep with a gnnd coat of wool may be safely and protitably employed to keep down the grass in a large apiary, if they an' well dipped so that they wil1 not have to rub against th( hilts. In small bee t.,yftrdens, the gmund may be sown over with arahis, aubrctia or other hardy, vigorous and short-growing spriug p!ant~, and will provuc some p(~lkll lialhly for early usc. Gooseberry-bushes or other crops wanting but little attention in tht, season may be grown a~ well a,s appj~s, etc When setting out the hiv(.' sites, and later the hivl's, ;t }(.'\'cl should be used. A useful rough level may be formed by placing a saucer of. water on a short board. Arrangement of Hives 774. Hives should preferably be placed so that th(~ morning sun shines on the entrance. 'They should he tlhajed from!loon onwa.rds in the hot weather, but too much s.hade is a bad thing. In locating hives under trn's, evergreen should be avoijtj, but all apple-trce giving shade from noon onward~ is excellent. Sunflowers, or Jerusalem artichokt-'s, planted on the right spot will gih.' shade at the right time in the hot weather. It is better to avoid having many high branches right over the hives causing: unnt(cssary Ji~turbance in the winter from dropping Water Notwithstanding any general protection of the apiary as a whole from wind, there should be,orne wind break to individual hives or rows of hives, so that the prevailing cold winds of winter and spring do not blow in freely at the entrance. Free ventilation is important, but cold winds cause far more loss of bees and stores. than many beekeepers realize. Snow is apt to reflect the sunshine strongly into the entrances, causing much loss by premature flight. The entrances should be guarded (1150) Hive stands should be so arranged that ready access may be obtained from behind. They should not be arranged in serried ranks, but care taken to secure that individual hives arc readily distinguishable from their neighbours, or excessive drifting will occur and queens will be lost on returning from their mating flight.

183 160 THE APIARY-MOVING BEES 777. Bees locate their hives much as human beings do i,eir houses. It is what is seen during the approach that is most helpful to the bees in locating their homes. The hives may be arranged in lots of J, 2 and 3, with odd spaces between, and in particular, distinguishing marks should be provided by bushes or other noticeable objects towards the front. A few bricb. or large white stones may be used to advantage to help location. Coloured objects arc also helpful or large discs of colour on the b()dics ncat the entrances. I t is not much USc painting supers different colours as it is not convenient to maintain a colour scheme when supcring. Bodies also should not be coloutc'd differently as this hinder certain m~njpulations The hives in rows or groups should be arranged so that Right from those in one row is not materially impeded by an operator working on hives in the row in front. It is undesirable to work near,he line of Right when the bee, are troublesome When hives are located in a small garden or plot, well sheltered by hedges or fences, it is convenient to arrange them around the sides so tha.t access is obtained from outside the group, the hives all facing inwards, using the best aspect for a majority of them. Honty House or Shd 780. The beekeeper even with the fewest hives requires a place ill which to keep his appliances and in which to handle honey, and is not always welcome with his belongin!," in the rooms of the home. The largest beekeeper will have permanent or temporary buildings for extracting, packing and storing, for appliances, a workshop, offices and other conycniences. For a.n apiary of 40 to 50 hives a honey house 20 feet by 15 feet is Ilone too large. It must be bee-tight but well ventilated, any ventilating openings being covered with wire cloth preserved with, say, aluminium paint; or perforated zinc ")lay be employed. IFindoU's 781. It is convenient to have the windows to open inwards, the openings being covered outside with gauze carried about 6 inches above the openings and supported i inch away {rom the frames at the top so that bees working upwards within may escape. Some use windows pivotally mounted so that they may be rotated through 120" or more to let imprisoned bees escape, but they cannot then be left open.. Walls am Floor 781. _ A closed wooden shed with single roof is apt to become

184 THE APIARY cx~x:cdingly hot. It is bcth,.'r to usc a woojen frame with tloublt' walls and roof 'rhc int-ide may be match-boarding, ('om-cuicfh for the- reception of shelves and fittilif,..'"s aml tht' olltsidt asbt..-stos boards. A light brick or breeze block huildil1g with boarded and tiled roof i!-. better still, but considt, rahly 1110re co... tly. 'rhe ROOT must be Rat and solid to carry heavy tanks and an extrat'wr, Creosotcd wood is used or ccm{~nt Of" wood blocks on Ct mt'nt. 'The principal windows ~hould not be l'xposcd to strong sunshinc. 011 a sloping site in a region where l'( liar willh'ring is ncc('ssar,t', the cellar lllay be built illt() the ~rolllld anj the holley house O\'l'r. General Arrangement 783. Arrange to minimize tht' labour of handling heavy wt ighrs. ~r}w ideal is to bring in the heavy supers at the upper level, uncap somewhat above the extractor and run off th(' honey to tanks at a lower len:l with access again below for tilling from the tanks, thus utilizing gravity to the fun througllout. 'l'he labour cost, howcllcjo, of lifting a few ton~ of honey a few feet in lots of 30 to 50 lb. is not great, thus most honey houses arc built all one level with perhaps a platform at one side or end More and better work can be done and more material stored, in a well-planned honey ~lk'd, than in one twi(c the size occupied without prearrangement and allowed to get into the state of disorder which is inevitable. Have a place for everything and el'crything In its place The outline plans (Figs. 8 and 9) are suggestive, but do not show the full use of wall space by shelvc"s and cupboards, or storage above roof beams or under bench and under platform, if any. Empty combs are generally kept in hive bodies, section racks and the like, tiered one above another from floor to roof with a cover on top. The pile should be moth-proof (see also ). The inner bodj~ of certain patterns of hivc cannot be so arranged and jf used to store empty combs, must be wrapped individually in newspaper for storage. Use gummed paper strip for making up such parcels. Moths do not attack foundation, but it is undesirable to store foundation fitted in frames longer than is necessary before use because it will warp more or less. 'or Apiary Appliancc"S and Clothing, see 1644 and ). Winter etl/an 786. These mayor may not be required. Their construction and use is dealt with in another section (see ).. M.B. M

185 8 FIG. S.-HONEY SHED. FIG. 9.-HON Y SHED. 162

186 STARTING AN APIARY Starting an.apiary Starting in a Smallll'ay 787. Bcckc"Cping, like other industri{"s, should be started in a small way. Do not expand until you ha\'c experience. Hefon' commencing a becyard as a commercial venture, it is well to gain experience as a pupil and hired assistant preferably in onc in a similar district to that you will occupy. ' 'T'he amateur should commenct' with one or two hi\'es, hut aft('t a few years and according to aptitude and opportunity, 15 to 50 colonies may b, kept as a profitable spare-time hobby. The beekeeper must study the written word, subscribe to a f,!:ood local journal. He should become acquaintt J with neighbouring bct.'kct,pt l"s and join any local association. Having satisfied himself that a certain type and size of hive suits his methods and district, he should keep to the one pattt'fn, thus cns(lring interchangeability of all parts, 'rhert.: is no h(.'(. kceper with a mixed lot of hives but will readily admit that he of tell wishes thciy were all alike. One-iii an Apiary 788. Experience in U.S.A. shows that the most profitable type of apiary is a one-man apiary, the one man managing 350 to 400 colonies, One man with a junior assistant can manage up to 500. It may be advantageous to work beekeeping: in conjunction with some other type of agricultural activity. Essmtia/s of an Apiary 789. The essclltials of an apiary besides colonies of bees, arc spare hives, bodies, frames and foundation, and for personal equipment, a veil, smoker, hive-tool and notebook, Next in importance come receptacles for honey, an extractor, uncapping knife, super clearers, ripener and wax renderer. The beekeeper should avoid multiplication of gadgets and devices requiring special manipulation unless he intends to make their use part of his standard practice. The aim should be to settle down to a standardized and simple method of procedure which suits his circumstances. Complications may be avoided by studying the craft and taking thought in advance. Everything should be plan"ed in detail before it is done, even to the planning of alternatives in case of likely miscarriage. Injluena of Good and Bad rears 790. In many lands and in particular areas, the honey harvest varies greatly from year to year according to the weather. In

187 THE APIARY-MOVING BEES many parts of Great Britain and of Australia, for example, g<'>od years and bad ycars fall in groups. Fortunate is the beekeeper who call r('i.,' upon a good han'cst from year to year. It is a form of fortune that may well be sought after hy the intending commercial beekeeper. A large commercial venture should not be made in a variabje district just after a period of good years, as bad years arc likely to follow. Ubtaining Bees 791. Beginners frequently start with a swarm. "T'hls is an old fashion and there used to be a superstition against paying for the swarm. 'The beginner may follow the superstition of not buying a swarm hy purchasin!! from a reliable source package bees ( (1;;) or a nucleus (793) instead. A swarm is liablt: to contain an old queen, may carry disease, and may come of a strain liable to excessive swarming. Package bees may be bought early in the season from a warmer region. Even if hived on foundation they will build up quickly, if fed, and will give a good account of themselves quickly. A nucleus may be bought ahout as early as package bees and can be built up quickly by feeding, to give a return later in the season. A full colony costs more but requires perhaps Jess skill in handling to advantage. It may be divided (1618) thus providing later two orove11 more (1622-5) stocks in condition to go through the winter without further outlay. Driven bees and queen can be bought cheaply late in the season in some districts and if hived on combs can be built up to winter safely (1306). The established beekeeper may make his increase in medium and poor seasons, or by purchase of package bees, according to cjrcumstances. Colonies and.. l\'tuc/ei 792. Bees with a queen and brood established in a hive are described as a colonv. When found in nature the word "'nest" is generally employed. A nucleus is the beginning of a colony. The word "stock" is also used for an established colony N udei and stocks offered for sale should always contain a fertile queen. All combs should be well covered with bees and those containing brood should be well filled. With colonies of six or more combs, all but two should contain brood in all stages, and these two shoujd contain honey and some pollen. With 3- or 4-comb nuclei one comb only should contain stores and the remainder brood. This is important, because the price varies with the number of combs, whereas the value' lies mainly in the bees and brood. The prices will vary also with the quality of the queen.

188 MOVING BEES :rhe above figures were embodied in standard practice in Great Britain for a number of years, but the rule has recently becn altered to the less detinite one that two-thirds of the combs shall contain brood. 'I'hc fact that 4, 5, 7, 8, 10 and 11 will flot divide by 3 suggt'sts that what is intended is "the t'quivalcnt of two-thirds" of good combs of brood and the remainder stott.'s. l"'hc term "brood" as hen' used includt"s "eggs," but there should not be all excess of young brood. Partnership and Rtllting 794. Partners may, of course, go shares in everything. Generally, however, a sleeping partner (S) is souf!ht by a working heekeeper (\\') who lacks capital. If W linds the site and all labour, thell S should pay for the bees, hin's, all material and appliances, and food where necessary in time of shortage, i.c. all outg(lin~. It i~ considered that Sand W arc then on a footing of (,quality as to returns, and an agreement based on the above should provide that each takes half the crop and half the value of the increase, leavisl{!; stocks equal in value to the original lot bought or carried 0'\.'(,'" W has to pay for hives and other materials for the increase. In cas(, of sales of bees, each takes half the proceeds) but it is convenient for.s to pay for W's share of increase kept so that the a.piary remains his property, he having paid for all hives, materials, etc. W will not work for increase unless he can handle a larger number of stocks or sell bec's to advantage. General Moving Bees It is frequendy,wxessaq' to- mare ~,tocks of ~, either in re-arranging an apiary, as part of a system of management, or for transport to a new locality. Bees have a strong homing instinct, some strains possessing it in a more marked degree than others. Nevenheless, although under circumstances detailed below bees will generally take note of a change of position of their hive, the fact remains that after removal considerable distances, or after removal from a cellar where they have long been confined, many bees fail to note their new location and are lost, or if not actually lost, drift to another hive, thus upsettihg calculations and introducing risk of spreading disease. Aids t. Noting Location 796. It is well, therefore, in all cases where bees are moved, to take special steps to assist them in observing their new location.

189 r66 THE APIARY-MOVING BEES Probably the best device is that of placing a sloping sheet of glass against the entrance, giving access at both ends of the glass, but hindering the flying bees and,",using them to take note of their surroundings. Sometimes the entrance is screened by a light cmrcring of grass or straw, but this may get removed before all the bees have taken notc. Distinguishing features in the foreground of the hive are as important as aids to location as distinguishing features in the appearance of the hive itself. I n_tluence of tht IV,ather 797. In the coldest weather, hives may be moved in the apiary if they be lifted and put down very gently so as not to disturb the bees. I f a longer move is necessary, it should be made when the weather is suitable for flight, hut preferably not too hot, as in hot weather it is difficult to provide adequate ventilation for confined and distu rbed bees When the weather is such that daily Bights occur, hives to be moved ill the apiary must be moved very short distances per day so that the bees may obsen'e the change of loca.tion. The entrance should not be moved more than 6 to 12 inches sideways in one day, or more than 3 feet backwards. If another hive is so located that it may readily be mistaken for the hive moved, it will be necessary to make smaller moves, as bees seeking the new position will drift to thl' other hive. If a hive is to be rotated it should not be turned through more than half a right angle between flight days If, therefore, it is desired to mol'e a hi"e to a dilferent part of the a,.iary during Bying weather, it is better, unless there is a good honey flow, to close the hive one evening and ventilate as for a long journey and move it the next day, shading meanwhile if exposed to sunshine. The internal disturbance and the use of a glass screen (796) will cause the bees to take note of their new position. Long-dis/ana jj1()vn 800. When a stoel$: is to be moved any considerable distance steps must be taken to secure the bees, to secure adequate ventilation, and to secure the hive. The hive should be prepared after flights have ceased for the day, or in the early morning before flights have commenced, so that a11 flying bees are at home. It is necessary to secure ample ventilation, as the bees become excited by the vibration of removal and there is much activity in a confined space. A ventilating screen shou1d be furnished both for the top and bottom. It is best to close the mouth with some solid block which can be readily

190 MOVING BEES removed to give Right on arrival at tll(> new permanent location. If attempt is made to ventilate through a screened entrance, there is danger of suffo,ation, as the b<:es make for the entrance position in their efforts to escape If a screened Roor board ventilator is furnished it should be opened. Failing this a temporary floor board must be furnished with ventilating screen. The top of the body should he covert d with a vl'ntilating screen in place of th(.~ cover. A super clearer of the ventilatcd pattern will sen"c. If th(' ("on"r is used to keep off sun or rain, spacing pieces must be inscrtej beneath it So that the top vejltilation is not stopped. Howe\'cr :..crccned, th(~ bees travel more quietly if the scrcl'"1l or screens arc shaded as jll~t indicated. Critical Distallus 802. The IUost critical move is one within the original fiying range or to a distance such that the new and old Hying ranges will oy(.;rlap. 'rhi~ g,cnerally leads to a number of~ shall We say, absentminded, bees finding their way to the old site. If hives have to he mon'd in warm flying weather when the stocks are strong, the queen and part of the brood, with enough bees, may be moved one day and the remainder 2 or 3 days later, re-uniting by the newspaper method. The additional disturbance makes the bees alert to observe the new location. Preparation of One-pitce Bodies 803. Where one-piece bodies arc used it i~ coih'enieilt to have handy some p1ain boards of the same outside dimensions made up with battens across the grain, the battens being on the outside when the boards arc in place, and so spaced that the bottom of one hive will stand safely on the tap of another. These boards may hal'e 9Crew holes near the corners to receive screws entering the thicker walls of the hive. The top boards may he put in place at any time; the bottom ones being attached in the evening. Place the board diagonally across an empty body on the ground near the hive so that the screw holes are accessible, and then lift the hive, minus Roor boards, on to it. The screws may then be inserted at leisure. If the hive has more than one body, the bodies must he secured together so that they cannot shake loose under vibration. Metal plates and screws may he used or wide women fillets placed over the joints, lightly nailed and secured with ropes round and over. Preporatitm 0/ Hiw! with Outer Cl)'VerJ 804. If the bodies are in two parts with loose outer covers the bees may he secured in the inner bodies and the outer covers used

191 r68 THE APIARY-MOVING BEES for shade only. I f the outer cover is relied on for security the inner parts must be so blocked or wedged that even if the biocks or wedges shake loose, the bodies cannot come apart. Securing Framts 805. Final].}'" wllllc packing down, the frames must hi:' ~ecurcjy fixed ag:ains.t swinging. However fixed, the bees will probably build a lot of bract.: comb when the journey is ended, but if not well fixed the hcc's mal' be crushed, the queen injured and great excitement and loss entail. With sdf... spacing frames or well-fitted fram(""s with metal ends, it is 5ufficiPI1t if the top screen fits against the frames Of ends holding them down, and each body holds the frames in the one below. Failing this, strips of wood must be inserted to do so and tht.$t' may have to be screwed in place_ Travelling-boxes for delivering stocks and nuclei by train are generally furnished with racks to secure the bottoms of the frames, making a better job. Ht4<VY Hives 807. Heavy hives may be lifted by means of rope slings and a p'ole across the top, the pole preferably running the same way as the combs. The pole may be shouldered by two men. Cart, Motor and Railway Transit 808.,"Then moving bees in a cart it is usual to place the hives so that the combs lie across the cart as the principal jolts arc in this direction. \Vhen using a motor or train, the sc\--erest jolts arc liable to occur lengthwise of the vehicle. A light van will trave! with a light load such as bee-hives much more smoothly than a heavy lorry. Corners should be taken slowly, and care used when starting and stopping. In moving whole hives it is necessary to carry them the right way up, but if the frames are properly secured, the combs travel more safely upside-down and this is readily managed with selfcontained bodies furnished with top and bottom covers screwed on.. A skep may be covered with hessian, preferably having a wire screen securely sewn in, and they may be inverted into a box or crate for transit. MI7Ving to the Heather 809. In taking bees to the heather it is important to observe all the above recommendations rt securing the bees, the ventilation and the hives. In addition, the hive should be so constructed as to readily

192 MOVING BEES admit of ali these things bdng done and with a minimum of disturbance on arrival at tht, new location. A Stearm 810. A 111'w!y-hi\'t d swarm will alwavs notr its new Im.'.atiol1, but if mov{,d after SOffie Rying has occurred, it must ht_, treatt.'d its an established stock. It is desirable, therefore, to hive a swarm in the position it is to occupy.

193 SECTION FlJ HIFES A:VD THEIR ACCESSORIES Hivts and th(,ir Par-ts Use of Skeps and Early Types 811. Bees arc still kept in skeps made of straw, or reeds, or of osiers plastered with mud and cow-dung, in hollow logs, in earthenware pipes, and in wooden boxes, but the modern movable frame hil'c has practically superseded all the earlier types. Straw skcps are convenient for taking swarms and as a temporary housing for them. Their use occaslonahv enrers into modern svstems, but owing to the difficulty of controlling disease with hh'e; with fixed combs, the use of skeps, boxes and the like as permanent hives is poor practice, and indeed in many places is prohibited by law. Siu 4 Hi", in Gmeral 812. To obtain the best results the size of hive used must be suitably related to the prolificacy of the strain of bees, to the abundance of honey and to the method of management. Evcn the skeppist altered the size of his hive by the usc of an eke of straw to eke out the size, and frequently some form of super for surplus. The skcp proper ranged in capacity from about f to I cubic foot, which may be contrasted with the single body of all M. D, hive, which has a capacity of approximately 2. cubic feet. An exceptionally prolific queen may fill 3 cubic feet of brood chamber. The relation between laying capacity of the queen and number and size of brood combs required for her is dealt with in 42. The question of frame size is dealt with in and in Section VIII. Hives too Small and too Large 813. If the brood chamber be too small, either the queen will be crowded into the supers or the bees will swarm. If, however, the brood chamber is too large, there is a danger of loss of surplus. It might be supposed that excess stores might be left in the brood chamber from year to year and that the bees would then adjust the 170

194 HIVES AND THEIR PARTS size of the brood nest in the brood chamber to suit the laying capacity of the queen. This rna)' be the,;!se in some districts and with som' strains, notably where there is a sustained flow throughout the season, but in general it is not so. 1'hc bees having access to CXCt'SS stores arc liable to turn the stores into bees at a time which suits their ideas, but not the idea of the b, ekeeper. Thus a brood chamber can be too large. Siz( in Rrlatiol1 to Managfmrnt 814. T'hc? question of size in rcjatio{i to honey Rowand management i$ mainly, but not wholly, one of adequate provis.ion of supers. On the one hand, the bees cannot fill space that has not been provide-d, and 011 the other hand, if the brood chamber bccom('~ nowded with stoft"s swarming will certainly follow. krhe usc of a brood I.:hamhcr of ample dimensions is favourable to the omission of qu(','n excluders. Strong stocks of bees with ample brood-chamber capacity will' work in sections without any necessity for a queen ex(-\uuer ano will overrow into them from the brood chamber without the CX(CSsive crowding that is nl'ccssary with srtl1.11 stocks to persuade tjlcm to take to the supers Where the bees are managed by force of circumstances or by disinclination on a "let alone" plan, a brood chamber erring considerably on rhe large size is advantageous, but an alert beekeeper will snatch a harvest where the "let alone" man lets it pass by him, and for this purpose it is essential that the brood chamber should not be too large. The hive body should be of a size to suit the straill of bees and district and preferably somewhat on the large sizc') but unless bees of fairly uniform prolificacy are used it will be desirable to help Ollt the weaker lots from the stronger to equalize them, or to provide dummies on occasion (857) to occupy part of the brood chamber. Types of il10vable Frame Hive 816. Hive bodies are generally made rectangular to receive rectangular frames with a bee space at the ends, also between the frames in tiered bodies, and a larger clearance between the bottom of the frames and the floor board The brood body is frequently made square in shape to suit the ideas of those who like'to employ combs arranged either parallel to or at right angles to the entrance. A form approximately square affords the least cooling surface for a given external surface, but sides in ratio 2 to 3 furnish only about 4 per cent. less cubic capacity for the same side wall area. The depth of the frame should preferably, however, be less than the length, i.e. the frame should prefer-

195 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES ably have its larger dimension horizontal. If the frame is shalidw, the bees arc forc'ed to place surplus above the brood chamber in their attempt to keep the brood nest of normal shape, but on the other hand, it is advantageous to ha\fc winter stores in the upper part of tht brood frames so that the bees do not have to alter their position in very cdld weather. The M. D. body having a ratio of approximately 2 ; 3 in height to length gives about the ideal proportion, although good results are, of course, got with Langstroth hives having a ratio nearer 1 : 2 and e\'en with hives with square frames I : I, but these should be regarded as extreme limits. "'ith deeper bodies the uncontrolled surplus in the upper part of the body acts at."'inst the beekeeper, as does a body too lar!,:e (813) T'he type known in France as the "automatic" is not used by English-speaking beekeepers although made in England many years ago. The brood frames used therein arc trapezoidal and one side of the body is extended to form the flight board so that all dirt and rubbish falls away automaticallv. In other continental hivl"s hinged bottom boards ~re used for r~ajv cleaning and boards consisting of a rack of wood strips of triangular section between which the dirt falls out. The simpler and cheaper plain bottom board used by English-speaking beekeepers is, however, more readily cleaned by the owner, and bees with Italian blood, in general usc, are better housc cleaners than the brown bce of the continent of Europe Double hi, cs have been admcated able to carry two stocks, with or without some communication between them (922). The advantage is claimed that the two clusters support each other in winter, but in genera] the labour and skill required to manage double hivl's, bees being what they are, is not offset by the advantage gained when all goes according to plan. Two weak stocks can be wintered in one ordinary hive (1461) in one or in two bodies with a continuous division board between them and a double entrance, but it is customary to unite weak stocks (1577 et!eg.) saving the better queen, and such a united stock will probably build up as quickly as the two together, and without complications Important differences are found in hives in the arrangement of combs either parallel with or perpendicular to the entrance, in the arrangements for expansion either horizontally or vertically, in the use of single or double walls and of external cases. These features are given detailed consideration below. Perpendicular \'. Poro/Itl Way (Cg/d v. Wfmn Way) 821. Some hives are built SO that the combs are mounted perpendicular to the entrance, i.e. lying parallel with the sides of the

196 !lives AND THEIR PARTS hin' and running from front to back. 'l'his is the ullivl'r:-.al practirt" with standard American hivt..-~ and is called also "cold way." OtlWT:i are huilt so that the combs: lie parallel with the front or cntranl.:(,. ) describt'o as "warm way." Yet others have square hodit"s ahl(~ to be placed either way on their RooT boards., and some usc th<..'sc Hcoldway" in summer and "warm-way" in winter. Practical cxpcricl1c(" indicates that in general there is very Httk' to choose between thl' two plans as measured by returns obtained Oil comparariv(' tests. '1'heT(.' arc, however, certain differenn-s worth noting With the parallel arrangement tht, het's start at the front and extend the ncst backwards, storing holley at tlw ha(k of tilt.' brood chamber. ",'ith the perpendicular arrang(~l1wnt till' bt'cs store on either side of the brood. Thefe i::-. Father mor(' risk of bees with inadequate stores becoming separated from tlh'ir stor{;s in \'cry cold weather with thc latter arranf!_cment. With combs not too short and a bee passage over the top there is. nothing to choost, in this respect. The duster is better protected from cold wind warm way, but \'cntijation in hot weather is ca.<;;icr cold way, and if the hive be screened from cold winds this gives the balance' of aj",antagt io cold way. In "long idea" hives (826) cold way i, employed to render ventilation easier, but deep combs arc used With the parallel arrangement aca's. by t he beekeeper to the combs from the back is somewhat easier. Only O1W divisiun board is used and this is at the back. With the perpendicular arrangl~ ment, access from the side is easier. It is said that with cold way the bees arc more liable to rob wax from the corners of the combs for use elsewhere, making the damaged part good later with drone comb. HPr;=J.u} v. J',.rJirPJ Erl.r.v.Ww 824. With the more usual vertical arrangement of hive bodil-s and supers both the brood chamber and the super space can be extended. The parts used for expansion are interchangtable as between one hive and another, and the supers can be kept dear of brood. The ready transfer and rearrangement of supers and ()f brood chambers gives great flexibility to methods of management. Again, there is no limit to vertical extension, which on (}ccasion can be made to provide accommodation for several hundred pounds of honey, while for wintering the capacity am be reduced, leaving a brood and store chamber of convenient form and size and no excessive space to be kept warm These are some of the advantages of the modern hive invented by man. The arrangements differ from any found in nature in that the combs are divided vertically, each box of combs

197 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES being separated by a small space from the one below or abm e. This separation is unnatural In nature, comb is built in one piece vertically, and the bec's signify their disapproval of man's di"i5ion by carrying on a constant warfare with the beekeeper, he endeavouring to keep these horizontal tiers of comb separate and the bees endeavouring to join them into one continuous whole (sec 296 and 951). A bee nest in a hollow tree is expj.nded vertically, whereas in a roof, horizontal expansion is frequently to be found. There is not much to he learned from nature here of practical import, however. The" Long Idea" Hive 826. It is, nevertheless, worth while considering what is to be said for the horizontal arrangement, or ""long idea," as the Americans love to call it. The "long idea"' had its greatest exponent in de Laycns and its use reached the greatest perfection in his school. Large number of de Layon' hives are still to be found in France. The frames are square or somewhat deeper than they are wide and 20 to 30 can be placed in the hive, side by side, and perpendicular to the entrance. Two entrances are furnished in the front, but one is closed save in hot weather. The bees tend to produce brood near the open entrance. Others have overlooked the "alue of this feature in keeping a rclatil'cly compact brood nest and have tried a single central entrance without much success. There is no lifting or carrying save the carrying of combs. Every comb is accmib/e at arty lim, on removal of the quilt and without disturbing any other. The combs being long, and guided at the bottom by pegs or staples between them, can be tilted one at a time for examination without removal from the hive after removing the two end ones. The size of the brood nest is quite unrestricted and swarming is infrequent. The labour of management is reduced to a minimum. The hive is good when the winter is not too severe and the crop not too irregular. Simplicity and ease of management is an argument in its favour In some modern forms of body taking only 20 frames, one or more supers of 20 frames of shallow comb may be used. Division boards are also used to conserve the heat. Doolittle claimed that the return in relation to volume of brood was less than with the vertical type, but in suitable districts the return per hive is at least as good and the labour less. Tl\e M.D. and British Deep frames are suitable for this system, but the system as practised in F ranee has not been taken up by English-speaking beekeepers, the hive suffering the disadvantage of one with too large a brood chamber (813). This, however, might be remedied by the use of an excluder division board.

198 Sif1{;'- \'. Doubl, li'alls HIVES AND THEIR PARTS A hive is described as having a double wall if the wall is constructed of two layers of wood with a space b, tween. A double wall helps to keep a hive warm in winter and cl)ol in summer, but i!ol unncccssarv in summer if thl., hin' is shaded from till' sun in the warmer part of the day. A doubk' wall is frt'quently provided against the ends of the frames, sin~ic walls beill~ provided ft,r the other two sides. These single walls m;1v be reinforced bv the use of a di\'ision board on either \idc.' " 829. The use of a double wall all round with packing material bctwc611 makes a heavy hive body. In some hi\'cs with outer cases the brood t:hamber has two or four single walls and tht.' outer cases for the supers arc designed to telescope over the lower body in winter, giving, with the con~r, a triplt. wall. 'I'he commort(."$t forms of Langstroth and M. D. hives have single thick walls, but the Dad.nts advocate a double back. T!lis question of single or double walls is part of the problem of packing and is dealt with as such in 879 to 982. Outer Co"s 830. The use of outer cases is also a question of packing arid is touched upon here mainly from the standpoint of types. The single-walled hive, shaded in the summer and protected for winter with an outer covering, or put in a cellar, is more widely used than any other form. The outer covcr may in this case be of a temporary character, as, for example, a layer of bracken, straw or dry leaves, held in place with waterproofed paper and cord, or a wooden case designed to take two or four hives In Great Britain the standard hive has a permanent light outer case to resist the weather, made in tiered sections corresponding to the body and supers. This serves for shade in summer and warmth in winter, but above all, it helps to keep the hive proper, dry at all seasons, an important consideration in a damp climatc. The same plan is followed in British Columbia. Ne\'crthelc'SS, many hives of the American type are used with success in Great Britain Where no substantial outer covering is used in winter, it is desirable at least to wrap a piece of roofing felt around the body, secured with a few drawing-pins, the roof overlapping the felt at the top. The better qualities of vulcanized bitumen roofing felt cost but a few pence per hive and last for years, if leept rolled up when not in use. The use throughout the year of an outer case of any kind adds to the labour of manipulation The supreme example of the outer case is the bee-house, a weather-proof structure ""rrying the hives proper and with walls

199 HIVES.I''\ND THE1R ACCESSORIES perforat(,d for entrance to the individual hives. All manipulations are carried on within tilt' house. "Further details of this t)1k" will be found in 923. ~rhis type is still widely used on the continent of Europe, hut not for beekeeping on a large: scale, on account of expense ilnd Jack of 8exibiJirv. Fillets 834. 'rhesc are strips of wood used to co\-'er the joints in a tiered hive. 'The fillet is placed so as to project bt:low the lower edge and overlap the box below, thus keeping rain away from the joint. The upper edge of the tillet should be bevelled tht; whole width so as to throw off rain and not let it accumulate at the joint between fillet and body. The projecting part of the fillet is cut Filleted Sules siwwing Cleararu:e Splayed Sides showlr.g Cbraru:e b Splayed Bodi.eB FIG. lo.-hive FILLET AND ALTERNATIVE CONSTRUCTION. away inside to allow a clearance all round, as no two bodies are of just the same size (see Fig. 10) Fillets are useful Oil outer cases as the bees cannot get at th" joints to propolize them, and to hold the case in position during a storm. Fillets should not be put on the hive proper or any kind of break joint which prevents the free entry of the hive-tool to separate the bodies, as the bees will surely stick the bodies together from within, necessitating the use of considerable ingenuity to separate them; moreover, the fillet prevents rohtion of the body before separation, a motion frequently necessary to break attachments made between the combs of one body and another Fillets are costly to make ~ell, and are mechanically the weakest part of the structure. Their use is generally avoided in Great Britain by the use of sloping walls as illustrated in Fig. J o.

200 PARTS AND FITTINGS 177 Part!,md Fitti~I... f!,s Floor Boards 837. ~rh~ functions of (lie Hoor boarj are to hillder the bc('s from extending the comhs bdow the framt'~ in a.n irrl'~ular mallll('r, to keep out the wind and other ('nt'mil's, and to give till> h<..'(:s n:ady access from the entrance to all parts. Bet:s lin' (omfortably ill all weathers in a hive with no bottom provided tlh' walls ext(,.'nd well below the cluster, but they will then build irregularly. 'rhe lower parts of the combs arc normally used for brl'l~ding, anj it is ~a.tt and adyantagcous to leave from 1 to I 1 in~hl's below tilt> fr:ull('_~. Skill in management is required, in fact, to get t'ombs huilt out to the bottom bar throughout (278). Jt isa f!."od plan t()jllsert <l1ll'mp'y hodv between the floor board and brood (.'ijamb<:r while the hin' is win'tercd out of doors, rhus improving \'(:'nrilatfon and r(,dueing drafts This margin in space below admits of giving the ROOf board proper a slope towards the cntrailct:, starting 1 to! inch dear of the frames at the back and finishing 1 to J * inch(._ s dear at the front edges. Such a lloor board is so mounted in a frame that the frame sides may be set level to recti,'c the brood chamber while the board itself slopes from front to back. They are also made reversible and sometimes so made a~ to gi\'l~ mofe c1l:arant:c when used one way up than the other. 'Where the n,mr board do,"s not slope in its own frame it may be given a tilt toward the: front when levehing, so as to throw off water and assist the: bees in house cleaning, but this plan is not good except where the frame~ afc pcrpcndi("ular to the entrance. Legs and Stands 839. The lioor board is raised from the ground to bring the brood chamber to a more convenient level for handling and also to keep the entrance clear;. sometimes also, to assist in keeping out ants. It should not be raised more than a few inches as the wind velocity is much lower near the ground than it is a ljttle wayaoove, 840. Floor boards or frames for them used to be provided with Jegs. Legs are relatively cost~ and apt to rot, and hamper storage and transit. It is more convenient to use a simple framed Roor with a separate stand. The stand may consist of bricks or tiles or two octagonal drain-pipes, or sometimes two parallel beams of wood or iron are set up to receive two or more hives. Again, pairs of cast-concrete blocks have been used, solid or hollow, of inverted V-secrion with flattened tops. Such supports may be + to 7 inches M.a.

201 178 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES high. If ants arc troublesome, it may be necessary to use legs St:vlding in small bowls oi heavy oil with projecting collar to keep rain from the oil, but kept clear of weeds. Alternatively posts may be driven into the ground to support the Roar and an old tin inverted over each to hold a layer of axle grease. The ants cannot cross the grease. Alighting Board, 841. The Roar board extends sav 2 to 6 inches bevond the brood chamber to provide an alighting board. Unless a s~bstantial projection is provided, it is good to add an extension piece! which may slope to the ground and will save bees in bad weather. Special Floor Board, 842. A special floor board is made to receive a brood chamber placed on top of a stock from which it receives heat and sometimes bees as well. This board is used to keep a small stock warm, for queen raising out of season, and other special manipulations. It is constructed with a Bat bottom, acting as cover for the hive below and shaped at top to receive a brood chamber, the entrance being cut in the thickness of the board in a part projecting to act as flight board. The centre is cut out and covered top and bottom with wire gauze. The two layers arc used so that the queens above and below cannot reach each other even tongue to tongue. Sometimes pieces of queen excluder are used So as to admit the passage of bees, these pieces not being opposite each other, but there is some risk to the queen with this arrangement, and it is better to adjust the division of bees between the bodies bv other means A special Roor boa~d is also made for use in queen raising for plating over a strong stock as above or placing on its own stand. It has entrances in two, three or all four sides and is arranged to receive a body which is divided into two, three or four compartments to take two or three combs each, for use in fertilization of queens and to carry spare queens in nuclei (see Fig. II opposite). If the board has a level surface, it is more readily cleaned. The division boards should then reach to the board and don't forget packing under their lugs if there is a bee-way there. E"tronces 844. The simplest form of entrance for a movable frame hive is that employed in the American patt~n of hive and consists of a bar of wood fitting the gap between the front of the brood chrunber and the Boor board. It is removed to give a full-width entrance

202 PARTS AND FITTINCS 179 and.is cut away on one of its fact's 3 to + inches x i to give a reduced entrance. If made square in section an alternative narrower entrance, say i X i, can be cut away 011 a face ar right angll's to that with the wider gap Where an outer case is used the entrance proper is in the outer case and should be connected to one in the brood chamber in such a way that the bees are prevented from obtaining access to the general space between the hive and the outer ('..1Sl". 'rhe inner entrance should be of full width and the connecting passag" also. The outer case is frequently furnished witll slidt's by which b -/ ' // 4. Entnnoea at bale of walb. e. Dh1siofl. boards. Fu;. n.-special FWOR BoARD FOR NVCU1. the entrance may be controlled. The "Swiss" entrance consists of metal slides so arranged that when the entrance is reduced to prevent robbing, ventilation is provided through holes or slots perforated in the slides and too'!lmaij for a bee to pass through To keep out mice the entrance proper should not be more than i inch in height, but this limitation is only necessary when the bees are wintered out of doors. When outef cases are used for wintering only they have a fixed entrance of appropriate dimensions, but this can be reduced if desired by the use of a heavy block placed

203 180 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES on the alighting board (fur Top and Middle Entrances, see.932 to 935). Brood Chamber.'! 847. 'The brood chamber is designed to take eight to eleven or more frames plus a division board or dummy which may be prised out first, enabling the frames to be separated before removal. A 10- or I I -frame body is m.ost commonly used. 'T'he body is made onc bee space deeper than the frames so as to rctaill a bee space between frames when b()dic~ arc placed onc above another. This bcc space should be below the frames, the top surface of body and frames being Rush. Shrinkage of IVood 848. The makers of new hive bodies sometimes allow too much margin for shrinkage of the wood with a result that the space between bodies is exct"ssivc. It is difficult at all times to prevent comb-building between bodies (825), but especially so if the clearance between frames is less than k or more than 1% inch. Bodies and supers should be checked after the first season's usc and corrected in height if necessary. Supers 849. Where the frames used are not more than 9 inches deep, the same frames arc frequently used, both for brood and for supering for extracting, so that one size of body alone is needed, Beekeepers generally prefer to a\'oid extracting from combs in which breeding has occurred and to keep brood combs filled with honey as winter stores. Where one size of comb alone is used, however, and with some systems of management, honey is frequently extracted from old brood combs. Where shallow frames are used for extracted honey, the queen sometimes lays in them, especially if supers are given much in advance of requirements and a large entrance is used. This is prevented by the use of a queen excluder beneath the supers. Shallow combs are more readily uncapped than deep ones, and a super of shallow combs is lighter to handle. Where heavy crops are not readily obtained the I1se of shallow combs gives adequate but more gradual increase of space. Fromt Runnt'rs 850. I n the simplest hives for use with frames with short lugs of the American pattern, the side walls are just rebated to receive the lugs. The lugs bearing on the surface of the rebate are liable to be securely propolized in place. For this reason, the rebate is

204 PARTS AND FITTINGS lsi gtnerally cut deeper and a metal runna mounted on the rdgc, prnjening upwards to support the Jug and leaying i.l bel' space betw(''t~t1 the under side of tl1t.' lug and ttl(' rebate. ~rh(' area of contact is then so small that the frarnl'$ cannot he p:lunl down in a manna to gin: trouble \V'here longer iuh's arc u~t:d, as in tht, Briti::.h {mnw, ncres sitating a built-up rebate, the board forming tht. wall next the frame end frequently proj<.'cts to form the runner, its top ('tige being bcvdlni to present an edge.lit inch or mor(,_' wide. Runners ~o forlllcd cost less than metal runners and if \'a~\dilll'd (1043) when ~prillg dl'atjill~, arc as conveniellt in u~c. Set' Fig. 12. Ptaln. Metal Fo!.ded Folded Fr.",)':"',.(' Bevel Strt-p Str1.p Stn.p I..1\. Pt~-u:e SECTlOOlAL VIEWS OF RUNNERS FOR FRAME LUGS ~ri EUFDPEAN NOTCHED RuNNE~ Lug J I J FIG. fl.-runners AND ANTI-PROPOLlZlNG CONSTRUCTION. Propolizing of Lugs 852. It is customary to, dimension the hive body so that the top bars of the frames are an easy fit between the end walls, so that the frames take their position from the end walls, thus securing a bee space at both ends of the body of the frame. If a bee space were allowed beyond the ends of the lugs, apart from other considerations, there would be a risk of frames becoming displaced endwise during manipulation.

205 182 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES 853. If the bees have free access to the lugs they will sooner or later propolize the ends of the lugs, hindering the ready removal and interchangeability of the frames. This trouble may be avoided if the bees do not have access to the lugs, i.e. if the ends of the frames touch each other and the hive walls so as to make a continuous barrier (974--5). In this case, however, any bees finding their way into the n.:bate whcil the hive is opened are liable to be imprisoned there, as they are not easily smoked our. If, however, the bees hare vne hole only to escape from when trapped, as for example, under the lug of the division board, they will not give much trouble except when propolizing generally in preparation for cold weather. At this time the escape hole may be closed and care taken to smoke out bees under the Jugs, but the propolizing trouble is not serious except with bees using much propolis. ~Wffa/ Runners 854. On the continent of Europe metal runners are frequentlv used, notched to receive the frames to save metal ends or other spacing means on the frames themselves. The arrangement is good for use in store supers, but in the brood chamber it has the disadvantage that the spacing is rigidly fixed. This is inconvenient wilen dealing with a crooked brood comb, or inserting queen cejjs A recent modification by Ridley is excellent for super work for use with plain fr-ames without any other form of spacing. He employs a notched metal runner, the notches being deeper than usual; in fact, the metal between reaches to the level of the tops of the lugs. These runners hold the frames securely while the body is being twisted to break comb built from body to body (632) and reduce propolization. The amateur may care to go one step further and put a metal edge on the bottoms of his bodies with a rebate there as well, this edge to meet the notched one (see Fig. 12). Section Racks 856. Supers for comb honey are described as section racks, being fitted with runners on which the rows of "sections" stand in rows. Between the faces of the sections Hseparators" are used to guide the bees to finish the surfaces of the combs liat and parallel with the edges of the section boxes.. Separators may be of metal or of wood, the latter being preferred by the bees especially during an early Bow. Plain Bat separators are used with bee-way sections. Where no bee-way is cut in the section the separator has strips of wood on either face to give a bee-way. Similar strips are furnished at each end of the row of sections, one set on the body of the rack and one on the board which is slipped in at the end of the row, a?d

206 PARTS AND FITTINGS pre.ses all together by means of a spring. Wood separators or fences with such strips make a better job than the plain ones, but a hoe-way section, if c1t.-an, is generally found more attractive to the buyer. I t appears larger. The W'.B.C. section rack used in Great Britain by small becket pers has hanging frames each taking: three sections hdd by wcdf!:es. By this means the sjdes of the sections are kept clean and hajf.. finisht"d ~ections are quickly removed to the centre fnr finishing. Sections racks have lwen made to hold a dl)ublc..' iavc..'r of sections in contact. ~rhc fan's in contact are kept d~ ajj. '];ht' or}}t'r faces should.be waxed (1479). Dummies 857. A dummy is a dummy frame. It may he of any thickness but hangs as a frame does, clear of the walls hy a hee space. From the standpoint of conserving heat a dummy is but little better than an empty comb, whereas an empty comb c.an be occupied by the bees as soon as they require it. A dummy, however, if spaced a bee space from the end wall will not be fastened down by the bees) and is preferable to a division board when the body is f~11. Division Boards 858. A division board is made wider than a frame so as to touch the sides, and is as deep as the body in which it is used. It is used to reduce the capacity of the brood chamber when only a few combs are in use) and, on occasion, to divide the chamber into two. The division board should be an easy fit; the hees will make good the joint. It is advantageous to have a baggy fold of American cloth over the ends, so that the board will enter easily, but fit snugly. 'Vhen it is desired to completely divide a hive body, the space, if anv, below the division board must be closed with a strip of wood and any space beneath the lugs behind the runners closed with wood or felt Division boards are sometimes made of queen excluder, or of wood with a window covered with queen excluder, and arc useful in certain manipulations (see 213 and 1512) The warm-way body is sometimes made with a back to open and a glass-panelled division board. Much may be judged of progress, especially in the' spring, by inspection through the glass back without disturbing the bees (see also Glass-walled Hives, 925). Quilts and Inner Covers 861. The top of the frames are closed with a fabric quilt which fits all over and may be drawn hack for inspection, or by a wooden

207 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES board with a bee space beneath and which must be removed bodily for inspection. In bad weather and if the bees are bad-tempered the Rexiblc covering has the advantage and it can be used to make a good joint with a division board, whereas with a WOOdCll inner cover there is a bee space above the division board. Where, however, the bees aft: wintered in cellars or always in strong lots there is much to b(" sa.id for the inner board. It is a permanent fitting, whereas flexihle quilts require renewal as they get damaged or overloaded with propolis. The quilt admits of upward ventilation (see abo Ventilation, 899 and Packing 885-7). Material for Quilts 8b2. Quilts of light texture, of cheap material, or laid on all unc\'cn surface, arc so{}n perforated by the bees. Strong unb~e.a.ched cali"" and ticking arc suitable. Of the non-ventilating type a cheap American cloth is excellent, but should be well packed above. Transparent sheet celluloid is nice when new, but after cleaning it Soon bemme, opaque. The tops of the frames should be scraped if necessary before laying on a new quilt. The quilt will lie better if slightly damped when laid and will then last longer; for packing above the quilt or inner board, sec On running out of quilting the writer has substituted a smooth surface grease-proof paper with success, but it will hardly bear u>age again on removal, although useable through a long winter. Glazed Inner Cowr 863. Wooden inner covers are somctimt..'s furnished with narrow glass panel running the full width. This enables inspection to be made of progress in the brood chamber and of work in a super, helpful to beginners. The experienced man, however, knows pretty well what is going on in the hive. If a glazed inner cover be used, it is well to vaseline the edges of its frame, so tbat the glass will not be broken when prising up the frame. Further, the clearance between glass and the frames below should be t. inch. If made ± incb or more, much wax is built between glass and frames. Hivt Roofs 864. The simplest form is a Rat cover with narrow rim fitting over the top of the hi,'c but preferably spaced from it (886). If made with a deep rim, say 8 or 9 inches, it provides some additional protection to a hive having no outer case and serves better as a temporary stan\! for hive bodies during manipulation. The flat-topped roof is sometimes made with a sloping top to throw

208 PARTS AND FITTJNGS off.rain. Such a roof is not so useful wht'n off the hi,,", and if m(,tal covered, there is no appreciable gain obtained in wcarh<"r-r<'sisring properties by making the top slope. A favouritt' pattt~rn in Europe has sloping sides likt the roof of a houst\ giying a free air space in the top of the hin:, but of no servin.' when of!" thl' hivl'. l~h(' appt'arancc is attractive, but such a roof is not so l'a.,ily kept weatherproof as the rectangular typc. It proyiu('s Snmt' room for a bottle fl't'dt'r, but so docs the d<:cp rectangular pattctll, or an empty super. When used on an outer ~(.' (830) th(~ roof is generally fitted with a bee eseap<:. Kupitz! out ""'aftr 865. 'The principal function of the roof is to kecp nut the rain and t(l provide ~hadc and additional warmth. It is h(,!'>t covcred with sheet zinc overlapping the sides by, say, "2 incht':.. 'rlh.~ 'I,inc should be secured with flat-ill'aded gaivani7.. cd wire nails. T'ht corners, if cut for fitting, should be lapp<:d and soldered, but they may readily be folded without cutting. Other thin shcc-t metals an.~ used, inl'lud.. ing galranizcd iron. '"I'he cut edges of tinned or galvanit.. cd iron ~hould b('" tinned with a soldering iron, as it is h('re that rust' starts The gable-pattern roof is generally covered with calico put on to a well-painted surface and itself well painted, but a g(lod quality of bitumeni7.ed roofing felt is more readily applied and docs not require painting. Do not use tin-tacks; they work out in time. Flat-headed wire naij, are better. The great(,r heat-absorbing power of a dark-coloured fdt is offset by it, properties as a bad heat conductor (938). K"ping out Bees 867. The roof should be bee-proof ilt all parts ""e Eor the Ix", =p<:, if any, and that lets bees pass only outwards. Deep roofs especially should be examined to ensure that they do not allow bees to pass upwards, when they may find a weak spot in the quilting and commence robbing. Escape Boards and Super Clearers 868. There are many pleasures in beekeeping, but the climax for most beekcpeers comes with the removal of a bumper harvest of honey. The removal of Ironey during a honey Row presents but little difficulty, but irs removal after a honey flow when breeding has been checked and the bees are lying quiet to economize food, but ready instantly to deal with robbers, is a different story. The use of the escape board or super clearer comes in here. This is a board fitting the top of a hive body and provided in its thickness

209 186 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES with a trap through which bees can pass one way only. This board is inserted below the supers to be removed and the bees pass down during the night, leaving the super substantially clear of bees for removal the next day. Sometimes 2 days are required for a real clearance. The board generally has a rim providing a bec-way over the under surface of one or both surfaces when the board is in place (see also 624 d seq.}. Return Hole 869. Super clearers arc generally provided also with a clear hole through whicll the bees can pass freely but closed by. a slide actuated from without. This hole is normally closed, but is used to allow access by the bees to combs which have been extracted and require cleaning up. The super clearer is placed on the hive, the supers of wet combs are piled above, the cover put on and the slide is then opened. It may be closed at any time after a few hours and the combs removed the next day. The slide is apt to be stuck down by the bees even if well vaselined, and the means for withdrawl must be substantial. The writer prefers a plain hole near the edge normally cm'ered with a square of metal which the bees secure, but which is readily priscd off with a hive-tool. To close, the super is just lifted with the hive-tool and the square slipped in, the position of the hole being indicated by a mark in the outer edge of the clearer. Faulty Bee Escapes 870. Super clearers should be tested before use. Some are sold which will not allow a bee to pass through, particularly those with celluloid tongues, which tongues are frequently too stiff. Trap a few bees in a glass or basin and place against the clearer with the exit side towards the light. r mtilated Escape Boards 871. Super clearers are sometimes made with openings covered with wire gauze on both sides allowing the passage of heat upwards. Such a board has other uses (see 229 and 1638). The bees, however, do not pass down so readily as with a plain board, and there is more risk of the bees starting to pass down the honey unless the gauzes arc well separated. Suggested ImprfJ'l)ed Escape 812. Bees travelling to and from the supers generally go Vla the hive walls and especially the front wall. Probably a super clearer with bee escapes arranged to come /lush with the wall would be quicker in operation than the usual pattern with central escape.

210 PARTS AND FITTINGS QUf'" Excluding 873. The bees like to store some honey in brood combs at least jn the upper cornets and in the outermost combs of the brood nest. The queen docs not ha\'c occasion to travel on-r these parts in expand.. in~ the brood nest and provided the brood nest is not overcrowded and the bees arc not drh'en by cold and the depletion of stores in the supers to move the brood nest upwards, the queen may be effectively excluded by a barriet placed over the brood nt'st giving clear passag(~ to thl' bel's only at the corners and edges. Such a barrier is sum!' rimt"'s made of wood, but, at Ica_..,r in variable climates, it is better to usc OItl' titting snugly on the frames. A piece of American doth (enamel cloth) is very suitable, placed smooth side' downwards on the frames after the tops have bccn scraped. It may have the corners cut away 2! inches X 21 inch".. and should be about 1 inch smaller each way than the inside dimensions of the brood chamber, so as to allow a i inch free passage-way all round, The I.x.,; will not build colnb on to this as they will on perforated excluder. Drones have free passage past such an excluder. Queen Excluders 874. Those who have not learned the art of doing without excluders (see 1486 and 1491) may prefer something more positive in action and will usc all excluder which will admit the passage of workers but will prohibit the passage of the queen alld unfortunately of dront's also, 875. The earlie'st form was made of perforated sheet zinc with slots,;'> inch (4- mm,) wide. The width ;', is 0' 157 inch, This dimension should not exceed 0' 167. The queen is hindered by the size of her thorax, so it should be noted that a \'irgin queen cannot pass an excluder. Sheet celluloid is sometimes substituted (or sheet zinc, but it is doubtful if the additional cost is justifiable A form constructed of parailc! wires securely soldered in strip cross-bars finds increasing favour. The wires should be set with a normal clearance not exceeding inch and in case they become slightly out of parallel, the user should correct any noticeable error. In the well-known Root pattern there are alternate strips of wood and of parallel wires with bee space on both sides of the wires. Use of Excluders 877. The sheet-metal- or celluloid-pattern excluder should be laid across the frames SO that the slots cross the frames. It is less liable to distortion on removal if then stripped off across the frames. The wire excluder r",!uires framing. It may be used either way across, but is used generally with the wires across the frames. In

211 188 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES framing the wire excluder a bee space is allowed, but the shoetmetal pattern li~s direct on the top bars of the frames and the top bars should be strapcd when inserting the excluder. A new excluder of slwct zinc showing the slightest burr from the punch should be rubbed with coarse emery paper If drone brood is placed above a queen excluder, provision should be made for the drones to escape. Thev will fly back to some hiv(_', no matter which. A hole may be provided to be afterwards filled with a cork, or the quilt may be lifted occasionally in sunshine until a fortnight after the last drollc is due to hatch. Packing in General Packing) FentiiatilJn and Temperature Control 879. It will ha\ c been SCl'l1 from the particulars given above that different constructions of hive provide in vcrv different measure for keeping out the cold and keeping out cxcessiv~ heat. T'he provision is fn:qul'ntly supplemented by some form of packing, above, helow, and around. To avoid repetition in dealing with roofs, Hoor boards, and hive walls this question was deferred and is now discussed a~ a sihglc issue but With sercral aspects. Too Much and too Little Packing 880. One meets the bald argument that heavy packing keeps in heat in cold weather and keeps out heat in hot weather and must, therefore, be good at all seasons save for inconvenience in manipulation. 1'hi5, however, is not the whole story. It leaves out the important consideration of the stimulating effect of sunshine penetrating the hive walls. This action of the sun stimulates breeding in the spring to an extent that frequently more than compensates tor the loss of additional stores consumed to maintain the temperature during the cooler periods (see for an extreme example, Hives with Glass Walls, 925). Bees can be kept in unpacked hives out of doors in severe sustained winter weather if of a hardy disposition and if kept dry. Similarly, bees can be kept heavily packed in mild climates or put in cellars. Thus, it is not a question of what is possible so much as of what is most profitable. Dtgrus of Prottetion 881. If a prolonged period of cold weather has to be faced, unbroken by short warm speus and lasting for several months, then undoubtedly cellar wintering is the best. The bees may thus be

212 i'acking, VENTILATION AND TE~lPERATt'RE COXTROL 189 kept at a temperature at which not onlv is the loss of storrs OJ minimum, but the cxressivl' accumulatioj, of wash.' matt(or in the bodi('s of tht' lx'cs is limited. Bees cannot l,'on'lurne fot)d ilh.k>finitclv withr out a. cleansing flight. I f this i:-. prc\'l'llfcd many bt'('-:; an: fon:ed to die and dysenttry i':! st.'t tip. I J1 till' spring, when the frosts an' breaking, the hives are brought olh of tlte,,:('lian. and fhl" bel's hrolf~hf into acti\'lry during W'lfm spells. Prct: exposure of hil't" w;tlh tn sunshint' is thcn advantageous.. LatCf) during n:rr hot wl'athl'r (.'xt~rnal shade is desirable (for (dial' winteriu:.:_, see' 1154 (I ufj.) When severe fro!:<.t::i arc IH)t as prnl:)!1g 'li, or prolonged frosts \ltc not ~o severe, and especia.llv if lllilj SPt"l1\- intcn'l'llt" til<' hin's may remain out of doors pr~)tn:'t('d by tl'mporary external packing. 'I'he bees can then work later ill rth'!-'ca!'i(lfl anj start earlier rnan,"{ W"Hrf'reu' in CellarS Where the winter is relatively mild and frtqllcntly broken hya warm day, as in many parts of Great Hritain, U.S.A" Nt.'w Zealand and Anstralia, hin;s may be left out of door.. without packing, if well protected from cold winds hut freely exposed to tlw SUIl, 884. If, however, there is a Iacl of early pollen alld lio early han'cst to be expected, the bees may be retarded with advantage by the USe of heavy packing or even by the lis(' of Ct'lIa.rs, but there ar(.~ other methods of management app1icablt to such conditions (5C(' 1200 in conjunction with 1229 tl Uq.). Packing at Top 885. From the standpoint of pa('bn~, till" top of the hi\'c is the most vulnerable poillt;vulncrablc to high tl'mpcf4ture by cxpowrc to the sun whjch endangers the attachm{!nt of the combs at the weakest point; vulnerable to cold because the condensation of moistun' most readily occurs at the top and ilj most detrimental to the bees at that point. If the top is ventilated, then heavy packing serve,,; to conserve the heat, which would otherwi!>e be carried away by the escaping air. If the top is not vcnthated it is the marc important to prevent condensation there. In (:old weather, heavy packing at the top is most important. I n hot ""cather, protection at the top is most valuable It is customary to employ above the Ilexible quilt (862). several layers of felt, old furpet, or even newspapers. If the roof stands well cl<li!f of the packing on~ ot two thickness<"s of felt or carpeting is enltjgh in hot weather, but there is no harm in using more than this if the bottom,'entilation is good (899). In winter, however, there should be 3 to 6 inches of packing and preferably an air-filled clearance space above that. This packing may take the

213 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES form of a cushion of cork dust, chaff, dried leaves, sawdu<t and.the like. As a permanent package, sawdust and chaff cushions are liable to rot unless well ventilated above. Cork chips are better, but if the packing is by means of a tray of loose material with canvas bottom, made for example by tacking canvas inside an empty super, then any loose packing material may be used. l~o make a cushion x inches IOll(!, y inches broad and z inches thick, make a rectangular bag having side x + z andy + z re'pecti"dy, as indicated in Fig. 13, then pinch up the corners as shown in the figure and sew acros5-) finally sewing them down flat. t-y + z '" ~ r :;ewn. across FIG 13.-To MAKE A CUSHION OF GIVEN DIMENSIONS If the covering is of wood or 15 non-porous, protection is equally desirable in both summer and winter. With a wooden inner cover a straw mat is sometimes used, but it is desirable to secure an air space as well. A deep roof may have permanent packing for summer use, supplemented in winter. In hot weather a large piece of packing-case placed on top of the cover adds shade to good purpose. Packing at Sides 888. Permanent packing between double walls is apt to rot, but light weight bad conductors ofhe.t, like building lumber of plaster, straw, reeds, asbestos and the like, is permanent and rot-proof.., Cclotex" is useful for wall packing. Where heavy wall packing is desired, it is preferably of a temporary character as it should be in place only during the cold months. Straw matting is cheap and readily stored, but is not often made in these days. Wood outer cases are good and, if made in sections, are readily stored, hut tarred paper can also be used more than once as a support for leaves, bracken and the like. Whatever construction be used, the packing material must be protected from damp. In fact, a substantial dry air space is better than any damp, rotting, mouldy packing (see also ).

214 ,";\CKING, VENTILATION AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL 191 Woqdtn li'infer Cas" 889. These are large packing-cases made to t.ke eith(,r two or fout hives. 1~he case consists of bottom, sides and top mad..: separately and hoi ted togctht't so that wl1l'h out of USt' the parts nm he sta<:kt.'d compactly. 1'hey should be uniform in dimensions, including position of boit holes,!:\o that any side will tit any hase and so forth. The top should han' a rim fitting Ol'er 'h" sid,,,, and should itself be covered over top and rim with shel'! 7.irK, galvani,t.ed iron or bitumcnized roofing felt so as to kc('p out all Wt't, \VoodtJI battens on the floor raise the hives so rhat SnOlt,' p;l\,_.king: may he plac(.~d undern<;ath. The hives are placed clost.' together, th( ir ordinary co""rs, which project all round, being omitt('d. Span' is left round the sides for a heavy packing of dry leaves or other handy, dry, cl",,' packing, 3 to 5 inches thick according to th,' district, and finally the top is packed 6 to 10 inches deep to the cop of the ca.sc Openings atc made in the sides opposite the hive l'ntranccs with some sort of slide to adjust the size of the entrance, and W()(}{.JCll tunnels provided through the packing. There should b(' 110 I< dg'" on the outside on which snow and icc may build up so a,... to dose the entrance. The tunnel should prdcrably be indillcd.upwards towards the hive entrance. Alighting boards sloping about 45(;' art' furnished reaching from the ground to the b<>ttom of the case, and therefore well below the entrance A four-hive case requires much less matniai per hi\,{, than does a one-hive case, but the latter can be made (,f lighter stock. The entrances in a four-hive case face in opposite directions, whereas with one- or two-hive cases the entrances in a row of hives Call be made to face all one way. A two- or four-hih' t:ar.,(" offers less cooling surface per hive than does a one hiv(: C~. :For equal protection a single hive rf'quirrs packing more hca\'ilx an over than fout hives in a single case, in the ratio of 5 inches to It is convenient to feed, where necc~sary (1130-4), after inserting the hives in the cases so that the bees have the benefit of the extra protection before the cold weather M"ts in. I t is convenient to put the top packing into a large cover of sacking, making a on<piece cushion to fit the whole top. Tarred POP" CO'lJtri1tg 893. Tarred paper may be used in place of wooden cases and in a similar manner to hold the packing. A stout quality is required and the top at least should have no open joints. Pieces may be stuck together with hot asphalt put on with,, brush. If the whole is well corded and neady made, the side joints can be made with 4- to 6-inch

215 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES ovcrlap~ and the edges of the top piece foh.1cd over without cut.ting so a.,<.; to shed the rain. The cord used ~hould be tarn:d or creosoted It is C()Tl\r('lliel1t to usc a rectangular woodcli support at the bottom projt cting 3 inches all roulld the hives. '1'he tunnels arc put in place (890) and tacked to the Boor boards. A wooden frame of four sides hinged at two oppn~jt(' corners and hooked at the other two may be made large enough to surround the packing and to reach level with the top of the hives. This is put in place temporarily to support the paper while packing. The wood bottom and bottom tarred paper arc put in place, then the sheets for t)lt~ sides with any joints placed at the Battest parts, then, after put!ing the hivcs and tunnels in place, the wooden frame is built round. Cords for tying O\"1..'f may be inserted with the papa. If the front is packed first the frame will be pushed awav from the tunnel entrances. Pack the back first, therefore, then sides and front. The whole is finally securely corded front to back, side to side, and round the sides. Openings for the tunnels should be made and may be improved by tacking thin strips of wood over the outside. Packing at Battom 895. Owing to certain experiments with totajjy closed llivc5, misleading ideas have got about as to the importance of packing the floor board. Most of the heat lost bv the winter cluster is, or should be, lost by com'ection and ventil;tion The temperature of the hive floor has a negligible effect on both convection and ventilation. Even if a foot thick its temper-dture is still controlled mainly by that of the cold air entering on the same level by the entrance. After consideration of general experience and experimental evidence, the writer is not convinced that there is any measurable benefit to be got undt'r 'Working conditions from a packed floor board. A wind break is much more important than this packing. A free space between floor and combs undoubtedly suits the bees and reduces draughts. If it is decided, nevertheless, to pack, then the bottom of the floor board may first be tarred and a second layer of tarred wood used with air space between. If a winter outer case be used (830). protected floors are unnecessary save in the winter packing Bees will winter successfully irt a hive with no bottom at all if protected from draughts, i.e. if the hive walls extend a long distance below the cluster. rmlilatifl'l in Cold Wtath., Ventllation is controlled by the bees except during the

216 P~CKING, VENTILATION AND TEMP RATl'RE CONTROL '93 period of quiescence when it depends upon natural air currents controlled by temperature, moisture, chemical content and especially by wind coming through the entrancc. Foul air charged with carbonic acid is hca\ icr than pure air, but moist air is lighttr than dry atr and wann air than cold air The bees produce he.t by combustion of food aided by bodily exercise, bees within tht: duster going throuflh certain exercises for the purpose, "rhc ga.'icous products of combustion an,.' mainly carbonic-acid gas and water vapour. '1'h(' hot moist air leadng the cluster, rises, spreads over the COl'er, rcaches the!old,' waus, cooling as it got's and f,1.11ing dowll the walls, finally crossing the floor and rising again. At the same time, some lean:s the Uppt'f part of the entrance and is replaced by cold air l'j1t(.'ring and passing over the floor. Some air also escapes at the top unless the top is hermetica.lly sealed, as it may be substantially if of impervious material. J f wind is pa.<;sing the entrance a more rapid change of the air within th( hive takes place. If the top is sealed, then a relatively large entrance is necessary, say 3 to 4 inches with a strong stock, but if a porous quilt and packing is used the entrance can be rcducrd to t inch. The bees tend to seal any packing provided, and it is good,,, have an ample but well-shielded main entrance. A tunnel entrance (890) requires less protection than a short ( ntr.ncc passage. A double entrance with chamber between acts like a silencer to puffs of wind. Fen/ilolion in lp"orm Wlnthi'r 900. When the bees are actit-(" the consumption of stores is increased and the air supply for breathing must be much greatcr. 'I'he bees then take control of \'cnti1atioil, some acting: as ventilating fans by the use of their wings. If too large an entr.nce is provided, no \'entilators will be seen at work, and brood rearing near the entrance may cease. If the entrance is adequate for the bees to leave and enter freely in the height of the day, the bees can manage the ventilation, but in hot weather, especially if there is but little shade, the bees will welcome a full-width entrancc. Sometimes during a honey How it is good to pull the supers backward a little by day to allow a second entrance. Sometimes the body is raised off the floor board by pieces of wood placed across the four corners or along the sides. These extra entrances must, however, be closed immediately there is any sign of serious reduction of the honey flow, or serious robbing may OCcur. During a honey Bow many bees will be seen assisting the natural ventilation to remove the excess moisture from the honey even with a full-width entrance. ' -M.B. o

217 I94 HIVES A~D THEIR ACCESSORIES Floor f/entilators 901. Sonlt'timt'~ a ventilating holt' is cut in the Hoor board of the hin~, cover(,d with perforated metal and tlttl'd with a slide below to close it. 'The slide is flot of much importance. Bottom ventilation is useful if tlil' l'ntrallce ha.s to be rcduct.~d to prc\'cnt robbing, but the puforatl'd meta.l i~ not l'asilv d(.:ancd and hindl'r~ cleaning of the Roor board. A ventilated c'ntrance ~lid(' is bt:tter adapted for the purp()~t' (845). For tra\'elling it is~ howl'vcr, adyisablc to ha\'c ventilation in floor ami r'lof or sidc~ a!ld foof(sc(' 1055 and 1297). Tt'mperaiurc Control 902. Whilt, the bc{.'~ can raise the tt'mperature 1/1 the hi,'c by consuming: food and by exercise, they CUI also lower the tempcratun: by taking in water and u"aporating it by vcntilation. As much heat is absorbed in evaporating a pint of water a~ would have to be suppjicd to raise it from frcl Ling-- to boiling-point six timf..'s over. 'The cvapor.ltioj} of nectar in the hive and the: removal of the vapour by the fanning bcl's absorbs large qualltirie;:o; nf heat at a time when the outside temperature is high. If occasiojl arises to confine bct's, they should always be given water so that they may not become overheated. \\" ater may be syringed into a comb or sprinkled heavily on the ventilating gallla used when confining. lhi'f Patterns and "Waterials Particular Makes of Hive 903. Siz" of hi"" has been discussed above in 812 to 815, both in rclation to the hive a's a whole and to the portion containing the brood. 'rhc present section is mainiy concerned with dimensions and peculiarities of particular makes of hives. It is, however, convenient to make one further gent:ralization on size of the individual body of the brood chamber, connected with management. In the Modified Dadant, the Dadant Blatt and the British Hive for British deep combs (Table XXI) and the "Long-idea" hi\"e, the intention is to provide normally sufficient space in a single body for the whole brood nl.. t. This was the case with the British Standard frame also in the early days of 1= prolific black queens. The shallower bodied Langstroth hive of eight or even ten frames and the British Standard, when used with prolific queens, are not used singly, but two or even three bodies may be tiered to form the I\rood chamber. In relation to size of frame this difference is pursued again in 962. In relation to management it is pursued in Standardization of Dimensions 904. One of the main objects of standardization of hive parts

218 HJVF. PATTERSS AND,\fATEIUAtS 195 and tittings is to secure interchangeability, As hitherto (,a,rri{'d out this n-sulr is not in fiu.:t att--.tincd) so that to secure intcn:hotug,eability it becomes llt:u"ssohv to purchase from one makc.-r onlv, or to pun:tla'l'l' it sample on appr~)\'al bdl.)fi,: huyin~ from" diffefl'nt'mah r. Thi~ is not onl.\<' because the authoririt':'> frnpwllflv omit to Spt'rify certain of the (~--scntial dimell~inn!o., but main!v bt_'c1us.t' tlu,'\' 00 not coll[')idcr and prm'idc for the t'ffc{:t of un.n'oid:thlc errors in ~ork~ manship. No dimension can be worked to l'xartlv, and some ~1rt,' subject to changt:. with time, for ~'x;1,rnpk, by stltiokag('. 'rlit maximum utor will depend upon th{~ matnials t"mplnycj amlllll'thmi of ffiaqu{al".turc and should hc (overed bv "tolnan~t-s" a(t..:q.ltahft. to the user and placing no undue burden 011 the manufacturer. 'Thi~ is universal practict in the world of t.'llginccril1t!.,. Maximum and J.finimum Dimmsio1lJ 905. \Vhcre one part "'A." fits within ::modtt'r part "B," tltl" largest "A" must enta the smallest hb" and thett' rtl!l~t liot ll(.' t:xcc5~iv(' slacknl'ss when the smallest "A" i:.. o~ni in tin' la.rf,tcst B." 'rhus the maximum permissible outside dimcll~iom, should b(, specificd for frames and metal tmh" but minimum inside dillwnsions for hive bodies and COvers. For hivt.'s with 10(1..;(' ouu'r c(jv('r~ the maximum outsid(' dimensions of outer ('ovtrs should b(' fi:wd and the minimum inside dimcnsiol1~ of the filkted (:xtcll~i()ns intended to m erlap. Where the sides ate tapcrt.:d (~cc Fig. 10) thl' maximum outside dimension of top and minimum inside: dim(,ll~ion of bottom should bt' fixed, with tolerances on each '''here a maximum is tlxed thc tolerance is a llcgative amount and vice versa. For cxamplt, a body nominally 14~ inch(:s inside measurement might have a plu~ tolerance of 1\ and minus tolerance of o. This would giv{' a minimum dimem,iol1 of J4.} inches and maximum of 14ft. The hi\"e maker would "ct hi, tools to aim midway, i.e. at L~:i'" and all his bodies would readily fall within the agreed iimit~. An error of "?f inch excess on each of ten metal frame cnd~ gjve~ a total of about i inch. They could readily be made to an agreed maximum, the nominal size, and to a negative tolerance of, say, H>!""1'iths, and even considerably less if it were worth white. Present-day Practice 967. Not only are there no agreed limits, but frequently the wrong dimension is the one standardized. For example, on the continent of Europe it has been the practice to specify the inside dimensions of frames, no limits being given for outside dimensions or supporting. lugs. The result is complete chaco; so far as inter-

219 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES changeability is concerned. Again, in converting inch measure. to centimetres, the figures have been rounded to even dimensions so that the Dadant Blatt parts, nominally M.D., are far from interchangeable with M.D. parts. The Langstroth frame has been nominally standard for years but is found with two or three lengths and widths of top bar, and widths of side bars Certain dimensions for Amtrican hive bodies have recently bet'n agr('('j amongst the leading American makers, also dimcnsiot;s of top -bars of frames. In Great Britain frames have been standardized for many years and certain dimensions have been agreed for hive bodies, but not enough to secure interchangeability. The latest dimensions and some earlier dimensions arc given under the names of the nulous makers below In most hives of modern dl"sign the tops of the frames are flush with the tops of the side walls of the chamber, super clearers and queen excluders being framed to cover the whole surface of the frames and walls, but in some hives a bee space is allowed above the frames in the chamber, the frames being Rush at the bottom, or nominally so. The Hush top is to be preferred. The Langstroth Hive 910. This hive is given first place in honour of the introducer of the design with bel' space all round the frames (see Inventions and Discoveries, ), and because it is the most widely used by English-speaking beekeepers the world over. Important dimensions of the bodies have recently been agreed in the U.S.A. It would be useless to detail dimensions used in the past, but certain dimensions used in Australia and British Columbia are given in the table below: 911 TABLE XIX DIMENSIONS OF LANCSTROTR HIVES (sef: Fig. 14) A. B. C. D. E. T. ----,_-- i ;{IVrUan to-frame body 19~ t8llf 9H 16i 14lL :;:; 8-frame body do. do. do. I 13 ' nik do. I Comb honey body. do. do.... if; u a'bove do. I A'IlStra/ia. 12-frame body 20 IS! 91,si i 10-frame body. do. do. do } " do., 8-frame body do. do. do. ll! ul do. r British Colwitbia. lo-frame body 19i 18i 91 16i "SI i

220 HIVE PATTERNS AND MATERIALS 197 The new U.S.A. figures allow for shrinkage after manufacture and use. The B.c. body is used with an outer cover not standardized. The floor boards of thesc hives extend 2 to + inches beyond the body. 'l i c ~~~~~~ =J-~. J S\Ae VLeW ~ Seeti.onaL End. Vcew.-Sectu"'nl FlG. 14.-DIM NSIONS OP LANGSTltOTH HtVEs. Dlldant HivtJ 912. The :Vloditied Dadant (or M.D.) hive is the form of Dadant hilt now generally used. It admits of supering with Langstroth bndics on occasion and of the use of Langstroth covers. 'l'hc Dadant Blatt of the continent of Europl' is not inttrchangeabh: (see 907) but has otherwise the same good features. The difference between the M. D. and the L.ngstroth is that the latter take. brood frames 2i inches deeper and is generally designed to take deven frames I ~ inchl"s wide, or ten with a substantial dummy The M.D. body as built to match the new Ameri(.. n Langstroth series has the following dimensions: TABLE XX DIMENSIONS OF M.D. HIVlS (5Ct- Fig. 14 ) _._---_---_._-- A. B. C. D. E. T. G. B. Lewis brood chamber 191 IS{;;;, ll: I R l;'~ '6i K~ Comb hooey super do. do. +li do. do. do. I Britirh Standard Hiv" 914. These are made to take the British Standard frame which has longer lugs than the American pattern. These lugs arc very handy for handling, but involve some complication of the hive bodies to accommodate them. This CQmpjication practically disappears where double-walled ends are used (see Fig. 15).

221 HIVES AND THEIR. ACCESSOR.IES Section of Single-walled Body for u.se in Hi.ve with. Outer Case Section. of End. of Double-walled Bo<:o/ FIG. 15.-DESIGN OF BR11'ISH BROOD CHAMBERS. The following dimensions are those standardized by the British Beekeepers' Association, it'!f,eing recommended also that floor hoards be provided with legs secured to the inside of the floor joists and supported by crosspieces, and that the roofs be covered with painted calico (see Fig. 16), (see also 840 and 864 however). The D.uWe-wall,d Hive (This rerers to a hive body with sectional outer case) 915. The outer case to be 20 inches square, outside measurement, and lifts for same 8 inches deep_ These may be parallel walled with fillets or taper pattern, and i inch thickness finished. Brood chambers, 16 inches X 141 inches, inside measurement. Entrance full width and to go back at least 6 inches inside the hi"e_ Shallow (rame supers, 15 inches X 141 inches X 6 inches deep, inside measurements.

222 HIVE PATTERNS AXD ~ATERIALS 199 Section rack) I 5 ~ inches lon~ x I S inches wide, inside lllea"uh' ml~nr~, Half-inch space hctwc.;l'r1 hottorn (If til(' hrood f(af11(,~ and r}}(,' tinor board. Brood fr.l.lnv::> to be B.B.K..:\. ~r.-uld;u\ii:()64) ()1.lt:-iJt. din1t'll... io!l~, IHl illl'hc... hv J71 indll'''' with tt.'le ;\.'opic );}1 I 0 i1jrh{.'~ deep. 'I'hi:-:- lift ;... fcn';"ihll' to lit (i\'('r rhe hodv ill wlfltl.'f, hut in summer serves a~ an olher <;:as<, &\r atl ithwf supc;. r :ntrafh,t :.unkerl in floor hoard :lild made full width of hive. Half-inch spacl' between hottom of the ':It<lndal'd fr,nne and th(_ HOOT hoard. Ail material (or outside cast's to be Itot Ic~s than illl'll, thi(k tinished. FIG. I6.-DtSIGN Of BRITISH STAS!}ARD HI\'! WITH OUTER CASE. Oth,y British Hives 917. A number of single- and u"ubje-walltd hives are offered (see Makers' Catalogues) to take the standard frames, of dimensions differing from the above stlfndanls, hut these arc likely to be superseded in time by those with standard dimen,ions. Hives arc made also on the American pattern, advantage being taken to make the end walls double as if! Fig. '5 while providing space for the long British frame lug. A good example has bodies and supers 181 inches square, which admits of use cold way or warm

223 loo HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES way (821) on the same floor board. SectiDn racks fdr these hiv.,. will take three rows of sectidns with side packing or four rows, with side walls a full ~ inch thick. Outer covering is prdvided for the six cold months (see 832 and 888). {By courusy oj Messrs. R. Stuk & Br04u, WOf"IIf.U, Scotkmd}. Scottish "Heather" Hive, Irish C.D.B. Hive. (B), &tmrlay l1/ Musn. BJI.rlJ.aM SDIts, ~.) British-American Hive. FIG. 17.-Ia.XSH, SCOTTISH MiD BJ.ITISH-AMllllCAN HlVES I have added illustratidns in Fig. '7 of cheap and effective forms largely used for rural districts in Scotland and Ireland respectively, and Df a hive on American lines, taking British Standard combs.

224 BoJfJJn or Htddon Hivr HIVE PATTERNS AND MATERIALS 20r 919. This hive is included as it is still in extensive local use in the U.S.A. and in Australia. The bodies arc designed to take frames 5~ inch deep with wide side bars fitting together throughout, tht" frames beiilg wedged tngt thcr in rhe body so that on occasion the whole body can be reversed. '[wo or mort:' of these bodies are used for the brood chamber and by rcn'rsal of one containing both honey and brood, the bees are CnCOUT<lgco to n.:mo\'l" the honey to the supers. 'fhis arrangement, involving: additional rnanipul:ttion, with some risk, willlt'ao, in inexperienced hands, to the production of queen n:hs th,ough division of the brood nest. Th('!:o\(: quct:1l "dis, how {'ver, arc Je.'.tnwcd bv the ht cs on a further revt rsal. 'I'he dairn~ to reduction of brace 'comb ano. for mort: gradual enlargement of the brood m:st uo not carry ffi\li..:h wl'ight) and arc otf.,ct by hindrance ro free extension of the brood nest (296). Non-Swarming Ifives 920. This name is given to certain hivt's fitrt'd with a chambt'r below tht: brood cha.mber to rectlvc frames iitt( d with founjation of starters. 'The plan was to reffi(wc rh(1)c framc~ and plftc(: them above immediately the hees had made a good start in drawing them out. Frames were similarly used in long warm-way hives, being placed next the entrance until well started and thcn replaccd by fresh ones, those removed being put behind the brood nest. 1~hc idea was promulgated that the bees would not swarm until they had built out comb down to the entrance and so made easy the work of the guard bees. 'rile device doe~ not, in fact prevent swarming; and probably the plan owed such success as it enjoyed mainly to the fact that it ensured giving space in advance of r(':quir(~mcnts) the lack of which is one of the principal causes of swarming, c'spccially with hives having small bodies, and space for comb building A hive built for this plan in modified form had a chamber in the floor board into which a container of frames could be slid, making a sort of mid-entrance hive. Cleaning of the floor then became, however, the duty of the beekeeper, and the device did not prevent swarming, but it taught some beekeepers that the bees will more readily start work on foundation placed below an occupied chamber than when placed ~bove. DlJUbJe Hives 922. As indicated in 819, double hives have been built to accommodate two stocks which assist each other with warmth. The material and labour in making a double hive is less than that in making two single ones, especially where outer cases are employed, but this

225 202 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES is offset by lack of mobility in the two halves. The double.hive finds its place with a special system of management hased on ready mixing of the two lots of bees. The process is assisted if the di\'ision between the hrood chamber is constructed after the pattern of \Vdls, i.e. it should he of thin wood and perforated with a few holes i inch diameter. \Vells found that with hee~ on both sides these holes arc not stopped up, but the bees get the same scent and may be combitl<,d at any time. For the most complete system of working- the doublc hive r('quircs at lea.;! entrances on both sides and sometimes at the c'lds. 'rhis necessitates placing the hives where the bees may flv out freelv in any direction, as, for example, under. trees in an "orchard (for 1l1anagemellr, sec ). Bus l/rlujej 923. 'rhe het' houst: is still largchr used on the contincrh of Europe and especialh in Switzerland. - It is valuabk' where broad T diseas('~ an: ullcomm'on and land is valuable as many hives can be crowded into a. small spac(.'. " 'I'he bee house is large ehough to carry not only all the hives but all the appliances required, ready to hand. l~he hives arc arranged in two or more tiers against the wall and the house may have two Roors. Each hi\'(: is fixed with its own entrance adjustable from without, and consists of brood chamber and super, both arranged in OIlC Dod,v accessible from the hack, the combs being slid into place individually on runners. The back has a double door, the inner being glazed, and from ohscn'ation through this the experienced beekeeper can tell a great deal without opening the hi,'e. The super may be emptied and filled independently, a sheet of metal being slid Dver the brood chamber during the prdcess. Flying bees make for the window, where they (."'Scape and return to the entra.nce. It is necessarr, however, that combs removed should be brushed free of bees. 'With the tall frame used the bees store for their winter requirements in the upper part of the brood combs. They are, of course, warm~way hives. Obler-votary HivfS 924. These are sold by appliance makers, especially arranged and glazed so that the work of the bees may be watched. They are used mainly fof exhibition and sometimes for scientific observation. Rectangular hives may be purchased with one or more sides glazed and covered with removable shutters. They are interesting to show to visitors and of interest to beginners~ The co!j\merciai use of a glazed brood chamber is dealt with in the followi ng section.

226 HIVE PATTERNS AND MATERIALS ZOJ Use of Glass IFalls in Hi",,, 925. The climate being suitable, bet s will build out ill the open under branches of trees and JiH~ through the winter. \\thefe frosts occur they build in dark hok'$ in tn't... I)T ijl nttwr :o>uitahh Gl.\'itie~ which tht:y find. Naturt' dot ~ not provid~ lifdhed t.'a\'itit'~ and l'~pcciallv cavities with nice tdilss windo'a's. A ha"tv c\lnclu~it111 ha5 bcl'1l pr~'\'alcnt that thl' bet's lih thr dark. 'I'hc:ir ahilitv to build in the open, where climate pennies, and rheir prd(_'r('l}('(' f{;r it,!lhould be sufficient to disprove this Both animals and vegetahles require light and bcndlt fro-ill it, but it.is not yet dear how far the hl'ndlt~ oh:5cn't'il hr ht'('kn'pers who havt u~cd glazed hives may he attrinuted to!ight and how l1\u(11 to heat oue to tiw "green-house" effect of tht' glas~ walk. It i" wt_!t known that g!as.~ freely pas~'\(.'s light W.nT" vi<:.iblt' to tilt: I\lUnall eyt', hut is opa(jue to heat Wa\TS enuch lower in the SPt"l'(futn, aj\t1 Lugcl;.-' ~() to chemical rays, ultra "iolet. Comparative r{'~(:-. are required on a large scale with ordinary and Vita gla.sl-, or other g-las!:i1 p.t.'inillg ultra-violet light freely, before any finaj conclll~i()j) i,~ po.. ~)hk ''I'he enthusiastic Russian bl'ek('qwrs who it;tn' \:x.'cjl ('xperimcming recently for sc\'('fa! years have used hiv(,,; with douhi(" glass windows with an air space between at both hack and frollt"and also at front only. Under their conditions of working tlwy report a g-reat improvement in returns, especially in bad distrfct!-" and improvt'''' ment of temper. Provision is made for cm'cring the windows on m,_'casiol1 aml rhey should not be exposed to strong sunshine, 'rhctt i~ murh stili to learn but the following may be noted: (J) Bees get acc.ustomed to the windows within about a week after transfer from a dark hive, (2) Robbers not accustomed to dark hives arc confu<.,cd and try to leave by the window:>. 'rhis assists ttl<; hees ill <]{:aling with wasps, hut not with mbbers from.other gla;;ed hivt"s. (3) The bees being accustomed to wotking in the light ate much Jess disturbed on opening the hive. T'his i~ unimportant where docile strains are in use. (f) Wax moths ate definitely discouraged. (5) Comparative tests show that brood rearing is accelerated. (6) In frosty weathet the windows may be exposed and help to keep the bees quie; by pre, enti~g too large a drop of temperature. (7) In warm, sunny weather, it is essential to cover the windows or there will be too great a rise oftemperaturr. They may be covered fot at least the ti"e sunniest hours of exposure. Ventilation must receive special attention.

227 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES (8) Glass mav be used on aile side only and, if exposed ouly to the carly morning sun, need not be covered. The author is experimenting with windows of thick glass on the north side, always exposed, the covering and uncovering of windows exposed to the south requiring excessive manipulation. (9) The bees wnrk at least 2 hours a day longer than those in dark hives. ( 1 c) I t is said that the bees will Jl y at a lower shade temperature thall those in dark hives, working at 45 F. (7 C.) (I I) The bees are much hardier than bees not so exposed and good queens a.re raised.. (12) The temperature being raised without the production of moisture, the honey ripens more quickly. (13) The light discourages the growth of mould and r Jngus. (14) The supers must not be glazed, but the window in the brood chamber enables useful observations of progress to be made Other experimenters have tried glass hives and report that brood production is stimulated. They report also improvement in docility of bees of uncertain temper. - The author working in the south of England has failed to observe any marked change in the hours of flight or flight at lower temperatures in comparative tests with double glazed and unglazed hives, but finds a marked tendellcy to convert stores into brood which requires controlling in a district where the flow is variable and uncertain. He is disposed to use the windows in spring and autumn only There is dearly room here for some experiments to be made. One needs to know under what conditions as to thickness of glass and exposure does the gain by day in cool weather more than balance the loss by nfgilt. It is probably best to cover the windows, except by day, in very frosty weather until brood rearing is commenced,. after which they may probably be left permanently exposed until hot sunny days supervene The hopes expressed for improvement of temper are probably exaggerated, but one cannot escape the results of comparati,'e tests of holley production and brood rearing under the conditions whffe the expffimmts were made. In the author's hive the inner wall is a full-width piece of i-inch sheet glass let into the side walls and supported by resting on a strongly secured cross-bar of wood. The outer wall is of wood with a stout glass panel fixed with putty, reaching within an inch of the inside edges. A metal runner rests on the glass inner wall The hive should be most useful where an early crop is to

228 HIVE l'ati'erns AND MATERIALS be se<ured probably lollowed by dividing and by combin;l1~ later for a late crop, as it may be described as a \'("ritabjl~ bet f,lctnry, though doubtl= a<hptable to nurn' other methods o( btckcepin~. Top- and ltjiddle-fntrmue Hi1t($ 932. In nature, bl'cs gclltrally dose a top l'nrran(c in fa.vour of a lower 00('. l\iijdle cntraili..:cs have bct'il known for gcnt'rations, being used in Holland and 1'\orth Germany. 'The hi\fcs now to be dealt with arc movable fr;lfllc hin.'s, modified by the provision of a Hoor which closes the hottom of the hi\'(: and with spcr.;ial entranct.. board... for usc at tht" top, or at t11i.' middle', as the case may be. T'hl' middle cntr;thcc leads to a difi'l'fcl1c(' as compared with top-el1t~ailct: hin. s in that hy the lbl' of a qu('cii excluder, the bees arc forced to breed hclow the ('ntral1l,'(.' and tht." queens excluded from thc' supers. Details of the special constructions will be follnd in Figs. dlwd 1 q 'The recent interest in constructions of this tvpl' h;:\:- arisen more especially where hives are wintett'd out of doot~ \.Jllder!:.cn:rc conditions of frost and where damp is also a serious ~ourr(' of troubh, l\1any stocks are lost in winter through choking up of the tu,{nd entrances in the heavily packed hives and dyselltery is a"isted by <hmp and fungoid growths. Top and middle ('ntrances can no' be choked, and as damp air rises more rea.dily than dry air, the (ontcnts as a whole are kept much drier and also more fully ventilat(,d. On the other hand, it would appear physically impossible that the gem'ral body of air below the entrance, i.e. surroundinft the ciusf",r, \houfd remain much above that of the outer atmosphere and the t'onsumption of stores may be expected to be even hc~n'icr tha.n ain'ad}' reported as normal in the regions in qul--stion. The author is not yt't satisttcd that the economic remedy is not cellar wintering where the conditions are So severe, but for the small beekeeper with only a few stocks, modification of the outdoor type of hive will be pur;ued The top-entrance and many middle-entrance hives have in common the disadvantage that flying bees are much confused and give trouble when the entrance boards arc remol:ed to give access to the bees. It is recommended that a temporary stand be placed in front of the hive to be examined, to receive the entrance and one or more bodies so that the flying bec.. may congregate there. Serious trouble has occurred when the entrance has been moved by a change in the number of bodies, robbers locating the new position (rom without more quickly than the bees in rightful possession. Middle entrance hives are made, however, in which the excluder may be lifted from above and access obtained to a single brood chamber without moving the entrance (see Fig. 19.).

229 w6 HfV}:S AND THEIR ACCESSORIES 935. 'rhc method of working the top-entrance hive is.allied to that of the long-idea hive. Bodies with combs or frames of foundation arc placed oil the stand far in advance of requirements and the bees ('xtt:nu naturally downwards, auopting the lower bodies a\ rcquirej. '1'h('r(' is apt to In.. coll.!lidcrablc confusion of stof(' and hrood combs, tht: stores are more exposc:d to fobbing, wax moti!s are "? J>;'?;?>?c<;:<',",?&0-%?0b?i>&fa Cover f:il Section Plan.- Caver Removed FIG. IS.-ToP-ENTRANCE HIVE. more readily established in the lower and unoccupied frames and the responsibility for house cleaning lies Dlltinly with the beekeeper who, however,. is tempted to leave everything alone. Materials uud in Hive ConJirutlion 936. The use of straw, reeds, osiers and the like will not be dealt with. We are concerned with movable frame wooden hives, which,

230 HIVE PATTERNS AND MATERIALS ho\\'i,:vn, 111;\)' be p;lckl'j with other Inatt'fial"" (set.: 879 to 897), illdujillt! straw. Light-weight Wl)uds ~ivt,' better in:.ul.ttion than tht.' Satl\l' thkklll'~:-' of a I}(';l.\'jer wood, (h~' air,:d!:. in rht' t(\roll'r being bt:ttt:r insulator..; Sectwnal VLeW of Muidl.e Entr~ FIG. 19.-MlDDL1>ENTRAS"C HrVE. A thrce-sidtd frame t.. x i' rests on the bod)' wath and projecu at tm front. forming part of the side wa.lls of the entrance porch. Narrow projecting ledges ()f tin, not shown, c:arry the excluder, whicb reaebe! k within I" of fn)nt. The: bees enter between the frame lu~, see sectional view. Entranc< blocks are used as "'Iuired.

231 z08 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES than the wood or resin-filled cells in the latter. Some of the heavier woods last longer, hut if protected from decay by creosote, or paint, or other covering the light-weight /irs in general use will give ample life and are cheap Lightness of weight gives advantage in manipulation and al~() a saving in cost of transit. Freedom from knots is importailt not only in smal1 pans as in frames where knots may Jead to fracture, hut especially in parts ('xpos('-.d to th(.~ weather, as knots furnish means for the entry of moisture and ma~r become the cause of unequal shrinkage. Some of the relatively light, knot-free wood!>, free from excessive shrinkage, such as Oregon pine, are in favour for hh'c bodies and espcciall~! where creosote and the like is used in preference to paint. Californian red wood is similar and proof against white ants. In Australia there are excellent woods available, Cypress is one of the best woods for bottom bo.1.rds. Frames are generally made from a light-weight pine, selected to avoid knots. Sections arc always made of bass wood (lime). Materials for coverin~ hive roofs are dealt with in 864 to 869 and for outer coverings Til 830 to 832 and 889 to 897. Objects of Hive Painting 938. The principal object of hive painting is the presen ation of the timber. Secondary objects arc decoration) colouring to assist the bees in locating their homes and the benefit of a light colour in keeping the hive cool. A very little change in the thickness of wood or nature of it makes far more difference than the substitution of a light for a dark colour and a light colour hinders the warming of the hives by the sun in the important periods of spring and autumn. Other things being equal, bees in a hive warmed by the sun in these intermediate seasons will start work earlier and consume less stores than one protected against warming. From the standpoint of cooling there is nothing to choose between a white and any other colour. The best protection from excessive heating in the summer is undoubtedly shade during the middle of the day. Nevertheless, a white-painted hive looks nice and is a good serviceable article. Keeping out Damp 939. Protection from damp has been touched upon under packing (879 to 897). but must here be considered in relation to painting. Paint owes its efficiency as a preservative to its action in preventing growth of destructive fungi, but it serves also to keep out damp and wet. A properly prepared and painted hive is damp-proo Now keeping out wet is essential, but keeping out moisture also involves keeping in moistu re, and except during rain or deposit of dew or mist,

232 HIVE PATTERNS AND MATERIALS an unpainted (which ma),!x- a crcosotcd) hive has the advantage. ;rh,' moisture tends to dry off from the outsidt~ and the inside is drier. With an unpainted hive, however, it is important to secure that Wt t is prevented from entering by defc.:cts in the structurl. Rot Gm hl" prevented by creosote or the like, and damp hy outside packing and (ovl>ring: in the bad season or at It'as! waterproof covering (83.2) from the time manipulation ceases in the autumn until required in the spring. CrfO()st~ v. Paitl! 940. For free ('xposure in cold weather, tht' bees ate quieter ill a painted.hive, but it is not yet proved that there is always a nct gain seeing how much cheaper sunlight is than holw)' ~\." a suurn' of heat. Creosote is much more quickly applied than paint and pcnerrat('s joints better. It also lasts longer., a wcll-ctt'o$otcd body requiring no attention for a number of years. Painting every 2 year:.; i~ good practice A painted hive may be used a.< soon as the paint i, dry, but a creosote hive should be exposed to the air for about 3 weeks, and if creosoted by dipping, any parts for use for honey storattc should be exposed for longer, and until free from smell. It is, therefore, best to prepare such parts in the dead seasons well!x-fore the harvest. This is the time when protection is most important. Parts wanted for immediate use for the harvest can be used untreated and creosoted after the harvest is over. Finishes of th, Futur, 942. Efficiency, at a price., is more important than appearance. There is room for experimenting and no occasion to follow slavishly the art of the house decorator. Aluminium paint has been shown to have the highest water-proofing qualities as a paint, due probably to the overlapping and impervious nature of the Rakes, acting like slates on a roof. A coat of varnish also goes far further than a coat of paint in keeping out wet. A bituminous paint has better waterproofing qualities than any other and some are to be had coloured. A second coat might be aluminium. The author covers his hive bodies in winter and is experimenting with shellac varnish as an alternative to paint and creosote, being cheap, quickly applied, dry in a rew hours, and not blistering. Boiled oil alone might be worth trying. We shall hear more of the cellulose paints. Painting HivlS 943. Returning now to orthodox painting the best procedure involves the following: Before assembling the parts of a new hive, paint all joints or soak patent stopping into the end grain that will M.a".,?

233 210 HIVES AND THEIR ACCESSORIES be in the joint;, and before or after as;embly, Coat any knots there may be with patent stopping, or weak glue with white or red lead mixed in. After assembly, drive in all nails with a nail punch so that the heads are below the surface. See tha, the hi"e is dry. Smooth off all rough parts and round off sharp edges with sandpaper. Give the first, or primary coat of paint, then stop all nail holes and other hob or cracks, if any, with a stopping of equal parts of putty and white lead, or one of the stoppings sold in patent top tins for use by coach builders, finally smoothing off with fine sandpaper. Plastic wood is a good stopping For a primary coat use red lead and boiled oil in the ratio of 2 lb. red lead to not less than 3 pints oil. Do not add turpentine as the risk of blistering is increased) and boiled oil is better than raw oil and driers. Tht.~ paint recommended can m' purchased from a paintshop though not sold ready-made in tins. The primary coat should be a thin coat and allowed 4-8 hours to dry. For a second coat a readymade paint can be used and for a third coat (omitted from edges which tend to stick together) the same or a ready-made enamel paint may be used, but th{'se should be paints sold for outside work and guaranteed made of linseed oil, turp<:otine, and mainly white lead For a home-made paint the following proportions are good: White lead, 10 lb.; zinc oxide, SIb.; raw linseed oil, I gallon; turpentine, about i pint; and 5 lumps of patent drier about the size of a walnut, or about 8 oz. japan drier. Add raw sienna until the white has a cream shade. Re-painting a Hive 946. When re-painting a hive in good condition rub down with a stiff bristle brush, washing if necessary, and when quite drf gire two thin or one normal coat. If in bad condition, give one thin coat and then stop cracks or holes, rub down with sandpaper and give a final coat on exposed faces. If old and rough the paint must be stripped with a blow lamp and scraper and the whole treated as a new hive. Putty may be used for stopping, but a filler is sold in the paintshops Remember always that there are certain weak spots requiring special attention. If there are wooden legs, rot commences at the bottom and they may well be tarred. The next weakest spot is at the junction between the Iloor board and first body or outer cover. The Iloor board is best tarred underneath and paint should be carried finch o,'er the joint and say 1 inch within the entrance. It is good to sand the Ilight board while the paint is wet. The edges of bodies should be painted, the first two coats extending over, say, [ inch of the inside, but avoid heavy paint on edges apt to stick.

234 HIVE PATTERNS AND MATERIALS When rc.painting, the bodies may convcni"l\ily be piled one on another, turned alternately, so that the edges cros~ but for new work with edgt"!' to be paimej the w(lrk must he done ill ~taf!c!'l, It i~ \.:oi1vcnil..'nt to support thl' bnui(.:'s on,l projet.:ting har or h;lulk, or they may h( strung on a hori/.onral bar supported :U hoth ~'1ll1..., rakillf! s('r<:ral b{)dil~ with a margin a.t both ends for «;ttl} h:wuling. C%ur if IlhJf Apparently th(.' h('(~~ prcfn yellow to whitt' and theu dark blue. Red is dislikej and pale hluc, green and pink: are rdatively neutral.. Drifting is ;lpt to O\Tur to preft'rred ro!nur.... and will not be much hindt'fl'j hy rd~'iflg. on colour alow.: for disritu:tion, It i... by grouping a.nd especially hy di~tinf!:llh.hiug objl.. \,'ts. in the foreground that drifting is to be pn:\'cmcu (~e(' 777).

235 SECTIOS' FIll FR.1MES, SECTlOSS,IXD FOUSDATJOS Frames in General 950. The size of the hive has been discussed under" Hivt'S" in 812 to 815, to which reference should be made. 'Vo now turn to the general consideration of the siz.e and proportions of individual frames. Prt!erentt for Ont-pitt! Combs 951. Except in the little-used "long idea" hi"e (826) in which frames are used side by side in one body, both for breeding and storjng, hives arc divided vertically by horizontal divisions into two or morc sections, and the combs have to be similarly divided. ~rhis is unfortunate, as it is contrary to the instinct of the bee. To the discomfort of the beekeeper, the bees are constantly trying to have matters the way they want, br re-uniting the combs in frames which arc above one another. A "bee spacc fl is [eft between, but this does not pre\'cnt the union. I f the bee space is much over or under size the trouble is increased, as in the former case the bees will seal it up and in the latter case will utili7.e it for storage or brood comb (848) The trouble is lessened if a thick top bar is used, say ~ to I inch, instead of the i bar sometimes found, and especially if the beekeeper will give the top and bottom bars a brush over with vaseline (petroleum jelly). This not only hinders comb building over the bars, but makes it easier to remove any propolis or wax the bees may deposit, A pot of vaseline with a stiff paint-brush in it should be kept handy where frames are assembled, and frames and other hive parts cleaned. The edges of bodies and parts of clearer boards and the like may be lightly vaselined, but it is well to keep vaseline off painted bodies, against the time of re-painting The instinct of the bee is so strong that, if frames are not in line, the, bees frequently build trunk-like extensions from the top of one frame extending to and spreading over and into the frame above, wax being robbed from other places for the purpose. One may 212

236 'FRAMES, SECTIONS AND FOUNDATION 213 utilize this instinct of making one-piece combs in several ways, To get incomplete combs built right down to the bottom of frames one may place the frames above an occupied body. On the other hand, to start comb building it is better to place frames of foundation hi/ow an occupied body When the brood nest is no! divided the nest can be expanded hy the queen without hindrance. The food is storeo next the brood, mainly around the upper part of ie. When the food supply is right there are generally two or three rows of cclls between brood and StoTt'S. If there' are more it indicates shortage of stott's; jf less, it indicat~ that the incoming stores ar<." pressing- on the brood and more space will be required. Com}Js in a State of ~\'aturl! 955. In nature, the comb~ H'J.C'h tht: hive wajls, being s.uspended from the top and secured at the side~ to within a. fi..'w incht... of the bottom of the comb. Owing to the form of the hexagonal cdls, the weight of the comb tends to draw it out, distorting tih: cells and drawing: in the sides. 'rhis distortion IS prevented and the side pull resisted by fixture to the side walls. It is, however, evident that extension to the side walls serves no other important purpose as, for example, in controlling vcntilation~ as the bees will respect a bee space at the sides of frames right up to the top, the extension to the frame itself giving all the mechanical support needed at the side's. On the other hand, if the frames in the several bodies arc not in alignment, and espt'cially if they are staggered, the control of vemil.tion of illdiddual frames must be rendered more difficujt. The Form of the Brood Nest 956. In maintaining.a continuous comb surface there is) how... ever, a limit; one does not find a fully developed bees' nest consisting only of one large comb, but of several in parallel. Let us consider the occupation of these parallel combs by the bees. In winter the cluster shrinks in size and tends to a spherical shape offering the least external cooling surface. Actually the bees take advantage of the combs as packing, and the cluster is longer measured perpendicular to the combs than it is parallel with them. Again, the vertical dimension is somewhat smaller, giving a larger area in contact with the stores above Now, as warmer weather comes, this formation breaks up and a different one is formed. Brood i. spread over the combs in ever-enlarging ovals, the bees occupying a much larger diameter parallel with the combs than perpendicular to them. Indeed, sometimes, for a short time, fewer combs contain brood, alehough

237 ZI4- FRA;lUS, SECTIONS AND FOUNDATION thn(" is much more of it, as shown in Fig. 20. The author. has obs('nrcd a rough rdationship of 7 inches diameter for three framcs occupied hv brood, a ratio of 8 to 5 in width and thickness., T')Jis is in markti contrast to the winter cluster formation, in which thl.. ratio is nearer 5 to 8. The combs now form the pr'incipal thermal protection and a calculation., too mathematical for demonstration hert', indicates that fewer bees per square inch are required to pack th (,_' comh facc~ on the outside of the brood nest than to keep up trlc warmth by more Of less closing the spaces between combs on the {'xpo:;;('d margins between combs. A B ~I~II~ ~ I ~IIIII Fi,'e combs showing small ovals of brood during clustering period. Brood in B is three times that in A. Three combs showing large ovals of brood following clustering period. FIC Z-;:).-'FORMS OF BROOD NF.5T IS SPRINGTIME The brood nest extends, increasing in diameter and occupying. a larger number of frames, until the inner walls of the hive arc approached. These waffs are, however, of but little service as direct packmg for the brood as the bees keep the space outside the frames and combs for traffic. In this way, the brood reaches its maximum width across the fmme about the time five or six British frames or six or seven Americ.an frames are occupied. On further extension of the ncost no increase of diameter is possible, but by the time this stage is reached there is some excess of bees available for night and other cold spells. The cluster, however, grows more freejy if its expansion is unimpeded, and so far the arguments a.re in favour of Jarge combs, larger even than M. D. combs. Unimportanct of Cubical FDrm 959. In cold weather there must be some advantage in minimizing the surfaces of the internal walls of the hive through which hl"::lt ~t"lpi;: Nnw thp f'lihp form vives: a lnwe.r ratio nf,:urfare- til

238 FRAMES, SECTIONS AND FOUNDATION 215 volume for a given capacity than any other rectangular form, hut the argument for body dimensions approaching the proportions of a. cube ha.s been push{~d ton far. In the first pl:.u:c) ~omc heat is a.ctually conserved by raising the,' hodr on a lift inserted ill winter hetween dl(' floor and brood chamher; although sllch an audition largely incrca'''t''s the surfan' and causes a marked departure in proportions. In th(' second place, it should he llot('d rhat prl.)pofriuf1s departing; considerably from the cubic gin' ncarly r}w same ratio bctwt'cli surface and volume for a given (,:..apa.city. For example, if, inst~;i,d of makjng the leng,th, width and height ("qual, OIl(' of these dinum SiOIlS be made equal to half that of tht' other two, the ca.pacity being kept the same, the surface is only incteaspd by less than 6 plot cent. For example, a cube 15 XIS X IS inches has a. volume of 3,375 cubic inchc.."sand surface of I d50 square inches, A body di'q X 18'9 X 9'45 has the same capacity and a surface of J squan~ inches, less than 6 per cent, more. '[his is an extreme difference. Further Advantages of Large From" 960. The larger the frame, the fewer frames there are to!>andle and the less is the cost of the' frames n('ccssary to carry a given amount of brood. Frames might be larger than the M.D. The Quinby was larger. Very large combs, however, require to be well supported by wiring, and, if much larger than the M.D., would be awkward to handle with safety. Until queens are evell more prolific' than those this century ha.._~ known, it is unlikely that anything larger than an M.D. (rame will be used, although with improved breeding we may yet require a frame, say, 20 inches long and 15 inches deep, and 12 to 15 of them for a single brood chamber. A IVorking Compromise 961. If only a few very large frames were used, the top surface exposed for supering would be far from square and relatively small. Thus, a compromise has to be madc~ and this points to a chamber nearly square, the smaller dimension being across the frames and the depth about half the major dimcn,ion for double brood nest', or three-quarters for a single nest. Small departures in either of these proportions make but little difference. The beekeeper knowing the habits and prolificacy of the strain he expects to keep and studying the above and 812 to 815 and 42, will have no difficulty in finding standard frames and bodies very well suited to his needs. He had better err in the direction of assuming that queens are going to be more prolific and that larger stocks are going to be the rule.

239 2 I 6 FRAMES, SECTIOX-S AND FOUNDATION Form in R,lati"" t. Manag,ment 962. The problem of frame size and proportion is dependent upon the system of management. r t depends upon whether single, or double or multiple, brood chambers are employed. There is Jess risk of swarming with a single chamber of adtquatt Ji:::;e than with a double chamber; the queen is hindered in going from chamber to chamber, l~pecially in going downwards, and the bees are more liable to build supersedure queen cells where a divided brood chamber is used. On the other hand, the double chamber is more flexible and admits of certain much-favoured manipulations and methods of management. Again, however, management is simplified with the sijj~l(" chamber. With single-chamber management a deeper comb is desirable, although the Langstroth and British Standard are frequently used. The M.D. and British deep arc better, carrying more winter stores in the upper part of the combs and protecting the bees better than a comb which forces them near the floor board and entrance; but bees winter well in a double-brood chamber well occupied. Excluders arc less necessary with the deep frames of singlc,chamber hives; indeed, they arc frequently omitted (873-4). Fram" for Supering 963. \Vhere large harvests arc the rule and extracted honey is worked for, Langstroth or British ~tandard frames are frequently used for supering, especially where these frames are used in the brood n<'st. A super of shallow frames will weigh, however, say 35 to 60 lb. according to dimensions and number of frames, which is a more convenient weight, at least for the amateur, to handle. The comb in the shallow frame, moreover, is more suited to uncapping with a single stroke of the knife. «,-"nerc narvcs'cs are smail and the Row irregular, (he shallow frame is the most suitable and especially for snatching a ha... est during a short dow. Dimtns;ons of Frames 964. The usual dimensions of frames are given in Table XXI and Fig. 21 (p The British frames were standardized with a i-inch top bar, but this is on the light side and i-inch bars are frequently used. The British Deep frame is a modification of the Standard, being 3l inches deeper. The side bars are rather light for this depth, although made of tougher wood than is required for, and used in, Americali frames. The British Commercial frame was introduced by Simmins, who urged the Standard frame too small, but is practically

240 ~~ ~..-.._._. -,. ~... ~ ~ ~ 1:'... -:: -:: -:: -:: -:: -:: I -:l... -= ":: ":: -:' "'::' '::" "::....., " if ;.. 1 '!" '!" " '" 3 "" '" "';.: ",..::.. ~ ~ -;: - ;::... ~ ;:: ';\': Ol :.. ~ " <: 0 f-< z ;;' 't: -;,... -:: :1" ~ 2 g " '".. > is " " -... '"" - 'C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ < ~ ~ ~ ':; - :; :; " "*' " " "... : ~ ::- T: :; ::-." ~ ;;.. " Ii." " ;;;, 0 '0 '" r.~ "." ~ ~ ~ ~ '".g ;;S '" ;;; ~ --g 0., '" " ~ "... E " ~ ;;; c -" g ~ ~ (J g ] OS ;;; c.3.,; :E j ~ 1:0 1:0.~ q 0 s c 't: c ~ ~ ].:! ;;: i ~ ~ '" '" 217

241 '2 I R f'rames, SECTIO~S AND FOUNOATION superseded by American sil,es where large frames are wanted, British frames are made also to take Dadant foundation. 'Thc British Shallow frame is frequently made It inch wide, giving more support for til(' comb when!!sed with the I~-inch wide spaci!1~ and givillp: a f!ood surface to which to cut down, when uncapping Attn.:cmcnt has been reached recently among American manufactun. r~ as to the dimensions of Langstroth frame'!!. ~rhe!\'1.d. Hropd frames arc similar, save in deprh and spacing. -rht frame:. ~ch('du!ed are those with the ''short'' top bar~. A lnng-cr "fulllcngth"' ttlp bar is also recogni1.t.'d and is made 19-k inch('~ lonl,;, The I'd, f), frames arc scheduled with i-inch bottom bar to take Dadant ftlundation. T'ht same bar is us.ed with Langstroth frames for the same purpose Fig. 2I.-DIMENSIONS OF FRAMES. Tbe Quinby frame, now practically replaced by the l\1,d" was I 9-i X r I inches and is sometimes referred to as the Jumbo. The American top bars are sometimes made I inch wide in the -centre portion The Australian frames are made in a variety of sizes not differing seriously from the American sjzes, save in the depth of the shallow frame, The sizes given are those standardized in Victoria, but dimension B is also made I 7~ as in the U.S,A The top bars are sometimes I inch wide and sometimes i inch thick. Frames of the Hoffman pattern have no "V" edge. Comh Ar<a i" Frames 968. Figures are given for the area of the comb space in frames in Table XXII, based on the dimensions "b" and "e" in Table XXI

242 FRAMES. SECTIONS AND toundat!on 2! 9 and, of ('ourse, requiring correction whl're top, bottom or sidt~ bar~,h(' used differing: in dimensions from those' scheduled. T'o obtain tht total comb surface exposed on both :;idt"j tlw tlt!ufl's givc'n must he doubled. TABLE XXII r..hke of Frame. Nllmrn-r of } r~mr.,. Briti!lh Standard Brnod t:)fi zq 1'9 4'5 (,3 R R ~o 10(,3 I 117.'i British Det'p Brood J43 '9' 441,94 '91 I l~s 14 R( '7 L:: 1 British Standard Shall(l~' 66 IF t9s,64 ' 19< <' ' British Commercial ' lZ '49 S-'A I()98 In: 1647 Langstroth Deep. ' " I4g!hj 1097 flit 16"'1 Langstrotll Shallow 89 I77 21)6 344 SF )1(. i!o6j. M.D. Deep '7' )4' (Il 6RJ 102<; 11f}7 1709! 2050 M.D. Shallow. 86 '73 '59 )46 : 5'9, 69' 865 i 1038 Victorian Deep '17 '74 4".5"4 8 : 82Z i 109S 1369 I 1041 Victorian ShaBow. 6, ')0 '91,60 389: S 9' 649 ' 779 ' HoneJ' Content of Frames 969. Based on the dimen,ions in Table XXII and allowing well-ripened honey and an. average space of i inch including any air,paces, the maximum average weight~ of h()n~y in a comb are gi\-'cfj in Table XXIII (p. 220). The wax add5,sayd to 4 per cent. to ~he weight given. For average honey takes and fairly full supers, ifsomcwhatirregular, 5 to 10 per cent. <::an be taken offthc~ maximum figures, but brood combs are seldom found built out to full thickncs, all ;)ver, save when used in supers. Spacing of Comh, 970. The Langstroth Brood framc, were spaced '.), but arc frequently made!! inches. Oadant advocated I! inch, claiming :>etter wintering and less swarming. The British metal end was lesigned for 1'45 inches which approaches the Dadant practice; 15 now made, these ends are generally oversize, and, in fact, combs in British Brood chambers approximate to J j-inch spacing (see also Fig. 22.) Shallow frames are frequently gi"en the same spacing

243 220 FRAMBS, SECTIONS AND FOUNDATION but the American shallow frames are also made for spacing up to 1. inches and the British wide metal end gives nominally It, but generally in excess of this. The use of a wider spacing in the super gives economy in wax building, reduces the number of combs to be handled in extracting without increasing the area of cappings to be removed, and is said to discourage breeding in supej1;. TABLE XXIII M.utMUM AVE1t..ACE WEICHT 0' HONEY III A FULL COMB, IN POUNDS Make. of Frunet. Spacing. 't Briti.h Standard Brood. British Deep Brood.. British Standard ShUlow 5.0 British Commercial. Langstrotb Deep Langstrotb Sballow. M.D. Deep.. M.D. Shallow. Victorian Deep. Victorian Shallow 972. French and German beekeepers favour a ",ide spacing for brood combs, using 35 to 40 mm.; generally 37, which approximate to the British h~5 inch Attempts have been made to discourage drone comb by reducing the normal spacing, but this hinders ventilation and is not an effecti ve remedy Spacing is generally determined by the width of the frames, the well-known Hoffman design, illustrated in Fig. 1.1, having the upper portion of the end bars expanded. This serves not only to keep the frames corr~y spaced but to hold them parauel, an important consideration in widely spaced deep frames, for if the spacing is increased anywhere, due to lack of alignment, the bees are liable to 'build out burr comb from the side of the hive to utilize the space, hindering manipulation. Where the bees use much propolis, metal spacing pieces on the frames are preferred The British metal end secures the spacing only at the top, and ",here deep fr&mes are used considerable care must be exercised



246 FRAM.ES, SECTIONS A!\D FOUSDATION '2'1 I to secure tha.t they arc assembled squarel), and that tilt,,\" arc hllnp: trul\' from tiw cross bars. 9"76. 'rhc space between frame~ anu!-tide walls is made 1 to i, S()m('time~ a minimum gap of lir to i is cnsutl'd averaging {if inch. h.r the ust" of metai stud:; projecting from rill' enu:-. of tht, franws. This reduce!\. the risk of injury to bees when removinf!, fr;lmc~. ~rhe studs should be fixed nt'ar the bottom of the frame, S<lr, I \ to 2 illcht~ from the bottom (for spacing Between and Below i,'r:u;ws, s("e 970 and 848). Di'Llided Framrs 977. The b('t..'keeper i:-; hampered hy lack of inien.:hallgcability if more than one size of brood comh is u..,(,d in hi:-. apiarv, v('t the standard brood combs, and especially the D., an' large 'for' USc in nuclei. If smaller framei> an' used, hnwl'n:r, for the latter, interchangeability may be lost, and these small romlh C;lIlIlOI h{' prepared or used at any time in the stock hives. HcrH..'l" tflt' ijl'a. of a hrood framt" which can be divided and put together again. Now as hithnlo carried out thi~ division ha~ generally innllvcd the sacrific(' of Oilt' lu~ on each half. '"rhc two halves arc generally heavily propoli'/.ed when us(.'d together, and their use is ~uch a messy joh that tlwy art' soon discarded. In the author\ design the LangstToth bet space is used to prcl-'ent propojjzation, and the frame is fixed by a smalj wedge with \'cry slight taper readily dislodged with a hin'-tool. It is shown in Fig:. 23 (p. 222) as applied to British Standard, Langstroth and to M.D. frames. 'I'he small frame so ohtaincu is of!!ood proportiofls for its purpose and fiv{' or six of them make a more compact and flexible nude us than three large frames. ~rhey arc prepared, and may be retained at any time, in a stock with standard frames. A standard brood chamber may be modified to receive them by adding a permanent central division and two entrances, or it m.ay have fout entrances and two movable division boards dividing the long spaces on either side of the central division. The frames do not reach the bottom of such a body, but this is no hindrance, as it admits of cutting entrances at the bottom of the side walls, the body standing on a Rat board for Roor, projcctinf! for Right boards 'rhe device is particularly convenient to the small beekeeper raising a few queens, as he need not graft or cut up combs, the cel1s raised on one double frame serving at once for use in two standard hi, cs. The man in a large way will find advantage from a small frame which can go into or be prepared in a normal hive No divisible frame is a real success in which the small frame cannot be suspended the same way up in the small hive as in the large frame, especially if queen cells are to be raised in it.

247 22::!. FRi\~tES, SECTIONS AND FOl'KDATION".humbling Frames 980. Frames must be assembled all square and free from warp and set'ure]y nailed to make a permanent job. SpeciaJ blocks 0, a.<;~i.:mbly jip:::. are sold by the appliance dealers which arc of a!'.~istanc< ill quickly assembling the part~ squarely before nailing.. Fim' win nail~ art' u~{.'d and tht: cement-coated oll(.'s hold best. Wedge 7" 6" J' }"4 Ii' Dotted lincs.how MW carrier frwne.s may be made by a.ddmg pieces to sta.rui<vd fram $ Wedge FIG. z3.-new DIVISIBLE FRAME. 3" rn '"; The Holfman frame has wide ends as illustrated in Fig. 21, and to minimize propohzing one edge of each frame is given a V section. W,hen assembling, with the face of frame towards the observer and top bar at top, the left-hand end should show its V edge,

248 FRAMES, Sf:CTJONS AND FOUSDATION '223 and right.hand end its plai" ( dgc. By adhering to this plan Olle St.."(:Uf{'S that any two adjacent frames en:n after turning either end for end, w~l1 alw~ys so come together that there is one V ('dgc at ('very meetlng-poillt. Fixing Foundation 982. Foundation should not nt.: in'crtcti in frames in a cold room and preferably not more thall ;l. (l"w wet'b, ("wfore it is required, a..." howl'vcr stored, it te!lj~ ullder the infha'jk,(, of challgt's of tt'mpcratuft: to buig(' bcrween the wire"i usul filr flxint!, tlw distorrioll being cumulative. ~rhe result i... a pt'rmafll"ntly crookru l'omb, the usc of which!('ads to an incr(.'a~cd tendcncv to build drone comh. Split Top liar 983, In Gn:at Britain a top bar is son1ctime5. U~t d wirh a ~awcut through it, into which the ~h('ct of foundation m;ly h(., slipped. 'rhe cut may be opened by a mechanical llcvict: (:xt'rtin~ prt'~'sure on tht ends of the bar, Of, with a link- practice, i~ quickly opclu:d by inserting a :-:.mall flat kt,y and turnillg it at right anglt'~. After the foundation is inscrtt'd it may be secured by two or thrct..' wire nails, (If by the use of melted wax. 'The top of the split bar offers a favouritt, location for the wax morh to lay its eggs, and for thi~ n::a"'oil, and to secure the advantages of a deeper and strongn bar, a bar with unbroken top face is to be preferred. Top Bar with TVedge 984. A good method of fixing, widely used, is that of driving a strip of wood of wedge section into a groo\t adjau:nt to a (:cntral groove into which the foundation is tucked. For tbi::. purpose a hard wood block is useful with a rebated end, the projectin!! end bearing on the side of the frame and the rebate being wid{' enough to overlap the wedge and stand clear of the founciation. The block is moved along as it is struck. The wedge is a little apt to spring out. The remedy involving least time is to put two or three spots of liquid glue on the wedge before insertion. Some break the wedge into three pieces and find they hold better than one piece, no adhesive being used. Fixing with Moltm Wax 985. One of the best and oldest methods of fixing foundation, or starters, to the top bar is by the use of liquid wax. The frame is laid on a board, having a block on it fitting inside the frame against the top bar, and of such a thickness as tv support the foundation,

249 224 FRAMI:S, SECTIONS AND FOUNDATION when laid on it, just ("entral on the top har. Wax heated a little above its melting-poinr is now poured along the joint. A spoon may be used, kept ill the molten wa."{ and having its tip squeezed up to form more of a spout. Alternatively, a conical-ended metal tube sold for th(.' purpose may be used, having a small hole at the lip from which the wax emerges. If the temperature of the wax hath is kept just right, the work can be done very quickly with this implement. ()thcrs use a thin flat stiff paint-brush which is \'t'ry handy, and some go so far as to wax the inside of the frame with it) enticing the bees to build the comb out to the frame. Such wax is not wasted, but there arc other ways of securing the result (277). The wax may be melted on water and the brush dipped through to the water to rcmo\'(' superfluous wax A wax melter and pourer is soml'tirnes used consisting of a vessel with narrow spout surrounded by a water bath extended nearly to the spout. Quick work may be done if the temperature is right, but if left standing the spout is apt to cool. Useful Tip, 987. Another "worth while tip" is to reduce the meltingpoint of the wax temporarily by the addition of a good oil varnish first thinned by the addition of an equal volume of turpentine. The diluted varnish may be stored for the purpose, and one adds to the molten wax about one-fortieth part of the varnish. This works well in a meiter. The turpentine eventually evaporates and the varnish hardens so that there is a gain of strength Another tip occasionally worth while is to make up candles of beeswax or purchase those made for church purposes. Wax is poured from the candle as desired, and if the wick is kept of suitable length there need be no soiling of the wax. For rapid clean work two or three candles should be to hand for use in rotation. Cutting Foundation 989. Foundation may be cut with a sharp knife against a straight edge, but it is useful to have a board the exact finished size required and to cut all round it. However it mav be 'secured, the foundation should be so cut to size as to hang a little clear of the side bars and t to t inch clear of the bottom, to allow for stretching when the bees get to work on it. Wiring Fram" 990. In addition to fixing at the top, all foundation in brood frames should be wired. It is not necessary to wire shallow frames,

250 FRAMES, SECTIONS AND J.'OtINDATION 22S but dcsirablt, if they art' to be transported in a vchid(. \\riril)~ serves to SC'Cl1n: thl' building of a flat comb and helps to support tht' comb in warm weather and against shock or accidental mishandling. 'rhe comb should Ilot Ileed internal support wlwfl in a prnpt'tly constructed extractor, but the wiring may help Ju:rc: also LI1It':!>"S a stitt wire is employed as ill the I)aJant foundation, it is important that it should be stretched tig,htly so a.." to give proper support. Every wire in a properly wired (rami.' should give.1 twang if p[uckt.. d. --rhc ends of the frame offer the he~t support fi)f wirittg~ moreov(.'r, n.'rticai wires., unk~"'s crimped, do not give such a W)od hold in hot weather a..1:i horizontal wires, bur wirt.. 'S sloped at different angles gin~ good support. T'hc wire u5(:d is tinned iron wire, o I 25 to 0-' So inch in diameter (!\o. 28 or 30 British S.W.G.) being very suitable. I ( the bars are pierced (or wlring and the wood is vt'ry soft it is useful to employ metal eyelet', which may be purchased very cheaply for the purpose. Their usc enables the wiring to be done more quickly and more securely. Methods of Wiring 992. The simplest wiring consi,,, of horizontal wires 2 to.3 inches apart, with a smaller space, say, I! inches, next the top bar and a small space, say, I inch, from the bottom bar. 1")1(" top part needs the best support and the free bottom end of the foundation is also in need of close support. 'The wire may be in one continuous piece, the first cnd being secured under the head of a small tintack or gimp pin. The first wire must be pulled tight{.'st, as the tightening of later wires tends to reduce the tension on those already done. The last end is also secured by a tin-tack or gimp pin A favourite method of wiring British Standard frames is that shown in Fig. 24, the first fixture being made at A and the wires being inserted in the order shown, the last to pass being looped through the upper wire SO that, when tightened, all is drawn taut. The bottom wire presents no difficulty in this respect. Some insert staples or nails bent into hooles, but there is no saving in time and the bees dislike stout wire or nails and the like, even more than the thin stuff. Parallel wiring is shown in the adjacent illustration and is suitable for electric embedding. The additional wire, shown dotted, draw! taut the top wire as indicated and ensures against distortion of the comb at irs weakest point, but it cannot be electrically embedded s< conveniently. M~ Q

251 j Lee"s wired foundation. Dadant's wired foundation. FIG WrRtNG FRAMES.

252 FRAMES, SECTIONS AND FOUNDATION 2'27 Embeddillg thr If/ire 994. The wiring should be done bofor<' the foundation is tixed to the noss-bar and the wirt's should afterwards be t'mbedded ill the foundation. For fhi..; purpose it is cotl\'cnit'nt to t'mploy a board. as incii,,:ated in 985 for USt' fnr w,1.\;ing t(hhljation, having a Ct.'t1tral hlock of ~uitabk thickncs'o-; practically tilling the insid( an.'<t of tll(' frame. 'rill' foundation is most quil'kly Clllbt'ddcd by means of :til electric embedder sold for the purpose, by' which the wires arc clcc~ tri\.'.j.l1y heated. Failing this, olll t'ml~ddijig whcel!-.old for the purpose may be used. I t is used warm, ht. ing. dipped in hot water. A small bradawl with a rounded end havillp: a groove (pr the wirl' can be used. A copper soldering iron with grooved tip holds the heat well. A plain grooved wheel, used cold, is satisfactory if used in a warm room. Use of If/ood Splints 995. Wood splints have been used instead of wire, these being strip~ of straight-grained knot-free wood about Jr-inch diamct(or, dippt. J ill wax and pressed into the foundation. Thes(" af(' ~Iaccd, ('rticallv. The heavier kind of reed-like rod used in making I ndian matting is!:lui table, Small splints are t"specially u~(."ful when fixing pieces of foundation accurately in position to enahle- the b(,(."s to repair damaged comb or to replace drone with worker comb. The drone comb and accommodation ccl!, should be completdy removed and the foundation accurately plaud (not nl"ce~sarily a close tit) to start the repair on right lines. The beekeeper should make sure to match the placing of the facets forming the bottom of the cd b., so that the cell walls will be continuous with those exjstjl1~ on both sides of the comb. If accurately placed in position the bees will make good any gaps. If/ired Fwndation 996. Mention should be made of foundation sold, having wires already embedded and ready for inserting through holes in the sides of the frames. Especial mention should also be made of the novel foundation sold by the Dadants, having vertical crimped wire and a special method of fixing in a divided top bar. No foundation is so quickly fixed in place, and the results are excellent if the instructions are observed. A recent innovation by Messrs. Lee (Great Britain) should also be mentioned, illustrated in Fig. 24. The foundation is prevented from slipping by the V formation of the w.ires, and the ends of the V s are secured with nails in the frames, passing through the split top bars. The two outer ends should be secured with tacks.

253 228 FRAMES, SECTIONS AND FOUNDATION This foundation can h<.' inserted with practice about as quickly a~ the Da.JalJt pattern, and the thinner wirt'~ otter ks~ difficultv to the bee:-., but ~oml' ski{! is required to avoid warping.. Dimuuiom of Sccti(ms 997. The wooden cases in which comb honer is made for salt He called sections and arc made from a tough; knot-free wood, (.liown as bass or lime) by special machinery designed to secure the ncct..'ssary accuracy of workmanship. The size most employed is probably the 4:l--inch square, but a no )('c-way section is made 5 X 4 inches to hold the same amount of lotlt'y, and both larger and smaller sections have been used The American pattern of d-inch section, being the patt( rn n most general usc, has an overall width of Ii inches with bee-way~ >r I! inchl"s with no bee-ways. The corresponding 4- X s-inch ection has a width of I i inches. These will give a content up to he American requirements (sec 639 to 649) 'The British-made section runs 1 I';; to 2 inches wiol", and he larger figure is required if sections of full weight of the Irish tandard arc to be produced) but the American sizes arc also largl., ly lsed in Great Britain. lee-way and No Bet-way The pattern with bee-ways is preferred to the no-bee-way ectioll in appearance as a Ilnished article, but is not so easily cleaned nd occupies more space in packing. 'The no-bee-way section must, owever, be glazed whereas glazing is not necessary with the other nd the transparent wrappings now obtainable for them serve the urpose of protecting the honey and exhibiting it. The two-heeray section is more easily cleaned than the four-bee-way and offers etter protection, The extra bee-ways in the four-bee-way section ro not necessary and are of doubtful value. D/ding Sft/ioru It is a mistake to fold sections dry. The corners will mainly be weakened and are liable to give way at an awkward loment. If the strips of wood are laid out in a row, tbe. V " rooves may be quickly moistened, preferably on the outer side, rich a camcl's-hair brush, or the stock may be left overnight in a :osed box in the presence of water, so that the air becomes saturated; >r example, by placing a damped doth over them and a wetter one n top and replacing the cover. The appliance dealers ",,11 a lilvenient' wooden jig for the rapid and accurate assembly of :ctions.

254 FRAMES, SECTIONS AND FOUNDATION 229 lnstrting Foundation! in Sutions Sections are sold with plain or split top, tht' split St''''iug to grip the foundatiot1. ~rh(' ~plit top is Il(lt \'('ry satisfactory, tht t(.'nd('nl ~.' being for fh{' found:ltion to hall~ (fook,, d and also to offer all irregular surface Oll the top. If ~",(l strips of fouudation arc to be used, this being tfw ht---st practice, the split top dot's not!locrn' (see 1005 below). J 003. Sections are sold also with ~r()o\',cd sides, the foundation being cut by gauge, so that it may be slippt d into tilt' grooves. "rht'rl' is some demand for these, but the d(.'~ign most generally { tnployl.'d is the pl.lin-toppc'o, pjain-sided scrt;oll in which the foimjatioh i~ fixed in two pieces, top and bottom, hy tlw usc of mdtnj wax Where there are quantitit"s to he handk d, the \VoOllman {;}undatiol1 fixer is in general usc~ ohtainable from appliance dealers. J005. A favourite method of htting foundations i... to employ two strips 31 inchc:. atld.~ indll~:' wide respt'ctivdy, the wider strip being fixed across the rop and the narrower across the bottom, leaving a gap of about i to * inch to be tilled by the b, es. This procedure helps to secure sections built out to the wood, the worst part gt'ncr.. ally being the bottom. For fixing with wax the foundatioll.hollid rest on a block, fitting the section, and of such rh ickness as to hold the foundation central in the section. The waxing is done as when fixing foundation in frames (see 985). Fix to the top only except th" bottom strip which should be fixed at its ends as well. Another tip sometimes given t() secure well-built combs i~ to paint the in~ides of the section box with wax After assembling a rack of sections it is a good rlan to paint over the top and bottom faces quickly with hot paraffin wax applied with a wide soft brush in a few stroke's. This enables the sections to be cleaned very readily later. Choice and Care of Foundation Foundation most acceptable to the bees has a good aroma and a good supply of wax at the base of the cell walls. In testing for aroma comparison should be made between specimens at the same temperature. Foundation is made in light, medium and heavy weight. The last named has a heavier base, and the bec's are so apt to leave the heavy wall in the base, starting at once on the cell wall, that no benefit is got from the heavier kind to offset its increased cost per sheet. The most economical make, viz. medium weight, runs 6 to 6! square feet per pound, the heavy weight running 5 to 6, and light weight 6, to 71. In Australia the ligures are perhaps i square foot larger. Foundation made in France generally runs heavier, the heavy and medium grades giving respectively 4-

255 230 FRAMES, SECTIONS AND FOUNDATION and 5 square feet per lb. Foundation for sections run 10 and II square feet per lb. for thin grade, and 12'4- to 12 8 for extra thin. Wired foundation runs rather heavier than here indicated Table XXIV below gh cs the approximate number of sheds off()undatioll per pound in different sizes and common fficasu1tm(.'nt~ of sheets -,uppjjed. TABLE XX1V NUMBER. OF SHEETS N' FOVNDATION PER POt:'ND Dada.nt \Virc<!. Fratn>!'. Dim{'nf,)ons. Number. : British Standard Brood IJ}>: medium 13~ X 8 8. medium, British Deep Rrnnd qi:d1i 6 medium IJ~Xll~ 5 medium British Standard Shallow 13r>'., 14 thin 13l x S 12 thin Langstroth Brood t61/, 7. 7 medium 16~x 81 5 medium Langstroth Shallow 16:} x 4! 12. thin 16~x si ( 8 medium (to thin M.D. Brood 161 x 10! 4 medium : :M.D. Shallow { 8 medium 16~ X thin Australian Shallow 16g x 3~ 18 thin Sections about 100 per lb Excessive acid was employed at one time in foundation making. If soft wat(~r cannot be obtained the use of some acid is desirable (347), but only sufficient to prevent waste of wax. The best comparative test for foundation is to mount s,ampl('s side by side in the same frame and observe the way the bees work on it Foundation exposed to frost becomes brittle, opaque and whitish in appearance. It becomes tougher on the temperature rising and may be restored in appearance and freshened by careful warming. Foundation as purchased is 30 to 50 per cent. stronger in length than width, but this difference largely disappears when the bees have worked it. It can be modified by annealing by exposure to the sun, with care to avoid overheating. Foundation Making in Gmeral The use of foundation is dealt with above and ill 383. We have to deal here with the product and its manul3cture. The

256 FI\AMES, SECTIONS AND FOt'1<J>ATION 231 earliest foundation WilS made by hand in plastr-r of Paris moulds. The product was improved by the substitution of me!1l1 Il",ulds. The Rietschc pn.'ss, still used in remote parts, will give a sefvic('abk' article with enough wax at the base of the w;tlls to givt' the bt'(,'!i a good ~tart, but some skill is required to avoid excessive thickt}(. ~s in the cdl bases~ c\'cn wh<:n closely following tht> illstrw:riofls sold with the press. 'rhe bc(~ arc apt to draw out the wall:;, leaving the thil,.,k hasc. It generally pays the small heekcqkf to send his wax to the foundation maker W}lO will allow him full v;llue and r('turn an equivalent weig.ht of t()uih.l1.tion for <l small sum. It is impot-.'sibf{ to l1);lkc founllation for sections save in m;khincs of the ralln tjrpc, 1012.!\lachine-maut" foundation is much tougllt'r than tlw hand-madt article and much less likd~' to warp <!.th,1 hulgc, 'rhe cheap mach inc's ha\'e rollers made of typl.: mdal. The best product is made with rollers of stel'l built up of numerous dit ~, each t()fning one cell bottom. A much higher pressure can be u~t'd with stt'e) rout:fs than with those of type meta! and thi~ fc!'.utts ill a tou~h product of good appearance, being transparent and with a thin basco Preparing li'ax Shrets far Foundation ]013. In large plants, continuous :-,hcct~ of wax arc: prepared. In a smaller way, sheets arc prepared 011 dipping boards. The dipping board should measure say I inch each way larg' ' than the finished sheet required. Knot-free ma.hogany or pint; i!) ~uita&lc for making dipping boards. The dipping v("ssel (for materials, sec 348) should be, say, 6 inches deeper than the length of the hoards, and is prt:ferably a d{jublc vessel) thus obtainill{! better <..:ontrol of temperature~ 'The inner vessel contains the molten wax Roating on a bodv of water. The water is put in first and allowed to l!oil to drive olf air, and cooled to at least 175~ F, (80" C.) bei()f(' wax is added. The working temperature for dipping should he about 160' ~'. (70" C.), or higher for the thinnest sheets. The u,c[ul range is about 155' to F. (68' to 80' C.), and it is undesirable to exceed the higher figure. The temperature selected should be one found to yield readily sheets giving foundation of the dc'sired weight in the hands of the operator. The contraction during solidification depends upon the molten temperature Two other vc'ssels are required, one to hold the dipping boards and another in which to cool the dipped sheets. The former should be worked at a steady temperature of 120 F. (50' C.), the boards being inserted previously and the water well boiled to drive out air. The cooling vessel should be maintained at a temperature between 900 and F. (720 to 78 C.) For normal working each dipping board is dipped twice

257 23:1- FRAMES, SECTIONS AND FOUNDATION from opposite ends alternate! y, being cooled olf by dipping in the cooling tank between each dip "When the wax has set, it should be cut round the edge and peekd "ff and the dipping board returned to,he water tank for use agam. JOI7. ]'0 retajn a uniform temperature in the dipping tank it is undesirable to add solid wax during working. Wax should be mdti'll in a separate water bath, replenished as required and the molten wax added to the dipping tank as required at about the temperatu,,' of the tank. All scrap from the dipping boards goes straight to the melter (sec, however, 1018). The dipped sheets arc brittle hut become pliable during rolling and retain their pliabilitl 1"h(:' edges of the sheets having been trimmed straight and to a width just exceeding the finished size required, the sheets art ready for the roller press. Rolling Foundation A warm room is required with a temperature between 70' and 80 F. (21' and 2jo C.). The rollers should be raised to blood heat before commencing rolling and will be maintained at about that temperature, the wax sheets being warmed in water at a temperature of 1l0' to F. (.n to 48 C.) before rolling. The higher temperature is necessary for the thinnest sheets. The rollers are lubricated with paste or soap, the latter preferred, but all soap must be washed off all trimmings and scraps before they are returned to the melter The thinner end of the sheet should preferably be inserted first. A spring clip furnished with large wooden faces is useful for drawing off the sheets. Thev may be trimmed to size forthwith and piled with insertions of thin paper to pre\"ent sticking. Wood pulp tissue paper is used On no account should type metal rohers (and presses) be cleaned with metal picks. Use a quill pick where necessary and a good wax solvent (342).

258 )', ot('rtioll of the P('(Jon SECTlON IX APPLlASCES AND THEIR USE Bees differ muth in wmper, hut rh(; tu..'st afc apt to be at least on the defensive Whl'll qut'cnless., or during a I.h:arth, Of during robbill~, or when disturbeu by accident, shm.'k or damage, 'I'lw wise beekeeper, with the best of bel's, will have a veil handy, though, on occasion, it may be worn open and minor cxaminariol1\ may be made without it. The beekeeper may be called "", however, to deal with an intractable lot, and will then have to S(T to it that his or her clothing allows no entry for angry bees. 'T'h{' ankles and. wrists must then be prott'cted, as well as face and hand.", and a. long bel' tight, coloured coat or overall is desirable, Bees arc more disposed to object to dark dorhing than to light-coloured. Even good-tempered bees arc liable to hoc-orne annoyed by clothing in which their fcet become (:ntang,-kd. Bces are quick to detect and object tf) animal odours, and all should be sweet and dcan. If other animals have been handled the hands should be washed before handling h(.~". Under normal conditions it is best to have the coat dosed at the wrists, either with rubber bands or by cotton gauntlets fitted with elastic at both ends to do<c on the wrists and sleeves. Gaiters are useful, serving to protect the ankles and as a protection against crawling bees. Bc(~ always tend to climb upwards. V cils and gloves arc treated in greater detail below It should be remembered that most manipulations arc carried out in the warmest part of the day, so that the tendency is to discard clothing. A loose-fitting white duck overall with large pockets is cooler and more acceptable than coat, waistcoat and trousers, and may be fitted permanently with anklets and wristlets and even with veil and hat. Ftils It is impossible to see clearly through a light-colaured veil. Black is, therefore, generally used, either for the whole veil %33

259 234 APPLIANCES AND THEIR USE Of, at least, as a window in the front. A screen of wire mesh gives a clearer view even than cotton netting. A cylinder of wire netting is sometimes used, which, hanging below the hat, keeps de;u of the face and neck, but its place may he taken by two rings of wire sewn to a filbric veil, serving the same p\lrpo~e and being morl' portahlc. Somcrim{;s the meta] f!au7~(" is arranged in panels hinged at corners. The veil will then fold up, but onlv if taken off the hat. Generally an old hat is kept, such as a discarded straw hat, to which the \,~ll may he stitched, saving time in adjustment. An.'" wire gauze used should preferably be non-rusting r-rhc lower end of the veil is made long: l'l1(hlgh to tuck in at the neck. The "Langdon" bee n il is cut away at both sides to fit over the shoulders and is tied round under the arms, being comfortable and leaving the neck frce, but bc{."s are apt to enter th(dut:h a fold in the coat, espcciall~' at the back, and a bettc'r plan, leaving the neck free, is to han' a band or collar fitted to the bottom of the veil, fitting around and below the coat collar with a V front securej to a button by an clastic loop at the point of the V T'hc simplest veil is a plain cylinder of black netting with tic or clastic at top to fit the hat, and is a vcrv se-rviceable article if put on under the COlt and waistcoat and then" drawn up and out to stand clear of the face and neck. GI07.JeS Becs c.an be manipulated with glm'cs on, but with more satisfaction to both bees and beekeeper if gloves are discarded. The only absolutely bee-proof glm'e is a rubber glove, but rubber glo\'es cause excessive perspirarion and are most uncomfortable in hot weather. The next best is a gloye of soft leather, such as the "Birkett," but they are not easy to clean and soon become ~oilcd with propolis from "the lugs of the frames. An alternati",c is to use a knitted woollen glove with a white cotton glove worn over it (sec also Sting Preventives below, 1038). All gloves should have gauntlets reaching over the sleeves and furnished with elastic bands or other fastening to make them bee-proof, and any stings should be removed before they work their way through. Gloves should be dipped occasionally in vinegar and water, allowed to dry 011, and cotton coverings may be used damp. Propolis is removable with hot soda or bleaching liquor and is soluble in alcohol and petrol, but leather gloves require treating after washing with a leather soap or with lanolin to keep them flexible. Suhduing BetS Bet$ are apt to be bad-tempered if there is robbing going

260 APPLIANCES AND THEIR USE 235 (m, or if qut'cnless, or during a d('arth, and aft~.., remol'a! of han'cst, and Can be made bad-tempt'(ed at orh<'f time!' un]c's$ quit t1y handlt-ti and with consideration. Avoid all sudden movements and anything that jar~ the combs, and of (ourse avoid crushing bet's. nw ht ( s OYer a fortflit!ht old a.rl' the more disp(}~l'j to he trouhl('~()m(", and when the\' art' out fhin!:!: i!l the middk of th.., day th(' hin' mav hr l'xarnllll'd wit'h gn:atl.. r tj.se; but an extensive t. xami;lation durin!!' a holley flow rna."" so disnf'j;aniz(." the labours of the hi\.'c as to [('..,u}t in it dc:t.d loss of 5 lh. or more "f lllttar. The operator should sramj h('hind Of bc~idl' the hi\,(, and ne\'er in the line of Hight \\,~hcn using the smoker, put in a plitt or two of ~rnoh' at the entranct. and wait a minute or two (nl)t a moment or two, but 60 to 120 seconds) for it to take etft'lt, ht.'fnrt' olx'nint!. the top of the hive; then use a little smoke at the tnp, the less the hctter. If bees in a normal condition do not allsw('r rl".i.jil\' to a little ~mokt and deliberate handling they shoulj he [(:-queened, Lise the smoker to dear the top of the hive before rq>li!rillp' CO\!('r or supers. The Smoker It is no usc trying to subdue bcc~ that have not a(c('~s to open stores and, in such a case, they should be,prinklej with syrup and left for a few minutes to absorb it. Then: arc many patterns of smoker. '1'he Am(_'rican Bingham pattern is ont" of the most practical. A little fuel may be burned in a large smoker, but a small 'Smoker (anrlot be kept 1;ning for a long time without replenishing. The Bingham pattern may be opened and closed when hot with a hive-tool for recharging. A smoker, well cared for, should last for many yea". It should be kept under cover when not in use. The leather should be treated with neatsfoot or cohan oil or castor oil at the end of the season, and metal parts rubbed o. er with vaseline. All deposit within should be frcquent1y removed. Never work a smoker ~ hard a:. to produce hot smoke. The fuel, after ignition, sh()uld be inserted into the smoker, burning cnd first The fuels that give the coole"t smoke and least tar to foul the smoker are dry decayed wood and stringy hark. These are not always obtainable, and old cotton goods arc frequently used, corduroy, cotton rag and the like, or old soft s:u:king. Dried grass cuttings, old hay, closely packed pine shavings, dry cherry leaves-all are gold. Sacking is sometimes difficult to ignite, but if previously soaked in a saturated solution of saltpetre (nitrate of potash) and dried, it will smoulder excellently and keep ignited until all is burned. Corrugated paper is a favourite, being so readily prepared in rolls

261 23 6 APPLIANCES AND THEIR USE and burning well, but it produces considerable deposit. The roll;. of paper mav he cut more quickly with a hand saw than scissors, the material being rolled before cutting, and the loose flaps may bt sccured quickly with gummed strip paper sold in rolls for fastening parcels. It is good to avoid greasy and oily waste as fuel and anv f.1.bric containing wool A little tobacco smoke is an effect;"e subduer, and smokers frequently usc it for minor examinations made with no veil and with quiet bees, or a roomy veil with metallic (non-inflammable) front. Use of Carbolic Cloth Some prefer the arbolic cloth to the smoker, but with some bad-tempered bees it serves only to infuriate. Moremrcr, unless used with caution,. there is some risk of contaminating the honey. Nevertheless, a carbolic doth, large enough to cover any hive body) hanging over on two sides and with ~-inch round rods thrust through the hems on the corresponding edges, is a very serviceable subduer and temporary cover for bodies, especially at any time when robbing is likely to occur. If one at least of the sticks is round and the cover is kept rolled up on that one the material will keep flat and last for years. The det'otee of the arbolic cloth uses a long cylindrical box of tin with tight-fitting lid to hold one or more cloths when not in use. The dothes are damped with carbolic solution, a suitable solution being 2 parts (ounces) of Calvett's Ko. 5 Carbolic and I part (ounce) glycerine in 20 parts (I British pint) water. Remedies for Stings It is still commonly reported that the sting of the bee owes its effiacy to formic acid, but the injection of formic acid alone is quite incapable of producing the severe symptoms sometimes following a sting by a bee. The venom owes its efficacy to the presence of some highly poisonous albuminous alkaloid toxin, and it will be seen, therefore, that the use of alkalies, such as soda or ammonia to neutralize the poison has but little justiliation. Experience shows that other antidotes are more effective, and amongst these may be mentioned tincture of iodine and tincture of aloes. Pure "Milton" or HEau de Laval" are also recommended and would very probably be more effective if mixed with equal parts of alcohol. On the other hand, some doctors say that the venom spreads so quickly that the alleged remedies have but little value save in satisfying the believer As a rule, the bee is unable to remove its sting from the

262 APPLIANCES AND THEIR USE... otwd lx-forc 1(';\\ ifig ()win,p. to tilt' l)l'ndi~lr strurturl' ;UlU prop"'rw ics of tlw sting, till' sting l-oj1rijhh'"s to Pl'JwtJ";.ltc.. and empt}' lb poison klc into the wound afr,'r rhe h(.'{.' has left. It is importatlt that thl' poison sac should not bt._. ~qut'e-/>cj in an attempt to ft.'move tilt' sting. Fine fofet:ps aft most dfccti"t', bui it i~ ('omolon to remon' tht' ~tjllg by pushing the thumh nail alon~ du:!.kin towards the :,,:ttug, so a.,.<; to scoop it off. 'Tht: antidote should lx applit'd at once to gl t the best result, but tiuctures applied to the wound and IH'ighbourhooti 5 or 10 minutt!s later and after the poison has sprea.d may still be beneficial in aliaying local inflammation. Trfatmetlt of Serious CliftS Most beekeepers are bur little aff"cted hv stings and become hardejwd to them, so a-:; $carcciy to noti(.'l' tlll.'m after tilt' first few moments. On the other hand., SOffie p('~nns suffer very sc\-'crcly from a single sting) the heart b{:ing atft'ct\:j, so that tht~ patit:nt is giddy for some hours, hearing strange nojs(_"~ tilt' sight becoming affected and the skin becoming yello... with purple and blue marks under the eyt..'s, and considerable swdjing appearing in the neighbourhood of the sting. In a severt.' cast' tilt patient should remain prone and a doctor should be caljed in. Artiticial rt: spiration may be applied and massage of the limbs to ",,,ist the circulation. The specific remedy is adrenalin I : 1000, 3 to 10 drops being injc>cted into the blood of an adult of normal weight. Destruction of Toxins by Heat The toxin causing inflammation JOOSl~ its p()isotlou~ profx'r6es at a~'n1t 50c C. (122" F.). 1''J.l,i_'7- ;_'"'::! W,tnpe1;J!lJlt> lj.t}{.'f)ffl fortablv high, but the prompt applidltion of tht hot 1I<"e of th' smoke; to the wound is said to destroy the venom without creating burn, as also a hot compre;, made up to a temperature above th limit given above and of course applied promptly. Sling Preventivti The best preventive of stings is a clean "eady hand and quiet manner, but for some reason the hands arc rendered mo acceptable to the bees if rubbed over with a trace of oil winter-green (methyl salycilate), or even with vinegar allowed dry on. Bu Stings and Rheumatism There are many cases of rheumatism, severe artic, rheumatism, being relieved and even cured by bee stings. 1

263 APPLIANCES AND THEIR USE matter i\ol 011(' for th(.> mt'dica! profession, as thefe an: <.:ontra-indilo,ltion~ to the use of this rcln<'dv ill :'Ortl\; cases, and it is nut a unin'rsal ft'fh{od,c for rh{'umaric aift.'cti()l;~.../j,finor Tools and Druices Super clearers, queen excluders and the like, fitted to the hive afl' described under Hives in Section VII. 'rhe frames for comb building and sections are dealt with in Section VIII. Qu~cnraising appliances and queen cages will be found described in Section I I :.lndc[ Qucen Raising. Appliances for rendering wa.x, cappings, etc, 11ld for making foundation will be found under \Vax in Section Ill. Appliances pertaining to the apiary will be found in Section VI. Other minor appliances atc dealt with below. fiive-taal SOffie b(,l'kc('pcr~ are content to USc a large screw-driver is a kvt:r for separating hiyc bodieg and a painter's scraper for r~m()\'al )f wax, propolis, and the like; but, while a wide scraper is particularly lseful in cleaning hh'e Roors and for its normal purpose in removing )aim, it will he found that a hive-tool of the American pattern is by oar the most convenient for general usc. The best form has one end hinncd to a wedge shape for usc as a prise or lever, and the other 1roadened out, sharpened and bent over, for use as a semper. This 'Orm is particularly useful in scraping top bars of frames and in 'cmoving burr comb, etc., as well as in opening up hive bodies with a ninimum of damage to the wood, '3ee Brush A large goose feather is just right for the job of brushing lees from combs, the bees being scooped off by the soft edge, approached.s near as may be by way of their heads, the bees being gently brushed lownwards off the combs; but a useful long-haired, thin brush is old for the purpose. If bees are brushed from behind they may how much annoyance. vase/in/! Pot A pot of petroleum jelly (vaseline) should be kept handy, containing a I-inch sash brush, for putting the thinnest of coats of 'aseline on the tops and edges of frames, hi". bodies, sides of division ""'rds and elsewhere, where comb building is to be discouraged, If the breakage of adhesions and the removal of propolis may be,ecessary. Petroleum jelly is also useful as a rust preventative and ust remover.

264 /ndi""fon and Cqrd, for Not" APPl.IAXCES AND THEIR llse Beekeepers arc ~trong:ly re~'omm(,fh.i{ {i tl) kc{'p nott~. ~I"he h.-a')t that should ht doll!' is to have a l.ud fi_h l'verv hin' and ;:l pencil hanjy, So that dated notes may be m.u.k of import.lilt m'lttt'rs and operarions {'omph:red or required. Elaboratt.: jlldk~l.tors han' I:><:en sold for attachnwnt td hin's, gi\'inf!: indicatlolls of the ('ollhnnuly n,;'curril1~ features, ~u~h as qu(,(;'llk~nl~~ sipl~ nf di~t'a... c:, lal,:k of storts, t.'tc" but they t~\il thr()u~h giving in::.uaicil'nt information. 'The note ca.rd generally t:"liis to gin, dcll.i[.. rr partlt'ular (ombs, and the writc'r prefers tn kt'tp his notes out of tiw hive, hilt to ust ill the hive "comb indicators" of his own lllvenrioll, rfl('~t' bt jng nwtai dips tltting the top bar of the frame. They are florrnally kept at the middle ready for use elsewhere, and jndie,ate <.:onditions by :t code, e.g. a dip on the Jug; shows qu('('n cdls) and by it!-. p<lsirioh their approxinute age. One placed withill tll(' lup: indigw:s ex(,'(_~ sive drone comb. One a little off centre is. a warnil1,?: ':Iign for dist';l..,(', rrookt~d comb, etc. ~rwo indkators at centre of om' frame indir.atc lack of t{)od. In this way the stall' of tht., hrom.i chamher is visibtt' on exposing it and befi;re commencing manipulatlon. 'The indicator clips arc readily lifted with a hivc too} and pla~t"d where required. Apiary Barrow Ooe of the most useful appliancc'~ in an apiary i~ a light barrow with one or two wheels at tilt; front and with two It:g:s and handle at the back. It should be built low and Bat to n'el,jvc a heavy hive, hut it is useful to bare fitted to it a removable hi,,'t' body for usc as a frame tank, with a canvas ("over fixed at one edge to lie over it, having a heavy bar at the other edge. Combs with bees or honey may be carried in this. 1 t serre's ah-o as a temporary support for a super or hive body during manipulation,. An open box or tray between the handje~, serves to hold smokl'r, hive-tool, vaseline tin, etc" and veil or gloves when out of usc. Projections from the tank or body to receive a frame by its lugs arc useful, giving access to the comb face for caging a queen or cutting (Jut queen cells, etc. There may also be narrow projections below the supports to keep the hanging frame clear of the body, top and bottom so that the frame is firmly supported when placed against them. Comb Holder! Failing,he provision of a barrow as above described, it is useful to have a light portable stand, with a box or tray for appliances and a support above capable of carrying two or three combs. Failing this, it is helpful t() h., c at least a metal support for hanging

265 APPLIANCES AND THEIR USE to the ~itk of a hin: body, clipping over the top edge and with projection!:. to carry one Of two frames. Sealr Hivr )047. This is a valuable adjunct, indicating as it does the income and l'xpenditure of thl' hive, the prosperity of the stock and the g(~ncral conditions ofthc honey flow. l'be hive selected for weighing should be one in normal condition, so that its indications may be Teprescntati\ c of what is going on generally in the apiary. Its weight should be taken always at the same time of Jay and preferably at an hour when in the height of summer flying ha., ceased for the day.,\fhen nt'etar is coming in fast there will be a considerable reducti(m of w(.:'ight by night due to evaporation. During the day the weight will be changing by bees coming and going. A heavy stonr. of rain makes a temporary increase of weight, larger in the cast' of unpainted hives. For this fcason some prefer to keep the scal(' hive under cover. Another reason h)r doing so is protection of the weighing apparatus,. if this is permanently in position. It is not essential to provide for weighing the hive when piled with supers during a ~ood harv('st, as then: is at that time plenty of evidence of what is happening. It is valuable to get the weight to the nearest halfpound or pound) and this cannot be done so readily if a great range of weight must be provided for. Cheap Alternative It is not essential to use a weighing machine. A spring balance capable of carrying half the weight may be used by applying the hook to one side of the base and lifting until that side j US! rises )1{ the supports so that part of the weight is on the remote edge )f the floor board and the remainder on the edge being lifted. The lperation is repeated at the opposite side, and the sum of the two weights so observed is the true weight, even if the weight is not :entral. It is ob\'ious that the figures will not be correct, however, if the point of the hook is not on the exact edge, and to attain this t is best to fit a small metal plate to receive the hook, projecting ;omewhat and having a groove in it to take the hook of the balance :sce Fig. 25, opposite). It is important also that tbe hive sbould :>e only just lifted as, if tilted appreciably, part of the weight is :ransferred from the balance to the opposite side Another way of applying the balance is to fix handles ",hich may be of strip iron on either side of the floor board opposite ~he centre of the hive body and have them project 11- inch for each inch in the width of the Roor board, e.g. 't inch for an IS-inch >oard. The book of the balance engages the handle, but the read-

266 APPLIANCES AND THEIR USE ing it gin's i., low ann must he ('off('c(('d t-tv adding r n/., to n'('rr pound 'rht: common patterns of!-prin}! balancl' h.1.vt..' a dial ()I\ the side, and C\Tll with a 6.. illch di;il it is difficult to gl't a guod rca.d~ ing, unlt's:i the line of yj~i(ln il:' pl'fpt:ndirular to til(' dial. It is useful, thl'fl'fort:, to add a chain t'xtt'llsion whidl will bring till' dial I('vel with the t~u.'(' of rhe obscrn'r,and ro put tl hitr throu~h tilt, rin~at duo h)p of the balanrl',so that tht: haianct' may he liftt'd with both hauds, FIG. 25,-WElGHlNC A Hn'E WITH A SPIHNC BA.I.ANct, "Ill" hn'~ b w"'l-!wd from r~lt!1 "h~ aild Ih" n,,.dlll~~ ;«<)II"l. nil' tlil'",b"'ih IJ!:"),All)' j'.l.,t de.. r "I Jb kl.-'(, not as far,i".'j)"wn A. and JJ."h""... altt>ruatlw' CO)htnJctJOn<. lor applym;;- tht, bajalln. h,)<,k, 11)' tht,,! Ii rt'tj\j.iotl.;i/ Il (;orrt:ctlul) d" dr""" ribeil fur thl: ('xtell~io\l pi<'...(.)e. Fecdrrs These will be found described and illustrated in the catalogues of the appliance makers, save for tht: simpil"m and commonest of all, which is a plain tin with patent lid, pierced with a few holt"s. 'rhc tins referred to are thosf..." in which prepared paints are sold, also syrups and many foods and, ind<:ed, honey. The lid is a push fit and, being hollow, provides a bee-way for the bel"; when inverted over a feed hole in the quilt or inner board, Some prefer to keep the cover at top for filling without removal, the bottom being pierced with a few vl3ry small holes. For slow feeding two or three holes, the smaller the better, are punched from the out,ide with a short length of stout needle driven in with a hammer or with an awl or sharp nail. For rapid feeding a number of holes arc punched allover the end, but they must be small in diameter to keep the syrup from leaking. A shallow wide tin is better than a tall one, as it is more easily covered to keep it Warm. M.B.

267 2+2 APPLlAl<CES Al<D THEIR USE ) 052. ]( nwt,l feeders are bought from the appliance dealer it is worth whik paying the extra first cost of aluminium f~eders, as tiwy will liot rust and will outlast two or three of the tin variety. Rapid f~'cdcr~ may he purchased, made of wood, with or without a mt:tal lining. All feeders require thorough washing and drying after use, and those of wood should be filled with water to tighten the juints before filling with syrup, and allowed to dry slowly after usc The dummy or frame feeder is useful especially with small lots of hees in cold weather. It should be an easy fit in the hi\'e and furnished with a beading of American doth' to make a good joint with the sides. The feeder is preferably metal lined and furnished with a Roat. The filling hole should be accessible by turning back the quilt without releasing a bee. If tht capac:ity is known and the level be taken by inserting a dry stick, the fceder may be filled by measure without fear of over-fitling. A floating level indicator may be constructed out of a sound straw closed with a blob of scaling-wax. Improved Dummy Fader The writer suggests that the dummy feeder should he made like a true dummy, i.e. with bee space at both ends and used with a division board. The usual pattern frequently cannot be inserted when wanted or removed when done with. Construction of Trtl'vellil1g-ho;us A hive body may be converted into a travelling-box by furnishing covers for top and bottom, each having a large hole covfred with perforated zinc or wire gauze, well secured with tin-tacks. These covers may he made of ply wood or match-boarding, and two battens of 2 inches X I inch or I t inch X I ~ inch nailed across the grain with the latter, the battens running parallel with the edges,nd 2 inches from the edges (see Fig. 26). The battens should preferably run one way across the top and at right angles across the bottom co\ cr, as they pile better thus, leaving the ventilation free. Ventilation at both top and bottom is very desirable The covers should he secured each with four screws near the corners, so that when a covered body is placed to stand diagonally Icross an empty body, the four screws are accessible from beneath, It the corners. The cover should secure all frames in place. In :ase, then, there is a bee space above the frames, the cover must have,uitable strips on the under side to fit down on to the frames near :heir ends and hold all secure. In the case of deep frames it is iesirable to have SOme sort of rack at the bottom to support them;

268 APPLIANCES AND THEIR \ISE for ('xample, a row of wood peg~ with rnuodt'd tops of~uitahl( ' di;ullctcl and properly spaced. Usc of Tr",u,lIing-hoxo On arrival a! its destination ;l stock So tr;wdled tail ()ccupy its pcrmaflt'llt "itl\ a tempnrary I.'IHr;UKe bt,illg made with ;1 o o o o FIG. z6-ventilating Covus for. TR,WE1, JJ}oC~80X. wedge after removing the bottom screws, the bottom and cover being remm:cd at leisure after the bees have settled down. Frames travel best upside-down if well built out and not overloaded with nectar. They should, of course, be inverted endwise, not sideways The travelling-boxes sold by appliance makers are not, as a rule, interchangeable with hive bodies, owing to the wide range of sizes employed, but have temporary Right boards and entrances. Those made to carry four to six combs can be used also as nucleus

269 APPLIANCES AND THEIR USE hin "S.. and should he furni~h('d with weather-proof corers (),'crall~ v(,lltilatcj at the sides and ~ccured at the ends for transit. Shippi"! Bees ill Sleps Stocks jn straw skeps have to be sent by rail sometimes. Th{'Y should have onc or two sticks transverse to the combs, and if not already in place in the hive these should be inserted several days before the stock is to be moved, so that the bees may make all secure. A piece of stout canvas with a window of wire mesh should he tied securdy m'er the bottom of the skep and the skep inverted for travelling, being labelled "this side up," "live bees." If the' skep docs not stand securely inverted, it must be crated. Shipping Swarms A travelling-box, as indicated above for a nude lis hive, may be used for carrying a swarm, of a straw skep treated as abovc~ but swarms and package bees are generally forwarded in light strong wooden boxes, having large openings in at least two sides, cm:ercd with wire gauze and some provision made for feeding for loi1g journeys (sec package Bees, 1290,t uq). Dron, and Queen Traps It is uneconomical to breed drones not required and then to destroy them. The worker bees must gather several pounds of pollen and honey to produce a comb of drone brood, and the dronl's produced are themselves consumers. Drone comb should be almost suppressed in stocks showing undesirable characteristics, hut some drones will be raised, and it may be desired to suppress these also at a time when queens are being mated. The drone trap may be used to advantage for this purpose. It consists of a box having an entrance covering the hive entrance and a large exit through "queen excluder," preferably of the wire variety. A horizontal division cuts off the upper part and has in it one or two conical bee escapes. These admit the drones into the upper part, from which they cannot return Any queen emerging from the hive while the trap is in place will be caught with the drones. The device maybe used for catching an undesirable virgin on her first exit from the hive. These traps greatly impede the traffic of the hive, impede ventilation and encourage preparations for swarming. Robbtr Scrun Some strains are particularly troublesome as robbers. Such should not be t"lerated. Where they have to be coped with it is helpful to have a folding frame covered with I -inch wire mesh,

270 APPLIANCES AND THEIR USE about 3 feet each way and surrounding: three side's of a hi\t, 'The opcr-ator puts this in place, workitl~ through the open side, 'fhe robbers are bothered by the..' scn.. X I1, twt the rightfuj he(,"~ Ay out T('adily and can return after operations art' O\'l'r. Cart of App/imz{(s and (_.~/faning Metol Parts Tht, t..'nd of till' ~wason i~ a bl!w timt.', but the work tnu:;t Hot be consijen:d JOl1{; until all appliances have been looked over and c!eant:d WIWTC necessary. Extractor\» nwtal fecdt'rs and any other txhltainl'r'j for hofwy or syrup (',annoe bt' cleaned too sllon after U~l'. These ;lppliancl's llevl'r wear out, but through nt'glcct thc}' will ru~t Ollt ina ft w Sl'ason~. JObS. :ijctal part< should be well washed, dried and rubbed O\'t.:'f with vaseline before storing. T'he out!:>iu('s of "xtractors and ripener:; are frc.. qw:ntly painted, {(Ir which purp<)':o;e all air-dryinf!; japan, preferably with a bituminous bas(', i:. suitable. It i.. good to rub ovt:r the bright metal with strong; vint"gar bd()f(' painting. An aluminium paint is also good and is sometimes 1Jst'J on internal Intral parts as well \.1('(al parts soiled with wax or propolis, such a~ nwta) ends for frames, may be readily cleaned by boiling with bldching powder in the watt:r, or Fels-naprh.a soap. A solution of caustic soda, 1 lb. to 2 gallons of water, is good, hut highly caustic It must be used with care and removed with a liberal supply of water. CQating li'ooden and Metal ressel; with IPax Wooden and metal v(..'ssds, cn;n ru'ity oncs, can be coated with hot wax and may thcn be used to cobtain honey or!<:.yrup. Paraffin wax is employed, but bces-wax can be u~cd. ~rhc wax must be smoking hot and the operation should therefore he carried on out of doors. The vessel to be coated should be partiy filled and then turned in au directions and the wax returned to the heater. Wood will absorb a considerable quantity, according to its nature. The vessel to be coated must be thoroughly dry before coating.

271 1'hf' Prob/nn rl PrtJentatioJ1 SECTION X SE.1S0XAL MAXJIGEMEST Introduction A writer setting out to give the best~known mcth(j'js of managing bees, applicable to the small and to the large beekeeper, to all varieties, au conditions of honey flow and climate and to all types of beekeeper, has undl'rtaken a large task, but one not impracticable if approac.hed in an orderly manner..l\1anagement is applied to secure certain objects, readily understood, which are to be secured by methods adapted to the particular circumstances; methods based on simple principles of procedure which must be grasped, and on observations of bee behaviour. Each season has its problems; then there arc problems peculiar to bees, arising from their swarming and robbing propensities; and, again, problems pertaining to beekeepers, who have to move hives and, indeed, whole apiaries, and do many other things to suit their own convenience. Finally, there are a large number of manipulations entering into all systems of management which must be conducted in an effectil,re and efficient manner, or difficulties will be made faster than they are solved. Thr l'rdb/rm Treated The treatment of management has been greatly simplified by relegating to a later section all details of the manipulations involved. Management is first treated in broad outlines associated with the progress of the seasons, cross-references being given to those parts in which particular details will be found fully worked out. Next comes a novel section showing how the general system of management must be modified to suit local circumstances. This is followed by a section on swarming and swarm prevention. Then follow instructions for conducting se\'eraj score of manipulations required from time to time, according to plan and circumstance. In this way the whole subject is brought under review in such a way that the whole complex business is fully presented, yet the beginner need not lose his way. 2.6

272 Systems of Managtmtltt INTRODUCTION Many well-known beekeepers have Set their mark on certain s,\-'stems of managcoment, del't"lope-d SUCCt'S~funy hy them to meet the conditions with which the\' Wert' faced. Some of these ~: ~t('ms arc nnw ob:->olt'tc in certain' particulars, otht"l'!i hav{' Ill.my features in common and 1111)5t an: appliglblt" to particular t:ondirions not univers,:'lllr obtaining. l'be fllon: valuable alld distinctivt' contribution.. to the art, made bv these men, wi)} lw folwd in their appropriate placi' in thi~ book, but a... explained in the pn.:fact', no attempt is made to set out s}'srems in (krail, ill!aill~t tht names of illdi"iduals.. ]071. Every bct'kt:cper, howl'\'l'r, ~}loljli.j have a sysh'rn of hi~ ()wn~ as the foundatioll of his management arhl prorcjure, adaph d to dw conditions undt. r wbich he work~ and hv which he i~!\urrounded, or there will he mw:h confusioll, wa-.tt' of time and ( lu.'rgy and disappointment. -rh!' sy~tem ~hl)uld, i1)1)]"ci1\tf, he a :-'Hnph. une, involving a minimum of wtll-con:-,idl'rcd manipulatious, so as fa reduce Jabour and avoid unnecessary disturbance of tllt< hec:-,. SinKie \'. Double Brood Chamber! Something has been said about management in tht' "t'ctioll dealing with hives, T'he beekeeper will havl..: to make his choic(~, at the commencement, between the sy5tems inv\1iving the us(: of single and double brood c.hambct~. T'his i~ Hot, J.\ might first app'ear, simply a matter of hivl: ~i].(: or frame si"l(~< The question is, Arc au the brood framl.'s to be in olle box, (IT in two or mort'? For either system th~ size and number of frames must be sd, ct('d to suit the' prolificacy of the qu~t'ns (42). With vcry prolific strain~ even a 12-frame ~\t1.0. body is not a!wa'y~ large enough, while fi)r certain hardy long-lived but non-prolific ~traill\) of black bt.~c) for example, one Io-frame body of British Standard frames may be enough For single body working, the :l.1.d. body is largely used, but single bodi{'s of 11 or 12. British Deep framc~ an: sufficient for average prolific queens. For multiple brood bodies, the Langstroth frames. arc most used, hut tht British St;mdard frame is cquahy well adapted and is, of c.our-:.c, in general u!'>c in Great Britain The advantages of single-body management are, that there arc fewer frames to handle, so that time is saved; there i:.-. no horizontal division in the brood nest, so that the 9ucen has free natural use of the tombs; the tendency to,warm is reduced (provided a large enough body is in use, not to cramp the queen); and the bct."s winter well on large frames.

273 SEASONAL MANAGEMENT The advantages of working with double-brood chambers are associated with the greater flexibility provided; the double body admits of manipulations impossible with single-brood bodies such, for example, as Dcmarccing ( ); the frames are more convenient in size for the formation of nuclei (an advantage only parti,\' met by til(: usc of divided frames for nuclei in single-chamber working)j and, where there is any considerabh: harvest to be secured, the same frames may be used for extracting and for brood raising Manipulations suitable only for single-body working arc marked S, and those for double-body working onlv arc marked D. All manipulations not so marked arc suitable for either system. In certain cases, with single-brood chambers, doubling is neces..<.;ary a~ a temporary measure, for example, in uniting by the newspaper merlwd (1582-4), the bodies being re-arranged larcr co remove the superfluous one. Such manipulations are not marked D. SI'OSOnl1! AlmtaKement Under the headings following there will be found an outlilh: of the important features of mana.gement that belong to the diifl"rcllt seasons of the year. The features dealt with are of universal applicarion and form the skeleton of all systems of beeket'ping Management may be defined as the planning of operations to secure maximum return with minimum effort under given circumstances. \Vithout management bees would rapidly deteriorate, stray and eventually be lost, becoming a source of trouble to other beckc1... pcrs in the district. In pursuing a system of management and Ct1.rrying it into effect many manipulations have to be performed, such as finding the queen, doubling, dividing, increasing, uniting, transferring, etc. Each manipulation has its proper technique. There are certain features which must be observed to secure success. These manipulations are detailed individually in later sections devoted to them Progress in the spring is so dependent upon preparations ma.de in the autumn that it has become fashionable to commence seasonal instructions with those belonging to the autumn. The The author has elected to follow the older fashion, for the active season commencc& in the spring, and the beginner is well advised to start in springtime. Spring Springtime Management in General Where winter conditions are so severe that the bees have to be wintered in cellars, the bees remain quiescent until brought

274 SPRINC out of the cellars, and this is Itot done until the frosts are over.wl! conditions propitioll~ t()t rapid developmt'llt., i.~. with :-tmpk hotl('y in the hivt.' and ample pnlll'n and watn a\'aill-hlc with weather suitabk for frl't}ti(,llt t1ig:hts (367). \Vhere th( bt'l~ art" wintered outsidt' with outer co\'('rs ii_lld more or Ie:>!' packing this con ring sh01j1j not be disturbt. J until the period of frosb and enid nig:hts is pa... o;t" hut many Bights will take plan' b(:fon: this!-.t>lge is T(";}ched. Vlht'n' 11ttk- or no cxtl'mal winter packing is used fiig.hts wifl ot:('lir on mild day:-. ('ven in mid-wintt'r iftht: sun j:; strong and tht' b-hadl' h'mperature reaches 45" to 50 F. (i" to 10'" C,) Earl), Flights 'fhe l'arjiest flights arc for tht' purp0..,t of t'vac-uatillg Ihe bowel and must not be mistaken fof a :-,ign of prospl'rity, for it should be noted that at this time a weak lot will he more rr ~tlt''''i,and fly more than a strong Jot, using morl' foou pt'f head to mailltain the corn'c! internal rcmpn;tture. }\gain breeding (ou1ilwnri's ('arlj('r in a. smaii lot than in a larf!e one in tht' same sufroundillg_-., a... tlh' temperature at the centre of the ('luster ha.,;; to lw kept higha, and this leads also to early activity outside the hive. Again, clusters located ncar the entrance begin to mol'e somh'r undt:r a t('mpt)rary stimulus from sun~hinc than uo thos!.: farther hal.:k or lot.:.a.teu higher up in the hi"e. Bees in a thin-walleo hi,,'c will n:spl)nj more quickly to a temporary sunny sptll and ri':il: of temperature than wiii those more fully pr~tectcj" 'fher!' is not much tl, be It'arncd from observation of early activity and, indeed, early activity may' bf.' nlt rtly the omcn of early loss of a weak stock. The swch of an experiezlced beekeeper will, howevl:r, have gone into wintt'f with a futt complement of young bet's and stores, and there :,hould 1)(> no rca"lon to diagnose weakness in the early spring, unle~s numhers of dead bees have been found ncar or within the clltrancc, a sign of di~.be or other untoward circumstance. EXft'rllal Examination tmd Rt'-arraflgement In the early spring the hives should b" lookcd over to ~e that the foundations have not shifted in winter, and any out of plumb should be corrected. Hives may be movcd and re-arranged at this period when the bee::. are stili confined for a fortnight or more at a time. Two persons are required to lift the hive's (807) so that they may be lifted and replaced with a minimum of disturbanc(, and without jar About the time that early pollen is available and breeding is well started in all the hives, a general external examimtion may be made to advantage and particularly for signs of queenlessness,

275 SEASONAL ~ANAGEMENT The carrying in of pollen is a good sign but not a certain sign of the presence of a queen. The presence of drones of the previous year is almost a sure sign of quecnlessness, but a n:r)' strong stock with ample store~ will somctimes~ though rarely, tolerate a few drones through the wimer. Each hive may be rapped smartly, prcfcrablr towards t:vening, and a characteristic sound is heard on applying the car close to the hive. If all is well the bees are plit at once on the alert and, nothing following, they settle down at once, save perhaps for ':i few guards appearing at the entrance. The sound heard is a short sharp hiss; the largest st;,ck in best fettle making the Illudl'St and sharp(_"st hiss. A queen!es~ stock, Oil dh.. otlwr hand, suffers from uncasincs.." and the hiss of alarm is followed bv a sort of roar, indicating that all is not well in the comrnollwl'"aith. Bees seriously short of food tie as quiet as circumstances permit and g.ivc a bad response on the hive b(.' ing: tapped. Any stocks not showing a favourable responst.' should be marked for early treatment) but an early examination of stocks made before remedial action is possible is likely to accentuate the trouble. The bees are at great pains to seal down the top packing and arrange any ventilation to their liking. If the beekeeper breaks these seals at a time when the stock is not strong enough and the temperature high enough for them to be remade, he is doing an uneconomical and even a dangerous thing. Early p(:'('ps should not be necessary and may be disastrous in their effect Those who use a wooden inner cover with a glass panel in it can~ however, make an eady examination without breaking the seal, as it is only necessary to lift the cushion or other covering off the ghss cover for a few moments when some observation may be made of the position and approximate size of the cluster and of the state of the stores. U" of Candy and Spring Feeding If there is any real doubt as to sufficiency of stores at this early date a cake of candy may be given (1240), but this has a stimulating effect and the beekeeper mllst be prepared to continue feeding until a reliable honey flow has commenced. As a matter of fact, starvation should never occur at this early stage, except through most exceptional neglect in the autumn) as very little food is consumed in winter, the bulk of the stores left in the autumn being intended for sustaining the stock through the period of heavy brood produetion which sets in when milder conditi""s supervene, accompanied by stimulation from a light early honey Rowand a good supply of fresh pollen. During such a period the daily demand for food is very heavy. and if the weather turns colder for a spell.

276 SPRING there is a tzreatcr risk of food shortage then than at any other time. First illtl'rna! Examilwtimt ~rh(.'rc i~ another danger, attadll'd to dw tir-:.t examin ;ttion, which make:- it tk'sirablf to P(l:;.tPOtll' it as I()n~ a~ p()~sibl(.', and preferably until urolh.>; aft: hatching out) and that is dangt:r of balling of tilt' qucl'n (48-50). 'rill' tirst t'xamin;ltion should h<' made quietl:', Juring a warm spdj, and it!'> prijldpaf ohjt rt is to verify the pn'se'llt of ~ut1lci(._'nt stores and h( {... and a laying (PH/CIl. For this purpose the outermost comh:. mat' he ('xamincd for \)t{)n. ~, and OlH.' or more nearer the {'('ntrc until hr~)()d in ;wy state i!-. S( (.. n on one. At any later examination ttl(> presence of;i lay'ing, (IU('('11 can be verified mndy by sight of <:&~s or young larv<l:. It is \l1\wim.' to ('XpO::'l' thc hrood, but a glance wilt show the (~xp('fit. nn d hecket'per whether or no the queen is laying well, and the brood ih:althy. "I'h,,' Jcs~ expcril'llced slj()u1d await the next examinatiou. At;1. time wlwll it i~ )lot possible for the stock to raise another Guei'll and when tlwy arc unaccustomej to disturbance, balling is especially likely to occur, and the loss of the queen at this early date involves a :.crious!'('tback At this time, in ~imilar hiv,,'~ having:, b()od (Ill{.'('ns, the amount of brood is determined mainly by the number of bees able to cover it and by the amount of $oto {'S. A stock weak in brood and bees should be regarded as a weak one, but not nec("ssarity as one having a poor queen, If, howe... er, the amount of hmoo is \:.maji compared with that in other stocks with a similar hjswry~ the que("n should be suspect (see 46 for sign> of queen failing). Such a,t.)ok ma.y be de-queened and unin, d to another weak stock by the newspaper method (1582-4), which involves minimum di"urbance. Any queen less stock should be united to one medium strong, the object being to build up all stocks to at l(.2~t average strength as soon as pos::.ibie. (Where, however, th(,_'rl' is but little carly Row) sec 1197.) Before uniting make sure there arc no signs of brood di;easc in the weak lot, and if in doubt, wait and sec. A six-comb lot will dc"e)op far marc rapidly than two thre<'-comb lots reckoned together, so that the queen sacrificed i~ offset by the early provision of several excess combs of brood. If the queen is wanted, make a nudeus for her arranged as in 1638, but if stocks have all entered winter well-housed, strong and well-fed, weakness in spring is a sign of defect and the queen can well be sacrificed Any hi, c found to have only dead bee's should be d",ed at once to prevent robbing and possible spread of disease. An)'

277 SEASONAL MANAGEMENT weak stock which cannot be dealt with at once should have its entrance contracted to an inch or less to prcvent robbing and cobserve heal Setond Examination The above-described early examination may well be omitted where from external observation and through successful autumn preparation tile beekeeper has good reason to expect that all is well. The necessary observation will then be made during what would otherwise be the second examination. "fhe second and principaj spring examination is for the purpose of spring cleaning and c('rtain minor adjustment:;. Spring cleaning is done by means of the hive-tool or scraper. On uncovering: the frames the top bars should be scraped from end to end with firm pfl'ssure and steady motion, the bees being: kept down with a little smoke, The debris will [;,11 hetween combs. Those who use vaseline wiij now brush o\'("r the top bars with the thinnest of coats. ~rhc covering is then replaced, being also scraped if of wood, and renewed where necessary if of fabric. The body is then lifted and placed on a temporary stand, such as an inverted flat-topped roof or on an empty body placed 011 a board or newspaper so that the queen may readily be seen in case she reaches the ground. The body is placed somewhat diagonally on its support so as to touch only at four places, thus reducing the risk of crushing bees. The body being removed, the floor board is quickly scraped over a box or newspaper, so that the debris may be collected and burned. If the above is the first examination, then queenless and weak stocks will be attended to as previously described, and later when some stocks have built up to full strength a comb or two of brood may be taken from the strongest and given, one each to any of medium strength, helping the strongest first At this time empty outside combs, if anv, may be remo,'cd, and any defective ones, placed on the outside in the autumn for removai in the spring, III a cold situation the combs may be dosed up towards the sunniest side of the hive and a division board placed against them, thus reducing the amount of space to be kept warm, or rather the ambunt of surface through which heat is lost. When closing up, allow at least one comb more than those already occupil..l or partly occupied. The combs removed may be replaced later when bees show signs of dustering in the vacant space, spare combs or frames of foundation being used to replace the defective ones At this time the combs should be looked over for signs of brood disease (1682) and to be sure the queen is right (46). Much

278 SPRING may he It'arneli of what has been goiuf,! no ilfld what mar he' c\; pt'ctt-j, hy fluting the rdatin' amount of q;.g:s, UIl"l';ll! d alit!.\,(,;tktl hrood (5) It is good to have;l sparc body and floor bo.nd, ami wht'll clt:anin!-! th... framt.:~ tn n mt\\'(.~ th<.:m to the span' dt';,)j) body, l x.lmill~ iug them in pa\5sing. 'rhe cmptlni hod\' Iliav tlwn l'lt' 5l'rapeJ alta used for tht next stock, but this is undt sirabk ~f tht're an' ludic.lotions of brood disease. Any bodies requiring new paint Of crcosnk or other attention may be sortt.'d out at this time... "timulating Brood Production 'rhe hc!'>t ",rimularion for carly brood productio/l is autumn stimujation. Early spring stimulation i!'o liable to o\,cft.tx (lid hc('~ and lead tc) spring- dwindling, wah consctiuent ln~:- of hrood and increased dahger of disease. Some heekccpers cndeavour tl) ('nbrgt' thl: brood nest by inserting empty frames ;l_lhi hy other n'""ur;1ng\'''' ments, If, however, conditions aft' favourabk thl' bt,ts will, at thi~ time, have arranged for all the t'~ dwy call l:aft: for. Egg.. laying and brood rearing is encouraged by the presence of a young qu~:cn and of plenty of store< and especially of uncapped stores. Thus slow fceding or a stf:ady small Row of nectar, or the ufll'-appinp: of'some stores, all stimulate enlargement of the brood O( ~t. 'I'he danger of artificial spreading of the brood ne'st is that the hr<x>d may oc'comc chilled and weakened, if not lost There are,ome who still helieve in h",oj spreading because they have setn the rapid ( xpa.nsioll which follow'), l\i"ow to such I wih give a special tip as an alternative, Ll't them rc-quet:h towards the end of the late honey flow, stimulate brood rcaring by feeding slowly when the flow ceases, continuing until early frost; let them fecd slowly with a stimulating food in 'prinp: ( ) when otherwise they would have spread the bnx>d, employing warm porous top packing over the stock and a slow fceder and let them insert a bright silver coin, the larger the lx:tter, on the floor board under the middle of the brood nest. Rapid enlargement of the brood nest will most certainly follow, and when supering, the sih'er coin should be sent to the author. The experience of a few seasons will, I am sure, confirm persons with the type of mind in question in this excellent practice, but they must not omit the last instruction# Until the bees are flying fast, entrances should be kept down to 2 or 3 inches, to assist in keeping (lut cold winds and to hinder robbing Egg-laying is controlled by temperature and food. If the entrance is opened wide and a queen excluder prevents the brood

279 SEASONAL MANAG :>!ENT nest being ('xtt:nucd upwards, egg-.. laying will be check('d, IJllring.l 'peil of bad weather, hx'ping the hees indoors, egg-ia)'in~ will be increaseu unles:. rhen' j~ a serious shortage of s.torcs. In the latter t_'a::;l' prcparati()n~ may Ix' made h.'" tht hces for hunger ::-,w;1rming. E!g-la... illf!. is increased also by uncapping ~ome of the stof\.:~. Other Activi,iu in Spring/im! During the spring all spare brood and supn comb, should h(, gone over and graded, the worst being Set a~ijc for m{ ]ting do\vil, other!> for n:pair and others for immt'diarl' llse as required, old and new combs being separated and the new \N:U ill supcr~ "'here the be('s havl:' hccn wint('red in a uotlhh. hody some fe-arrangement of the brooj nest i:-; desirable (1467) before supcring. When frames of foundation have to be cmplp.~'(. d for la.ck of good drawn combs, special manipulation is illyolved to secure good combs, to a\'oid chilling the brood and to a\'oid queen supersedure (sec 278 and and 148). Summer Summer ManagfltlfJJt-Principai OJ:if(t From the earliest spring to the close of the season th(' primt' object is to secure at the ]OWl'st cost the largest number of bees of harvesting age (20) at the times that nectar is flowing fredy and to divert their acth'ity to honey-gathering. The general management must be "aried to suit special local conditions, as dealt with in Section XI. i'he subject of swarms and swarm prevention is dealt with in Section XIII. The following instructions are of general application 'Vh.tercr the conditions may be, the beekeeper should observe what is going on; the state of the weather and forecasts and especially the shade temperature and the flowering of the principal sources of nectar. The indications of the scale hive should be studied) if one is used. The unobservant beekeeper will miss the great opportunity of the unusually heavy flow which occurs now and again, and which to the more observant becomes a source of substantial gain. Bees cannot store honey in supers which the beekeeper fails to provide and cannot store so quickly where they have to draw out comb as they require it, See, therefore, that sufficient supers are available and ready before they are likely to be wanted. \Vhen a flow is Qn,~examine supers every week or 10 days at least, late in the day (1278).

280 Removal of Surplus SUMMER 255 J 102. It i!l Je~irabJe to n:m(h'c mos.! of til{' ~tlrplw' hdt)fc tilt' How ccast.:s, even jf the c(}mvs are not wrnt(.'d "gain for n.. 'tllling rlw samt' st.'a:-o!i, a~ the l){,('s art' good-tempered \-\'hik tilt' How is Oil and di:.illl..'lillt:d to rod, whereas, when the flow Ci.:a!ol'S, their monu may h(" tht revt.'rse. ' 1 J 03. It j!:l as well to remove the surplu!' in rhl' early morning before the bees are on the fllmt, super clearers hal'ing ht'('jl in"crh'd a day or 2 Ja.ys bet()re. 1'h("re i~ k",~ Jallj!('r of rohhing. If the hone\, is to be extracted this mav he done while (he combs art' warm. It is' found that bees lta\'t' th~' supt'r~ mon fl adlly through the dearer if it is of the ventilated typt:, but it mu:-.t be of cnrhtt design with double screen, not one through which bet.:~ can halld down holwy readil" In the ('\"t'ni of a sudden l'1.'~:,ati{)n ()f'h'n:11 How, ('ntrancl~ ::.hould be reduced to hinder robbing In Great Britain thl' main crop i~ prat.:tically over by till' end of July or first week in August, except for those who arc Jl{'ar the heather or ncar enough to move some hivt:~ to the heather (809)..;J1(.jki-ng 1,/Crease Summer-time i~ also til(. time for making increase (1591>-1639). If th" crop is a bad failure ano feed in,: i~ Ilc",.,.sary, the time is favourable for making bet's, i.e. increa... ing tht: number of sto(;ks, as there wi!! not bt.: much else to do, and hn:t'ding can be stimulated by steady feeding (see al,() and 1180). Merits of Extracted, Comb and Chun/\ l-lo,u',.,'ii PrIJduaion In some parts the principal dema.nd is!-.tiij for comb honey, but, per pound of honey, comb hom:y sold ill &(_Ttion~ j~ morc expensive to produce than extracted hot}l.:y. h commands a higher price but must remain a luxury article. Comb lhjn~y ill small quantities for home use can be producc<l at practically the same cost as extracted honey (1471>-8) by ijtting a few marked shallow framt->s with super foundation or starttrs only and giving them to be drawn out, filled and scaled with others used for ' "traction, but such combs are not convenient to store (sec, howcrcr, footnote to 716) The demand for chunk honey is local. Chunk honey consists of cut pieces of comb honey inserted to fill a \'e,,,,,i, the spaces being filled with similar honey extracted On an 3\o'erage 50 per cent. more surplu~ can be got as extracted than as section comb honey, and 33 per cent. more chunk boney than section comb. The relative outputs are therefore:

281 Extrartnl Il()l)('v Chullk holwv Se<..:tioll hor.('~y SEli.SONJ\L \f/\n:\ge\fe'"l JCO and) if!nnring lahour} the prices should hl' in the inverse r;1tio, or: Extra,:tcd hnfh. v Chunk hone), Section honey 6i 'flit, lah(jur figurc~ arc higher, howcn.'r, for pr( p.tring and handling: comb honey and the relativc equivalent prices would be mofe moar]y represented by the following: Extracted hob('\' Chunk honer Section holl!:'y After allowillg that thc'!j('crinn contains It:~s than I lb. of honey it would appear that to be equally profitable, sections mu~t be sold at a price nearly half as much again as the price per pound of extracted honey. Management for Extracted, Comb and Chunk Honey It is commonly held that the principal difference in management for extracted and comb honey is that, with the former the bees may be given plenty of room, whereas for the latter they require crowding into the supers. Both statements are only half-truths and liable to lead away from success In the first place, before a honey flow and while there is danger of swarming, the bees for either system may be given plenty of room, but when the How commences the aim should be to divert their activities from brood rearing to gathering. I\lanipulations are necessary to prevent choking of the brood. Ilest with stores and sometimes to check breeding (see 1467 to 1475). It is generally advantageous to reach the ma.ximum brood peak early by stimulating early hrood rearing, so that there is a natural diminution of breeding. This is assisted by prt'ssure of the arch of honey O\'er the brood nest extending downwards as honey comes in, unless unlimited room is given below. If breeding is not checked and if the nectar flow is in two periods far apart as, for example, mainly from fruit and from clover, there is danger in a large hive of the bees using the early harvest for unprofitable production of brood which does not live long enough to do full duty during the second harvest J n working for sections, it is customary to restrict the brood chamber at the commencement of a harvest, but a strong

282 SUMMER stock wih warm and cnter the section rat'ks witlwut being forced to, In an early season the section rack must ~e warmiv covered. Tht~ bees may be hinjerej from going upwards by (ojd, ~.{'. Jack uf ample packing around and above the rack. 'rlw,r may ht attractl'd upw;~fd~ by the U!)c of a sp<:ciaj shallow fnun(' at otl(> or both ('nds of the rack and oya filled or panly tilled ~up(. r ahovt' till' t:mpty rack '[he nt;.wipulations n(. Cl.-:;.~,arr for supning and for aealin{!; with the :.warming propensity will bt" found in S{'('rion Xl V. It js no usc looking for surplus from weak stocls or from!:it(x:k:s ~~ljowcd to,liviul' by swarming l'be: nectar flow should be p:aut!ed by observa.tion of the thermoml'fer, the weather foreca.~h J.nd rhe opt-ning of the Rowers (370-4-), and room givtn in auv<llll:(' of rl'quirel1wnt~. A sign of tlw actual commencement of an important flow i~ til<: drawing out of cells at the: top and sidcs of the fra.me with virgin wax, adut'd to give more room for swrt~. Another injic-niofl for ~i\ jng ~up('rs i:i ~i\'(m by the bees ceasing to vi!!it their usual source \)f wa.ter in the middle of the day. It is better, however, to antit:ipatc the Row hy intelligent obsen.'ation of SDUr('e!-! and of the w('arhn In the particular ca~c of a whitt' dover Row, weatht'r being suitable, the supers should be required.bout 10 days aflor the iirst few blos!>oms are observed and the maximum flow should be experienced perhaps 10 days later When an early flow is brought t() an end by bad weather, the bees stay at home and there is frlosh risk of swarming and of stores being converted into bet's at an uneconomical period. For this reason it pays then to remon' surplus and give ti:)undation ill supers and feed slowly. \\"hcll working: for section h01v:y it pays during a temporary bad spelt to fecd back thin honey and cxu.ctcd (disease ft"") honey diluted with an equal amount of wat«, Sf) "' to keep the bees busy working on the sections at a rapid rate. Sections so made are well finished and kept clean, and the bees kept in training for storing until the flow re-opens. With long-lived, hardy strains there is no harm, however, in encouraging breediug at such times, and the same is true in cases where there arc no long breaks, between Rows For good work in sections it is c'$scntial to have a heavy sustained flow and plenty of bees to handle it. If the heavy reliable!low is a late one, use the early flow to build up the stock and for extracted surplus. It is undc.. irable to use sections for dark honeys, or for those that granulate quickly unless the latter can be disposed of quickly for early consumption The comb honey for chunk honey (681-5) is produced in shallow fmmes furnished with starters only. To get the starters

283 SEASONAL MANAGEMENT started treat as for section holley and preferably put combs of holley or brood above them, thus forming gaps in continuity of comb which the bees will tend to till. Autumn Ear~v AutumJ1 Examination and Manipulations 1120, TIlt' bees heing easy tempered while the holley Row still lasts, the novice, who is not quick to know the condition of his stocks, would do well to examine them au when inserting the super clearers. He should make notes of the condition of C\Try stock, noting particularly that there is a laying queen and having a note of her age, also the approximate strength of the stock, as it will be necessary Shortly to unite all weak stocks and in doing so to depose any remaining o1j queens ~r'akc any opportunities of removing any dcfccth'e combs, especially those with any considerable patches of drone cells, Any such comb" when noted, if not empty should be placed against the outer sidc~ of the hiyc on the coldest side, so that they may be the first emptied bv the bee', Thev may be removed later, probably in the spring:, before they arc brought into use again. 1122, This is the season for robbing and liot for swarming, Swarming is unlikely, and one may ignore the precautions which, ill the spring~ are so important to prevent swarming. Entrances should be reduced and the bees may be crowded, This assists brood rearing, so important in the autumn. Any queen excluders will be remo\'ed with the last of the surplus, The bees in most districts will still gather some winter stores and, to keep breeding going, it is important that they have room below. If any considerable late flow is expected and a double or multiple brood body is used, put the body with the laying queen above and others below, The bees are generally disinclined to store at this time in empty combs above the brood nest combs if the latter contain sealed stores near the top edges, but will extend the stores downward in these combs readily, making a compact. body of sealed stores for wintering, Importance of Autumn Feeding It is of the first importance that breeding should be continued after the cessation of the principal honey Rowand up to within, say, 3 weeks of the first killing frost, except in the case of the long-lived strains, and even with these it is valuable if there is an early harvest to be secured. Autumn feeding is dealt with in Section VTT -:InA ~hn1l1m h,,:. n.r:lor-h~ if.. hprp. i~ nnf' 'li.:t_,rtlt C1:1tt'",Iu r.f nprt"-:tt'

284 AUTUMN from minor but reliable sources after the cc'ssatio(l of the main harv~st and not jllterftrt~d with bv bad weather. Bet'S ht('d ;\t this time wilj b(' young (17) in the spri';g,lull ready ft)r th( lu:avy duty of rebuilding rht stc)(:k.,funh"'rmotc, br forc(.'d bn.. cjing:\ rh( old bt-es Can lxworkej Ollt and will dit b<:fof(' wintl'r't Tl,(,hll'lllP: tfll' ri~k of disca5l't espt'cialjr acarinc disea<tc. Start'S Suitable _f~,. lrill'" Vu Honey from the }at('r sources, g:old('n rod" asters, ht'ather, ('ti._'., i~ not the most suitabh for wintering:, and it is a good plan to h t p SOffie of the clover honey, if any, or other honey suitable (or the purpose ( ), «'l11m'ing comb, of the lat( honey to make room. Sotnctiml's thi~ late hom'v i~ of poor colour or otht'fwim' nnt so saleable., but it will be exc('licllt fof brood rt'aring in the spri!1~. Honcvdcw is dcl11liteh' IHlsuitablc and ~hnuld be Te01orcd. Auodu'r plan is to fl'tain thl' l~tl' honey tn ttit: hi\'(." for ~pring U':W and l'n~\ln' that it is not ljst'd befort', by t('('ciing 10 to 15 lb. of ~t{g:a[ ~yn'p I"st of ;:.lj, l~his food stored last will he used first by the h{ ('~, and is beltn for wintering than honey containinp: nitrogenous mattt. r, 'rh(. sug;~r syrup less quickly tills the bowel alld is therefore ('sp<,cially,'aluable as preparation for prolonged wintering. rrhc combs must" not be rc-arranf!.cd after this final storage has been mad( The fecder should be well ""cered and packed round whefe nights arc apt to be coo!, ami fceding should fw (()Inplctcd b.;h.)fc then: is any risk of fro~ts causing th(' bec<, to dust(.:[ bc(of(~ stores hav(' been sealed. It is m.cful to noll' that a ;.;trollg colony will take down and seal over large qllantitit:<:o; of suf!.ar syrup vl'ry economically if fed du[in~ a lull in tht: n('ctar Row jn the summer, e.g. in early June in most parts of Gf{:at Britain. 'rhcm' store combs may be removed when preparing for the main Row, put away in a dry store and distributed later as required During rapid feeding in autumn it is important to ~e that the combs do not become so filled that there is insufficient room for egg-laying. It is important to remember that bees c..annot form the winter duster without some empty cells to duster in. It is good to feed the sugar syrup rapidly by the use of a large feeder, as the excitement so caused assists in raising the temperature, but btware putting off the operation on the grounds that it can he done quickly and may therefore he commenced to-morrow. The frost also may come quickly and commence to-morrow~ TYeak and Quten/m Stocks Before the final feeding (if any) and packing down, all weak stocks should be united and any found queenless provided with

285 260 SEASONAL MANAGEMENT queens. Stocks queenless at this season will be short of yaung be", and even though strong in numbers, are best united to weak queenright stocb. On the sudden cessation of a late flow, egg-laying i-5 liable to be brought to a standstill. This should be remedied bv f( eding. An inexperienced beekeeper, not ha\'ing attended to this, and examining the stock 3 weeks later, finding no brood whatever, i; liable to assume Guecnlessncss Where wintering conditions are not very severe there is an aitcrllativc to uniting weak stocks, which saves the necessity of sacrificing queens, and that is, to place two stocks in aile hivc body (1461-3). In the spring the), rna)' be united and the spare queen used elsl"where, Of, if conditions afc favourable- and they build up well, tht:y may be put in separate hiyl"s. The moved lot should be moved in the c\cening and other steps taken to secure that it docs not lose its flying bee, (796). Old Comhs for IVillltring Some make a practice of giving a frame or two of foundation to the stock while feeding, to ensure room for egg-laying, but old combs are best for ~, jntcring, and conditions are not favourable for building out the new combs to the best ad\.ntage (278 and 281). Amount of Stores for TFinttrill The pro\ ision in the autumn of ample stores for winter and early spring is one of the most important factors in securing success, and it is wel1 to err on the s.1.fe side, remembering that excess stores will not deteriorate, whereas a shortage of stores spells cenain loss, as, although there may be no actual starvation, the bees will accommodate their expansion in the springtime to the stores available and prospecti\ e. They will be hindered from adequate expansion at the most critical period if ample stores are not available. U31. The amount required for early spring use varies mainly with the strength and \'igour of the individual colony and, paradoxically, the most successful colony may be in the greatest danger. The amount varies.also with the extent to which early supplies are available by the time the temperature is suitable for rapid breeding The amount required for wintering only, i.e. for consumption during the period of inactivity, depends mainly upon the length and severity of the winter and but little upon the size of the colony, as a weak lot will consume more.tores per head in maintaining tempenuure than will a strong stock, the cluster being smaller,.. offering less resistance to cold, and being also more easily disturbed

286 AUTUMN and more frequently disturbed by the duty of maintaining temperature (23) Varying: with circumst,uh..'{"s.alxh"c indicated, a supply of 10 to 25 lb. should he gi... C'Jl fdr willtt'r list' and J 5 to 35 lh. for... :spriu!!, or a total of 25 to 60 lb. In GTl ~l.t Britain 30 to 45 lb. is ample, t}w larger 1Igure for the strong:(~f and more prolific sroch. In :\1ichitran 45 to 60 lb. is recommended. In Victnri.) (Australia) 20 to 30 lh. is customary, but rather Ofl the!pw ~idt.'. J 134. \-Vhere a. stl)(k i:- wintered ill a ~illl.d\' hnjy, it is a good plan to keep back a ~hallow soper of gooj holl<'~' and plan' on ttl(' bod.", whtjl parking down fnr wintt.'t. Arrangements for TVillln ;ng It is important to guartl at!ain~t the possihility of the bt:l'~ being ~tarn d in thl' inactivt., and enid ~('a"oi1 through the ~t()rc(o. bt..'coming- divided. ~rhl' part on which tilt' du!-'ttt j" Jot:af{."d ma.y hecome c\_hausted, and tht beb bi' unahle to r(',(t')} tilt.' other parr. ~rhcrc should be plenty of stort.."s at the top (If h;h.:k of the central combs A wint<.'f passage-way otter rhe top i:-. al~n snmdimes provided. \Vhere a soft covering, clo:;r on top of the fr.1n1l', i~ used, place two bars of wood i thick and ;\ im:h of mote apart across all the frames in the centrt, thus forming a tulltiei undtr tht packing for passage from frame to frame in the warmest part of the hin'. 'ri)l' ends should be pared down so that the quilt lin. ~nllg!y In:;tead of an overhead pa::'~f!( \OrIW prefn to make pop lldk~ through the combs ll<:ar the cop bar~ and, injc( d, 011 tht:' continent of Europe tubular pieces are ~()Id for jn~t'rtion in the rom~, which arc built into place by the bees, but kt"pt op(."n as pa%agc's. On the other hand, strong lots can be wintered wirh an inm:r cov('t" giving access over the tops of alj the combs, pro\'id( J rhey ha,'c ample top packing 'The last operation in the st'a~on with each ~tock is packing down for winter. "I'his should be done early enough to give rh{: hces ample opportunity to seal all crevici._"s and adjust the ventilation to their liking. This cannot be done by the bees at a low temperature and is best done while propolis i, available, that is, while the temperature is still moderate and well before first frosts (for Wimer Packing, see Section VII). If the hives are to stand out of doors, make sure that they are weather-proof and mouse-proof and secured against times of storm and stress. Cm er; may be blown off unless of the deep variety, and should be secured with weights, say, by a brick hung on the end of a rope, the rope passing over the top and being secured to a stake the other side. The entrance must be

287 SEASONAL MANAGEMENT screened fmm high wind, and it is bad to have hives so exposed that there is any risk of their being overturned The preparation of the last lot of honey or wax for market should be completed, after which the last operation of the season consists in clc'aning, overhauling and c.arefuj storing of au appliances) empty combs and the like (sec and 10M-6). JI/infer Condili!)11J {f'inter In sub~tropical regions, breeding and C\'('11 the gathering of nectar may.continue without omis~ion throughout" the Wi'Hcr. Some hints fijr management under such circumstances will be found in 1215, but in temperate and colder regions there is a period of quiescence in the winter, with dose clustering, subject in the cold period to periodic disturbance for internal re-arrangement and the raising of the temperature. Whcn the surrounding atmospht't(' in the hive is low enough to cause risk to the life of the bees, thtn sufficient heat must be generated and pass from within the cluster to maintain the temperature of the bees on the outside. Gelleratioll of Heat and Size of Cluster The winter cluster is formed Oll the store combs and when first formed will include and cover the last of the brood. When this brood has all emerged the' bees cluster very closely, tilling the empty cells and the space between. The closer the cluster, the better the heat is retained and the smaller the external surface. The mass of bees and hc",'v old comb and of any stores within the cluster has considerable heat:storage capacity, but'the heat has to be maintained by the consumption or combustion (oxidation) of food within the bodies of the bees within the cluster. If the temperature (24) falls too low, the bees will die. If it is too high, the activity and consequent consumption of stores increases, with risk of the bowd becoming overcharged (1261-2), Between the two extremes there is a small range of temperature within which the food required is a minimum and also the risk to life and health Now a strong lot of bees offers a smaher ratio of external surface to volume than a small lot. If the number of bees is halved the ratio of external surface of the cluster to the number of bees is increased by 30 per cent. and more heat must be generated per bee to keep up the outside temperature. In a small lot the rate of consumption of food per bee and the rate of loss of heat are both increased and one finds a higher average temperature within the cluster, and a more frequent disturbances of the cluster to save the

288 WINTER lives of the outsidt" bees. Calculati(lIl~ h;l~(.'d on outer ~urfitn' aloue, do not sc('m quirt adequate to a<':(oullt h)r the marked dittl'rt'tlccs ohsentd~ ;is hct\.yct"u small and Jarge dusters. l'hc air will P;bS mort:' n:adlly through a small,.juster than a larf.!,t' one, a,nd it!\~ <.. ms likely that this ("ollsidcra.hly intt'rl~ifi.t's the burdt'u of maintailling ternperarurt' in a small cluster. In an~' ca~(\ the ~l.ying, now da,,~i(.:l that the bt,:;,t p.l-eking for bees is bees, ha:-. its justi tlcation in practice and in theory. Cau5t's (l1ld!),-rumt;an of lfl'infn Losus I n preparation for winter the 1ir,,( ohject i~ fo (onserv(" the h(. e~ and the ~(._'c()hd to conserve thl' Ston"~,. \Vhen out' r("ad~, a<; OlW may occa~ionally, of an avcr;lg(' Df 40 Pl'f Cent, of ~tf)ck_l., In.,t whct! wintered out of doors and ahout half tht' flumtwr wtwtl wintl'fl'j under cover, it is ('vident that tlw problem of Slll'((..,..flll wi IItcring-, to sonw people, is 110 light m.ltt( r. \Virh plenty (.f _l'ohllg h{ ( s, diseasf fur. a young: queen, plenty of suitable st()t( ~ alld appropriat(_ protection, oi)t' may reasonably expect all st(x'ks to com(,_' through successfully, barring an occasional ml!)challce. ()nt' has heard of bees of a hardy strain su(cessfully wintered in tht op':n, in the ttt'brid<."s, in smalj hires without external packing, and utht'pi fi'howiug high los~(',:> when wintered under heavy packin~ in a mild short winter ill the south of England. Taken the world onr pf()hably disc"s,: and damp are the greatest cnemit..,; in wimer, but l.t('k of observa.nce of important details set out below, anj in autumn preparation, is probablv responsible for as mudl Jo~s Cold alone will not kill bel.., that have acces~ to stores, but excessive consumption of stores, and the u~(' of unsuitable stores (1261-2) in maintaining the temperature of the duster, lcad. to rapid accumulation of waste matter in thl.'" bowd, alld puts a limit to the number of weeks the cluster can withstand tb, mid; a period ~hort with wl'ak stocks but longer with strong ~t()cb for reasons already given (1142). If such conditions are prolon!!cd therefore, some packing is a necessity. How much is d(.'sirabk~ is a matter of compromise, both stores and packing. costing mnney, in material, or labour, or both. Bees, well packed, in the open, have withstood temperatures down to - 35" F., but with relatively heavy consumption of stores and serious r;sk of dysentery. It is sometimes economi,al to provide winter cellars in districts where the mean temperature falls only to 25 F. for long periods. Winter cellars are almost necessary for commercial work where the ""on temperature reaches 15 F. Heavy packing is necessary where these limits are approached. It is used successfully under more severe conditions and this may be justified where only a few hi,'es are kept, but for fifty or morecolonkll

289 SEASONAL MANAGE.\! ENT it is a question whether a permanent cellar would not be the more economical proposition in the long run. Keeping out Damp In milder regions, damp is morc to be feared than cold, detrimental as it is not onh' to combs and to stores but to the health of the bees. Where the ~se of plain hives is permissible, whether single-wallej or double-walled, and whether painted Of c"'cosatcd, it is well to cover them in winter with some waterproof covering such a~ a piece of bituminizcd footing felt. A piece to surround a large hive below the covef, costs only a few pence Of cents, and if rolled up on a warm day in spring for storage will last for several years. It may be secured with drawing pins or small tacks Waterproofed packing paper mav be used in a similar manner. A co\'ering of roofing felt with 4- to 6-inch overlap, enclosing an air film, adds appreciably to the thermal protection, as well as to the moisture-resisting quality of the hive. A loose outer cover as employed in the ",-r.b.c. and Kootenay hives, used in Great Britain and Canada respecti\'c1y) serves the same purpose. Damp air being lighter than dry air at the same temperature, tend, to rise and will leave by a top or middle entrance (932-5). Production of Damp If the temperature of the hive walls is below that of the dew point of the air within, condensation occurs on the walls. The prime cause of condensation is the charging of the relatively warm air in the hive with moisture through the activity of the bees, the combustion of their food causing the production of much water vapour with carbon dioxide. This moisture condenses on a fall of temperature taking place. Conditions are worse in the presence of unsealed stores, as the moist surface exposed tends to saturate the air with water vapour. However charged, the warm moist air circulating in the hhte is cooled as it passes down the outer walls and oyer the outer combs and discharges its moisture over those surfaces. Excessive humidity is bad apart from direct moisture. Heavy packing tends to equalize temperature and thus promotes a healthy atmosphere. With heavily packed large hives, as used for example in Canada, a l-inch tunnel entrance provides sufficient ventilation, but where packing is inadequate increased ventilation is essential to cause the air to change more frequently, both on account of increased activity of the bees and of greater and more rapid temperature changes occurring.

290 U", of Packing in Jli!d Climatn WINTER In mild climates, "" in England for example, many hht'> art' wintered su(ct""sfullv without }W;J.\ \ l':\tt'rn.d packwg, but at some cost in stofes ami some ri~k of JySt'ntt:ry when th(~ ( x(.'epti{)(lal wintc:r arrives. 'rherl' is no doubt that the U~t' of pa(kinr-. in sud} circl101:-.tann:s cnhanc('s safety and \an"i stores, 'rhe bt'('s (I:st mortquidly aud conserve heat, a'nd when the rlnll' arrih"s fur brct:oin{o?:. will t'xpa!ld with great rapidity. Iudel'ti, tilt, 4.'-Autioll to r("lain plenty of stonos where such packing is pr;lt'r!scd it. b.bcj on tile rcquire~ ments of rapid brc('ding in the ('arly sprinj.! father than tho,:\(' of winter. At the same time it must not b(, foq!ott('n that more bct's atl' lost through lack of protection of the entram:c from (old winds than from lack of packillg. Top Packing and Ventilation If porous top pal;kinf!., ~i\'ing top \Tfltilatioll, is ( mployed') a smaller entrailce may he used than with a totally impervious p:lckil1. ". A porous top packing serves as an (ogualizt'r of moistlln' and a safety-vain:. If an inner board is u~cd with tt:('d hok' or t.ltcapc holt, it should be placed so that tht hole is near the front, and Clwl'rl,d with porous packing. Some preft.:r to replace al1 imwr boards by porous top covering for wintering) and thi!) plan!:ohould be employed if trouble from mould i~ experienced. It is the common practice in Great Britain. Winter Flights If, during the winter, the be,", fecl the need of flight to discharge the bowel (1261) and if the tcmp<'raturc on any day is at all suitable they will discover the favourable conditions and usc the occasion. If, however, much light shinl's into the hive) bct~ an..~ apt to be enticed out on cold bright days, to their destruction. Many bees may be lost in this way at the critical time in the early spring, but losses may occur in the carly wimer also. Sn()w on the ground greatly accentuates the risk, and while there is snow or ri~k of snow it is well to shade all entrances from reflected light by sloping boards secured against wind and vibration. Hives with white painted alighting boards should be protected in this way soon after the bees have clustered. FrudQm from DiJturbance It is important that the bees should not be disturbed during the quiescent period by water dropping on the hive, vibration, or straying cattle and other animals, or swaying branch"".

291 SEASONAL MANAGEMENT MlJ'lJing Hives in {Pinter Advantage may be taken of the quiescent period to do any necessary g:round clearing and any necessary re-arrangement of the apiary. The hi\.'cs may be mo\'cd with but little fear of the bees losing their way, as they will note their location anew after a few weeks of quiescence, but theft' will be some drifting and Ires of bees. The hives must be lifted, carried and replaced gently and carefully) so as to make only a momentary disturbance. On no account usc a wheeled vehicle. The best time for ffio'(..'ing, however, is in the summer (Section VI). Floor-board Indica/ors 1] 53. RCt'ke('peT:- U11 th(, continent of Europe having bcchouses containing hi\'c~ ()pcnin~ from (he back, emp:oy a useful indicating dc\'ic<.: adaptable..: for u~c with some other forms of hive. It consists of a. loose sh<x t of tarred or,'arnishcd paper inserted on the bottom board and which may be drawn out for inspection and replaced. J\.1any useful observations may be made by this means. One observes the number and condition of any dead bees and, in <::ase of suspicion, can have them examined. Shrunken abdomen~ indicate starvation, and swollen abdomens bowel trouble. Dropping indicate what is taking place, mouldy pollen and honey drops indicating ill effects of damp, portions of capping and capping showing where there is activity atld the position of tht.' cluster. Sugar crystals show that granulated stores have been reached, and eggs that the queen ls layjng. Cellor lftinttring Conditions The conditions under which cellar wintering is desirable are discussed in Outside wintering with heavy packing is making headway in regions in which cellar wintering might have been considered essential. Cellar wintering is not so desirabje where bees can have an occasional flight during breaks in the cold period. Hardy strains naturally winter better out of doors than the softer strains. The use of no cellar is better than the use of cellaring imperfecth' carried out. To secure success with a cellar it must be so constructed and worked that the temperature is properly controlled and the bees protected from damp. Constructill1t oj Cel/ar 11,55. The cellar should normally be really dark, and it is best to use an artificial light for inspection purposes.

292 CELLAR WINTERING Th~ cellar ma\, he built helow 3 dwelling-how., or helow a hee-house or worbhop, or into tlw ground with t~arth ovcf th(' top, tilt' side of a small hill aff,)rdin~ l:ojl\'cnicnt entry. All parh of the cellar mu~t bt. below tlw frnst~ll yel. 'l'his t!,ef1('rally IWt.:t ~~ :;it:l.tl's havin~ the l..-eilillg ahout 30 iihjll"~ helow tht_' groul;d kvtl. 1 f hdnw ;l huilding, the t'c;lint! should he pat'ked to <l depth of, S~l\" 18 illrht.;s, with h('at-f( ~isting. matnial, sa\', sawju"f; hut an\' brick arch l'o\lnt~ a.. part (If tlli:." If tht'tt i~ a ri~k' oflwat ('flu'ring, bl.~r mort: t'speci.dly if there is a risk nf cold ('rh('rinj!:, a double Jonr will lw llcr(_'~:-;ary allj~ indced, in vt:rv fold regions the d,)()rs I11U~t hf' ~("P ;tratej hy an allt('t:h;.unhcr, itsdf packed Sll til.a t)j(' inner door j~ prott:ctni from frost at al! timl':> 'rite cellar may col1v('nil'lltj.v han' a lwight of b to i f(>t t,and :t capacittl of 12 to 15 cubic (cd p'('r colonv. Thufl J. hundred col0llit"s ('all 'be wint('rcd in a cellar with a fl~)or af(';l 10 f( ('t hy 20 feet. 1 [58, If the temperature i~ kept within pfolwr limit~ very little vcntilation i~ rcquin.,(l A 2-inch pipe t'rltning at hottom and nth: or two ~xirsat top, which m<ly be srnallf._ f ifth('f{: arc two, ~y, I A-inch, ~hould be ample, but thefe ffiu5.t bt mtall'!> for pa.rtia.lly r.losing them. If mort: room is provided per hive than ijbm't' indiqtcd thtrc may be difficulty in keeping up the temperature. Cdlor T Imp/roturl A temperature of 4-5- F. (7- C.) i, reckoned the ~-st, but it may be two or three dcgr('cs higher at the commencement () wintering and is better two or thre(, deg_r( ( 5. {ower at the cnd. Evny effort should be made to kel'p the tt:mpcraturc within th(~ range 42 to 4-8" F. (5" to 9' C,J- The be" temperature' i, that at which the b{'c~ make lea.'lt noise, and l'xpcricllcc will k'ad tht! bl'dh'~pcr to judge how things arc going by the amount of noi~ math:. ~rhc temperature may be obsern_ d by a thermometer fredy suspended about Jcvd with the eye. Pl riodic. inspection is important, and once a week is not too often. l>foving Bets into the Cellar The most favourable time to move the hecs into the c.ellar is on a day after they have had a warm spell and good Aight (to clear the bowel) justprecedinga cold spell. All brood should have emerged and the duster have formed. This points to [ate Octoher and early l\ o"ember in the northern hemisphere, according to location. All hi"es should he marked and a record kept of their position, so that they may he restored to their original stands. It is true that hec-s tend to locate their position afresh after long confinement, but if

293 268 SEASONAL MANAGEMENT the hives arc mixed some undesirable drifting will occur and there may be some unnecessary loss of bees The quality of stores is a vital factor in cellar wintering) and the supply of sugar fecd is recommended last of all before mm'ing (sec 1259 to 1265), If the bees arc cella red in sin.,:le bodies it is essential to ha,'e in reserve (712-15) a second bod\' for each hive well stocked with food, This should be placed on when the hi,'c is first put out, so that breeding may be stimulated and ample provision made for rapid increase. 1163, There should not be less than 25 lb, in the body taken to the cellar. Conditions in the Cellar Before moving to cellars, hive entrances should be lightly plugged, but all entrances should be opened as soon as the bees arc in the cchar. Some top ventilation is desirable, obtained by the usc of porous packing (see and 899), If inner boards arc used a somewhat wide cntran~(" is desirable. 'The hi\'es must be lifted, carried and set down as quietly as possible, The temperature of the incoming air being raised after entry, is above dew-point, and is in fact capable of absorbing and carrying off a certain amount of moisture. If the temperature is correctly regulated so that food consumption and moisture production is small, all will be well and the slow ventilation required will be sufficient to carry away the moisture produced. It is important, however, that this moisture be not added to by damp walls and floor or by the storage of vegetables in the same cellar, The floor, though dry, will nevertheless be cold, and the bottom rows of hives should be raised several inches off the floor on bricks or creosoted wood runners. The hives may be piled in two or more tiers up to the ceiting, When visiting for inspection see that all entrances are clear of dead bees, using a wire hook for the purpose and reaching well in, Removal from Cellar Bees of ' some strains wintered outdoors will fly in the sunshine with a shade temperature of 50 F. (10 C.) or less, but there is considerable risk, as if the sun is hidden for a while the bees become benumbed and cannot return. They will then die by exposure in the cold night following. Flights are frequent with a shade temperature of 55 to 57 F, (13 0 to "1,0 C.), Thus the time to bring,th~ bees ou~ of the ~e1!"r is the time whe'!,such temr<;rat~res

294 CELLAR WINTERINC preferably when the weather (oreca.sts predict a rise of temperature to follow. 'The period i!1 yu('sti(m is generally in latc 1\larch to April in the 1l0nhl'rn ht'misphcn" according to location and sra.'ioll. ~ri\e blooming of the willow:, in most places at this tllnt' ("l)sun."s a. supply of frt'>h pollen (sce 1227) If singk-walleo hi,," art used they should have somc!cmporar.v pack_ii~g for a few wt,t:h after rcm~\'al from the cdlar, such ~ straw matting., anj ample porou~ top l"on:ring is c.ksimblc.

295 Introduction SECTlO1\' Xl SPECIAL MAN.1GEMENT Instructions for general mallap:emcot are usually based on average conditions and but littie guidance is given for coping with the peculiar conditions of particular districts. Only (00 fn:qucntl.v writers in tile journals, giving ulkicc or experience on managemellt, omit to state for what precise conditions they arc catering_ II! Great Britain alone almost all kinds of conditions are to be met with, except a winter Row. There are main harvests to be secured only in late autumn, early harvests mainly from fruit, irregular, longcontinued flows and the characteristic early and late crop with a gap between. In America the dover, buckwheat and tulip tree regions require different management, and appropriate methods have bct:n worked out in detail. In Australia [he forest regions present unique problems. In all parts, however, every district has some peculiarity, and, to secure success, it is necessary to recognize what the conditions arc and to know how to adapt management to fit them General guidance for seasonal management is given in the preceding: section. 'The technique of particular manipulations is given in later sections. Here we have to deal only with what has to be done, not how to do it. It is thus possible to present in small compass an account of the Secrets of profitable beekeeping applicable to almost all circumstances in which English-speaking beekeepers may find themselves, presented in such a way that the intelligent beekeeper may grasp the problem as a whole and adapt the details to his particular need In attempting this problem for the first time, the author wishes it to he understood that he himself has had personal experience of only a few of the conditions enumerated and respectfully submits that if there are /laws in this /irst attempt they are mainly due to the fact that his predecessors have evaded the problem. He hopes that those of his readers who can criticize from personal experience will not hesitate to communicate with him, as well as those who can suggest useful additions to this section. '7

296 SPECIAL MANAGEMENT Relatio" of Manag,mrnt to Flow Pn-iotis In ut'l'iding upon;l. s~'st('"m of managt'nwnr for <1 particul.lr district, thi.' first and principa.l (onsiderations.t1"(,' ((I) what art' tht, principal S(lUTCeS of hout>),) (h) wh('n Jo thi.' flow" (KrUr, ami (I') what is their relatire magnitude? ~ro rake a rq>rl's( ntati",c ("<lsc, rll<'rt' may be an early i~ow from \'ariou~ fruit~th'(~ ill April and l\1ay (northern hl"mi<:'phnc, or Octoht:r,Uld Nn\'t~'nh('f, so\lth(~rn h(,11li... phen)) continuc:d by some l.w r flowering: tr(.4t":>, foll(lwcd hy a gap in early summer, wh(:11 liotwith~t:j.ndifl!! tlfll' growillg. wcadwf th~rt: are no good Jlectar-g,i\ing flowers in sufficit nt qualltity to ~ivl" a ~urpjw" perhars ('\'ton insufficient to provide for th(' ~bijr rl1'ell, then 1.:~ml(,S a heavy Row from dovc:r and linlt:, weather P(';f1ljttjl1~, and practic;dl,v a ces~atioll il~ the hl.~~6ilnif1!! of AUJ;uo;;t (nonhern hemisphere, Ft hruary, southern hl'mi!o>phcre), ] 173, 'rhe mort' important sour((-s of liectar ;ife lish J in Sc( tinn rv, , but sometimes it i~ as implirtallt to h,l\t adequate krlowledge of the pollt>n supplit's as of hnlll'y flows. Fnnunatdy in most parts.' there is no lack of {!:ood pollen whell w<lrircd. H("C'S do not readily fly long distanci..'s for pollel1) (:sperlally ill ('001 we-ather (759), and in plal'cs where the principal!:iourct's of 111'(..'tar are a.1so the principal flowering plants in the districr, there m.;ty be )at-k of pollen at the time \-",hen bees should be being mist d, ready «"W thew: flows. 'rhc need is felt especia.liy in Australia, when: n{"ctar~ht'aring forest trees ('(wcr large areas fn:quendy Ull~upp(}rt('d hr tilt lnjmerous earlier sources of pzll!cn found in mo:;t other places. 'fhe mon..' important sour\t'~ of pollen are listed in I\1anagement includes alj those things that appertain to bee farming., such as queen raising or purchase, ilh.:reasiut!, stock, stimulating breeding) checking swarming, ami, above all, honey.. getting Vow in all special systfms of manag,mrnt-that is, in 0/1 adjustments oj method to the particular lowl conditions-the great stcret of haney produttil)l1 ii II) ho'l}l' I) fargl fora of hus of thl hnrvtjling age (2()"'1) available throughout the time each flow is on. trithout the harvest,rs the harvnt will not he gath"ed. if large f()t"cts of hus au raisfd at any other time, it will hf at tht fxpmh of tilt benty Jtorts. It is of no betlefit to rais( hus in numhers~ ~xcfpf wh~n thq can he utilized for harvesting at the harvesting agl, unless one intends to mokl ont's profit out of bee brttding and not out of h01"y If harv~'sters do not predominate at the time of harvest there is, f.nthermore, a probability that much of the honey gathered will be utilized forthwith for brood raising, which brood will mature too late to be profitable. If, however, the.large majority of the bees are of the flying age at harvest-time, then the stores they bring in

297 SPECIAL MANAGEMENT will keep the home workers busy storing, thus actually checking breeding. Hence, the benefit of manipulations aimed to increa."'c the proportion of flying bees in a particular hive during the honey flow. To producf hoflf~v one must thtr~fore plan the whole procedure $0 that the periods of activifj' and of inactivity in brood raising are properly related to the period! of heavy jlow of nectar. Influence of Longevity of Bees Some bees, haying very prolific queens, are short-livcj, their life when hard-worked extending only to about 5 weeks, first as nurses, thcn as harvesters. With such bees not flying for the tir':)t fortnight (20-1) and gathering only for about 3 weeks, it will be seen that considcrabk thought must be given to securing an adequate force of them at the critical time. For example, jf the main Row lasts from June 21 to July 15 (December 21 to Januar), 15, southern hemisphere) with but little before and a rapid falling off after, it will be seen that no bee emerging before Ma.y 17 (~ovember I i, southern hemisphere), 5 weeks before the harvest commences, can be counted on as a harn."ster, and no bee emerging later than July I (January I, southern hemisphere), 2 weeks before the harvest finishes, will be of much service. Put another way, eggs laid before April 26 (October 26, southern hemisphere) cannot give bees for the main harvest even for a day's work, and scarcely any work in the profitable period will be got out of bees emerging from eggs laid after June 10 (December 10, southern hemisphere). In such a case, earlier laying is useful only to build up the colony so that egg-laying is in full strength about or soon after April 26 (October 26, southern hemisphere), and egg-laying may be slowed down to ad~ a.nta:ge fro,l a little before harvest until, say, the latter half of Aguust (February, southern hemisphere), when it should be stimulated again for a few weeks to produce new blood for wintering If the main harvest is uncertain as to date, as it is in a variable climate, some margin of days must be allowed in the programme to provide against this Consider now, however, the same flow, but to be harvested by bees having.a life approximating to 8 weeks in the busiest period, even though of a less prolific strain. It will be seen at once that there is a 6-weeks' harvesting period in the life of each bee instead of 3 weeks, giving a greater latitude in fitting the bees to the period of nectar flow. For a given rate of egg-laying, the proportion of harvesters in the hive tends to be doubled, and for any given period of Row ~ larger proportion are able to put in a long period of work. Where nectar flows are short and uncertain, long-lived bees are

298 SPECIAL MANAGEMENT much (._ a,.o;,ier to manage profitably tlun shnrr.. li\td ht. l~l otlwr things being equal. IrQd:ing to Produce fiffs v. lim".)' Y (:rl' weak ~t(l(:ks Lan SGul'civ mailltain th, rnsd\o'(."s C"\'('11 ill warm wead;er during a flow. Stocks va,'" ~trong ill bt cs t('nd to cht(-k brood fearing during a hone)' flnw. ;rhcn' is ~1I1 int('nnf..'diatc size not O\'ctstrong in harvesters a.hlt~ ttl ( xpand its brood tll"':it rapidly and which will do so at the cxpenst' of a mailltain~'d suppjy of food, wherher arrific!ally fed Of coming in duriuf{ il liatuml Row. Such stocks., especially with }'OUllg queens, produ<:e h<'('~, no! hofwy. ~rhus, to produce bees om' may work with stpcks occupying, say, hv(' to st"\'(.'f) framt's, and Stt~ to the food supply. Old hct s may bl' removed and used chewh",,' (15,}O). To dh'ck bn'cding, keep supplic,,> short and fl:t1lm't' combs of ('merging bets, or m,lkc nuclei for some of the quc(.'fb and unite" tlit-ir bees to other stocks. Sp((ial Case of Larg' Apiaries Other important details will \1(> brought Ollt in di>cus1>ing particular cases which fullow, but it i~ collvenient to m(,ontiofl here a relationship betwt:cn the!>i7.e of the apiary and tht pm~,pc'-.:ts of a profitable harvest. 'rhe matter is touched upon in Section VI, when' it is shown that apiari(:s may be profitable in which, say, 100 colonies arc located in one place, and indecd for certain very heavy flows much Jarger numbers may bt, profitably manat,tt:d, hut, by the same token, when tht" flow is less a!.mallcr number may ft.'present the protltabic limit. ~()W, if thefe arc ~u~tantial minor sources of Row as well as the main source, it may lx found that, while 100 colonies in one place are profitable Juring the main Row, the same lot divided into two suitably-placed lots a few miles distant, may be equally profitable during the ljuin Bow and give surplus during minor flows as well. For example, in a clover and lime district, with orchards few and far apart, a double harvlost cannot be got from one large apiary. It may pay, however, to place out hives in individual orchards in the spring and collect them 'fur heavier work later, moving them in the slack period between harvt-sts. An alternative, where it is not com'enient to move hives, is to work only a portion of them for honey during the early harvest and the remainder at that time for breeding and increase. Injlumu of Diu"" The importance of providing fiying bees for the harvesting period has been stressed. Next in general importance is the business M.B. T

299 274 SPECIAL MANAGEMENT of providing young bees in the autumn to withstand not only the rigour of winter but the strain of a rapidly growing brood nest in the spring. This is especially important where there is an early surplus to secure; but where the main Row is late and the earlier flows precarious it is advantageous to avoid too early breeding, such that the bees bred will be a source of expenditure with no hope of a corresponding return. Bees accustomed to luxurious regions art' particularh' wasteful in these circumstances. What is wanted in such a district are strains accustomed to lying quict without :-warming when. times are bad, and working furiously when there is a ready flow Conditions are, however, altered for the worse in any district where disease is prevalent, and it becomes of first importance to secure that stocks are not depleted by diseast: at a ti'ne when rapid access of strent-,rth is essential to a good han'cst European foul brood is a spring disease seriouslr hindering spring development and tending to shorten life. 'Vhile attending to the disease itself {J698) it is essential to make up for the wastage by special attention to all that appertains to rapjj expansioil in early spring, and, by uniting, to avoid carrying weak lots into th(' harvesting period. 1l85. Acarine (1714) is another disease apt to be devastating in effect and to hinder spring development. While the diseased 5tocks may be treated, it is advantageous to have prolific strains and at all times to work the bees hard, so that thev do not live long (18). 1l86. American foul brood comes late in the season and must be dealt with to prc\'ent serious autumn and winter loss. Classification of Districts Diagrams of nectar flows are liable to be misleading. A ::ertain minimum flow is necessary to maintain a stock at an even :evel Under the same conditio~s, however, one beekeeper will match a surplus, while another is advancing backwards. The nost useful classi fication of districts is one according to the period )f the principal flow giving surplus; such a flow as that from clover,,eather, buckwheat, orange-blossom, etc. The general man.genent must be 'planned to take full advantage of the principal source ) income, and minor adjustments made to fit the minor flows and lature of the district The classification of types of district is indicated by the.ide headings in what follows. No attempt is made to classify by lame of locality, as this is only possible for important areas such as :he buckwheat area in U.S.A., or heather districts in Scotland; but n such cases special leaflets or bulletins afe generally obtainable from

300 SPECIAL MANAGEMENT the local departments of agriculture. interest. BU5 Suited tn thi Conditions Z75 These are mainly of Ioc.l Diffl'ft:nt 'jtrain~ of tx t~ havt diffctt;nt habits. It \~ desirable, if po:-,sibk, to obtain lwt..'s frqm a, strain d(,'\'f;: loped under and gh.-inf! good results unjl'f t}ll' conjition.;. in which they will ha\'r to work (,," and 113). Pritltipu/ Fll'Y:c Ear~r 1 t 90. rrhis is the <:;1:-'(', for example, ill (lie Tulip-fret' region in the IT.S.A. and in SOl1)e large fruit-growing ;lfra... 'rhe prohlems afe how to get a strong t:nough colony c;.hly tllough and what to do for the n:st of the Hoar It is cssenti;;[ to f!o into wintt f with the :-.trong:l"st stncb of young bees and young qucens, with ample store~ to Cfi('OUrag(' early and rapij expansion of dh' hrood I\(.'St. Pollell ston... c.a.rrj~d (wer winter and early pollen supply an.' im{)orfant. Stimulative ft'etiing ( ) is useful in carly ~pring:, and rhe USr of pohcn substitutos ( ) where there is all i,,"dequatc, arly. supply. The stocks should he packed to wimer quietly!'oo that flo wasteful premature excitement is encouraged. 'Tht ~t()cks should b(' unpacked, say, 10 days after the )a~t killing frmt iff spring J f swarms should issue before unpa.ckjng, trea.t ;15 in 1535 ro avoid incrcasl', p:i\'ing ample super room b('fote the fiow is expected ,~rhen the flow is due to rornmenc(", or previously if queen ceus are started, it is essential to hindl. r swarming. Dem.arcl.. ing as in is suitahk, or the methods ",."cribcd in or If further surplus is expected at a l.tt r pcri,.d the methnd selected must be one which Can be timed to secure a supply of har "esters ( ) at such p<:riod. It may pay to transport the bees to another district whae a later flow occur~ Queen raising in late July i, favoured, and replacement of all queens annually each autumn, as the flow arrives too soon to e,,"ble stocks found with failing queens to be dealt with in time to ;.ave them for the early flow. The making of increase is best practised in early autumn If there is a moderate late tlow, not enough to harvest, it is a good plan to work for increase and unite for winter under the best queens, thus going into winter with the strongest possible >locks. One can also winter with two queens (1461-3) when uniting. In districts with a cold spring and early flow, the purchase should

301 SPECL4L MANAGEMENT be considered of package bees from a warmer region to assist III harvestillf!: ( ). Printipal Flo'w Latr There are districts whefe a hea\'y flow occurs in autumn, and but little earlier in the vear. Such -late flows occur where buckwheat is grown extensi,'cly, in good heather districts) and in some where asters, golden rod and other autumn Rowers flourish in abundance) and perhaps beans. 1198, Conditions being difficult in the early part of the year, trouble from disease must be watched for, and where prevalent it is essential to carryover ample stores from the previous year to <::ecurc an early start (1259). The problem is how to avoid excessive consumption in spring and summer and yt't have hives full ()f bees for the late harvest The special management appropriate depends upon the possibility of securing also some surplus in the summer:t say, from the clovers If no summer surplus is obtainable, divide the colonies as soon as strong enough in the spring ( ), and re-unite before the flow, under the best queens. With stocks re-queened, see that the queen will be, and is, laving at least 6 weeks before the main Row commences. This necessitates raising queens early and dividing early if the divided lots are to be used for the emergence and fertilization of their OWll queens (Section II). Increase, when required, from divided lots. Never raise queen cells except in strong stocks (scc Section II) If some surplus from clovcr is obtainable, thc Demaree plan may be used, combined with qucen raising (1556-8), or doubling without increase (1530-4), and separate queen raising, or artificial swarming with increase (1620) and re-uniting under new queens for the autumn harvest, I ncrease is best made in the autumn if inferior honey constitutes the main Row. Early and Late Flow with Gap Between This is characteristic of regions having a good flow from fruit-blossom and early blossoming ttees followed later by a heavicr flow from the clovers and perhaps bass (lime). If there is also a still later Row from heather or beans, asters, golden rod, etc., the beekeeper lives in a sort of paradise and does not need much special management, save to feed, if there is interruption at important breeding periods, and to avoid breeding harvesters (1175-6) for the slack perioo. Generally the autumn Row is not more than enough to keep the bees supplied from day to day, and the main problems are

302 SPECIAL MANAG&MENT 277 tht..'n, how tq ~ecun' that the old \x'es are \I"cd ()n t\w (~ar\v f\i)w, and how ht-st to tide on;r th(.~ dull p<>riod ht-twt'('n tj\(' sprin~ and \UmJ1'lt:T Bows '1'0 secure the early fiow the ShKb must P_I) into winter with ;llnple \-'oung hn's and ample pro\'j:,.inm' to Sl'(UrC ;Ill ('.arl" start and rapid build lip. ~nh' older bt_.(.,':'1 ~hou!d he usl.. d l()r (.\ri" '''rplu~ by such method, as ;md whid, "'SO ch~ck swarnul1p: tht' main flow i:-; l.ne, thefe h('ing no car!\' summer :-urplus aradahlc (a!sike), and if the ':'Iprillg flow f~ good, s{~mt' stnckh may ht dil'ided and worked for brct dinj!) rhell unitt:d on :}w C-Vt' of the main Row. 'rile ~toch should bt.., strnng_ ('flourh for divisinll pr( ferah!y R w('(:k... hc:fore the nmin Row. If, say, in swarming condition in carl,\' ;x,tav) thi... method could 1)(' workt d Wht'H' till' main Row do('~ not commctlc(" until the tw;:!:rnnillg of July; hur, /(1(" June flow, :.troll~ April stm'k$ would he required and fall oilly' be Rot III mild district!> Inn(>a,,>c mar h(: made ill :.prin~ Of,llltumn.~nd tlw \"ariou:. rnt'rh{)d~ of clt~ckin~ ~warrnifjg: pracci!>('d, pnwid(~d always that the bt'c~ are kept brc( ding most heavily (> to 7 w( ('h ll(.'fon.~ the height of ~adl flow,) and auy manipulations which chc'ck brecding carried out at such a time that the..:heck op(:ratl"ll 6 to 7 wn ks before the middle of a slack period ( ) Qut.~cns may he raj~l d on t)w (>arly or late flow, according to the gtllcral plan adopted, hut it i" mo,:>t... 'lfe to build up with young quec'ns in autumn, reid)" for the spring. Good qut'{'j)~ arc easy to g::ct in July (January) ~outhcrn lwmisphef('), aile! if!'.fm::ks art wintered with double queens (1461-3)~ t'arly ~pring division is facilitated. Prq/mgtd Heavy Flow This occurs in a few favoured di..,rricts where a summer and an autumn flow arc extended and m('et t when', for cxamp(c~ alsike and white clovers are,upported by late lim"" numerous wild sources and continued by beans, buckwheat, earlv a,r.;ters) etc This makes a beekeeper'. paradise, hut has its special problems, and the lazy or unwatchful beekeeper will mios the oc-st results and be troubled by swarming. The problems arc, how to secure ample harvesters for the continued flow and how to avoid swarming It is important to avoid the use, at the beginning of the prolonged flow, of checking methods, such as which hinder brood development, as this late brood is needed to provide bel's for the latter part of the /low. Such methods may be used later in the

303 SPECIAL MANAGEMENT season, as a second check, desirable especially if a check in the weather and flow causes congestion in the hives likely to lead to swarming. For the beginning of the flow it is better to use Demaree 1548 to 1576, but one can form nudei to be re-united later (1582-4) It is well to recognize that it is difficult to work stocks to full alh antage for a long spell hard at harvesting, and hetter to note differences in stoch, those rcady early to be applied to immediate harvesting and the others to breeding for harvesting later (1180). Swarming may be checked by Inanipulating these weaker stocks so that their flvers join the early harvesters (1590-5) and then building thc m up in the early part of the flow to work them hard in the later part If all stocks are strong early, some mav he di,ided ( ) to be united for the later part of the Row. It is desirable to rc-quecn late, so as to avoid queen failures in early spring. Incrt a~(.' may be made early or late according to the minor Rows. lrrtgufm' and Uncertain FlrJ'lL'S from Spring to../tttumn \Vherc the Row is irregular and uncertain and also limited in period, hees cannot be kept to show a profit. If the condition exists throughout the year, as in many urban districts., th(' bcl'kc('pcr ill a small way can yet get some return, but he will need to studv the weather and weather forecasts and to use snatch-crop methods. He should know the more promising sources and their relationship to the preceding weather. A wet IVlay in the northern hemisphere, for instance, gives promise of a clover harvest. He should use a scale hive, so as not to miss an unexpected flow; and whc'n a flow is on or pending he should use manipulations such as and to concentrate the force of the harvesters Queen raising in July with forced autumn increase (Section II and ) are suitable to such conditions, but both queen raising and increase may be carried out at any period timed to secure that the hives arc not lacking harvesters at the probable harvest times (117!>-6) If, during the best flow, an attempt is made to produce scctions, the.beekeeper should he prepared to feed honey (1238) during any temporary break in the weather. Flew Cmf;nud ;n If/;nfer This condition exists only in tropical and sub-tropical regions. For example, in parts of Australia, iron-bark, white box and "cider" eucalyptus, may gi,'e nectar in the winter months. There will he no winter surplus, but also no winter rest period.

304 SPECIAL MANAGEMENT 279 The special problems are, how to secure a rapid build up in the spring with but ft,w unworkcd bt:-cs, and when to rc-qu("cn A good plan is to raise quc('ns in late summcr or early autumn, brill!! thc'x' through the winter in fludd of four of i1v(" cnrn~, which will he ~df-~upportll1!!. hut will not dr.-lin the ('J1t'rgy ofthcquecn; then ill ("lrty spring rr--qucl'n tht' main stock by uniting with thlosc nuclei. 1 the weather is rebtire1y cool a whole nudcus QUI he unitcd by insertion at one side of a ~fol'k with.l minimum of disturbance, making room by removing empty comhs, the old queel1 having bern removed previously. I n other respects the matlag('n1ent will dep('l}d UIX)Jl the timl' of the principal flow or Row!'!. IV"l!-md Bttiwping The week-end beekeeper generally kceps lx'cs as much tor pleasure as for serious profit, and enjoys manipulating. He may increase his profits by cuttin!! down his manipulations and.so keeping Inure bees with the same labour, but his principal problt,~ms are to plan his management so that manipulatioll is not required during the week, and so that emergencies do not arise in his absence. He ha.'t to remember, moreover, that bad weather will nect.~'sitatc occa..,or;ionaj postponement of a manipulation to the 11(.. xt week-end, but should know that, in fact, manipulations can he carried out during rain, preferably under a big umbrella and avoiding all hurry. The bees are bad to handle in bad weather, but better if they have been fed overnight. 'The week-end beekeeper is gem~tally in an urban district, and for this reason also jt is important that he should have a docile strain, and Italians are generally fan)urcd, though Carniolan hybrids arc very docile and not rex) prone to swarm if well managed It is well to re-queen every summer, so as to avoid the upset due to queens failing early in the year, followed by supersedure at the wrong moment (1175-6). Section honey may be worked for during a rapid Row, but generally it pays at least to start and finish with combs for extracting, the bees taking readily to a rack of sections inserted below a half-sealed rack of shallow combs. More section racks arc inserted as required, followed by the use of extracting combs to finish, put on top, thus avoiding unfinished sections. See also The system of management will depend upon the /low, as indicated under preceding headings, modified as described above. In selecting methods, it is useful to note that methods involving the use of nucleus hives add flexibility to the time-table, and are therefore of special value to the week-end beekeeper, and not much less SO

305 280 SPEC1AL MANAGEMENT in the out apiary. The most useful size is probably one of four combs in a six-comb body. It tends to increase in size and strength and will withstand exchange of combs or sudden additions in mild weather. Its queen can be robbed with or without the comb it is on, and spare combs distributed to other nuclei, or used, with help, to form a new nucleus if a queen cell is to be had. A nucleus-raised queen is of no potential value, but the nucleus can care for ripe queen cells if its queen is removed. Swarming can be checked by the prompt rcffio\'al of brood to a nucleus~ the bees or brood bcir:.g available for use in the same stock at a later period ( ). Preparations for swarming can be postponed also by exchange of brood with a nucleus, putting emerging brood in the nucleus in exchange for unsealed brood and eggs. Almost,,,cry,m,rgen,y of management can be met forth'l./.,1ith kv putting something into cr taking somethillg_ out of a nucleus) "{vhile l1ucld themselves seldom prtstnt emergencies. For dealing with swarming reference may be made to 1505, 1523, also 1530 to 1534 and 1588 to 1595 which manipulations check swarming.

306 SECT/()!I' Xli FEED1YG-RORR1XG-PdCK.1Gf.' REES General It must be rcnwmh(:rt'd that bel"", like othn li\l'~tock., are dependent upon food and drink, and canllot alw;l\... fwd all th~ food they rc({uire or Gtn 1I~(' to advantage, ('\'\_-n in ~,unlll1l_'r-rin1('. 'rh(: beginner frc(ju('i1t1y ignores the qut,,~tiofl of water :-upply, and even advanced beekeepers frt-qu<:ntjy havl" hut lin lc idea of the irn.mt.'ll~c quantities of poucn required for brood rai."ing. TVaier Supply \\rater i:. required at all rimt:!>, except during thr quiescellt period ill winter. Vrater is required to dilute the honey to bring it to the right coll&.isrcncy for fceding. I Jl the ~ummer also water has an important us<: in temperature control (902). 'The,"~vaporarion of 1 oz. of water requirt's ahout the Nlmt' amount of heat as is produced by the consumption of ~ oz. of honey, or tht humin!! ()(~ say, 1 1 (, oz. of coal; and, if the water he caus~d to ("vaporatt', it will absl)rh a corresponding: amount of heat from it'j ~llrrounding'" A nice adjustment of the ventilation i::. required thtrtfoh~ wh("n there is much nectar to be evaporated and also much brood to be kept warm at night A water-carrying bee is especially su>ccpribk to o,)d, It requires considerably more sunshine, or the consumption ()f considerably more food, to raise the temperature of a water-loaded bee than of one carrying no water. The bee has no mechanism for extracting the honey from its honey sac and leaving the water behind, though it can separate out polten, It is at least possible that heat is lost by the bee while travelling, by the evaporation of water while the bee is endeavouring to produce heat by consumption of food, In cool weather Bying bees arc mainly dependent upon direct sunshine for maintaining the temperature necessary to activity (sec ),

307 282 FEEDING-ROBBING-PACKAGE BEES A colony breeding well will use about a pint per <by according to size, and in the spring will readily accept half a pint or more per day, which supply is most acceptable at temperatures up to 100" Y. (37' C.). It will be refused at temperatures hotter than the human hand can comfortably bear, and at low temperatures in the neighbourhood of 45 Y, (8 C,). Water should not be Slipplied until the bees are able to take regular flights, daily temperatures reaching at least 50 F, (10 C.) in the shade, but a supply will then savc much hee life by reducing the hazardous occupation of water carriers. I t is cheaper to heat the water by the consumption of coal ()f gas than to let the bees heat it by the consumption of honey. Giving Water Probably the best way of giving water is by means of an out-of-doors water supply in the apiary, which may be artificially warmed in springtime. With twenty or more colonies, the labuur is less than that of feeding warm water direct, and the results probably better. The water supply must h, maintained and must be kept clean, and this entails visits e"ery 3 or 4 days. For heating, a tray ofmeta1 is necessary, with a box frame support to contain a small lamp or other heater. The water level should be maintained by means of an inverted vessel, as in water fountains used for chickens, There is generally a building, from the roof of which water may be collected and held in an exposed "essel. A floating landing-stage should be provided, covering the surface and made of parallel strips of wood with small gaps between, or even of perforated zinc on a wooden frame buoyant enough to hold up the zinc. If running water is available a tray full of small pebbles makes a very suitable source, or even a sloping grooved wood board or slab of concrete with t-inch grom'cs and a slope of, say. I in 50, 1226, Bees will take water from foul places, such as the sinks outside dwelling-houses and even off manure heaps, but this probably on account of the temperature of such sources, Salts have been added to water for bees in springtime, for example t oz. common salt and i oz. glauber salts, but the evidence in favour of such practice is not convincing. Water should not be given to bees in transit. Syrup is more suitable. Poll", Supply Honey, consisting, as it does, mainly of carbohydrates, serves principally for the production of heat and energy, but nitro-

308 FEEDING genous foods are essential for body formation and reparation. I'ollon is the great source of nitrogen and is rich also in essential vitamim lacking in honey. Pollen is ncce~sarv to holley J.t.\thcrcrs and C\'t"11 to bees taking down syrup, but cspeci;ll~' to nurse bt,.c."s /1 prosperous c()ll)n:~ 'ltill regu;", considtran(y mort tha" cwi. of pollen in the season) and will hants[ 2 lb. or more p('r (J"y at times. Hence the great impoft<l.ncl. of health" sul'plit. $ canit d ovcr to the sprjn~ for USc ht:forc the polll'n-hl';hin~ tr("es afc yidtling frct'ly, and the Importance of so-catkd rol!l'il~c!0l!_g('d comh,::> (f(h S()un-c, of Pollen and their Seasons, srt 56l tn 606). Pollen Substitutes Owing to lal..:k of carly ~ourccs of pollen ill some pla.tt'", considerable attention ha.';; bcen f!iv('j) to finding!louhstirutes to fe-plate or, at least, to supplement the natura! produi._.t, For generations past bcckel pers hav(' furnihlwd AOHr in various forms, of which pta flour has hl't'll a favourite. If is we]] known that the bees will carry in larp' quanliri('5>,,'!-'pc..:ially if it is plac.ed in the cups of carly flowers, ~uch as the crocu!), or sprinkled on wood shavings cxpo!:>cd to the sljll:-.him' and sheltered from rain, Bees will, however, abo gatht:r coal dust and Ot/Wf powders of no possible use) and it j,) now \..'oll.. iducd doubtful if farinaceous substitutes, like pea Bout, s('ne any u5t'ful purpc>&c, even as a supplementary food, It has lwtn dctlllitdy proved that it is quite impossible to produce bees on this material used entirely in substitution for pollen, Many otht:r materials hayt' bl:l'f1 tri("d, of whkh th(' least unsatisfactory arc probably frbh albumen (white of egg), ad,led to sugar syrup, also powdered yeast. Fresh and dried milk have.1"" been u,ed as a supplementary (sec 1251). With the."" used alone it has been found possible to produce bees with developed nursing glands, but complete satisfaction in places where there arc no other sources of pollen cannot yet be recorded. Yolk of q;:g must be avoided and, in consequence, dried egg-powder mu~t be avoidnl Attention is now being turned to finding natural 5,()urces capable- of cultivation in places lacking early supplies. Btc, fed with pollen substitutes are short-lived In using egg, the white of one egg is used with every l pint of thick syrup or honey prepared as in Beat up the white of egg, add the boiling syrup or honey, pouring it into the egg froth, stirring well, and continue to stir until cold On evidence so far available on pollen substitutes the author gives the following advice: (I) If fresh pollen is available in adequate quantities do not

309 284 FEEDING-ROBBING-PACKAGE BEES give ani' substitute as such and especially any form of Rour. (2) If fresh pollen is available, but the supply is short, give fresh albumen (white of egg) in luke-warm sugar syrup, or dried yeast powder, or fresh milk in sugar syrup. (3) If fresh pollen is not available carly, delay commencement of breeding hi' heavy packing, uniting weak stocks in autumn~ or bv retention in cellars where cellars arc used, until some pollcn is coming in. Plant pollen-bearing plants ( ), following also the advice in (2) above. (4) Both fresh milk, dried milk and white of egg can be used in sugar syrup with honey as a supplementary stimulative food for encouraging breeding. Hon'} Supply Thc amount of honey consumed by the bees themselves before and during the finding of surplus has been variously estimated at from 75 to 200 lb. and upwards, depending upon the size of the colony, prolificacy, type of hive, method of wintering, of general mana.gement and method of estimating. In the hive the normal position of the honey supply is around, above and behind the brood Spare combs of honey inserted to supplement the food supply should be placed against and beside the brood nest, not in the midst, and outside any existing stores. Do not displace combs with pollen in them found next the brood combs (see also 148) The bees may be stimulated to take the honey and replace it with brood by damaging the capping of the honey cells. This is be'st done by scraping or scratching the cappings and the honey nearest the brood should be attacked first, especiahy any at the tops of the combs, so as to secure full combs of brood. This is probably the best method of stimulation, producing the best bees and free from all risk, provided there are ample stores There is frequently much wastage in using granulated stores. The bees seek first the liquid portion and are apt to discard crystals in getting at it. These crystals fall to the floor. Granulated boney can be red from a super above a clearer board and any crystals not removed by the bees may then be saved by the beekeeper; but partly granulated stores brought into use in a warm part of the hive in free!lying weather arc not so wastefully used as if distant from the brood, stored in a remote part of the hive and used in cold weather. Feeding Han., far Starag' Honey fed either neat or as a weak syrup is not stored

310 FEEDING without a considerable quantity bdng COlbUI1lt'd ill the pr(l(l'\~. 'The consumed portion may he pa.rdy rccovcr< d as wax, It i... stored most readily if about one-third hy wright of water 1w addni 10 lh{ holley, remembering that one pint British w( ighs 20 \)/. Sw,:h 0\ solution has a density of about 1-27 at 20" C. Th(.' water i!-' hc,ul'll and the honey stirred in without hoiling, tht' whole heing stirn d alld heated about as hot as is comfilrtablc to the finger hl'id in the syrup. It may then be put warm into the feeder for immediate usc. HOlley should not be diluted until rcqujn~d t()r usc, as it is Jiabl(' TO fajncnt. It may be kept a few days in a cool place aft"r dilution ( ). Unless the origin of honc}' is above suspicion it is not safe ot!:i food for the bees without steriii-lation (704--6). Sugar Feeding It is becoming generally recognil.ed that thc best b,'cs arc those brought up on honey. Sugar i~ b('tter than houey in Of1r case only, and that is as a winter food to he u:-i-ed by tht' bet's oyer a prolonged period when no Rights are possible, but pcrh.1" also for comb production (1260-1). Nevcrthck-ss, some beekeepcrs will doubtless continue to take more than their share of surplus and find it necessary to make good the deficiency in the,prin,:. Thi, is bad practice, not only because sugar feeding is not so good as honey feeding for the bees themselves, but because the bees arc apt to regulate their breeding activities, not only by the stores comillf:?, in, but by the stores in sight. With ample honey in the hi.,.,c they will COlnnH..'nCC earlier and build up stronger than if fcd from hand to mouth with sugar and candy. Thus the beekeeper should make up his mind in his first season to save a substantial margin in each hive to kc(. p the bees in a state of evident prosperity. With bees, as with humans, nothing succeeds like success Candy feeding again is a great labour and a common sign of mismanagement. Bees candy fed in winter and early spring are forced into undue activity in fetching water to dissolve the crystals and in carrying the suppli';' to the cluster. This involws I"." of life by wear and tear and hazard at a time when the colony is reduced to a minimum. The use of sugar syrup preserved against fermentation (1256) has recently been introduced, and offers a valuable and preferable alternative to candy feeding Nevertheless, after a very bad season, and evell in the summer during a very bad year, auxiliary sugar feeding may have to be resorted to, and some beekeepers will still give candy as a late spring stimulant as well as to make good for past neglect. Recipes are given in 1253 and

311 286 FEEDING-ROBBING-PACKAGE BEES It must be understood that sugar syrup is not stored by the bees as sugar syrup but as an inferior kind of honey, lackin" in aroma and,'aluable salts, partially inverted and containing in some m('a~urc the additions made by bees to nectar in conn:rtin 6 it. If thi~k syrup of the right consistency for storage is gin'n, th(' hces have to dilute it to convert it, thus it is better not to feed a dense feed. ~rhc conversions make a call on the strength of the bees and they need access to pojlen if their constitutions arc not to suffer Candy is frequently stored in no-bee-way sections glazt?d on one side or similar glazed boxes. Cheap glass dishes can be bought at certain stores and arc very suitahle and practically everlasting jf warmed before putting in the hot candy. Note on Sugar and Use of Acid In making up syrup v, ith sugar, pure white caile or a good whjtc granulated beet sugar should be used. Kever use brown sugar. In the past it has been general practice to add a certain amount of acid, stich as \"inegar, cream of tartar or tartaric acid to sugar syrup when boiling same to in~:ert it, but the amount inverted is small. Careful investigation by more than onc investigator shows that when taken down-stored by the bcesthe amount inverted is less than in similar syrup made up without the acid and left to the bees to invert during storing. It is belieycd that the excess acid is not good for the bees. There is no occasion to use acid with sugar, even in the preparation of candy. Feeding Sugar Syrup for Storage Sugar syrup is taken most readily if diluted to a density of about I 2j. This is obtained by using about four parts water to five sugar by weight, or, I pint weighing 20 OZ" say, I i lb. sugar to I pint water; or 9 gallons of water per hundredweight of sugar. A thicker syrup is used for winter storage if fed late, and a thinner syrup is advantageous for stimulative feeding. For winter storage use, say, 1 pint to 2 lb. Doolittle recommended adding 10 per cent. of honey. The above figures are British measure. 1246: When melting ~ugar be careful not to burn the sugar by m-erheating any part of the vessel through lack of stirring. In a large vessel sugar held in a porous container at the top of the liquid will dissoh'e completely without heating. For small quantities pour boiling water on the sugar in the morning, and in the evening it may be quickly dissolved completely withuut raising the temperature above hand heat A syrup of about the most suitable strength for feeding for storage call be obtained in a simple manner without weights and

312 FEEDING measur(.'s. Put dry granulated sup:.ar into <tny CI.)I1\'t:nicnt \'cs',,<l and shake it down to a b'ci top, 1\ote the height of the IeI'd top a' the sut-rar stands in the ycssd. Add boiling W:ltN ('nough to ju':it (over, the sugar sinking whil~ this is done. L;ltc.:r makl" up to tht: orig.inal level of the dry sugar by addin!! furtht'r hoiling wolter. Thi~ will gh {' a syrup of suitable str(;llfrth. Stimll}uthN' Fudill... r: Stimulati\'C;, {t:ejing :.ho\lld Hot hl' undert;lkell until tilt" bec:-. ar,,' ;l},-t!e to fly {n:ely; that is. untit the maximum ~ha.dt [('nl M peraturt- rcadll'~ at kast 50" F. [lo~ C.), 'This gcuerally occurs in the Ilorther)) hcmispiwrc- ill the Jattvf part of..\1arl.h!if oq!innillg (If April, affording to tht' progrl's:-, pf tlw sea... OlJ and tllt' l.1titud~. In th(.' southern hemisphere rhl' tim{' would bt, Sepft'mhl'r to Ortohrr. \\"'}J{_'1l stimulative fceding i., commclin'd 111 rljc 1';Hly... pring it I1)ll;t be continued without ce:,~atioll limi! nn'far J:-; Lomil)~2' if! fpjm earlv SntJrCC5, as sh()wll h)' dlt, JaiJy tempaature (369 ;w:1.~70) and th~' presence of blooms pr hy actual In::opcnion of tomh... Sn' rt"cipes (1253-6), or supply water (1223) and uncap ~I)mc hoth'}" (1236). A good colony \\-,ill u~e ~ pint of food fx'r day at tlr!>t and, sa)" I pint pcr day later Food c(jming in slowly is taken t(! the honkr!>l of tiw brood nt::st and, if too much is fcd, mar actually GWS{' Clllltractiol! infltead of stimularion. The uncapping- of store" (In the lum:!n~ of th{ brood nest, howt'\'(~r) has the e{fect of ( xpatlding dw area available for egg-laying. Ea.rly stimulatihc fecding mu:.t he commenced slowly and should b(' followed by examination of the hrn(,d n($t a.nd uncapping where indicated, Stimulation in the sprint-: has th(_< (l.ch;mtap'c that old and perhaps diseased bees arc dispos(,j of hy being: worked to " full stop~ while being replaced hy a grcatl'r numhcr of vi;!orous yount:!: on(,"'.:i l\lilk and other protein and fat-c{)fltaininj! foods h,[h' t:well used for generation:; in parts of Europe for ~timu!ation as additions to the spring diet, but many addition:. have bl'('11 made on the stimulus of the bet keepers' heart and imagination rather than no that of his intellect. Such practice has not hitherto been suhjected to the critical examination which is essential to provide a ha.si~ for sound progress, The effect on the normal development, hc-alth, suength and longevity of the bee has yet to be pursued, but amongst the additions tried widely there is.a strong partial ca!ic made out for milk as an addition to sugar syrup or honey syrup as a spting stimulant Stimulative feeding is practised in the autumn just after the last considerable honey flow has ceased, with the object of dcpo!>-

313 288 FEEDTl<G-ROBBING-PACKAGE BEES ing the old b( cs and providing a maximum supply of young bees for wintering and for activity in the early spring. It gives the bl"st possible usc for late-gathered stores, which as a rule arc of poor quality for wintering (1262). Half a pint e,-cry other night is generally sufficient. It is not desirable at this period to uncap sealed stores. It is ncces~rv to ensure that there is room in the brood nest for late breeding. rilain syrup or diluted honey is suitable, there being plenty of pollen and the weather being favourable. Stimulative feeding is resorted to in some' phases of management, ('~pccially in connection with queen raising, both for securing good queen cells and successful mating. Slimu/clivl! Food RI'ct"pcs For stimulating bntding a warm sugar solution is used of, say, equal parts of sugar and water by weight, a pint of waler wl'ighing 20 oz. iu Great Britain, but 16 oz. in the U.S.A. Weaker solutions arc freguently used Nothing is more exciting than a feed of honey, which may be given mixed with an equal measure of hot water and fed slowly, but thcrt.: is some risk of starting robbing whenever honey i~ fed. I t is safer to uncap some stores and give warm water Fresh milk may be used in making up sugar syrup or honcy syrup, using milk in place of half the water Syrup may be fed in early spring even before bees are flying, if fed warm and prevented from fermenting by the addition of a suitable prcservatiye, of which thymol is probably the most conh~nient. Thymol is sold in the form of white crystals and may be used at the rate of two to four grains to 10 lb. of syrup. It is convenient to make a stock solution of the thymol in water, say 10 grains per pint, then every ounce contains half a grain. Add the stock solution to the syrup before feeding. Do not heat after adding the thymol. Summet Feeding It always pays to feed a swarm until it is well established and gathering freely. Sugar feeding may be employed to supplement honey-gathering, sugar being helpful in the economical production of wax for comb building. Summer feeding may be necessary between crops, especially in a bad season. Breeding may be seriously checked in case the honey Bow ceases temporarily The casting out of drones and of immature drone brood in the summer is a sure sign of really serious shortage of food, but it pays to feed long before this stage is reached.

314 If"inttr Starts FEEDING The pnwision of t!ooo and 5uffici<:nt storn for the wint~r i5- important, not only for winter IlCl'Js., hut to St.~Uft rapid expansion of the brnod in the spring and to ;i\oid the IIt (t"ssity of disturbing the wintt'ring arrangements made by the OCl'S, ~rh{' str()nj.!t~t and mote proiitic the (olony, the mote wintt'r stof('s it will rt'tplin' in tilt" spring. ~rwcnty-tivc to sixty pound" of hom':v :-.i1ould Ix- pn's(.'nt in the lart autumn, according: to the size of the collmy, imrm:diatl' :U1d expected, and the cxtt:mal conditions (1130-4). \\~hcn the bees arc wintered in a cellar, ullder tht be:..r pos.'iibl(~ condition~, a strong colony may usc onl~! about 4- lb. of hoih'y~ while in the cellar; whereas a colony in a hin: in the open, not wdl packed t will use at least 20 lb. during the same pcrio{l. The lar~(' margin of storrs is not required for the period Df qui('''>rcih.t, but f(n tin: period immediately following, but stott';' are nel'ded aj~() lwfofl' tht, qui(;$c('llt stagt is reached A practice widely f()liowed consish 111 ~fnw t;_,(,ding during the carly autumn, followed, if fil'cl-~~ary, hy a ~hort period of rapid f('eding: done before th( f('mperature is too low for l'vapor;a.tion and succt-ssful st aling. III Great Britain tllt: end of St'ptcmbcr is latl' enough, with avcrap:e daily mt'an t(.'mp:raturt' of about 52'" F. (IIC C.). In some places the cold period COInes suddenly and extra care is then needed. rrhe fast supply of t(loj may take the form of 10 lb. of ~trong sugar syrup, fed warm at one oper-dtion, from a rapid fceder) or at the ratc of 2 Of 3 pints per t'\tlling, In vcry I..'old regions twice this amount may be given, especially if the ~pril1g: is also cold. It is, however, mofe economical to fccd a!l.om('what w{~akcr fted somewhat earlier, as the b( cs take it down with h.'')s consumption and can evaporate it if feu early The capacity of the colon in which the bee has to 'tore its f;rces until the weather Jl<"mits of a Right to clear the bowel is about 0'04 to 0'05 gram, and it fills up at a rate depending upon the quality and quantity of the food consumed. When the colon becomes full and flights are impossible, the content; arc discharged within the hive. Experiments with good colonies of bees cchar wintered in Russia showed that the danger-point was reached on Octolx'r 30, with stores mainly honey dew, on November 30 on honey containing some hon~y dew, on December 29 with half honey and syrup, and not until March 9 with sugar syrup alone. Without cellar wintering and in smaller colonies these limits would have been reached much sooner, owing to the larger consumption of food, unless the climate permitted of occasional Rights, as in Grea! Britain, for example Dark honeys, any containing hortey dew and honeys u

315 290 FEEDING-ROBBING-PACKAGE BEES crystallizint' r.'pijly (689 and 690) are bad for wintering, though suitable for carly spring use. It is not necessary to remove such honey if the last food given to the bees to store is sugar syrup (1245), as the hees wih then store the sugar where it will be used first Sugar is not stored by the bees without loss. At Ieast 20 per cent. is consumed during the process. Vt>ry thick syrup is less readily taken than syrup containing, s.1.y, 45 per cent. of water by weight. V cry thick syrup can be inserted warm into an empty comb with a syringe and is then quickl)" conyened and sealed and with less waste. In filling a comb, ~omc pour the syrup from a hcig:ht and som~ brush it in. i'he secret is to see that the stream has a smaller diameter than tht' mouth of the cell so that air is not entrapped In packing cluwil for winter the poorest srorc$ ca.n be removed, to be returned jn spring or replaced with sugar, but not more than about 10 lb. sugar should be given unless there is an unavoidable shortage of stores Candy g;i"cn early in the winter hinders the bees from settling dowll, 1~hey endeavour to get in water to dissolve the candy when the hazards of Bight are great, and they cannot seal the syrup thc}' obtain. If colonies are bought in the autumn ShOft of stores, a risky proceeding:, it is bettef to spare them a comb or two of sealed stores from other hives than to feed syrup of any kind. In the spring the borrowed stores arc replaced with candy Of syrup, when flights are less hazardous and stimulation is not 50 harmful. Outdoor Feeding Outdoor feeding is safe only in the hands of an expert. There is danger of starting robbing. It is better not to expose bee food near the apiary. If done at all ir should be within, say, i hour of the time that flights cease, or while there is a good honey flow. If combs are exposed with honey in them the bees will tear them up in their eagerness to secure the stores. It is difficult to find any good reason for outdoor feeding and it imiolves a risk of serious robbing developing, a risk which it is impossible to assess in advance. Making Candy Candy is frequently sold at fancy prices. It may be made at little more than the cost of the sugar and with certainty if a thermometer is used to control the demity of the hot syrup, the density being determined by the boiling-point, and the quality of the capdy being mainly dependent upon the density A preserving pan is very suitable for boiling the syrup,

316 FErDINC but any convenient t~namelled or aluminium pan Qm b(' ll~l d, or a well-tinned vessel When the right density is rcached there will he rather over 6 lb. of sugar per pint (: ) of water, but if it tx~ attcmptt'd r(~ make rh<.. candy star~ing with th(."~(" proporri0rt:o. du::n.' is ('on sidcrable risk of burning the sugar.!\lnf<.' wah'r is thnt'(i.hl' usl d and evaporated off by boiling, say J pint (of 2-D 0'1.) per... lh. sugar Put the sugar imo the vl"s~d and pour in (ht' tt1~ ;bun d quantity of hniiing water) dh:11 heat slowly, wdl stirring. Stirrit1~ must be cominth:d wail no crvstals rclluill. 'l'he I;L'tt tint' nvsfah. may be rcajily set'n by taking' a sample of the syrup in tht' sf(rritlg ~poon and examining in a good light. Cry-;tah., nett small OIH:"S,. lying on tile hottom are liable to become.';i.,(orcht:d, and if any portion is thus overheated, producing a browni::.h tint, the whok l11a~' be spoiled, When the sligar j", largely di!_"!lol\'cd the ratt' of heating ma~' be increased proltided stirrin~ is continued without imermi,.. ion B()iiillg:_ must be continued until a temperature of 238'~ to 24-5' F. is rcached (SAY, I If(: to I d~" C,), but l:andy hl'~!h'd only t(} 23~P F. is liahlt.~ to softcfi O'i/l'r ;t ~trnng cluster and t;dl if! tliecontainer. A tinal temperature of ahl)ut 243" F. i!:i bc~t) nw;l:lif('d an inch below the surface of the liquid When the right condition is n:acht:d~ as!.>howil by til(' temperature, the syrup is allowed to coul In order to get thl' right consistency, it is necessary to stir dllring coolin!!, bur there i~ no benefit in stirring before the tcmperatur(' approachcs tha.1 at whidl cr_vsta.llization commences, Tht., syrup may be allowed to cool to 100:! to J 10''-' F. (38 to 4-3{' C.), and must dwn be stirred COlltinuousIy until it assuml;s a milky.tppcaranct', 'The rna.",,, stiffens as the crystals form. It should not be let b(cconw too stiff }X fon' removal into the containers used for fcc:ding. ~rhe hoc ma~s is ladled into the containers, which arc filled So that thl: candy ~ ttlcs to a level about ~. inch below the top edge. Usually the mass gets too stiff for ladling before the job is fini,hed. In this case the vcs",1 should be gently warmed and the remaining candy stirred to soften it and avoid burning. The ultimate consistency is not affected by this re-warming It is possible to make good candy without a thermometer. To do so add I pint (20 oz.) of boiling water per 6 lb. of sugar in a stout vessel, stirring well and heating I[ll'Wly to avoid burning. The whole of the sugar must be dissolved before boiling is allowed to set in, and finally the syrup may be allowed to boil strongly for 2 or 3 minutes. When cooling, stirring should commence when the temperature is such that the bare hand may be held against the.ide of the vessel.

317 292 FEEO!NG-ROBBING--PACKAGE BEES It is unnecessary to add any acid to obtain the correct consistency. The addition of vinegar' or cream of tartar or other acids causes partial inversion of the sugar, but the bees accept acidfrcc sugar more readily, and it is a question whether the addition of acicl is not, in fact, harmful. Some adj lemon or orange syrup, mallc by boiling the peel as well as adding the juice in the water ajdl'd to the sugar. 'rhis may be beneficial but is not proven. Making Quem Cage Candy ~rhc ~implest form and one thoroughly satisfactory i~ mad(' by mixing. di~ca5c-fret: hoilt. y with icing: sugar. Add the hont'y to the sugar, using one part by weight of honey of average density to 2 ~ parts by weight of sugar. It is most easily made ill a water bath, the water at a.bout F. Put the icing sugar in the inner \ressd and add the honey, then work it together with a stick until of uniform consistencr When rnoulded into a cylinder 1 inch diameter and 3 inches high and at a blood temperat~rc, 98' F., the cylinder should stand on end without the bottom expanding. If too soft, knead again and use a little morf:" sugar For keeping, it is a good plan to heat the honey to F. in the water bath before using and let cool to F. before using as above. The candy will then keep indefinitely in an air-tight tin, one with a "push in" lid, well pressed home. If found hard, warm in the hands and knead it like putty before using. Robbing G neral Bees are accustomed to gather their stores by laborious visits to many sources, each of which renders but a minute quantity. The finding of a source in the open, from which not only one but many bees can load up on a single visit, causes great excitement among the bees. This is especially the case if the food offered is honey, not merely nectar or sugar syrup. Access to stores and, especially to honey, outside the home excites their cupidity. If once a colony has experience of such "easy money" it may become demoralized and seek ruthlessly for further supplies of a like kind, robbing its weaker and less aggressive neighbours and causing pandemonium and utter destruction in the apiary The tendency to rob varies with the race and strain. The beekeeper should not tolerate strains showing a strong pre- 1 disposition to robbery. The vice is associated with the yellow races

318 ROBBING much mofc strongly than with the bla"k or bmwn. Solll< of th. lighter-coloured bees are tractable in this ""fl"ct, but in general the!,oldens or yellowest races at< more prodisposed than the Icathcrcoloured halians. T'he Amcric.an }r.tiian' is a mixed rait and in Am('rii,_~ all., ltalian H m't's art' suspt'ct, n{)t to all CXf( nt, of (.~ours(, that hinjas tlh.'ir fret' usr on an:ouht of tjwir man).' (,XTCllf'llt qualitit's, but to an extent that ncct,"!-.:-.itatt :-. prt'cuttion'50 'and watchfulness Robbing is liahle (0 he set up hy.uly exposure of stor~ and especially Oil c('~sation of ;I S()tlrCt~ of ).,uprl~1 of nectar and by the temptation offt.:red hy poorly guarded st(\f('~ or hy leaky hi\'rs. DetNliDl) En'n if all precautions an," taken, robbcr\ will srill rrv to rob, and it is well to kt.tp ;1 iook out hy ob<.ening the hehaviou'r of the bees. Whl'fl rohbers arc about, till' ht't''-> wiil kw on guard and the guards unusually activt" thallengillf! all whll -..cck 1.,_ lltrai1cc. Ot'Gtsional combats will be scpn. The rnhhn bee hovers around th(" entrance much as a wasp do("", not seeking familiarity with the general appearance and :,urrountiinp:,,< as dot,s a n('wly cmo.rg_ed pee, but seeking an opportunity to dart in past rht' guards. The: robher bees are the older bees, not tnc newly emtrgt'd In the hei!,ht of the day the home bees leave the hive empty and return loaded, whereas the rohbcr bee approaches the hive empty and leaves full. l'owa flying bee with ('mpr~r hmwy ~c flies with lef!'> extended behind, whereas a 10,,1<-J bee!>t'nd, tl", hind legs to bring them forward. The obsnvation of this diminrtiol1 i~ particularly useful in detecting slow robbin!, of a weak stock in cold weather. Hindering Robbing Some robbing and attempted fobhing will occur in the best-managed apiary, but if precaution~ are taken it should not devc]op into raiding and destruction. If the beekeeper has brood disease to contend with, a check on robbing is most important, as the diseased and disheartened and weakened stock is particular! y liable to attack, thus leading to the disease being spread to healthy colonies The danger of robbing is minimized by removing temptation. A cloth or carbolic doth (1033) should be at hand as a temporary cover for hive bodies exposed during manipulations. When robbing is feared hives should be examined late in the day. Outer cases should be bee-tight and covers also. Robber bees are quite capable of handing out the goods to their friends outside, through

319 !94 FEEDING-ROB BING-PACKAGE BEES :racks which will not let a bee pass. Entrances should be reduced "hen robbing: may be expected and especially the entrances of wer.k,tacks. The entrances of small nuclei may be reduced to! inch or l'ss. 1285# The most comfurtable time to manipulate stocks is when '("e, are flying freely. With difficult bees the use of a screen is 'andy (1063). The working stocks should be kept strong. Normally, if disease s kept under, the only weak stocks should be the nuclei. Other "oak slocks should be united. 'Woak stocks do not pal'. If nuclei are furnished with double glass windows (927) robbers 'rom dark hives entering the nuclei are hindered in their efforts to 'scape again and thus robbing may be hindered at the start. topping Robbing If appreciabie robhing: occurs, in spite of the above prctaulolls, it is necessary to deal with it. In a seriolls case drastic measures nust be taken.. The robbers are hindered and home bees assisted hr the use of an 'ntrance guard. Probably the best guard is a small' plate of clean ;iass, 3 or 4 inches longer than the entrance) put to stand on the light board and to lean against the hive) giving openings at both 'nds. Bees entering arc' hindered and confused, and this assists the ;uards in their legitimate business Alternatively, if the stock is weak the entrance may be :uarded with loosely piled straw or green stuff, through which the 'ees have to scramble. The robbers may be deterred also by the use of, garden syringe or by the use nf a carbolic cloth hung down the ront of the hive, or by an automatic smoker placed to blow smoke,cross but not into the hive entrance. A fly repellant may be prayed over all cracks and on the front of the hive In a bad case, robbing may be checked by an exchange,,lacing the robbed hive on the stand of the robber and vice versa. 'f the robbed stock is a weak one it may be closed and moved to a 001 place and replaced by an empty hive The small beekeeper may check a case of robbing by,lacing an empty super on top of the robbed stock in place of the,over and a slieet of glass on top. Over this a board, or the cover, 5 placed on two bricks, so that the glass is exposed, but shaded from he sun. The robbers make for the glass. In a day or two the obbers and home bees get accustomed to the glass and the demoraized robbers mostly stay in the hive with the robbed bees. The.uthor has not had occasion to try this plan, but it sounds :ood.

320 PACKAGE BEES 295 Uu ~f Pt}ckagt Bus P:H:k:lgC hec~ art' u~ct1 for (I) makillg upjo~s('s, (2) stft"lgthcning weak h)t~, and (3) In make incrtase, Lo~s of s.tock:; throu!!,h bad wintering fci1(j('r-,. ('yuipnwllt idlc- ;:Uld le;t\'i.."!' the bt'ekccpt'r with a store of good l'omo:. wijich deteriorate if not put to w.e, 'l'his is ju~t the equipment r('qttin~d (or giving p:t(k:lp' hn's ;\ gudd start. In cert;un colt! ref!iofls, especially whtn: heay,v ;uhl prolollged fl'l'din~ is rt'quir(od in the early part of dw ),C;!f, tilt, pr.~(ric{' j" growing of killinb off all ~t!)(b in the autu!t\n a{kr til\' han e:-.l has bttn ~l'\. urcj~ anj makin~ a fresh start in t1h: ~pril1g witb package tx'('':'o bought from a warm cliri1c, These W;!r r.t started ill tinl!' If) built) up for tht: main harvest, hcing fccl a.t tlr-,.( with '-~<rllp) \\1' ~!\ en!-t(lr('~ ret:\in~d for the purpose For mijder regions, where an carl)' hanl ~t can ht' secured, weak stocks may be brought tlp to ~r('at ':'otrcngth hy uniril1tr with package bees, and if thcsc an.' pun,:hascd wir!l f!_(lod (IUt t'll~, rc-qu( t'nlllg is accomplished at the ~m(: time. Bargain 1..(/t'th Producer The valuc of a packa!!(' J( X'IH.ls upon thrcr farrors: the gueen, the proportion of ),Ollllh i"('(:~~ and carl:v ddin'ry, Good service in all thrct: p:1nicular~ i.:ost!.- money, ami if the packap:l's arc regularly u.!.cd for conditions ill which one or mort' of tht'~e feature:;, is unimportant, a cheaper package... hnuld!w ~nt by selection or bargaining A ~o()d queen is Ilot t:~sclhj;lj if p:trk'l~r:' arc u..,cd for U"t in spring with stocks regularly rc-qun:lit:j in autuillil, nor fi)r sto(:ks used only for pollination purpo:,(.',- and dis("ardt.:d or sold l'ill'aply Where, as in orchard work, rhe bel'" art' w;mtcd for immediate outdoor work, a large proportion of oilier bct."s is not a material defect. In such a case it would he an advantage Early delivery is not important where the main harvest is late, but is of the first importance for pollination purp<jscs. In ayerage district> package bee; purchased by the cnd of Apri! (northern hemisphere) can equal or be., wintered stocks Three-pound packages arc In"'" used, but if both young bees and early delivery art: guaranteed (which involves placing orders early) a 2 lb. package will give better rt"'>ul,s in proportion to it> cost. Shipment of Package Bees Package bees have to travel long distances, and to keep down the cost of freight, should be shil>ped in light containers. The

321 296 FEEDING-ROB BING-PACKAGE BEES container need not weigh more than 36 oz. with food supply and queen cage, i.e. complete except for the bees. A 28-oz. container, properly constructed, will withstand the journey. 'The container is generally constructed with at least a wooden top and bottom and four uprig.hts, surrounded with wire gauze, and with a few diagonal braces, or boxed round the bottom. Food is provided in a tin can with press top, punctured with a fe-w holes, the can being inserted upside-down through a round hole in the top of the package. The can must he secured against dropping through} which m.1.y be dojlt' by soldering on a square bottom. An escape hole fur the bees should be pro"ided in the top, with a COl'er readily remol'able but securely fixed The queen should preferably be in a cage. The cage may be fixed to a wire attached to the cover of the escape hole. The bees may be shaken in through a cone-shaped funnel entering where the tin feeder is to be inserted. Twenty per cent. excess should be ajlowed for loss of weight in transit, and instructions attached to the package Package be('s are sometimes shipped with a supply of food in pieces of comb, or even on a singlt frame, but the risk of transmission of disease is increased thereby and in many districts such packages are not admitted. The tin feeder is better in any case, and may contain I lb. of syrup per pound of bees It is convenient to have a package of a size which admits of its being placed within a hive body. A suitable size is 1:2 inches long, 9 inches high and 6 inches wide, outside dimensions. Trtafment rm Receipt Well-fed bees are amenable to manipulation, settle down quickly and tend to form clusters for wax fotmation. They can control temperature readily. Starving bees have the opposite characteristics in all these particulars. On receipt the package should be taken to a cool place therefore, preferably where the light is not too bright, and given a dose of syrup (1253), which may be sprinkled on, or better still, painted on, the gauze with a flat paint-brush. The same evening the bees should be hived in the position they are to occupy, and the package should be opened only at that spot The hive should preferably contain four to five drawn combs at least, and may have frames of foundation as well. The package is best inserted beside the combs, but may be put in an empty body beneath the one with the combs in. Open the escape hole, remove the queen cage, see that the queen is alive, remove cardboard or other covering over candy, tcst candy to see that it is soft, and if

322 PACKAGE BEES hard, work a pointed match-stid< through it. Place cage 011 fr~mts and cover all If gucen i,,hippt'd loose with the het's, she will find her way on to the combs. with thc' bc(>s, but it is not advisable to ex.1,mill(, the frames for cgps, or t() disturb them, for b or 7 Jay:>, a~ there i~ considerable risk (If the queen beillf! nailed (48-50) ;«r this time. I.~04. If frarm,'s of br(l{)d are J\'aiL\b!( Ollt' O\;w he II1\Crtcd in each hin', ~rhis will g.ive the stock an ('ady :-uppl~' of nn'" ymlj1g nurses and gn:atl.v assist in rapid dcvt'lnpnwnt of a full brnou w:st. ]\lort'o\'t'r, in GtsC of doubt ~lho\lt tht' 'lut't'n, dw conlh ~lippljl d :-.hou!d havc Cf!"f..l"S and shouhl h(,!he fir~r examined whell ( x<:llnin.hion i~ flmdt.', If the queen is no! fu!1ctinnint!, <Iul'("1J cdls will be KHWd on this (_ omh. If there are fl()iw, tht (ill{'(.'11 i~ layin~ ~omcwhcr(. and probably additional brood ami t..'gg~ will be found on thi3 same comb The package b, es should be fcd "I) hi"ing, "I)J daily until they refuse to take any, The f('eda should be placed ol1 dw tombs, not oyer the package, ~() as to attra.ct the h('n to the (omb~) especially if the queen is loose. If used for strengthening weak stocks, til<' package sh~uld be first welj established on combs of its own and then united. Drivtn Bees Bees from skeps, driven in autumn, an' sonwtimcs purchased in packages. They should be purch..,ed preferably at least 6 weeks before the iirst killing frost is duc, to allow tin'" for building up. If used for assisting weak stocks they rnav h,' purchased without queens or with old queens. If purchased without qu("ctls, they should be hived next the stock requiring them, and may be united after the next day by the newspaper method (1582-4).

323 SECTION XIII SFVdRMll\'G AND SWARM PREFESTIO_Y The01~V of Swarming Importallcc of Theory Every thinking practical beekeeper has his ideassystematized, more or less, into a consistent whole, which fits his experience, and sufficiently reconciks the conflicting ideas he has met. This whole may be described as his theory of bce-beha\'iour, or of beekeeping. If he meets facts which do not fit in, he is liable to reject them as untrue, and therefore, useless. If he meets with ideas that appear to fit in, he is apt to accept and act upon them, even though they are in fact false, and add to his difficulties. Science and theory arc, therefore, important to the practical beekeeper. The art will advance with increase in knowledge of the fu~ ~ The true and complete theory of swarming will account for all the known facts and may be expected to lead to new observations and to the new methods of the future. \Ve have no such complete theory as yet, but the writer requires no further justification for offering the following brief outline, new in pans to some and in parts, perhaps, to all, but all capable of verification or refutation in time, by observation and further research. Droelopmmt of Instinct The bee most probably learned originally to construct hexagonal comb in remote times, through the construction of increasing numbers of contiguous cells, which, being cylindrical, and packed closely> naturally took the hexagonal form. Since that time tong experience has taught the bee the properties and proportions of that mathematical figure, the hexagon, so that at this epoch bees can, in fact, practise the art of constructing hexagons when they require to, without starting contiguous cells and extending them until they meet. They can, for instance, draw hex2.gons in wax on a glass surface, as a foundation for cell building. '9 8

324 THEORY OF SW.ARMJ~G Similarly, in considerit,g swarming, we almost certainly have to dral with instincts of remote origin and habits practised through ages, until their featuf<"s have h<-en gra.<;l)('d and can he: applied in other and independent W;l\'S and to an extcnt which u"-lkt."s it diffinilt to say what is the origina!' anion and wh;lt the application. DC':.,t/(}pmrnt f)f S'tL l1rming Ily the H"1U_Y Rtl Theft' are many noyel k.ltur('s in tilt.' lift' history of thl' honey bee ;'IS fmwj to-day~ and in the act of sw~irming :tnj au that leads up to it. In l'ndcavourinl:! to fran: the :u:tion:o. tn their l'~iii~('s it would th._. ofa~sistance ifw(' had all au:ollnt of their dt'nlopmtnt in the (ourse of evolution. The llof)ev bee difi"t'f!'> in h;ihit {:on"idt'rahly from her n{:'ar relatives in thc b('l' 'kini!otm\ a.nd ':Ifill mort' ~o front her cousins the wasps and ants, hut all threc cnuh.: from a UHHnlOn stock and have much in common ~till, t!jo\l!!h indi\'idual ~pcdt.."s have developed such different mode:- (If life \Ve cannot trace in detail til<' historr of rhcs{' habib atld their cvolution from ally material now rctllain in~. \\\. may hop(' to learn something from thc JcYCIOpn1('flt of tf)f' t mbryq,,. which embodies in epitome the dcvelopment of the ~p(:cil':-', hut Wl' c.annot hope to find in the embryo or among fo~sils, or clsf:wh(. f{, any records showing in detail the evolutioil of the colony and it') hahit':l. W(~ can, however, hope to establish some dl:taiis by a procc~s of rea... oning. For cxample, it is obvious that a fertile GIll'Ul wholly dqx~nd{'nt UpOli a worker caste for her food (. oujd not he developed befmf: the work... r caste had been developed. In such a way We may hope to establish points material to a compktc theory of swarmin{!. r n what fi}llow!o>., the author has made some attempt tf) do this. Earji.fsl Hi.fIPry We find that winged insects rl'semble other highly developed members of the animal creation in that th( rc arc' stparatt' male and female forms. The female lays ('ggs from which lary,,' emerge, which develop ultimately into the perfect insect, passing; through a pupal stage. Both male and fl:male insecb commonly die soon after having started the next generation. Insccb arc quiescent in the winter, this period heing passed in the egg stage or by pregnant females hiberfulting.. Among the ants, bees and wasps, we find pregnant females passing the winter alone or in a colony and starting new brood in the spring. The solitary species lind or make suitable nesting-pia",,", in the spring where they collect suitable food for their offspring, either animal food or vegetable, tbe latter mainly pollen, and deposit their egg> in the food.

325 300 SWARMING AND SWARM PREVENTION The Social Species Where the progeny assist in the work of the small colony, morc rapid progress is possible, and either the female founder can devote more of her energy to egg production, or, if other females co-operate in this, a large colony can soon be built up, able to share Tl'Sponsibilitics, defend the home and secure a surplus of stores. Probably it was in this way that those species uevdoped that store suitable food for consumption out of season, making for inceased Jong{,"it~, ~Hld safer winrering-. A l'arict~ of t~'pes of lk"st and a varic'ty of foous may be used, but advantage would lit.' wirh a food haying good keeping qualities, such a_" honey, as compan d with animal food, and with a buildinp: material such as wax haying good keeping qualities and able to be remoulded. We shall, however, have to examine this development in some detail in the ca:-,e of the honey bee if we are to arrive at any useful conclusion. Development of Hon(v Comb Following the line of development indicated above, w, conceive colonies of bees growing in size and building a number of cells in one place, originally for the care of larvor, but some used also for surplus food. The ancestors of the honey bec of to-dav were wax users and honey and pollen users probably from very cariy times, and I see no reason for supposing that cells were started in the early days in a way materially different from that of the present day. Wax would be accumulated at one spot and worked upon and added to until cell w,l1s were built up, but when the cells were very few in number it is quite likely that they were more or less distinct, the earlie" probably being single celis Wax requires a relatively high temperature for its working, and we must suppose that these earliest wax cells or batches of cells were produced in a warm dim.te, as the individual mother could not produce the heat necessary to raise and maintain the necessary temperature. Bees with such habits and materials would not conduct breeding operations in temperate climates until they had developed colonies large enough to control and maintain the temperature during cold nights and cold spells Much nonsense has been written about the mathematics of comb building. The bee requires for its larvre cells more or less cylindrical with rounded ends. If such cells are formed adjacent to one another in a double layer and worked until the walls are thin, the planes of contact will be the well-known facets and hexagonal walls of the familiar honey comb. I attrib'lte both the hexagonal form of cell and the special form of mid-no to this crowding, carried out to economize material and to

326 THEORY OF SWARMING 3 01 ohtain a compact :-.trul'turc having a maximum of brood in a minimum of space, but Wt have got to account for the double lap,or or h.u:k-toback construction. The bumble-bee build~ wax I..'dh, upwards from thl' tlo(lt of its nest l'_a\'ity. Pl'hc hl)llcy bu: ~uilds. the moj(.'ril <jul'l'li (l'll alw<1)'~ downwards and as a. ruk it huilj~ its comb Jownw~trds. \\-'t. Qll1f1ot s.ay for CI. rtain whit:h was the original direction, but the fl.'aturc we havt: to study is the <,'vplution of the paralh:l n'll l'onstructiojl. We be"in with small groups of cdl, built up or dowll. The t.;rowth of tilt, colony nl_ I..'t.~"it;ltcs larger n\lml)(,'r~ J.ml crowding alone would cau,::>l' tht:~l', built from a nmh1)on bast', to asmhlh' Oln arr'ln~( m( nt in which tilt: ccli:; were: paral\d to t:arh othn hut at rit!ht allj!.k s to th~ basc, uilk~s pct(hancc the first wax cdl:. built by lhl' hont y ht-t, were, in fact, huilt parall(,j with tilt: surface on wilil'h they were formed. In this latter c..l$l' WI.: han' within!!; to ;\i.'couttt fot a~ increasing numbers and economy of material would kad tn the structure spreading sideways as wdl as outwards and to the hack. to back form. On the other hand, tlte habit may have heen like that of the bumble-bee) that is, tne building of groups of ollhta.ndtng l:clls and adding to these by others built on their rim~. Building out from a layer of ccli~ to any considerably extent without blocking up those in the layer nccessitates cells piled on one another., and this construction would soon be reached, crudely at first, more efficiently with time..even now ont finds bce~ huilji[1g out in this manner from the surface of combs spaced by man wo far apart for efficiency, as for example when brc~dillg cak('s place in a super of widely spaced combs. \\Thichevcr way che modern structure was first roughed out Ont." can readily conceive its gradual perfection and its extension to Teach side walls or other fortuitous means of support. Cells of Differing Forms It is not improbable that the females and drones differed materiauy in size, resuiring celts of different size to accommodate them, this difference 1/1 size being genera! in the insect world, but a queen cell as large as that with which we are familiar must have been a relatively late development, not being required umil after the production of 'he specialized egg-layer with large abdomen. The worker caste and large queen cell may both have arrived before the double-faced honey-comb, however. Whether this was so, we cannot say. The cells first built in hexagonal form may have been nearer in size and even in form to the modern queen cell than those we IlOW lind (ke also 1335 below).,.

327 302 SWARMING AND SWARM PREVENTION Habitf Of Early Colonit! I ha, c assumed tile d,, e!opment of social colonic, before tlw development of a worker caste. This is justified by the consideration that the worker is a partially suppressed female alld we can hardly conceive the sudden appearance of workers haying totally different habits from their forerunners. T'heir gradual appcaranl't:, however, could occur in co]on]es of bees accustomed already to working together. Furthermore, they could not function save a-:. members of a co-operativc colony. I conclude, therefore, that then' were co-operative colonies before there were distinct castes and that in the active season batches of males and females were raised to lean: singly or in swarms to found new colonies At this stage in evolution, all the females would be normally fertile and all would leave the hive frequently for food and water, and all would attend to the roung. A new batch would emerge from time to time and the females would leave with or after the males, to be fertilized and to found new colonies. They could not hope to return and lay in the old nest; there would obv:ously not be room; so they continue to fohow their old habit and start new colonies. Compare 137. They must be fertilized. This might occur by the drones and females leaving together, as in the case of the ants, or already the drones may have been raised in ad,'ance, enjoying a free and eas)' Hie until their function was performed. At this stage, there need have been no appreciable: excess of drones over females, and the drones would die off after functioning. The extra drones might hang about the nests, as they do now, until driven out. It is important to note that at this stage, the fertility of the individual queen would be small, limited by her ability to provide for her early offspring unaided, plus later offspring with such help as she may get from the early ones before they leave the parent nest. Development of Modified Females We have to remember that we are dealing with a race of insects which, as later experience has shown, have the characteristic that a reduction of gland food given in the lan al stage, leads to imperfect development of the ovaries. This imperfection may be so great that the female is actually incapable of producing even drone eggs. Experience in our time shows that the ovaries may become developed later, in the adult female, so that she becomes a laying worker, and indeed, with some bees, a worker may become so developed that she can be fetilized and lay eggs capable of producing both females and males It seems likely that the first imperfectly developed females

328 THEORY OF SWARMING appeared among the earliest brood raised. With the development of the c()-opt.'rativc habit, the mother bc(~ would find thcmsdvcs in po':'~t's$ion of larger and larger ncst$, with mnrc and mnft help in hringiilt! up their offspring, (1320), anu So den'lop incrca.o;ed Jcrtility. But, in the!'pring, hefore tht' fl~t lot of brnl,hi b.d hatdtcd, the bllsint._ ~s of pn)\'ijing ropll.klly would lit' with tht motlwf bet ;\Ion(', She wou!d have ample StOft'S of holley anj pollen, but Iwr ht ;,VY Jutic'" and limiu.:d gland capacity would It.'a~ to ~onw of tht be("~ t!,,:uing ;l ~ca.nt supply of roya.l jelly and emerg.ing. with imperil'cdy dt'vdopcd The halanc(' is now ~l..'t so that.. onw }O'i'o of f~'ni!ifv on tilt part pf rhi"; first hatch, or t'\,{,j) on}\, lkbr of fcrtiji!\', would")cad to de\'l"lopo1('jlt of {'\'en largt:r nt'sts, (:\T11 ~()n' fntilc 'motht'j1l, and a more rapid production of new hl'l'~ aml IU'W (lllollit'!'> per colony, but at the start the imperfect female" woulll he!lot far from pcrf(..-ct de\"( lopment. ] 324. A sudden diminution of nursing duti('~, hy the flllin~ up of thl' brood space, would leau to an ('xccs~ of brood food, which, be it noted, could not be ll~('d lip by tilling qm'('i1 cd!s (J 346) hc(."... 1.u~C at this stage every cdl is a queen cdl and all or most :1f<." (ull; but must be absorbed and would result, as it docs in our timl", ill increa.sed ovarian dn'clnpmctlt in the impcrfe<-'rly deh~iop<:j fcnw.k~. l'hus, the hitherto imperfect female b{'com~ complete or sufficiently com.. plete, and a swarm of female:) cnsu("$ each lntent upon {oundinl!' a new colony after the manner of her ancestors. 1dvarzcemmt of the Imperfect Female Thus far we hast: ~omt: females with ddaycd or ~mewhat imperfect fertility and other!> produc("d under rather more favourable conditions with better ovarian dev{'lopment, al~o a H:nJeIlcy for this contrast to increase. The tcnjcncl' is cumularin\ for the less perfect females cannot hope to com~tc with tht mort' fertile ones in the race for supremacy. The advantage in every way Ji<-'"S with those colonies ha\'ing the most fertile mothers and most bucc{.'uful in delaying or suppressing fertility of a large part of her offspring. This again Jeads to incrcabt'u differentia.tion of function as bctwccn the fertile and less fertile females and ultimately the production of the queen mother, as we know her, and the female worker In the extreme case to-day we have workers not given to swarming and not given to the development of laying workers. In less extreme cases, we have bel." >till given to the production of large numbers of queen~ frequent swarming, the ready production of laying workers and even of laying workers able to be fenilized by the drone.

329 304 SWARMING AND SWARM PR VENTION So far, then, we have a strong suggestion that the flight of imperfect female's is based on the habit of the solitary bees Bring at maturity to make new nests, maturity being suppressed by speciaj fec ding, and sufficiently, though only partially, restored, by brood food, the bcc's being further stimulated to flight by the arrival of swarming weather and prosperity. We have stiil to account for the flight of the old queen, the co-operative effort of the swarm, and the production in a colony of the isolated queen cell of large size. Flight of the Old Queen We can imagine primitive female bees flitting from plac~' to place, starting new colonil.'s, just as a butterfly wijl fly from spot to spot, laying a few eghi's here and a few there; but, haring regard to the labour of starting a nest, to the habit of accumu~;;.ting there the food required, and to the fact that, so far as I am aware, there is no ant, bee, or wasp, now in the habit of behaving in this butterfly manner, I think this forms an unlikely picture of what happened During the earliest development of colonies in which the queen had to do all the work-at least until some of her progeny had emerged-the rate of egg-laying would be slow; not one per minute but more like one per day, or at most, several per day. Thus, a number of days, perhaps a few weeks, would be required, for the hatching of a batch. The presence of drones and the external conditions appropriate to the grand issue might very w('ll ensue before all the bees in the first batch were ready for flight. The queen, if still vigorous enough, having had a rest and stimulative feeding after the completion of her nest, might very well fly with the first batch, and the last queen hatched might utilize the nest. It may be objected that return to the nest by the last flying female after impregnation would be contrary to habit. If, however, we assume that every bee leaves, then we have in the district one or more empty nests of great value, which would be found by prospective colonists to the great advantage of the hnder. These empty nests would be much sought for and finally we find the last female in possession protecting the nest and returning to it after her mating flight, well knowing its high value A stronger objection to this picture is that it apparently leaves very restricted the opportunity for the de, dopment of workers by the utilization of the early progeny for assistance in the care of the next batch. This is not a fatal objection. We can avoid it by assuming that the first bees to emerge do so too soon for swarming. There is then still opportunity for the development of workers on lines al~eady suggested. Among the bumble-bees it is only the early progeny that help in the home. Alternatively we can assume

330 THEORY OF SW.'RMINC that crowding Clusc'S the first hatch to fly hdorc all the brood i. hatched, that ;:;otne immature bt (-s remain, and that one of these becoffit's ft."rtiliz.cd and assumt's the mother position in the colony, Altcrnativdy aga.in, \\T (all pi~'ruf"(' flit' marter as Of1<,_' brnught ahout hr the workers rhcm~dn~. \V(' h.lh' pictured a gr:tdual incn'a.s(_' ill tht, cliffnl'j!c<' betw{'{'l1 <-{un'u and worker, the Y!Jt'cn lx'cnmint! Illort' ~tnd more fertile, Jong('r Jin J :11llJ luorc and more ot'jx'l1dt nt upon the workt rs, not only ff)r the,'.al'(,' of h('r off~ spring, hut t~)r the can' of her Pl..'n-orL ()n tile otllt'r haflj t tht' workers bccol1ll' better adapted for co-partrwr"hip 111 l<lrge ('oinnies for riw management and care of th(, l'olon.v) and Ill' it-. queen tn(,lhcr '1'ht, founder of (l Hew \.:ololl,v HlU<.,t :dwa,r:-: havt" enjoyed a ullique po"ition and her jeajou:,y of her dau~htl'f~ may have had very early bcginnint-,"s. In time the yut'tll dc:\tlnps a'i til!., prilud occupier of a large t ::,tatt:, Hone tno larf!<" for lin powt'ro:., ;t1ld the jealous enemy of l'\'cry would-b( ri\'al, at kast until her J;lvin!!. powl'n; t~lil her, and ~ometimes t'h:ti thcn, l~his jealousy put~ the workt'rs fj)f many d,i)'s linder th( IH.'Ct"Ssity of guarding the developing virgin qhl:('ns, a difficulty incn:as(:d if '!Iwarming is delayed, s that it i<; at!t';bf greatly for.cht'ir 1.."00- "t:llienet" that the queen modlc'r should he anlonr: the fir-.t to leave. Co-opfrativt Flight of lrork,,-, and Quem We have seen in abol,. that thl' work,." proh;.blv did not Jearn to swarm, but rather had nn't'r left off doing So. In the early stat!e~, We have pn:miscd in 1325 that the inf«;rior f(:male~ were able to function in starting new ('Olflllit'~, but were at,t di.,_ advantage. \Vith increasing differentiation bctwn:n queen Inoth<"r and moditied daughter, we have also pr('mi~d inucased Jepeudenct" of the mother on her helpers, and we may premise incrcas(..'d dt"sire of the helpers to be with and assist the mother, a.s this is a development which undoubtedly emeqrcd. I sug:g.{'5t it is her<: that we may f:nd th<: genesis of the habit of swarming of queen plus workl'rs and their co-operatioh in founding a new colony. It is certa.in that when this stage of differentiation is reached the queen Cln no longer found a new colony unaided. Sp,,;al Ft>rmJ of Qlle,." Celb The development of individual qucen celjs of spccial form hefore swarming occurs now falls into its proper place in the picture. The de\'e!opment of cells for the production of perfect female, at the appropriate time after the production of drones and when prosperity and improving weather justifies, is the normal ingrained habit )f.b. x

331 306 SWARMING AND SWARM PREVENTION and docs not have to be accounted for. It is the prior development of small and closely packed cells for the development of the imperfect female that requires explanation, and this has now been offered in preceding paragraphs. The form of cell for the production of the perfect female ha; undoubtedly undergone modification as well as that for the worker. Th" development of a worker caste corresponded with the production of the prolific Guccn type highly nourished with special food and la'rishly pro\ ided for in every way. ]\.' otwithstanding the expansion and improvement of the queen cell from the primitive form and the development of the double-faced comb in place probably of a single-layer batch of primitive form, we still find groups of queen cells in a batch built by the more primitive honey bees of our day. The isolated cell is the natural outcome of increased prolificacy and reduction of the number of queens produced We still have to consider the difference between the normal cell built for swarming and the cell erected for supersedure on the foundation of and incorporating the base of a worker cell (146 and 147). The swarming cell we have dealt with. The supersedure cell hardly requires further explanation. Its size and general form is that proper to the modern queen. Its particular form and use, however, must have a special origin We have pictured in 1322 the production in early times of queens with delayed fertility and in 1324 the completion of their ovarian development following a reduction of brood. In the earliest stage of production of partial workers, on the mother bee becoming injured or failing, those coming along in the larval stage would themseh-es also benefit from the excess of brood food and would develop forthwith to function as perfect females At later stages, side by side with the development of increasingly different and fewer perfect females and their unique place in the home, and the gradual assumption of control of management by the workers, we need no great effort to picture the gradual reduction in number of supersedure queens raised and the ConCentration of special effort on a few suitably selected cells. The matter of most suitable selection makes the greatest demand upon (may r call it, the intelligence of) the bee.and is still the feature in which there is room for improvement in their habits, especially in case of sudden emergency. Hahits of RelativlS of thi Honey Btl The above suggestive accounts of the history of the development of the swarming impulse has only been arrived at after rejecting the conclusions of numerous alternative attempts on various

332 THEORY OF SWARMING ground:-, mainly for lack of cvijl'llcl' of tacts ill support; but, 1.x~fot(.~ accepting conclusions too readily, or attempting to arrive at some short and easy explanation of so complicated a matter, it is well to consider the habits, in the present day, of some of th(' ncar rclatin's of the hone I' bee. \Vithout "attempting to trace thl"m to their sources, we shall St"t' that there must ha\'e been a \'arit."ty of po!>"siblc ch:wnds of development available to the remote ancestry of the honev bee, and that in the case of ("'ach specil''b rh(' latt'f" UC'vl'!npmt'IH ;nust have been conditioned largely by what had happened in earlier stagcs. 'rhe ~ubj("ct is worthy of O1o!-t assidu(lus study Among b,'cs and wasps, we do not rind n.:moval of the wings of the workers, but we flnd the swa.rming: instinct \'ariously developed, and different methods of founding new colonies, and sometimes the removal of the wings of the queen mother, which, of course, prevents her flight to found a new coion),. Firstly, the colony may, or may not sun'in' the winter, bur the q\icens may do so, hibernating under COYer, each founding a new l'olony in the spring. Secondly, where thc colony survives readily, W(' may have the old queen remaining and young Olles lca\'ing, ~inglr, or with swarm.'i of the worker class. Thirdly, we may havt, as with the honey bee, the old queen Jlying with the fin swarm Among the ants we find not only workers as with th.. honey bee, but workers having special functions such as tht soldier ants Some wasps tolerate laying workers producing drrme c!s!-,'" only, even in the presence of a normal qu(, en. R~lation hetween Swarming and Prosptrity The development of perfect females and their issue to found new colonies is only possible if there is a condition nfprosperity in the hive. Among the solitary 'pecic's this condition had to be brought about by the solitary efforts of the female founder of the nest and was only attainable when spring was sufficiently advanced to ease the conditions. Among the social species prosperity is equally dependent upon the weather, but also on the state of the colony, and especially upon present or assured supplies of food where food is stored With the honey bee, therefore, we do not find swarming "fitil prosperity arrives with the expanding season, and we may find it postponed by a lack of stores present and prospective. Brood Food T h.ory The important part played by brood food has been indi-

333 308 SWARMING AND SWARM PREVENTION cated ill 1314 in relation to the dere/apment of habits. The brood food theory of swarming is worthy of further examination in relation to the )wncy bee of the present dav. When the brood nest commences to expand, the ratio of Hurst.' bees to brood is relatively low, and all nurses are hard worked, but, with the growth of the nest, after a few cycles of expansion, new J}urses in Jarge numbf"ts arr present, a large excess of nurses in pro-' portion to brood. If anything now checks the rate of increase of hrood, say by the queen reaching her maximum capacity, or tht' capacity of the hivl', or by a sl'fious temporary check in suppl:', a large number of nurse bees are found, temporarily, with an excess of brood food, and this appears to lead, definitely, to preparations for swarming It has been suggested that queen cells are built to gire the nurses a place in which to put the cxc{'~s food, but fiftv such cells would not accommodate the food taken by 5,000 worker'lan-x, say, the contents of a smaij frame of hrood. ~rhis suggestion is difficult to accept, Among certain prolific races in the modern hive, developing:: tens of thousands of nurses at ont' time, we find the construction of perhap~ only half a dozcn queen cells and very litde swarmin:; teodency. Moreover, it is difficult to imagine an origin in evolution (1324) for a habit of building queen cells to receive excess food. Again, normally, the queen cells for swarming are not built all at one time, but spread o\'cr a number of days. The idea neither meets the modern need, nor ilts the picture of evolution of habit. The Trigge, Other things than the making and tilling of queen cells happen when" sudden check occurs in the call for brood food. live can hardly ha\'c a mort" extreme case than that of removal of, or accidentai"death of, the que("n. It is known that this leads, especially with certain race's, not only to the production of laying workers, but that large numbers of thl~ workers, though not reaching the laying stage, arc found with expanded o\ aries Observation has shown that a temporary development of ovaries occurs if the proportion of young brood is artificially reduced, and without remoyal of the queen, or by the arti ficial increase of the proportion of nurse bees. It has been suggested in 1324 that this ovarian development is a contributory factor in swarming, and it may be the trigger that starts the tinal act, leading to swarming Preparations for swarming actually commenced may be checked by adding frames of eggs and young brood and removin > emerging brood..

334 Relation of Swarming to Dr()n~ Raising THEORY OF SWARMING There is another feature in swarming which is of immediate practical import, and which, in the writer's opinion, has rccdved insufficient attention. 'That is the rclation of Jront: raising to swarming. I n a general way it has b('cn Hoted that drone hreeding comc..'s hefore swarming and that the prf'sence of largl" numhers of dronf."s tends to swarming. Noting, in pas:-.ing, that the lattt.'r observation emphasiz{.'s the part played by sex instinct (1327),1 propose to pun;u(,~ thl' subject of the necessary r('htion~hip of swarming with t:arly drone raising It takes 24 days to raise a Oront' from the cw;, hut he is not potent until he is 12 to 14 days olj, so that at 1ea",t 36 to 38 days atl' necess.. ry as prrparation fof tilt.' mating Bight. j\'ow from the standpoints of ('conomy ami (. ffiriency, tht' fir:.t yirf!,in queell to fly should bt, able to meet potent dr(jnt's. Failing this, tht' srock or cast dependcl1t upon her fertilization, lo~cs grflulld daily !'\ow the queen H'qujr6 about 15 Jays for dcvclopml'nt from the egg:, and might be mated in not lbs th;h1 another 3 day..,. 'Taking mean figures and subtracting 18 days for queen from 3i" for drone, we have a margin of 19 days, ~howjn{! that the greatt.'st economy requires a minimum of I 9 days between the laying of the first drone egg and the first que{'n cg{;. Prohably the margin in practice is greater, because thc'rc should be a good supply of drones. These observations have important bl arings. Drour RaiJi/lg, the Fint Act A significant feature is, that before bee:-.!:>warm they must raise drones. 'fhe commencement of drone rai~ing i~1 in point of time, the first act in swarming. If there is a trigg:cr to be pulled in this connection, it must have been pulled when the first drone egg is laid. It is true that the 18 days more or less, is not an absolute minimum, but if we seek to reduce it to zero, we find the queen, on her first mating flight, already too late for successful mating, or the available drones not potent. We may say definitely, therefore, even without observation, that the habit must be to lay drone eggs some time before queen eggs, whether or no in the same colony Since realizing the importance of the drone-raising impulse in relation to swarming, I have not had the opportunity of making detailed observations with sufficient care, but one has observed in past yeat5 the general laying of drone eggs following a sudden improvement in temperature some day in early spring, for example, in the Jim week in April (northern hemisphere). At this time the stock has not reached that kind of prosperity commonly discussed in

335 310 SWARMING AND SWARM PREVENTION rclation to the act of swarming, but the situation, from the standpoint of the bees, is at least promising. I su~cst that thi!-. period, and the abo\'c considerations, desen'c much do~er!>tudy than tih.'.\' have yet received. \\"c have to discover to what extent this early factor is tied up with actual swarming, and how far the weather conditions following secure Of hinder the ultimate act. Effect of Suppression of early Drone Brood l\lrning flow to the immediate practical bearing, we have the possibility that the swarming: period might bc deferred by the operation of destroying all drone brood well bcforc the queen cells have bel'ii started, or at least, all scaled drone brood. 'rhe result of thi:- operation ill OtiC api.lry, and possibly (;\'('11 in one hive, WOL'ld probably not be affected by the fact that drolll"~ were being raised dscwhcre, as the bees in the colonies treated would presumably be unaware of!:iuch drone raising until the drones were flying. The operation would h(' repeatable at interval-; of 7 to 14 days, and might delay the period of swarming so as to pass the most dangerous period, viz. that when the nest has reached its full capacity and the activities of the bees have not yet been diverted to harvesting In following this procedure, or, indeed, any procedure ca.lculatcd to check the swarming impulse, it is useless to expect success if, at the same time, the bees are encouraged to swarm by overcrowding, exposure to cxcessin' heat, and to other condirion~ dctaikd in It has been frequently recorded, however, that bees without drones and some drone brood do not work with good heart. Clcarlv, therefore, the operation of drone brood destruction cannot be rcp~a.ted indefinitely, apart from any question of labour in~ oh!ed; but if conducted once or even twice, it might haye a most useful eflect on swarming, acting, so far as drone breeding is concerned, like a spring scason lacking an early warm spell Another practical point when considering at what period, weather permitting, the first swarms may be expected, is the importance of noting the state of development of drone brood in the early spring, as swarming wilt not occur until after drones are available for mating the queens. Product;fJn of Drones in Exctss In the early stages of evolution, indicated in 1319 and 1320 when there were no workers, and when females were developed in small numbers, there is no reason to believe that males were raised in much greater nllmbers than females. Advantage would lie with

336 THEORY OF SWARMING 3 11 some excess of males, to secure that the last remaining females were sought for, after the large majority were already mated \\tith the growth in [olon)" size, and introduction of a worker ca.'it, descrihed in t321-5~ th{'ft> woujd bc a progrcssiy( n:duction in the rcbtin' Ilumher of fcmal('s to be molted; but tht' habit of the be(' would bc to produce numbers of males comparable with, or ~()m('what greater than, the total numher of fl'mak"s of all kinds. l~hat the bees would show that t'ffort of imagination and re<lsoninf! pllwcr that w{)uld be m cess."lf!' to lead them to such a marh~d chan,?c of ha.bit as would be i'1\'oi\'(:d in a large reduction of drone hr('{"(ling, i~ unlikely, but larg:t' numb{'r~ of drones hcint! an expt nsive luxury, SOtTl(' adyantagt' would lie with thost strains that diminished the number, and it is proh<1.hly mainly to chanc(~ variations of habit and to gains of this kind, that We OWl" the fact that tlw amount of femaje brood exceeds the amount of mak brood, when tile bees arc kft to theitlseln's. It is difficult, otherwise, to account for th(' exce~s of drones Wt so readily obtain. An equal number or weight of workers would do as much in kccpin~ the hive warm, and would moreover, find their own food and perform other useful dutie~ We may note, however, that with a ratio of one qu(.'(:n to many tens of thousand~ of bees the loss of a queen on her mating flight becomes a very scriou5. loss, whereas in early days the loss of a few queens would have been of no importance. A flying (lueen with her large size and rdatively slow flight as compared with that of worker bees must be a special target (or tht' bee-eating birds, but, if pursued by a large number of drones, she will be,crcened by them, doubling the number in pursuit, probably halving the risk. Against this, it may be noted that beekeepers who severely restrict drone production, have not reported material loss of queens under present conditions, but people frequently fail to note what they have no reason in their minds to expect Habits change slowly in the insect kingdom, and it seems to the author that the production of large numbers of drones when prosperity promises is mainly due to long-established habit of remote origin not yet modified to the extent that rcason and advantage would indicate. Conclusions on Swarming From what has been presented above, it will be seen that the author's view of swarming is that it is a complex act, arising out of habits developed and practised in the earliest stages of the evolution of the honey bee, intended primarily to secure the continuation of the species, but adaptable to meet many hazards and

337 312 SWARMING A~D SWARM PREVE!\:TION emergencies ill the life of the bee. In its various stages it depends upon conditions of prosperity and upon the stirrings of sexual impulse, and may bt: hindered, or prevented, by conditions antagonistic to prosperity, of which interfefe with the normal development and progrcs~ of the ~cxual impulse, in which all the bees in the hin' arc concerned. Formation, Flt"ght and Settlement of S'l.<-'arms Prl"paration for Swarming The first sign of preparation itjr swarming is the breeding of droih's, and the next, the raising of young queens. The conditions controlling. the commencement of drone bn.:eding have not bct":n sufficiently closdy ObSef\"f:d. \Vhe-n, with expansion of the brood nest, started in late winter or early spring, the queen reaches drone 1.'omb, drone eggs arc likely to be laid, but this will not occur until the brood nest is well established, and occurs, generally, on the opening of sprinp:, enabling the close winter formation to be broken up. The production of ~()rnc' drone brood continues throughout the season, unless stopped by a serious shortage of stores, when, not only the drone brood, but drones also, mal' be cast out. Drones a.re conserved, however, in any queenie55 l;i\'(,~. A few weeks (1351) after the fir" drone eggs are laid, if the colony is prosperolls, queen cells may he formed and the queen wilj lay in them. Quem Cells/or Swarming and Superudure The starting of queen cells is a sure sign of swarming, unless they are for supersedure. Cells built for swarming are constructed generally on the edges of the comb, preferably on new comb. Where the combs are built out to the edges of the frames the edge may be cut away or queen cells may be started on the surface of the comb. The latter cdls are not readily distinguished from supersedure cdls as these also are built on the surface, being enlargements of cells containing eggs or Ian'", originally intended for worker brood (147). The cell built ~nder the swarming impulse is started like the cup of an acorn, only smaller, and depends from the surface, the original worker cells being cut back to receive it, whereas the bottom of the supersedure cell is, of course, the mid-rib of the comb Supersedure cells, however, are built a number at one time, whereas cells built under the swarming impulse are built in succession and are found in all stages of development If, however, se,'eral supersedure cells are built and the

338 '" FOR:\lATIO:-';, FLIGHT AND St'M"LEMENT OF SWARMS 3 I 3 first quet'n ('merges under conditions f.'wourabl(' to swarming, thf' bees are li,ble to swarm with her '.vh,'n cells are destroyed by tll(' heekeeper, he should 1)(' careful to asct'rtj.in at the time whether they were swarming or supersedure (_'elk [HUt of thr Sv.:arm A dow or two before swarming, the supply of food to the queen is reduced ill quantity, so that she is reduced ill!o.izc and will flv more H:adilv, Thd dark rj.cl~ do not swarm umil tht" Jirst qul'l'n cclis built hj.\e bl'cn cappl."d, and generally not lx fore 9 or 10 days after th( laying of the eggs in que(,n cells (I). Italian bee's, howc\'cr, frequently swarm before the tir~t queen cdl", arc scaled and may even do so a few davs after the cells arc ~tant d. H vbrid bees tend to follow the habit ~)f the dark race~ in this respect: 'rhe swarm will ('merge as soon as weather permits, that is to say, as soon as the shade temperature i~ ~uitab[c for free flying and there is absence of rain and high wind, The flight board am! the surroundings of the cntratke become ("on:rcd with bees and the bees issue jn (_ joujs into the air. 'rht: doud remains somewhat dispersed until the queen issues, when the cloud concentrates about the queen and shows a general mmtf1lcnt tending in one direction 'rhl: swarm most generally i~sul's between and 2 p.m. (11.30 and 3 p.m. summer time), duriflg a sunny spell, with barometer above normal 'rhis i3suc is stimulated by slln~hinc fallin~ directly on the hive entrance, but about 5 per cent. of swarms issue before 10 and an equal number after 2, Many young bees arc hustled out with the,warm and many bees of hanesting age are left behind. The idea, commonly held, that only old bees fly with the swarm, is erroneous. Bees too young to fly may sometimes be found on the ground in front of a hive that has swarmed. {!SUt of Cas" The old rule that the first cast may be expected 8 or 9 days after the swarm applies only to the dark races and only when the bees are able to swarm about the ninth or tenth day after the first egg is laid. With Italian bees the interval may be considerably extended (1370). The cast is, of course, accompanied by a virgin queen and may be followed by a second 2 days later, and even a third, fourth, and fifth, etc., at daily intervals. Casts are sometimes accompanied by several virgins.

339 314 SWARMING AND SWARM PREVENTION In good beekeeping, however, the issue of casts is prevented (1496-7). External.._\'igns ~f lssuf Careful obserl'ation of what is taking place on the alighting hoard hefore a swarm issues will disclose signs that something unusual is in progress. Instead of tilt.' stead~' traffic outwards and inwards, under the ohservation of a few active guidu, moying about the entrance, WI: tllld many bees resting or movinf!" about on the alighting board and communicating with each other. 'The amount of regular business i~ greatly reduced, returning: bees joining those on the alighting bo.. 1rd and about the (,.'ntrance. 'Tht'~c bees enter the hin ) probably to load up, shortly before the swarm issues, and there is considerable excitement within and much noise emitted. Delayed Swarms If the weather turns cold or storm" about the time a SWarm is due to issue, the issue is delayed. 'The delay may extend for several days. If the ba.d weather continues, the: idea of swarming may be abandoned for a time, or altogether. In the latter case, all queen cells will be destroyed If swarming is delayed, the \'irgin gueens may become ripe for emergence before thl." swarm issu{$. In this case they are prevented from doing so by the workers, who omit to cut awa)' the wax around the point of exit, but the imprisoned queens are then fed through an orihcc, large edough for the passage of the tongue. 1 n this case, of course, the first cast will appear early If the swarming is delayed so that one or more queens approach maturity in their celis, the queens may be heard at night calling to and challenging each other (37). Srttlemmt of the Swarm The swarm, or cast, having issued, the doud of bees finally gathers around some suitable settling-place. A swarm with an old queen, especially a heavy one, will fly low and make the best of any possible settling place in the vicinity of the hive, but with young queens, and delayed exit, and especially with virgin queens, swarms and casts may fly considerable distances and to high places before settlement, although the first flight and settlement is generally confined to a radius of 20 to 100 feet The swarm having issued, and having found a suitable settling-place, one somewhat shaded, and affording, not only a firm hold for the dust"" of bees, but preferably also a clear space below

340 FORMATlOS, FLIGHT AND SETTLEMENT OF SWAR\fS 315 the support for the cluster to hang free, the formation of the duster is started, the bees and quet'n gradually settling in the well-known manner. Sometimes, one Of m()n~ s(. conjary clusters art.' formt'd, the bee~ tt'nding to ~cttle on anything that lo'oks like the bqrinning of til(' cluster pwpcr. Sooner or later tht' (:Iustt'rs containijlg nil queen, hreak up, the bees joining: the main dustl.,r. If tht, queell has h<.'en lost tht: nuin duster break~ up and tht' h(t:- r,,'tufn tn the hive, spreading ov('r the front and sidl"l'i in search of tht, qm cfl. Bee Bois ~ro persuade the swarm to sertle in.1 place C01H'('llit'Jlt to the beekeeper a bce hoh I:. sometimes used. A hall of worst('d made to n:scmhle a ~ljl:dl cluster, or a!.majj fragrant piece of old tomb) is ~(.'cur('d in a ~ituatioll near the hivt.., ~uit{'d to the l'om'{"ni('nct" borh of the bee" and of the bc('kccper. 1 t mar be noted that thefe is a tendency for a swarm to settle where a' previous swarm has ~cttled, not only because the spot is found COlHTlIicnt but probably through an odour remaining and sometime-:- wax deposited on the branch. A swarm remaining at one spot for some hours may commenc; comb building and actually found a brood nest in the open) following the practice of bees li"in~ in warm cjimt:~ A good fc)rm of bt..,f.: bob consi~t~ of a board of a siz{' to cover the top of a brood chamber, with hooks on its edges for SUSPCll ~ion with cnrd from a convenient bough and having tht.. bob pmpcr fixed on its under -:.ide. 'rhis rna\' consists of one or two short strips of comb, glued to the board; or a pit:cl' of rough oak bark giving a good foothold, the bark being smeared with a solution, made as in the next paragraph, (rom old comb, I f wax is used, the board should be stored when not in u!'>t: with the wax freely exposed to the light to save it from the wax moth. When th~: swarm has settled, the board is unhooked and the swarm carried away for hiving. If the board has a large hole near the bob it may be placed with the swarm on an empty hh'c and a body with frame!'> of foundatiof' placed on top and covered over. 'The bees will soon run up. Attracting a Swarm The part of a comb next the top bar contains propolis added to strengthen the comb where the strain on it is greatest. This part is the most aromatic and smells also of honey and of brood. Some such old comb should be broken up and boiled in a little water. This preparation gives an odour highly attractive to bees and if smeared over the inside of skeps or box hives fitted with foundatlon

341 316 SWARMING AND SWARM PREVENTION serves to attract swarms and sometimes prevents the loss of uunotej swarms The aromatic wax of Della Rocca was prepared with (Jut water, comb selected as aboyc being melted under cover and the mess daubed over the inside of a tikep at swarming-time after scrubbing the skcp with aromatic herbs. 'rhis procedure was said to havl' such virtue that a hive 00 treated and set on its stand would be found occupied by a swarm in a quarter of an hour. T'he reader may not have this experience and if he has he would do \\'('11 to notl' the COil tents of 1386, and not act so as to lower the common standard. Oil of dracoccphalum moldaircum is said to attract swarms. Lcmonscented ~J1l'llisa officinalis (Balm) i~ attractin'~ hut bee" arc repelled by wormwood,.1rtnflcsitl ahinthum. Final Flight of Swarm {Int! Legal OWIlt'rship A swarm will remain in its first place of ~cttlcmcnt onlv until the flying bees han:: settled and the scouts havc found a place suitable for founding a new colonr. The scouts will then lead the swarm to its per~anent abode, ~~nd this last flight may be for a mire or more if llo suirabk place is ncar at hand. A fi~'ing swarm has been met with, no k~s than ~ mile above the earth. ] 386. Among themseivt>s, beekeepers recognize that the owner of a hi\ c from which a swarm issues, has a chim to tht: swarm; but the legal position is that, if a swarm leaves the bcekct:pcr's land and enters the land of ajlothcr, the beekeeper can claim it only if he has kept it in sight. He may claim the right of entry to secure the swarm, or if not admitted, may claim the value of the swarm from the owner of the lami. Taking and Hiving Swarms Settlement of thr Cluster Before taking a swarm, the bees should be allowed ample time to settle, as, sometimes, more than one duster is started, and the queen may join one of the small clusters. If the clusttrs an: sufficiently separated they may be dislodged in turn and collected in the same skep. It is 'not necessary to secure all the bees, as any remaining will ultimately return to the parent hive; but~ whenever possible, observation should be made of any small cluster formed later and particularly of any duster formed 011 the ground, as the queen may be found there. If the clusters are ncar together, those outstanding should be disturbed with smoke or a large feather and the bees persuaded to join the main cluster. If the main cluster is much

342 TAKING ASD llivdig SWARMS ~prcad, the s.1.mc means may b(.~ used to consolidate it, A filll of temperature or light shower of rain accelerates the forma.tion of a good cluster; thu!>, on (H.. c~l<;ion, a srringc may be lised f\) produce an arririciaj Sh0WCr. 1n takiilf! s\\'arms, a.. in m03-t uther operations of beekeeping, patielh::c i~ a f!re.1t as~;('t, Taking a SU}(Jrm itl il SI. ep A!'warl1). ~ht)uld!j(lt he Sh;lkcll, ;t~ if r11(' h(xb art' gi\('fl notice of darlf.:cr tillt will ont:tin <i mort' ~n..'llr(' i~l()rhnld_ lt~ how ('vcr, the branch frool whidl d)(, ::;warm rl'~h i~ ~trul k sharplr with the tist or a woojell bar or Ill.ilk-t, the :'lhldv!l "hock tab s,he ht'('s unawares ami practicall~ tht' whole swarm will fall It j" u$ual to dis!odgt a ~\V;lfln into a ~k(:p, thi~ lh'ill,!!. fight and hailjy for the purpp~e, and sen ing a... a tempol.l.ry homc for tht' bce':l. '1'1\(,: skep ~houlj he ht:ld juq hl'low tht' du... tn, If the bel's h;nt a long dmr~ the quee1! Hla.r be in)lll': d. 111ll1lcdiard_r the swarm falls into the ~kl'p, the ~k('p i~ (:o\'{'red with :l piece of canvas or other strong poro\b material. 'I 'hi..' ('(In:ring may be tied round to ~('cure it in place, unk~~ tlt~,:-warl11 j... to he carried only a short distance For a IOllg jourlwy it i~ de<.,irahk to employ, as a cover, a piece (,f GlIl\'a~ havinp; a window of wirt..' f"hl:f.(' sewn in it, say 3 inches (;5 cm,) square, to s(.'cnre ad( quate ventilation. For shipment the skc-p rna): bc' stood in a box with the opening upwards. A fine sieve makes a good con'r for a skep pnwided any entranre (ut in the edge of the ~kcp is blocked before u~c :'0 that the sieve makes a bee-tight joint. The sieve should be u~ed, hottom upwards, unless for transit a long distance a!-. it is tfh'n c;l"in to provide an exit for the bees later on (1395). Swarms in Inconvenient Places Occa:;ionallv, howe..-cr, a swarm is located where it cannot be di:;lodgcd in thls ~imple manner. 'The chlstt-r can be caused to move by thc~ USe of a little smoke, rcmemb{'rill~ always that the tendency of the bees, on bein~ disturbed, anj L~pelially on being jarred, is to move upwards If the swarm cannot be taken from below the bees may be caused to run up into a skep or box s() placed over them that one edge and inner face offers a ready path. The surest way to make them run is to tap sharply the support on which they have clustered, using the smoker gently, to dismurage wanderers. The operation may take ten minutes, or it may take an hour, according to the skill of the beekeeper in getting the cluster on the run A used comb, but especially one containing unsealed brood, affords a great attraction to a swarm. If the cluster is in a

343 318 SWARMING AND SWARM PREVENTION high tree, in an inaccessible position, the ~urest way to secure it b to fasten a box, or skcp, containing a brood comb, on to a pole, so that it may be held, or rest, just over the swarm and touching the branch, so as to provide a footpath. The cluster wijl gather on a hrood comb, without bc):'\" or skep, and it j:, casier to maniplilatt> a sin.f!le comh on a pole, than a box or skep, and to brin!;! if ill contacr with ttll' cluster. Use of Bag Net 'Vhere there arc many tall trl..'l's I1l';lr the apiary it i~ highly desirable to usc bee bobs at a convenient level and a bag net for swarm-taking should be h:pt at hand. This consists of a bag like a butterfly nct with a stiff rim, secufl'd to a poll-) or with a hinged rim like that of a purs('~ with a cord for closing: it, 1~11(' cluster is swept up into the baf!; and tht bag- closed, I f there is flo hinge the nct is closed hr a turn of the wrist the sami.' way as a butterflr nc't, Flyillg bees m:l!' be allowed to duster on the b~g if the swanl1 is a stray one, bur if from a known apiar:- it is more comtnient to let the stray bees find their wa:' to the apiary so that the bag is taken with but few bees outside it. The ~warm is easier to handle later if the' pole can bc dctachcd readily from the bag. TempormJ Rtsting-plaa On securing a swarm the receptacle should be put as soon as possible in a cool place so arranged that ventilation is not impeded and preferably so that the cluster may form again without dillicult\'. 1395'. If possible, the swarm should be taken to the place where it is to be hivcd and placed temporarily on the n~\\.' stand, an exit being provided by inserting wedges or stones under the edge of the container. The container must be well shaded_ T'ime should be allowed for the cluster to form before an exit is made, and if the swarm is shaded, ventilated a.nd confined until towards crening, the danger of a further Bight is a,'oided. It is, howen-r, possible to hiw' a swarm immediately it is taken, and it is best to do so if the swarm is in a bag., on a comb, or on a bee bob. Sending SUJm-ms Long Distances If a swarm is to be sent a long distance by rail, it is best to transfer it to a swarm box (see maker's lists), or to a package as used for package bees ( ), and to provide syrup, as with package bees. In hot weather this wil1 greatly add to the comfort of the bees by enabling them to regulate the temperature. A swarm may


345 Fig. ~i' HI\' Il'\G A SW.4.J:M.

346 . l'ajung AND HIVING SWARMS be sent in a s.l::ep, secured as in 1059, to anyone able to dealpromptly with it. It should be clearly labelled "Live bees. Keep in a cool place." Hi",;"g (1 Swarm To hive a swarm r:aken in a 51:ep or box, it is customary to shake OUt the bees in from of the hive, on a temporary extension of the alighting board. The hive should be provided with frames, fitted with foundation, or with combs, but some foundation should be furnished, as a swarm makes wo.x, and the bees will desire to utilize it. If the beekeeper has had trouble with swarms decamping be may give a comb of un_led brood as the bees wiu not desert such. It is most unusual for a swarm to refulle a good home, but they may refuse one which is too hot or lacks ample ventilation To receive th.e swarm a board say 3 feet X ::I fect (say, 100 em. by 60 or more) is propped up so aa to form all extension of the alighting board. If it is not a good lit SO that the bees will not get an unimpeded path from board to entrance, a sheet mlly be t1trown over the boards secured with stones, or a piece of newip.per may be used fastened down with pins or stones, leaving no point bjgher than the entrance as the bees like to climb au the way The swarm is thrown from its temporary container on to the board in front of the hive. The bees will soon be seen running over one another in a steady march to the new borne (Fig. 27). When this stage has set in the queen is frequently seen to run rapidly over the backs of the bees and malee for the entrance. To dislodge the bees from their temporary receptacle, it must be held over the board and shaken down sharply, being brought to a sudden stop, and this p.roce.s repeated. ' Any bees remaining will find their way from the empty receptacle, but they should be looked over in case the queen is with them. Two small swarms may be shaleen together if it is a matter of indifference which queen survives If the swarm is on a comb or in a bag it may be placed in an empty body on the Iloor board and the body containing combs put in position on top. It is convenient to open the hag from the top after the upper box is in place, t~mporarily removing me combs fdr the purpose. See that the bag is SO disposed and opened that all the bees have free exit from it and that the main entrance is not blocked by it. Nro; Mdlwd vf Hi"';"g It is good to see a... rm running mro a hive, and to make sure, by looking over the masa of bees, that the queen is anwng

347 320 SWAR\!l"C AND SWARM PREVENTION them, but a swa.rm may he hived more quickly and with less preparation, by shaklng tljt bees jnto an empty brood chamber, or empty super, placed on the permanent ~tand, and promptly placing the chamber of frames, or combs, on top, with the quilt or inner cover in position. 'fht empty chamber is removed later. Manjpulatjon of Sup,rs If there is no good honey Bow all, it alwav5 pays to feed a swarm for several days. If there is a hool'}, flow on and if it is desired to hive the swarm on the site of the parent stock (1496), some drawn comb should be given as well, then the supers can be put on at once. If the supers are put ovc'r foundation, pollen will go into the SlIper,:;, If no comb is gin'n, do not put in the supers until 3 days later. An carly swarm may be gi\'cn some comh to a.r,~jst in building up quickly. Do not use combs wet whh honey for hiving swarms. Do flot give eggs to a swarm, especially if hiving on the old :_.;tand, lih,jng Lati' Sworm in Porent Hi,:'!' If the swarm issues late in the honey Row or during a htc flow it may be returned to the parcnt hive,. as in Miscellaneous... Yates Clipped Quam If the queen's wing or winf,'" have been clipped she will fall to the ground and may be lost or may return to the parent hive and crawl in. The bees finding that the queen is lost may return and fly with the first \'irgin, flying further afield, 50 that clipping does not afford a guarantee against loss of swarms; morcm'cr) it may lead to supersedure first. If the issue of the swarm is noted the queen should be found and caged. The swarm should be hived on the old stand, the parent stock being removed. The queen in cage is then placed at the entrance and the swarm returning queenless, will find her and run in, and she may be released when they are well set on going in. Su;nrm Retllming II) Parent Him Sometimes a swarm will issue and return to the parent hive without settling. This is probably due to the queen failing to follow, which may in turn be due to her being crippled in some way. After one or two failures the queen is likely to be superseded and thrown out. Always examine a hive that has thrown out a queen. Always' attend to a hive from which a swarm has issued

348 ~ISCELLANEOUS NOTES 321 and returned and deal with it according [0 n. quircl11cnts [w (1m' of the prcccdinl! methods Of h>~' ani field swarming, hut it is ~k'~irabk that the ~warm ~hould bl' gih'l1 a flew (IUl'CI Sometime!' 011 a \t:r~ hut J:J.y a!.lf~c cloud ofbt:es, bch:l\'~ in.!! like a swarm, mar tly out.tnd fv!ulil,l.gain. Hi\,(.'\ should not [It' too fred), exposed to the :-.UIl ill 'I.:ry hot wcarhn. Signs ~f CrSStlt;on of Su.:arming tn a stock which has not built queen ceil", tile only sign of ahaudonrn(:'nt of :tll intt'ihiofj of sw<4rming is th(~ c;btiu{!" out of drolle'::> which occurs latl' in tht' S(':..l\Oll. A :-.tm:k which has built qul'en I.:dl':l ami d('cid~ not to swarm, or not to swarm ag:a.in, will tcar dowll an}' remaining occupied cells and c..1.st out the young im.maturt' qut'cn~. v\tht'll a quc{'h cell ha<.; been torn open, a large gap will be found in tht' ~dd(:, while a cdl from which a qul'l'il has emerged, wih bave a circular opt'fling: at the tip and sometimes a cap hangin~ from one edge of the opening. \Yhcn a cell is done with, the wax is soon used elscwht'r(' and the cdl reduced to jrs original dimensions. Factors tending to Enc(lurag( Su;arming )408~ Tht foljowjng factor::> h:od to (,l1cotjragc ~warming: 1. 'The prcscm:e (If queen cdi~ rai~cd uih.kr tht, swarming impulse; 2. Swarming tendency in the race or strain; 3. L;ll~k of shade. Flat top roof board too I.:Jo<,t: (lj\ top of brood Ill'st (885-6) in hot wcatht'fj +. Expansion of brood Ilt'St ceasing and nothing much (0 do, Light and irr<:gular honey flow aftt:r colony i~ fully dcn:loped; 5. Pn..-scnce of cxces:. queen cells raised durinj! supc~cdurt' or replacement of lost queen, with conditions otherwise suitable for swarming; 6. Insufficient room for egg-laying in worker cells; 7. Insufficient egg-laying capa~ity in queen (old queen); 8. Prt.."5cnce of droncs; 9. Lack of sufficient ventilation; 10. K 0 room for comb building; 11. Lack of food. Starvation swarm; 12. Obstacles to expansion of brood nest such as brood combs with honey at top in lower of two brood chambers hindering passage of queen; '3. Hives facing east are said to swarm more frequently than hives facing south (in the northern hemisphere, or north in the southern hemisphere). M.B. r

349 322 SWARM.I!'\G A~D SWARM PREVENTIO!'II It 15 not usual to manipulate to encourage swarming:, but if desir('d, an early swarm may be cncoura~ej b:v warm packing~ steadr ~rimu1ativc fceding, cruwjing, ha\ ing drone comb avail:tble for l'arly u~e, and hy inserting combs of emerging brood in exchange for ulj)'!.calcd young hwdd. Fartors trnding to Hinder S'toarming ~rh(.' following factors tend to hinder ~warming (for Swarm Control, Sec Section XrV). I. I\'eces~itv for utlu:r activites; 2. Young queen kecping work('r~ busy up to harvest-time; 3. Plenty of room for egg-ia."ing; 4. Lack of pollen and stores; 5. Ample ventilation; 6. Sufficient shade; j. Undivided brood nest; 8. Combs not built near entrance. Vacant comb below brood; 9. Absence of much drone comh; IO. Ha\"ing swarmed (conditions in swarm itsdf); 11. Ha\'iJlg gi\'t'll a :.warm (conditions in parent hin:,), PWVil!L J 1,,_'a.. '.,f:., art' pren:ntcd (1496-7), 12. Hives facillg south an.: said to s\varm less frequently than hives facing east; and Wl'5t may pro\,(' better ~till from till!:> standpoint; 13. Effective remo,'"l of queen cells (1501-4) Any steps securing the above are helptul. In a Jarge hin:', through ventilation is useful, between the brood combs, as well as our-side them. 'The Dadants recommenj, r-o this end, spacing combs at I 5-inch centres for combs and British Standard practice approximates to this. In the hottest weather the entrance cannot be too large during a flow, and additional ventilation at top is helpful, such as is obtained with porous covering, or a quite small gap around the inncr covcr, to be closed as soon as the nights are cool again. Sufficient shade is essential (762 and ). Swarm Traps Swarm traps are sold by the dealers. They are a nuisance to the bees and tend to cause swarming by impeding free flight and ventilation. If a swarm is expected, artificial swarming provides a remedy ( ). Nevertheless, the best type of swarm trap has some value to the amateur beekeeper who must leave his few hives in the suburbs while he spends long hours in the town. He may plan for a stock to swarm (140' and ) and leave the trap to secure it.

350 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 14J3. The COllllllon,warm trap is it b,,\ with an entrance. titting a!!aif1~t tht: hin' (.'tltranct', and an txit t'o\'crcd with win' qul"cn l'xciudt'r, sen'ing_ as temporary main... ntr.mc(. 'rht' upper part of tilt, box is JI,"idt d off, with (one hn' ('s(apt~ in tth~ di"i~ion board, so that the (jut'en, and illridl llt,dl~ drollt" al't), l';\fl find a wa~' into the upper part. 'This polrt ha~ a n'lllo\'ahk (O\TT and \"'lrrjl'~ starters tor comb buijjing or 'l 1t,W full"'sl1.t" framt'~ titted with foundation ~rh(' h('~r form has an extension at the hortmn at til(> hack resting on the Hoor board ill plac{' of tht, hrood rhamllt'f and carr.rint! the brood chamhcr. 'rilis (_'xtl'fbinn j" tltted with (Jllt'l'll exciuder ca.rric J oycr the whuk hottom, dividillg the ('ntralh'(' and extt:ndinf! part of the way up the front. T'he hc('~ thu\<. have ample ('xir through this ('xduder and cntn hy an t'xkn.. ion of their llmn'!al emrance, later climhing. through the excluder. ~j'hl' hox part is large enough (0 carry, say, six standard comb!. and Wh<"fl the Jt'sign requires, is fitted with additional supports, such a~ ;l.lnltej adjt1~tabl{' Jegs, secured with wing nuts. 14]5. If no swarm ha.<.; i~sucdt Jron('~ will ht' found ill the hnx part and should he rcleast d in the evtiling, In the author's dt'si_!!il', cone bee c'&capcs are hued at the hack part of tlh' l'xtl'tl... ioil, to giv{' admission to drones n:turning by the main entrance. If a swarm issues the queen and somt [1C('::' wiu pas:. into the box part, and those Rying, tinding themstl\'{;s que('n!e~s, will return and join the queell. Trap~ of this kind have bccn made with a box p3rt com,istillf! of a stanuard brood body tined wid} a tt'mporarv U)"TT, whidl JD<iY be rtfficwcd bodily wh~n the swarm is within. -. Genrra/ iwanagemtnt (lnd Prevention of Sv..:m ming An early, timely swarm may do bctt('f than a stock which has not swar~ed but has bred at a~ untimely,"",on (1175-6), but natural swarms arc mostly untimely, and those who rely on obtaining natural swarms as part of their system of management, will admit that many arc lost, In modern beekeeping, natural swarming is tolerated but adds to the difficulties of deve10ping nooswarming strains (169-76) Natural or artificial swarms may be used for obtaining increase, but controlled increase is generally got more economically :n other ways (see Section XV) Re-queening may be combined with methods of swarm manipulation or swarm control, but re-queening is so important that it should not be left to be taken care of as an incidental to chance swarming. In many of the manipulations, incidental to swarming

351 324 SWARMING AND SWARM PREVENTION and swarm prevention, opportunity occurs for raising a queen from a cell built under the swarming impulse. In general, this is undesirable ;b tenjitlf! to r:ncourage the swarming impulse. :\110((' O\'{.'f, unless rigid sei<.:ctioll be excrcised~ the bc<:kel'pcr it, liable 111 this way to gain queen:; from his k"ss dl'sirable stocks, a ba.ckward "tep. '{'here is also tht' ri~k that the queens so raised may he lost or otherwise fail in (r;:rtilization. '1'0 guard against this, tilt' adyicl' is ofrcll given to retain two such celis, ont having: a lcs~ (l(kanced queen in it, to b" utilized in case thl' quecn from the other fails. 1'hcfC ar(' s(:h'ral p()s~ibiljti('s of failure, and some occur too late for falling back upon a second ccli in the same hin'. For other rca:'ojl!-, howttcr, thi~ practice j... nor recommended. ~rhe hces may swarm uncxp('ct('dl~' with the first (ph.'cn to ('mergt'~ which is had, but the general objection is that the practice im'ol.'.:.'.'t furtht'f examinations ('Yery time, to sec how things are going, in order tn utilize or lkstroy the spare cdl Now these examinations take time and are disturbing to the bees. It is better to lea, e all alo}1e until the JH:W queens should be laying:, and make separate arrangements to hah~ spare queens on hand at-,"ainst the occasional failure which occurs If swarming is reduced to a minimum, re-queening b_v other, better and morc systematic methods, mllst be practised. If increa~(.~ is to be made from natural swarms, see and If increase is not desired, see 1535 to It is not, a~ a rule, good practice to return swarms to the parent hive. See for rule and exception. A good method of combining: natural and artificial swarming is given in It is always important, but not always easy, to ascertain from which hive a swarm has emerged. A method is given in 1495, but don't judge by observing only one or two bees as they sometimes drift, or may have joined the swarm from other hi\'es The prevention of swarming by the persistent remm al of queen cells, is sometimes advocated, but is not as sure as might be supposed and is objectionable for other reasons (see ) A method of checking swarming at the commencement of.a harvest, coiding into increasing favour, ls that of removal or caging of the queen. See An equally effective preventive if taken in time is removal of brood (1508-9) or if late, removal of queen and brood ( ). The disturbance of brood production involved in doubling without increase (1530-4) checks swarming. The most effective method of separating brood and queen for checking swarming is that widely known as Demareeing. See , in which the original method and desirable modifications are described. A simplified procedure is given in 1570 and a simple

352 :-.1JSCELLANEOUS NOTtS effective method not quite amounting: to dt'marecint:. IS ~i\lcl\ in For out apiaries and wct'k-cnd bet"k("('per~ a.nd urban hc'r~ keepers there is also t1w Il\t,thnd of (nntilluou~ trall:-,!t'r of hmnd (see 1512 and 1523) OClasionallr all carl\' swarm ouild:. lip rapidh' and l11;ly re-swarm late in the St:a!.ol1. I/or Prevelltion, ~l't' For temporary delay of Right, sec Q.

353 SECTlO.Y XII" Common "Wanipu/alioJIJ "l1rmipuiations Drscrihfd EIJf'lt'hrrr :\1anipulations rcrating ('xclusin'jy to queell introduction, laying workers and qu(,en raising are described in Sections I and I I. Those relating to wax~ foundation and honer will be found in Sections If I, V ~nd VIII. 'T'ile use of sundr.\-; appliances is described in Section V I I and IX. lvlanipulations essential to the handling of swarms are dc~cribed ill Section XII I, but all other manipulations relating to general management of bees will be found in this and the succeeding section, including those relating to control and prcvcnrion of swarming. Ol:;ect of Manipulation The ultimate object of all manipulations carried out for honey production is that of obtaining: a maximum output of haney with a minimum amount of labour, AU manipulation creates some disturbance of the economy of the hi,'e, resulting in loss, which must be offset against the advantage intended. The skilled beekeeper is knou':l1 h)' the small number and apparent simpli(i~v of the manipulations he employs. This apparent simplicity is attained onlv by employing well-thought-out methods and ha\'ing everything necessary ready to hand before commencing operations. Upwards of one hundred manipulations arc described in this manual. The beekeeper will do well if he can select a dozen which he can make do all he usually requires, but he will need some of the others in emergenc,'" or aft~r change of ci n:umstanc e. General Obser"vations In any other manual occupation the worker moves his hands quickly from place to place, but, in manipulating bees, it is essential to cultivate slow, deliberate and steady motions and especially to avoid any unnecessary motions and all quick motions of the hands 3 26


355 Pig: zs. How TO UA \IIS'F. BOTH gnf.$ Of' A FIl\.~ff;. [PA>... Rf:O ,.,...

356 COMMON MANIPULATIONS over the open top of a hi't. The operator should also avoid standing at any time in the line of flight In any manipulations involving removal or transfer of frames, it is desirable as far as poo;ible to place the frames again in the same relative positions as they occupied before disturbance. In a normal hive the combs containing brood will be found together, with combs of stores on either side and above, and, in particular, with combs containing pollen next to the brood. Where such alteration is necessary, the arrangement left should be one conforming to the habits of the bees. Examining Q From, of Bus If a well-loaded comb in a frame be held in a horizontal position in warm weather, or on removal from a warm hive) there is danger of its collapsing, and even if well wired it may at least become warped; funhermore, thin nectar may fall from the cells, and there is even risk also of the queen falling. In handling a frame, therefore., for examination of the comb or the bees on it, it is good to keep the comb always venical or nearly so. This is done as in Fig. 28 and as follows: The franlc is lifted from the hive by the lugs at the top corners, held one in each hand. One side, say side " is towards the beekeeper. To examine the other side, the frame sllould be up-ended so that the top bar is venical by raising one hand and lowering the other. The frame may now be rotated, without tilting the comb, through half a circle round the top bar as axis. If the top bar be then brought level again, the frame will stand above the top bar with side 2 exposed to view, but upside-down. The action is reversed before replacing the frame. Examining the Combs in a Brood Chambt'r It is customary when the combs do not fill the brood chamber to employ a division board to close up the space at the side, and to leave just cosy room for this board when the chamber is full. The first step then is the removal of the board, after which the combs may be freed for examination, one at a time As, however, the outside combs generally contain mainly honey and pollen or, alternatively, may be mainly empty, it is not essential to use a division board. An outside comb may then be removed before any have to be examined with much brood or carrying many bees If a dummy is substituted for a clivision board (857-8), and especially one arranged to give a bee spate next the hive wall as

357 328 MANIPULATIONS-PART I well as at the edges, it is much more easily removed than a division board, as the bees cannot fasten it at the sides or edges A hive-tool should be used as a lever to loosen without shock the dummy or di"ision board before removal, as well as any frames that may be securdy fastened It is useful to have a frame support (1045-6) on which the first frame or two removed may be rested, gil'ing more room for handling the remainder; moreo\'er, any particular comb may be placed on it as, for example, one carrying the queen. Lift and replace all combs carefully, so as to avoid crushing bees against the sides of the hive. Replace all combs in their original position unless there is good reason for re-arrangement (1427). Sh{Jk;",~ Bus off a Comb Hold the comb over the hive or O\'er the alighting board, if large enough, and jerk it suddenly and sharply downwards. If the lugs arc hdd loosell' the frame will he struck bl' the thumbs on the m~tion starting:, an'd st:)pped sudd{'nly by the flngers as the motion {'nd~. l~his douhle jnk is ycry effective in dislodging the bees but scarcely possible except with frames h;n-ing the long lugs employed in the British Isles. Idost bees arc, however, readily dislodged by a sudden downward jerk of a frame tightly gripped. If the bees arc stubborn or a few remain secure, hold the frame by one end and strike the other smartly with the side of the hand, then strike the other end in a similar ma~ncr Do not shake voung bees or the queen where they may fall to the ground. The queen is not hurt by shaking. Brushi"g Bees off a Comb This is less effective than shaking and is liable to irritate the bees, but should be practised where it is desired to sa,'e queen cells, as there is a risk of injuring an immature queen in her cell by shock during shaking. A large feather, such as a goose feather, or a bee brush should be used, the bees being brushed downwards off the comb, so that they are scooped off, being approached by their heads. Brushing from behind irritates 'them seriouslv. Bees sometimes become entangled in the hairs of a bee brush; for this reason a large feather is to be preferred. Destroyi"C all QUte" Cilis This is a manipulation frequently required, the purpose for which is utterly frustrated if a single cell is missed. The worst

358 COMMO" MANIPULATIONS )29 cell to leave is that undersized ill-placed cell which the bees so readily cover without seeming to do so. When all queen cells have to he destroyed there is no ohjection to shaking the combs, as there is in a ~e where some atc to be saved. The only way to ens-uft" suca:;$ IS to shake all the bees off en'rr comb in SUcc( ssion. All cells should be cut away as exposed, it being sufficient to make- a considerable gash in each with a knife, so as to damag,e tilt: b,\.sc of the edl and, generally, also the larva or pupa within. If the base is damaged no repair is possible without tht: removal of the contents Use a spare body if possible. Remove to one $idc the: body with combs to be treated, and place the spare body 01) the stand. Shake the combs olle at a time over this spare body, placing them in it as treated. and in their original positions. If no spare body is ava.ilable remove three combs at one side temporarily. Shake the next comh over the space so left and place it IlC'xt the outer wall. Continut with the others in turn. Finally, l11m'c the lot ill till' box bodily to their original position and shake th<: remaining three O\'('f tht m,. replacing them before replacement. If shaken over a body placed on a floor board the queen should not he lost Of injured, but it is a5 W( ti to look out for her.. I t is not often necessary to perform this operation at a time W}Wll bees are likely to be had-tcmpen d, but it is!x."t carried out when the bees are flying strongly and they should be well subdued first. Destroying all Quem Celli hut One This may apply to a hi,'e or to a particular comb. The hees should be brushed (1437) off the como carrying the coli to he saved,. to ensure that no other and inferior cells arc left. They may be shaken (1435-6) off the remaining comhs. Changing the Strain ThrDughout the Apiary One or, better, two queens of different parentage of the desired strain should be purchased, Thev should be "hrecding" queens or "selected tested" (268) and used mainly for breeding purposes. It is desirable that they should not he heavily worked at brood production, as it will be seen helow that their services will be required for two seasons as queen raisers at their best~ New queens must be raised (sec Section II) the same year from these selected queens for every hive in the apiary, so that in the following spring there are no queens of any other strain present. Most of the vltgins so raised will, however, have been mated with local drones and will he giving progeny of mixed parentage In the next season, however, the original strains of drones will have disappeared and all new drones will he of the selected strain.

359 330 MANIPUL.A.TIONS-PART I In this second season, therefore, a fresh lot of queens should be raised from the orig:inal selected breeding queens, and they will become mated with drones of the same strain. Do not raise queens from any of the locally mated queens. If any queen remains, not a daughter of the desired strain, it will be necessary to suppress her drones absolutely, during the mating period, by the use of a drone trap (255). The above procedure may be used with any speciallr selected queens locally bred, noting the underlying principle that, for the production of bce~ truly of a given strain, it is essential that both the queens and the drones which have fertilized them should be of that stralil If the apiarv is not large the change can be made in one season, one selected queen purchased cady being used to prq(~l1cc large numhers of drone's by the usc of drone comb, and all other drones being suppressed (255) until after mating-time t should be noted that if a single queen is used for changing the strain, or even two qut'ens, daughter of the same parent, in the end every sinp:lc bee, queen worker and drone, will be the descendants of the same parents with no other blood in their veins. Such dose inbreeding is not to be preferred, so it is better to use two queens of different parentage from the same strain. The word strain is here used of bees having the same character and common parcntag:c probably only a few generations back It should also be noted that if the first lot of virgins are mated with local drom.'s, the resultant bees may be uncertain in temper and behaviour generally. This is especially likely if the original strain was black and the new one yellow. ~~evertheless) these defects will entirely disappear in the progeny of the second lot of queens, as the drones of the first lot contain none of the blood of the local strain. Treatment of Combs Co~tainjng Dead Bfts The beekeeper may be called upon to deal with combs containing dead bees, the hees having died during winter through lack of stores, or from cold, through reduction of strength, by loss of queen, or by disease. The first thing to do is to ascertain the cause of death, as a comb of bees in a stock destroyed by American foul brood or Nosema will be in a highly dangerous c~ndition and should be destroyed by tire (see Section XVI). Winter losses through other brood diseases are not to be expected, so, if there are no signs of American foul brood, the combs may be utilized safely. A stock lost through American foul brood will show ample evidence besides dead bees, including many dead adult larva!, shrunk and stuck to

360 COM~fOX MANIPULATIONS 33 1 the cells and perforated and shrunken cell e.ppings (see Soc,inn XVI) A stock dying in the hive generally smells foul, owing to some decomposition takin,: place, but the glue-like smdl of American foul brood differs from the putrid smell of d"composf:d animal matter, and is generally readily distinguished (1691). Bees. dying from cold and starvation will be found in numbers lying in the open cells with their tails outwards If free from brood disease the combs may be laid out to air, avoiding ~xposurc of any stores. If the cnml)s arc dry it is frequently possible to shake out most of the b,,." hv holding the frame by the sides and striking the ends alternatelv and sharply on any ~~~k~ " If there are not manv bees in the comb::. and they a.re worth saving, they may he give~, one at a time, to strong sto(.;k~ to clear up. If, howc'rer, thac ate many dead b(. t~ they!ihould be rubbed off with a stiff hrush or wire comb. l'hi~ involves dc,, truction of cell walls, but if the mid-rib and wall b;lsl'~ are n:tail1cd the becs will soon build up fresh wails. Manipulations 'u,,'ith Double Hives Double hives vary from those of the Well, type having a thin perforated dividing board (922) between the two halves, to th,,,,,, such as the Hands' type in which two di>linct bodies, A and B, arc mounted on a common base. The floor board may be a simple Ollt: with two elltrances, or an elaborate arrangement with entraik("~ front and batk and even at the ends, and with mcan~ of switching ovcr the front or back cntraflc(._~ to either hive body 'The p~inciplcs of management expounded in previous sections apply equally to double hive.". The novel features are to be found in the means employed in carrying out the necessary manipulations The double hive lends itself especially to methods requiring the working of two stocks together, as, for example, the manipulations described in , 1524 and Against some convenience gained through the means employed one has to offset the disadvantage that some unforeseen occurrence in one of the stocks may upset all calculations and introduce an emergency which requires special management The double hive lends itself especially to management involving spring division (1200 and 1204), and can be used with advantage where there is an early and a good late harvest with a long gap between.

361 33 2 MANIPULATIONS-PART I It should he recognized that all the manipulations and methods employed with a double hi,,"c can be used with single hives, even to wintering two stocks in one body, and one has to offset the reduced lahour with the double hive against the' increased simpjicity of single bodil"s and the necessity with some double hives of allowing flights in several diffcn:nt directions The example below gives a good indication of results obtainable, with little labour, with the double floor board having means to direct the flying bees into either body from front or back. Corresponding: pn)c( durcs with two separatt? hives will be found in and T'h(' procedure covers and combines artificial swarming, prevention of swarming by transfer of flying bees, re~quecning, and on occasion incrc:ls{ Side A contains, or is furnished with, a strong stock in early spring, occupying: two bodies, or with a standard body mainly of stores, abon' that containing brood and ha\'ing exit through tht' front ext ranees. Division can be made eariit'r by inserting a quccn excluder under the upper body and keeping the queen below, and earliest of all if the excluder is in place before breeding has occurred in the upper body When the lower chamber is crowded and the bees are ready to swarm, or sooner, if a spare queen is available, the Upptr chamber is moved over to position B. The combs are then rearranged, making in B an artificial swarm, If B consists wholly or mainly of stores, one store comb is removed near the centre, the comb carrying the queen from A takes its place, the store comb being suitably inserted (1427 and 148) in A. The front entrance is then re-arranged so that all flying bees return to B. A is given an entrance at the back and a spare queen if it docs not contain an advanced queen cell. If a queen is to be inserted it is better to destroy queen cells (1438-9) B has now an artificial swarm with lack of nurses and excess of foragers, and is in good condition for harvesting. It will require supering if there is a flow on. It will build up better if given a comb of emerging bees..a is much in the condition of a stock which has swarmed but has excess of nurse bees and no Ilying bees and may require "''ater or weak syrup (1223 and 1253). If it is' given a new queen it will build up to possible swarming pitch. If it raises a new queen the swarming stage is delayed. l\-1any young bees are compelled to become foragers, which hindr.n; swarming. If of a strain disposed to swarm and the stock is strong, the queen cells should be reduced to one good one In 2 ot 3 weeks, according to strength, the bees Ilying

362 COMMON MANlPULATIONS 333 from the back of.ll should be transferred to B by switchint( o\'cr th.. back entrance and partially opening the from unt', or.1il end one, for the bees in A, ac(ordin~ to the COllstru<.:tinn Flving: bees from A Inav 0.., transfcrrl._ J to h more than twice if care' is taken by gradual i:lpcl1ing and d(l~ill~ of tntranc~"s where two are in use-, So as to arrange in time that when s:wirdliug is to be done, the bees in.a are all flying in ont' Jircrtion and those ill B in the other EvcntuaHy, on approach of tht' main harvest, tht old queen may be destrovcd and all the hee.. combined under the nt, w one, or, if" the stocks' have had time to build up wtll, tht'\' moly be' worked separately, and combilled in the autumn, noting in' ~upl:ring that B will be ready filr supcrin);, tin.t, hut that.a will hav(' more harvesters available ill the Jatt('r part, if the harvest j~ prolonged. lrinttring with TU'(I Qua,,! 'rhis plan is particularly good where n -qut t ning is. done late in the season, following a late flow. Each st(}(k is divided when the queen j" given, by fll('ans of di\,j~ioll hoarjs, nul.king*a continuous unbroken division from thc' fluor bo.. ud to th( topm(~t super, or up to a queen excluder placed under.a super left for spring use. A picce of wood should be inserted at tht.: tntran(c to Teach the division board in the lowest chamber, cnrnp\cting: thc division and making it queen-proof. "rile old queen is Jeft jn onc half and the new one given to the other half (68-88). Both halves are stimulated to breed (1180) Two new queens may, however, be given if desired where the old queen is to be discarded. 'Throughout the winter and early spring the bees will cluster nn either side of the division boards and conserve each other's heat. In the spring, breeding is commenced in both halv,"" and therefore develops rapidly When stocks arc opened up, the two halves may be united under the best queen and the old queens destroyed. This plan provides a certain number of ~pare queens for early spring use or temporary use. Do not omit to close the bee-ways under the lugs of the division boards in case the bees have access to them, or the division will not be queen-proof. Ust of Building Comb (Bourohmtn) Under this plan a frame with,rarter is placed at the back or side of the hive, where it can readily be got at without separa-

363 334 MANIPUl.ATIONS-PART I ting bodies. 'This is examined at intervals of a week to 10 days from the time that the brood chamber is fully occupied 'rhi':l. dedce is applied readily to German hi\l..'~, open~d from the back, but may be used with some other typesj for example, with a I2-frame brood body supcn d with I a-frame supers, gi\'ing access through a special cover to the one comb known as the 'building comb." At each examination all wax is cut out and san-:'d, a starter only being left. Examination of this comb, after a little practice, shows the state of the stock and of the honey flow and condition of the queen. It is said that queen cells for s~'arming are particularly likely to be built on this comb in preference to others. Its use checks swarming somewhat, as it provides always a place for surplus wax to he deposited. Also its use presupposes prm'islon of a brood chamber of adequate size. Re-arrangenlml 0/ Brood Combs be/orr the Main Honey Plow During a good honev flow the activity of nurse bees is diverted to storing and gathering, and the brood nt-'st is gradually reduced. If, howevt'r, the reduction of breeding is forced bv a rapid intake of honey in the brood chamber, one has a conditio~ of prosperity, lack of breeding space and a sudden decrease of nursing duties, a combination tending to swarming during the honey flow and consequent loss of harvest. The provision of super space alone may not pro,'c sufficirnt to prevent swarming. Danger exists when the queen happens to be working in the centre of the brood nest and the outside combs cold-way (821), or back combs warm-way, are occupied with ad\'anced brood at the time a good 110w commences. This condition is likely to occur in an aggravated form in case a good flow follo\\'s an e>"l'ansion of the brood nest occurring 18 to 21 days before the Row. The bees in the outermost combs will emerge, followed by those in the combs next them, so that the harvesters have excellent opportunity to occupy the outer combs and to crowd in on the queen If this condition is found in a single-brood chamber the order of the combs, cold-way, may be reversed by lifting out each half of the brood combs ami returning them reversed, so that the outermost combs with advanced brood are in the centre and those with eggs are on the outside, leaving, however, the pollen-filled store combs outside next the brood nest. With warm-way reverse all the combs '" bloc If some intermediate condition is found, the combs may all be re-arranged, at l",st to an extent to secure that the outermost combs have eggs and the youngest brood in them. This secures

364 COMMON MANJPUUTION'S 335 thar the har'.'{.'stc~ cannot u!.(~ the outermost {'om~ f\lf Hearl" { wt'ch) a.nd by th~t time the- 4tH:('H will bt: workiu!; Olj!,;lin \:lo!-.t." ui) t;'} tlh.'m If a. JouhJt.-brond I.:ha.mbcr I:" ill U:-'(', tht" nllnh~ not hc:ing large ('nou~h to!;i\"(: bnl\x} spa(."(' in a sinf!,k dlamhn, til(" ~lmt' idea may he applied, $an:' that it i\:o. dt'~irahlt' tn b:t'p till' quttil~ working. in the uppt'r chamh", (s<'t' ) If (omhs of h01wr ha\"t' ht tn an:ultiulatcd ill tht brood JlC~t prior t{).all important h;>1)(".' tlow, rht,_. silould be rcinnvt d.am.! pur ill a super hnwccll empty n)ljlh~ or f~al11c'i of foulldation, tilt; 1.trrcr preferahly betweell seal; J cornh~, so dwt dw~' may tx- drawl! out unif\)rmh, and flat. '1'ht., vacant spaces in the brood nest are madr l;!,()od \~,:ith empty (omh~ or frarnes of foundation., avoiding divi~ion of thl..' hrnod tlt'":!.t (148). Cro'wding of Bers on E,.'e of Honey Flow In \:old localities and l."specially in workiuf!, for scction honey alone, a cettain amount of crowding mol.\." he Il( t (_'~.. ary to secure that dll' bel's occupy the..,uper~ and work in them. In $ucl1 a loc11iry it is important to secure the sup<'r!> again!lt loss of hcatf espcciallv at top (885) and,,, use bai' combs, e'c (1113) If, just on tht: f:\'i.' of a honey tlow, til(' hl'c, are crowded into one brood chamber, fe-arrange as i A useful check to swarming may be obtained by putting a ~hallow supt'r of frames, fitted with foundation only, beneath the brood chamber. If all got" well, the b,"es will work abo\'e, but if the flow is delayed and the brood nest becomes crowded, some relief i. afforded hy the extra space below. In these circumstancl"s the shallow comb~ will be drawn our and utilized later for brood, or as a temporary re~tjnf!-plan' for incoming nectar, 1474, In working with a single-brood chamber, tile reduction of brood space is not usually practised, the beekeeper relying upon bringing his bees to ful! strength before the!lan'e'st, but reduction can be made by the use of dummies or division boards and hy leaving combs of honey in the brood chamber. Crowding is not important if strong stocks of harvesters are produced at the right time (1175-6). 1475, If combs are removed they should preferably be those containing the youngest and least amount of brood. They may be given to any weak stock hal'ing bees enough to Cover them, Glfling Cumb Hunry from Shalll7W Frames 1476, The beekeeper with a few hives obtaining honey mainly for private use, may get comb honey more economically in shallow frames than can be done with sections. He is then saved both the

365 ~ANIPULATIONS-PART I abour of extraction and that attached to the production of good ections, and effects an economy in apparatus and material He should use shallow frames without wires, fittc'd either vith full sheets of thin foundation, as used for sections, or with tarters onlv, 'I'he bees will take to them more readil\' than to (>C0011S. 'i~hf: shallow frames with scaled comb mal' be'stored jn L shallow super, indoors, closed with grease-proof pape; or otherwise, igainst robbers and moths, and the combs may he cut upa~ rcquired. ~rhe beekeeper, working for extracted holley on any scale, may )f course use the aboye method to secure a few combs for his own 1St'. In that case, jr is best to commellce harvesting with built-out 'ombs, and to insert the super of foundation or starters for comb IOney undc't one jn wbich the bee!> afe already working With the introduction of a new method of packing (717) his method shows promise of considerable commercial value as there :an be no question that comb honey can he projuccd more cconomic.ll y in shallow frames than in sections.?rtparation of Section Racks 'Vl,en a section rack has been filled with sections it is a ;ood plan to brush it on'r, top and bottom, with paraffin wax. ~rhis ~rotects the exposed faces from staining and greatl.r facilitates ckanng afterwards. A soft thin brush 2 or 3 inches wide is best for he job, and the wax should be heated over a water bath to a tem,erature of to F, (82 to 88 C,).,upering with a Single-hrood Cham her for Extracted Honey (8) Where a single body A, Fig. 29, is used for the brood -I' I.) :; A X (a l (b> «') <d) (,.) E.xcU!d.er, J' a.ny, inserted at X FIG. 29.-SUl"EllING Vl<lTH A SINGLE-llROOD CHAMBER. itamber, supering for extracted honey should be carried out as allows:

366 C'OM~toX "fas'ii'vl'\t[or-.;o;; 337 Prepare the brood ch.1-mhcr (0) as in brfml' putting thr first super, I, in place a, in (b). Th!' second super, 2, inscrred wilell tlle predous one is half-full, or sooner, durinl! what is l'xpt'cttd tn lw a rapid flow, 1172, should be plac(."d under 1\'0. I a~ in (;),,ifj(! dw ncxt bdow "t!ain as if! (d), and so 011; but if the flow i.., dut' to ct a'l.{', the last super should pn.' erahly be plan'u on top ;.\':.0 in (r») thw. (onccntrating tlw forfc of bees and securing m(lft;' t:omph:te c(lm~ If, however, no drawn (00105 afe a.v6lilablc (t)r No, 1 'iupcr, not ev(;'1l to use a~ bait.:; in the (t"utrc of the super, the Sl1pc-r ~h{)uld be tlfled with franh..., t1ttt'd with f()lllldation and III~l'rtcd bdow.a until the bet's have t"nmmtllccd to draw out til(> foulldation. The super) hces and all, may then be p:accd ahove as in (1;). After the bees are working in 1'\0, I, super ~n.;] call b(' furni:dll d with foundation only, if no t:mpty c()mh~ art' availahk, :I" tlll'~' will work dowil from 1\(), 1 to ~o, 2. Th,' <,.;\m(" appli{... to SI), If an excluder is us{'d it ~h()uld h,' jjl~nrt'd il~o\t.1 when supering, as indicat{_ u in the Fi!!uH', If, how('\tr, the hrood (ol1lbs art' deep, such as the l\1.d. or the British Dl"ep pattt'fll, and if t1l1.:v have a bond mar&,in of holley along tht'ir top edf!t." this wjjj s('rv~ as an excluder with a strong stock, provided that the lpjten is secured ample room in /1 (146i-71), and is nor dr/n'll up by cold. Furthcrmort:, as soon a::. a super of honey is available this may be retained 011 A a~ a.n excluder, further supers being added abo\'(', hut thc'~(' latter ~hould han: some combs in them or hollev aho\t thtm After wintering with a supef ;)"cr A or after a sudjen failure of weather, the beekeeper may flnd him::.clf with brood in one Of more supers. l~he insertion of a queen cxciud(:r helow the bnx)d is desirable, but make sure that the quecn i~ left below the ('xduder. Furthermore, it is undesirable to s('parat(' thi~ brooll from tht: nest in A, i.e. supers should not be added below the brood unles, nights are warm. Even then it is und~irabl(' while there af(._' any egg':> or young laryz in the super as it may lead to the rai~ing of a supersedure queen. Supering with a Single-brood Chamber for Section lioflty (5) The brood chamber Jruly be prepared as in If the first flow is not rapid a start may be Jrulde with a super (b) of shallow frames. This is lifted later above the first sectio)) rack as in (c), as soon as the flow has developed to a rapid flow. Supering is continued as in 1480, save that the shallow frames arc best removed when sealed, and section racks likewise with the latter, in order to avoid travel stains If no shallow frames are used, help i. obtained by starting M.B.

367 338 MANIPULATIONS-PART I the bees with bait sections in the first super. Bait sections arc sections haying partly drawn comb left ovcr from a prr-viou's year. Sometime's a start is obtained by the use of a shallow frame designed to tit beside the sections, the bees much preferring the large surface it offers. If the bees have to be crowded into the first rack it is desirable to see that they do not lack room when once started Queen excluders arc often used in working for section honey. 'I'hey constitute one more hindrance to ready work in the sections. If the stocks arc strong and especially if deep frames are used, the excluder may be dispensed with. Supering,cith a Double-brood Chamber for Extracted Honey (0) 'Vith a double-brood chamber swarm prevention is frequently practised by the Demaree method or some modific3.tion I e 83 ~ 4 - ((,) (f,) k) (d) ]I [) A Ii Excluder; if ww. wer-ted at X FIG SUPERING 'WITH A DoUBLE-BROOD CHAMBER. of it. See If this is not done it should be noted that when both bodies have brood and a super is put on, the queen tends to work upwards. It is good practice to allow the queen [0 do so and to arrange the brood so that brood 10 days old and over is in the upper chamber, the oldest in the centre and the youngest brood at the sides of the bottom chamber. If there is not sufficient to occupy most of both chambers, keep the brood to one side; or with a warmway hive, keep it at the back, using foundation [0 fill the bottom chamber and combs for the upper. The bees are better able to cover the brood when so arranged, but the queen should be capable of utilizing most of both chambers To secure tbe above it may be convenient 10 days before the early surplus Bow is due to commence, to put the queen in the lower chamber A, Fig. 30 (0), below an excluder at one side, with B A X

368 COMMON MANIPULATJONS 339 combs and foundati()n filling rhe r<'maindcr, and all hroou or all thc' youngest brood above, the youngl~t Olltsid(. After 10 days all hrnod abo,'c wih be 10 days or more old, and the 4tH'ton may ht,. mm'cd up, till:" excluder placed 011 top and th(.' Ilr~t :-upcr (.' addt:d ;l~ in (b). 'rhe ~upn ~hown i':> of hnx)d-(:hamht.'r ':o>izl', but th(_' in.. trucrion, fofiowing apply (. qually to tlw u'!<(.' nf shahow sup('r~. Ifthct.'xduder wa!> not usej as in (u) the cnrntk must h<' I'('-arr,mgctl as indicated aho\"e when the cxt..'}udt r alld first super art' put ill plarl'.:, a~ in (h), The sef..'t.md SUpl'f D i~ added ht. lnw C" a~ ill ('_'), when C is about half-full, the bodies.. 1 and H beillg im<:rl,_'haljt!~'d 10 Jar" after addinj! the l1rst super alld tlit qucen put up. 'I hi~,htcntiol) is rqx:atcj (.'n:ry 10 day$, a ~harp look OUI beilll! kept for {IU('CJ) cd Is) which will aim,ost alwav~ ht. founo, how{'n.'r, flt'ar tilt' hoftntl\ of tht comhs in the upper cham her. A third ::.uper may bl, added under J), but if the Hnw i:-. failing the la<;t super may be placed on top, as in (d), IfthcqtJCcnscanTlot till a chamher in 10 day~}t.').(_( Pt the two outer cornh., a It.'s..." frcqut't1t cxaminatiflll Illa,\' be nlj.jt" htu- the upper chamber shduld be fllln] with th{ oldt'r brnod and any tmpty. com~ or foundation be placed in the lower. It is dt"~irabl(' that combs usc d in the upper chamber be built out to the bottom har (278) SO that the queen is not hindered in passing dowll if fo.hc needs to If no excluder is used it is pr(,ferable to keep all the youngest brood in the upper chamber and put the queen and emerging brood in the lower one with spare combs to fill it up. If the queen ha> been allowed to work down into that position before supcring, the upper part of the upper combs will probably contain honey, which assists in keeping the queen out of the super. I f the Row is not long and especially if other means are employed to check swarming, the bodies need not be exchanged. The queen, however, may be founj working in the lowest super, i.e. above the brood chamber, especially after a spell of cold weather The excluder may be omitted and the queen allowed to foam at large after commen~ing as in Care must be taken, however, not to break the brood n(.'"st by introducing supers between chambers occupied with brood (148) Combs of honey, except those holding the polien supply required for breeding, may be removed as found and put with others in the supers. If wide-spaced combs are used general! y for supering, see that there are enough combs of standard spacing to furnish winter stores and collect these into one body as occasion arises.

369 ~fanip\;la'tions--part 1 Supering with a Doublt-brood Chamber for Section Honey (0) Except with a I'ery prolific queen, no attempt should be made to work for section honey over a double-brood bod\'. The bees will need crowding as in , unless, however, tht RJTing bees of other stock!; arc united as in Supcring is then COllducted as in Discovering the P orent Hi'1)( Swarms find Swarm Prruetffioll If the swarm is not seen to issue O[ is not expected, there is frequently difficulty in discovering thl' parent hin>, The ijl:lcriyity of the remaining bees may not be va~r noticeable. Sometimes very young bees, carried out with the out-rushing crowd, ma), be noticed on the ground before the entrance, thus marking the parent hln:. "I'here is, however, a manipulation for discovering tht parent hive without any disturbance, and that is by dredging with Rour the few ~es that remain when the swarm is taken. Tak(~ the dredger wh("n going to collect the swarm. On returning to the apiary: a sharp look out should be kept for these white bees, Thev will mostly return within a quarter of an hour. It is essential that the bees floured shoujd be part of the original cluster, such as those not shaken off, Bees joining later may be scouts and scouts cannot be relied on 10 return home. Remember ajso that bees filled with honey at such a time are readily accepted by any hive, and some drifting may occur. The device, however, has utility if used inteihgently. P"~vtnting CasU Hive the swarm on the stand of the parent hive, removing the parent hive to a new site, so that its flying bees will join the swarm (see also 1402). This manceuvre is ample to prevent casts with a strain not disposed to swarm freely. If, however, the bees are of a strain much inclined to swarming, examine the parent hive for queen cells i days after the prime swarm issues, and destroy all cells except one well-developed one If the weather has been unfavourable so that the swarm is likely to have been delayed, an earlier examination will be necessary, but in that ca.,", a second examination should be made a week later to see that no more cells have been raised around eggs, or young grubs remaining after the previous examinat~on. If the new queen raised in the parent hive proves unsatisfactory, the stock and swarm may be combined as in , or a good queen may be substituted.

370 SWARMS ANlJ SWARM PREVENTION 3+ I PrnN:nting Ear~'1 SWdrm! Rt-ro'/(Jrmiflg laf~r in th( StOHJfI An early swarm may huild up to swarming srrcngth hcf<)r{~ a latt" honey fio\.. diverts acti\"itit~ and may swarrn again. For ~\li.:h a risk the best pn:n'zlti\,c is n.. mm'al of orood, , or a mild form of artificial swarminf!.j for example, manipulation 1488 carrit d out with two brood djambers and an ('xcluqcr inserted between them, or if there arc two such stocks thl..'l1 manipulation 1595, amplt' supcr room being provided for the 1M haring the olda bees. Alternativei\', may be used. An carly swa.rm given a new young queen is not considert J likely to swarm again. It should always bl' remembered that an t:arly swarm will normally contain ;;1 last~_\'('ar\ queen, and should he markt d for consideration when re-quceninp:. later in the sea.son. Dr/cying Flight of Swarm If the IS5uc of a swarm i~ {'xpcctcd at a rlm(' when it cannot rc:(.'cih' attention, the Rif!'ht of the- queen may he delayed by inserting a framed queen C'xcluder under the brood l'hamhcr and above the Roor, so as to dose completely all exits except through the cxduder. If the swarm lcaves it wiii return on finding itself qut.:cnless. an a conh'nient day remove the cxcludc:r and Jct tht swarm issue Of, better still, make an artificial swarm Note that after Olle or two abnnf\'c attempts at s.warming the bees arc likely to arrange to supersede their queen. "'rhc plan has obvious limitations, but some utility, especially for the week-end beekeeper. ]\~ote that drones cannot fly while the ('xdud('r il> in place. '[hey may be let out early or late by opening the top of the hive for a few minutes. Stopping Swarming hy Destroying Queen C,II, Instructions are sometimes given to stop swarming by cutting out all queen cells, say once a week. This involve's much manipulation~ disturbance and loss of honey, and is not the sure preventive that it might appear to be. Bees, especially the yellow strains, do not always wait until queen cells arc even 7 days old before swarming and may even swarm without leaving a queen cell. The method has some temporary,'alue if the cells arc found before they contain much royal jelly. See 1438 for details. To be succ!.'ssful, brood rearing must be checked, and the following procedure may be employed On queen cells being started and OtTupicd, remove the queen and all queen cells (1438-9). Ten days later destroy all queen cells once again and give a young queen.

371 MANIPULATIONS-PART I If no young queen will be available, choose a large, full-bottomed and well-placed cell when removing the queen, and d"'troy all other cells (1440). Examine about a fortnight later to see that the new queen is laying The above manipulations are objectiona.ble if carried out at a time when ( g:,g-iaying should be at a maximum to secure harn'sters for the main harvest ( ), but may be doubly helpful if the brood lost w(>uld be due to reach the harresting stage at it period associated with flo surplu:-., c.g> in certa.in districts mid June or, again, mid-august; that is, a littk before or after thc main flow In any manipulation to check swarming it is important to sec that the hees are not overcrowded. After ally extensive disturbance it is good to secure that they 1\,1\,t' some place for comb huilding to utilize the wax they are likely to produce. ChEtkillg Swarming ~v Rtmo'J.Jai of QlIun (a) Becs without hope of a queen will not work hard. Some black strains work badly even when there is not a queen actually laying.. but with most yellow races and hybrids the removal of the quel'n before a main flow will not hinder the bees from working well on the harvest. By the consequent reduction of brood raising a check is put on swarming which is beneficial to harvesting. The pjan is not desirable when there is a long-sustained Row, as there will be a lack of harvesters starting about 5 weeks from the removal of the queen, but may be applied where preparations for swarming arc aire-adv in evidence. 'rhc q~een is removed just when the stock is about ready to prepare for swarming (1364), or just before the flow (1172), all queen cells being destroyed. Seven to ten days later destroy all queen cells and return the removed queen, or, if desired, introduce a new young queen (68-86), or ripe queen cell (158). Re-queening with a young queen acts still further to prevent swarming, but the use of a queen cell involves considerable further delay in brood production I f it be desired to allow the bees to raise a new queen a queen ccli may be left. In this case, if raised after the queen is removed, it is better to make the tirst examination 4- days after removal of queen and destroy any cells then sealed, leaving ~ good unsealed cell or two, reduced to one 6 days later, thus amiding having a queen raised from larne too advanced in age (h) Alternatively, the queen may be securely caged where the ~ can attend to her, instead of being totally removed. The ~ will try to release her, and it is well to cage her on a large piece

372 SWARMS AND SWARM PREVENTION 343 of comb by a wire cage well dug in. The bees may raise queen cells for supersedure, a.nd these will require attention. ChNking Swarming by Rfmoval of Brood T'his method is employed under the same circumst,uh:es as the above, several combs of t:nl(~rgil1g brood b.:ing removed. rrhc ( ffeet is a rapid diminution in nurse bees and a ~udd("n expansion of space for breeding:, the removed combs being n..'pla~:<'d hy empty combs or foundation. 'I'his aifnn.1s a good check on prcparatioll for ~warmil1g-, but r{'mon:~ brood which a fortnight lattr would lx adding to the harv(~tt'rs. It can be practis{:d to ad\',ultage at the commcflccmcnt of a short flow Examine throughout for queen n lls (1438), and while doing S(), ~t'lect the combs of mature brood, putting them to one side after shaking the hees off them. 'rhe removed hrood may be given to a backwa.rd stock if nights arc warm, hut manipulation involycs less risk. If working for section honcv, the usc of foundation is preferable to the usc of empty combs. J Chfcking Swarming by Rem07)a/ of Brood and Qua" A nucleus is formed with combs of mainly young brood with the queen, leaving some eggs however, and filling up with combs or foundation, all queen cells being destroyed (1438-9). In 10 days examine for queen cdls and destroy all hut one (1440); or destroy all and introduct a new queen (68-81), or selected queen cdl (158). The nucleus should be placed beside and somewhat behind the parent hive, and when strong enough may be manipulated to furnish flying bees to the parent hive (1590-5). Late in the season the old queen is destroyed and the nucleus united to the parent hive. In case of any accident in re-queening, the old queen is available as a spare. If a cell is kept, proceed as in 1506 above The above method is especially suitable for a prolonged flow, even in a poor district, as there is no break in the supply of harvesters and, indeed, after a few weeks the supply is doubled. The method is good to apply when preparations for swarming have started before the Row is due. See, however, Checking Swarming b_. Continuous Transfer of Brood and Confining Quun (S) This method is based on one developed by Mr. Peck of Messrs. Chivers & Sons. It is applicable only to single-brood cha.m-

373 344 MANIPULATIONS-PART 1 ber workint!-, but is akill to tht" Demaree system and to artificial swarming. _F or smooth working it requires that the queens should be of fairly uniform quality a~ it is important that all the bodies should ht. about large enough for each Cjlleen to rill with hrood and, of course, thi.' booic:. ::.hould b(' uniform in size. If worked systematically the method g-ivcs good control of swarming. l'hc system l::i brought into use as soon a~ a number of bodies arc well filled with brood The combs should he end 011 to the entrances which shouid be of full width. Provision haying been made beforehand, the bojics arc adapted in rotation as follows, it b~ing convenient to have..: one stand and prepared body ready for rhe first hive to he dealt with, which hivc is coilvcrh'd in turn when the bees have been transferred. T'hc prepared body is furnblwd with a central di\'ision runni!ig from front to back, made of queen excluder and completely dividinp: the body, the excluder making: a bee-tight joint with the Roor or with a strip secured on the Roor, and with a horizontal queen excluder pial'cd on top later, noting particularl~' the surroundiilhrs of the lugs, ~rhl' cntranc(' on one side, c-,,1.11ed,,1, is also com.. pkteh' closed with queen excluder, so that when the horizontal excluder is in place the side A is absolutely queen-tight. The horizontal excluder should co\'er only side 11 with a margin for moving the division board. (See Fig. 31.) The mouth should be so blocked that the dirision board may be moved FIG. jt. a little to either side of the central position. The CONTINUOUS excluder used at the entrance should preferably be TRANSFER OJi arranged as ill 1647, making sure that the queen BROOD, QUEEN cannot get through by testing the clearance (sec CONFfNEO. 875) Move the hive to be treated to one side, putting the prepared body and stand in its place. Put against the outer wall of side B a comb of honey and pollen as generally found next the brood. Pur against this a comb of eggs dnd continue with young brood, the youngest outermost, until that side is filled, looking out for the queen. 'The treatment of side A depends upon circumstances as below: If there is any indication of swarming or a flow is imminrnt, side J1 is given a comb with a few eggs or young brood next the diyision and the remainder is filled with drawn combs, the outermost with some honey. The excess brood combs are used to help out weaker lots after shaking the bees, or any excess mal' be collected and placed later in a super over a stock strong enough to care for them.

374 SWAR:\lS AND SWAn~! PREVENTION J4S They should then be pla<:cd over the young brood in that stock, i.,'. over side B. A bomb b()x (1045) or omptv nuclells hive will be handy for ("ollt.'l:tiong.. 50rtitlf!. and distrihuti;,g. th('s(' exl..'c's's combs. l~he qw.tll i:-. put in,",ide A, the ('xduth_'r is put in plan' and a 5ulwr on top If the stock i~ not so strong, Of dangef not imminent, 'Side.1 may be tilled with the combs of older brood, pla.cing the t>mefging brood nehc'st tht' Jid~il)JJ 31HI younger hrnod toward:; the ()ut'iide, hut it is neo:s~ry to have a comb with some eg.gs or quit{: yount! hrpoj next the division, rnw qui'en is run OJ) to this comb, or tlll: comh she is on 15 plarcd ifl that position. T'hc excluder is put 11) plan> 3.lld a super on top l~hl'fc is obvjou,:>ly a n)lldirion half-way bctween that in 1515 and ]516 abon_', in which horne brood can he' released for weaker hives and some r{'tained. If an\, hrood, however., is in A it must be next the Jivisinn. Emcrgint! "brood.<.houlj be IwaTer th" ~'('lltrc than older brood" Ally foundation used ~hou!d b<.: next the outer wall Howcycr 3.rrangcd, the qut.'cll ~tarts to lay ncar the division and works outwards, so that in 10 davs' time she will he OJl or near the outermost comb. " 15]8. 'ren d:ns afkr the hive... hart' been arranged as ahov(' attention will be "necessary' and thi~ is repeated {~\'cry 1 0 day~ until the!>warming period is well passed. The tre:hment is as follows: Remove all comb~ {mm }1 temporarily into a spare box, i\'ow commence transferring combs from side A to!>ide R, starting with that next the di\'ision, which comh should be placed next thedivision on side B and the remainder ill rotation. So that any irregularities in form may be accommodated, each comb!!hould ~. reversed end for end on transfer. AI[ combs will then have the same sides adjacent as before, Look out for the queen and p}al.,'(' the comb she is on, probably the last, t('mporarily or. a comb stand (sec, fnr example 1046). Now fill up side A with the wmbs first taken out from B, putting them in reverse order and turned end for end) so that the most mature is at the centre) finally shaking in the queen and replacing the excluder. The queen will again common"" laying at the centre, but it must be notcd that if the brood is not sufficiently mature an empty comb must go next the centre and any brood thus displaced must be dealt with as when first arranging the body The orderly arrangement of combs from Centre outwards is not only a great c;'nveni;nce but leads to fuller occupation of individual combs, and greatly facilitates the periodic rc-arrangement.

375 MANIPULATIONS-PART I A failing or unsatisfactory queen will soon be noted. The bees may decide to supersede her and, of course, may desire to swarm. In such cases) supersedure or swarm cells will be raised and should be looked out for when the combs arc being re-arranged. It is not desira.ble to perpetuate the progeny of a poor queen or rme ~howing swarming tendencies and attention of the right kind is required. In either case the queen may be removed shortly before the new quct:n is due to emerge; 5h(' cannot get away meanwhile,.ide A being quecn-proof. A new young qw:en m:1y be introduced :68-86), or a ripo queen cell from a selected source (158). If neither IS available the bees may be allowed to raise a new queen and she ;hould be replaced a', soon as may be com'cnicnt. Rc-queening in lue courst' (68-86) is, of coun~e, necessary in any ca.se, and provision ;hould be made for it Removed combs of brood may also be used for nuclei, for Ilcrease, or for use in connection with q~cen raising and re-queening For week-end beekeepers the side A is made somewhat ;maher and only the ripest brood transferred, but the general order )f combs by age from centre outwards should be retained. "Jontrolling S'[(..'arming I~v Continued Excnmlge of Brood This method is suited to the keeper of a few hi,-cs, desiring ::ontrol of swarming, but rna.", be used on a larger scale, L"Spccial1y ",here dw weather is uncertain and nights are cold, making more lrastic manipulations dangerous The stocks are worked in pairs. The stocks of a pair nay be called A and B. A at least should have been re-queened n the previous autumn and should be the more developed if the stocks liffer in size. The stocks should stand side bv side, spaced away ~rom others. When the brood nests are first expanding and there are plenty of x'es in the hin's, say when.a has reached at least tv.ro-thirds its ~xpcctcd de,"elopment, remove, say, two combs of emerging brood -rom A and exchange for two combs of eggs and youngest brood -rom B. Shake back all bees from each comb on removal, so that here is no transfer of bees. The operation is repeated every 7 days, he brood removed each time representing not less than one-sixth or nore than one-quarter of the full brood nest. Thus with M.D. Tames two will generally be sufficient, but with small frames in louble bodies and prolific queens four may be necessary_ 1526_ In this way stock A is forced to develop slowly while its lurses have as much as they can handle. It will not swarm or levelop a surplus of han'esters until some time after the manipulation :eases..

376 SWARMS AND SWARM PREVENTION 34-7 Stock B, on the other hand, builds up rapidlv with an excess of nurse bee's and an increasing excess of flying bees. This stock must bc' watched for queen cells as it may soon mak{' definite arrangements for swarming. r t should be supt red, if honey is coming in. ~rhis ~tock is in good "'ondition for qut.~l'n raising and, if dt sired, on qul~en cells appearing, the old quct'11 may be removed to a nucleus or destroyed, and the bees allowed to raise another, all cells but the best bei;'g d,,,troyed (1440) As soon as any surplus as to be ~Cc.urrd, hin' B should be moved to the other siut.' of A, A being SUpt,'Hod, rt t.'dvinp: allv Sup('rs prt.. \ iousl." on B. ~ ow B :-;oon deprived of fliers and having but little brood, will give up the jd(~a of swarming..;i, on tht' oth<.'t hand, having an excess of young brood alld llur~t s, now g('ts all tht fliers and i:. in prime conjitiojl to gather surplu~< 'rhc qu('cn wilj not he crowded out if the supers are watched~ aild the stock will build up tp great strength for a later Row. ) r the How is prolon~ed, stock B can be mon''] to tilt opposite ~ide in a fortnight providing yet more Hying bec!-, Csually,here is early surplus to be I,.J about the time the brood nest has rcached full development or when th,' brood remm'al hao:, bc<':fl carried out once or twice; but if H huiljs quc('n!..:clls and the weather turns bad, or there is no surplus for other rcason~, ;lnd it is not dt.'sired to n~-quccn, the manipulation may bt: rcy(:rm:d, this time exchanging half the brood, so that B gcb all the young brood to care for and A the emerging bees. This will check B, and in case.a prepares to swarm this gives at any rate a furtht'r 10 days for change of weather In any ca.,c, the above manipulation, as first described, completely postponl."s swarming in.d. Frequently B does not prepare either, for lack of brood. In this case B stock forces its queen to the utmost to form a normal brood nest and the exchange of brood may be continued, B gathering the early harv,."t and both A and B gathering the later. Doubling IVilhoul Increase (D) The following are methods of artificial swarming without increase which may be practised at the commencement of or just before an early honey ilow when there is danger of swarming. Re-queening is not included, but can be if desired (0) Where there are two strong stocks and the nights are not cold, the two stocks A and B arc brought together, being moved into this position if necessary in advance (802). See Fig. 32 (p. :WI). A spare brood chamber C is placed next B and a set of empty combs or frames, litted with foundation, is provided. C re<:eives all brood

377 MANIPULATIONS-PART I combs from B, all the bees being shaken back into B. The combs in Band C are placed to one side and the spaces filled with the spare combs or frames. A' FIG. lz.-doubling WITHot'T INCREASE Hive A is now moved awa\" tf) a new position A', and the body C placed on top of the comh~ in..-i, thc entrance reduced and the top well packed B will now have all its own bees and the flying bees from A, and will [;ather a full measure of surplus while buildin",: up a brood nest. A will han' the brood of both hives to care for and no flying bees. It will build up stronfh for a later hantst and must be watched for queen cells. If either queen is to be superseded, the stock left with brood should be the onc. Again, thi~ stock, as soon as full of bees, is in excellent condition for C)uccn raisinp:. A larger early harvest is got by this method than by trying to wdrk both lots for honey ( b) \Vh~re there is one weak stock A and a strong stock B, or where neither is up to full strength, but B is the stronger, or where nights arc cold, it is better to lean' A its full complement of bees, at least for a week. In this case place C on A without moving A until a week later. Swarmi"g lpithout lncr((ls( The swarm is to be hived on the old stand and the old stock ultimatdy united. The following procedure (0) is for genera: use. A modification (b) follows applicable to the issue of an earl) swarm from a heavily packed hive which cannot well be moved (a) Hivc the swarm on the old stand, placing thc old hive', one side or back somewhat, with irs entrance turned to one side, so tha the flying bees join the swarm. This is done to prevent the issll of casts, the old stock being so depleted that it will retain the fin queen emerging. In 2 or 3 days move it up beside the swarm wit entrances facing the same way. On the eighth day after the swami was hived, or later if the weath, is cold, especially the nights, remo.'e the old stock to a new locatio) this again transferring JI ying bees.

378 S\\'AR~IS AND SWARM PREVfNTION Finally, when the new ~uecn in the parent stock is laying welt, or later when her progeny art' proved, unite b~' th<." ncwspapt't method (1582-4), destroying the old queen If Supt'rs wert' on when till' swarm is.<;.uccl and the swarm i!'o given combs.., transf(,r the supers. to tht.' ~warm. If tilt' swarm was hived on found.ltion, do not transfer the super", until the hives are brought togcrhn 2 ()r 3 day~ later, or polkn will 11(: carried into the supers If the swarm is early and the main h"ntv fl()w hardly due, it is desirable to postpone removal of the old.:;.tock, and it may he m,adc instead to dl'livt:f up H.ying bct'lo. to thl' swarm by rcltl(wal from side to sid, (1590-5)_ A week.ftn uniting, bring the two brood chamber'll together and examine for superscuutl' qu(.'(.'n cells in the body jn which the queen is not faying, (h) If the swarm i~,u('s from a hive not ),et unpal-h-d which has developed to swarming-point before the turn of rht, wl'3th{'r, hivc the swarm B h{'~id{' the parent hive.,.1, pack it at top and {(.'Nt \Vithin 7 days unpack.a and set it to one side. 'rhcll mo\'e B tu where A stood and give supt" if Jue, then pla,"c A bodily upon B. If the construction docs tiot admit of this, then It. ave A next B where it was before movinp: B. Ten day~ later unite A and.b as above. If there is a g()od flow on, the nc\v~papl'r may bl' omitted. Retur1ling Su./arm to Parent llh./( This is generally und",irable, as the bees seldom work well until all qul.'en cells have been destroyed and hrood ha... reached a stage that no further queen can he rai~{'d. Some stcps must be taken to prevent the swarm rc-issuing, Dc-,;troying queen ccl1s may not be sufficient. If a honey flow is qn, it is a good plan to destroy the old queen and all queen cells (1440) in the parent stock except one. One method is to hive the swarm in a skc1' and place it over a. hole in a board above an excluder on top of the parcnt stock. Next day or the day after when bees arc flying strongly shake the bees out of the skcp into the top of the hive on to the excluder and look for the queen trying to go down. So much manipulation during a honey flow is bad, and it is better to hive separately and combine later, as in In case of a swarm issuing late in the season, however, it may be convenient to return it direct to the parent hive, If the old queen is to be kept, hive the swarm in a skep beside the parent stock. Next day destroy all queen cells and insert a frame or two of foundation or a super with foundation and then shake the swarm in front of the hive, w.tching for the queen to go in. Examine for fresh queen cells in, say, 7 days. If the old queen is to be destroyed,

379 35 0 MANIPULATIONS-PART I procc(.'d a~ before described Of, of cours{', insert a different queen if desired A ~e(ond swarm may, however, be returned to the parcnt hin. For this purpctsc, hin" it next the parent hive and It:ave for +8 hours (not longer), then shake it out in front of the parcllt hin_' If the weather is such that the issue of the swarm may Iwrc been delayed there may be a rirgin free in the hive after the swarm issues. "The skcp method may be used as in 1542 and the old queen de~troyed, Of a search for virgins (53) may be made. Combining "Yatural and Artificial Swarming without lncrease Let there be two stocks, A and B, Fig. 33 (a), nearing ~warming-poil1t but located apart; and let A swarm. Hin" the FIG. 33-COMBINlNC NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL SWARMING WITHOUT inc1u:ase. swarm from A in a body, C ( ) on the stand which B occupied, removing stock B and placing it next to A (see (h)). The swarm will then receive the flying bees from B and will need supering The stock B will be so depleted of bees that there is no immediate danger of a funher swarm, but A might throw a cast. If the weather has not been such as to have delayed swarming, it is safe to leave all alone for a week, then unite A and B, say, by the newspaper method (1587-4), removing the vacated stand and placing

380 SWARMS AND SWARM PREVENTION 351 the united lot prt'ferahlv ill the nlid~p(lsitioll lx twt en thost' just occupied by J and B (s",, (r». If 'he queen in B is good, silt' may!>t' kept, all 'IUt'en cells in J being d('stro),ed (143S-9) before unitin~. Alternatively, dl'stroy all queen cells but one (1440), and d<'stwy ~he queen in B before uniting. 1547, If swarming has been delayed by bad weather it is better to examine A at oill.:e and dc'stroy all cells but one. Th, Demaree Syst,m of Swarm Control (0) 'This. s\'stein was fir::;t descrihed bv!'vlr. Dernar(>{' as below in the Amd-ifon ija :,/;urfltji, lq>ril 21, 'odinc:uions and other features are detailed later: "I begin with the strongest colonies and transfer the combs ('(lntaining brood from the brood chamber to an upper story anovt' tht'" quccn ("xriuder. Ooe- comb containing some unsealed brood and eggs is left in the hrood chamber as a lltart for the queen. I fill out the brood chamber with empty tombs. Full ftame~ of foundation may be used. in thr absen<::e of drawn comhs.. "The colony thus ha1' all of 11.$ brood and the queen, but tht' qll('t.'n has a uc'w brood nest below the excluder, while the combs of brood an' in thr super. In twenty-one days all the brood will be hatched out of the coolbs abo\'e tht' exduder~ and the bees w-ilj begin to hatch in the queen's chamber bcjow the excluder,.w a continuous succession of yollng bees is sustained. Csually the comb! above the "!Xcluder will be filled with honey by the time a.11 the bees are hatched, and no system is as sure of giving one set of combs full of honey for the extractor in the 'ery poorest seasons; and if the seas()n is propitious the yield will be enormous under proper management," Sote; on the Demaree Sytem (D) It is disastrous to apply tile Vamarcc systtm to a stock not able forthwith to expand in the bottom chamber undtr the conditions of weather f()llowing the manipulation. 1t should not be used unless a good honey flow is expected for about 4 weeks after manipulating. The method is peculiarly suited to the Case in which the queen is well able to more than fill a brood chamber of the size employed and has already commenced to lay in the second chamber The essential features are that the young brood and eggs are removed to the top, where many nurse bees follow, and the bees alld queen in the lower chamber arc then in a condition approximating to that of a swarm One or two supers are generally needed about the time the operation is carried out, and these are placed above the queen excluder before putting the body of brood on top. 1552, The bees above are likely to act as though with a failing queen and especially if isolated by a super as well as separated by the excluder, and will raise supersedure cells. These should be des-

381 JF _\.1A:!\. IPULATI0NS-PART I rroycd in i to J 0 day:! (unlcs...:; needed), at which time, under prosperous conditions, the operation of U Dem:uc('ing," as it js generally called, may be repeated (1563-7) The upper chamber shoulj be examined for qu{'cn cells in not mon: than 9 days) whether O[ Il() tht' combs are to be re-arrangeu. If the queen is young, jf [('-queening is Incorporated, or if a good flow of honey develops, it is not necessary to keep repeating the manipulation 'The first Dcmarecing may be postponed until either there are queen cells being built of a. honey flow is immineilt. If carried out just before a good flow it is usually unnecessary to repeat until bad weather or lack of harvest keeps the bees at home, as 1'11C attention of the bees is diverted to harn.'sting DemarcciIlg: flh'olvcs extensive manipulation of strong stocks and requires docile bees and a queen rcadijy found. Italian bees are especially suitable for this procedure. RI'-qul'e1Jillg with thl Dt-marN ~~~v5tt'm (D) """here DcmareciIl " i!i practised it is convenient to combine re-queening. In this case a g:ood yuccj1 i.:cll in the top chamber i~ retained (1558 and 1506) and the old'guccn rcmm-ed. GooJ queen cells, or combs carrying them, from sdected stocks may be distributed among those stocks showing Jess desirabj(;> characteristics_ Alternatively, a false floor with entrance, with or without a panel of wire gauze or queen excluder, may be inserted under the top super and the queen allowed to commence laying there after fertilization, being placed below later. A "entilating Roar (842) is good, keeping all the bees of the same scent. The upper lot may, of course, be used for increase If a cell is to be kept for queen raising, it is good to examine 4- days after Dcmarceing and select cells still unsealed, destroying au others (1440), Finding the Quem (D) For Demareeing, it is important to have queens readily found. \Vith shy queens and with bees that run, the general use of the system as described is impracticable. If the queens are dark it is almost essential that thev be marked. Nevertheless, the following plan may be used without finding the queen When the bees occupy two bodies the queen is most Ilsually in the upper bod)'. If this sho"" signs of recent laying (5), put it on the floor boar9 to stay there. Remove a few combs of egll" and young brood and exchange for combs of mature brood,

382 SWARMS ASD SWAR~! PRE-... l'<tiqn 353 the be", from the frames in the body left OIl the stand ""'ing shaken back into that body. Any ('mpty combs or frames of foumlariojl should also f!.o into that body. 1'\ow put on thl? cxdw.kr, the sup('~ and finally the other body at till' top. If the queen is below, all is well. If ahon, she i.::amh>t follow a swarm owing to tht: excluder 'rht, (.'x..1.miuation made not more thall 10 daw later is conducted in the usual manher, sa\'c that in cast' the qu(."c;l is found to be in the upper portion, it will be nctchsary to ('xamim' both portions thoroughly for queen l'1.:1i<:>. It is, llowt:n'r, somt'wh:lt easier to find the queen on this sc.:cond occasion :l!> the top portion will contain mostly young bees. In M'arching for tj_ul'cn nolls tht bees have to be shaken off. 'I'his may bt dollt: through an t>xduder (53), thus finding the queen unless she i~ noted pr('\'i()u~jy. lvfodijied Demaru (D) If the conditions art not favourable for full Dl'man'{", the Ilights being cold or the strain not vcry prolific, as for example with black bec's, the principle of the Demarce system may be used but tht, practice modified, two or three combs of hrnod being h:ft below and two or three empty combs provided in place of part of the foundation. The combs left should be mature brood. The brood combs :n the upper chamber should be verticallv over those below. Re-Demareeing (D) This is the operation of re-arranging the brood in the lower and upper chambers so that combs of eggs and young brood are at the top and combs of mature brood or empty combs with the queen arc below. It has the c[feet of sccuring more room for rhe queen to la.", The bees below are not likely to haw started a supersedure queen unless, in fact, the queen is failing, but may build qutcn cells for swarming (144-6) if determined to do so. Look therefor<' for queen cells on the edges of the comb. The be 'S above, however, very generally start supersedure cells (147-8) and,he upper combs must be searched throughout, although where an excluder is used some allow the virgins to hatch out above the supers, tounting upon them being destroyed in trying to get through the excluder It is convenient to operate late in the afternoon when honey-gathering has nearly finished and the bees are still flying strongly, so that there are still fewer bees to handle. If done early, gathering for the day may be seriously disturbed Provide a spare body C (Fig. 34) and place it by the hive. After subduing, open the top and remove the combs from the top M AA

383 -;) MANIPULATIONS-PART I A L h_ Stage 1 B,, JI Stage 2 Sta;5e.3 A Stage 4 c FtG. 34.-RE-DEMAREEING. G chamber A, one at a time, shaking back all the bees. Combs with honey may be set aside, but combs with mature brood must be put into the spare body C after removal of queen cells.

384 SWARMS ANO SWARM PREVENTION 355 Now set aside thl' supers and the empty tt)p bojy ~/I. Put n diagonally on an inverted cover be~ij(. rht: stand so that til(' <lul'ul ~hall not bt' lost through the bottom. Place C nil rh(' stand whl'ft' B was..._!'\ow H'tno\'(' combs from R, w<lh:hing particularly (or the qu('{'il, as either the queell must be shakefl into C or the l'omb on which sht, is found must bt._. placed in C. All other (ombs of (.'f!.t..~ and young brood arc placed in A and tiw hollcy ('ombs rt plan d tjwn" \Vhen all till' combs arc in place in./1 aud C, rt plac.x thl' exdudt'r Oil (-,' and the supers and -<1 on top. If the StlP(,f!-o afe ht avy, pla".'e A temporarily on R, whi..::h is empty, until tht sufx'rs arc ijl pj;u.t, and then tinall y on top, and remove B. B i~ nnw ('mpty ant!!<i('n'es for manipulating the next stock. I t is handy to han' a cover or empty body to serve as a tcmporary ~tahll for the ~upt:rs. 1567, ~rhis method of working is such that, except just when Band Care bcijlg interchallged, the flying bcc~ arc fn'(' to ('IHer normally and find combs within. Further, the combs f('movej to A mostly have bees upon them and bet's ~hakt. fl off tilrr.-e first in A have a place to go to. If, howc,,'cr, it is known that the lju('cn is one hard to find, it is dl'sirablc to make a modificatioil. Thc queen ~hould be found bt~fore any corn~ art: fl'!l1o\'cd from B to C or A,. sing a comb support to support the tirst two combs remo\'t'd from B, or shaking the bees off th<5c two combs before putting. thein ttl (.' ora. It is not good. to sort the combs in B before those in A, as the Bying bees are then more troublesome. Puudo-D,maree (0) Sometimes combs of advanced brood are removed from the brood chamber to an upper story to relievc thc hrooj chamber. 'I'his is good if done just before a honey flow, the removed combs being replaced by foundation inserted so as not to divide the brood nt'st (148). It differs from Demareeing in that only mature brood is lifted. The brood lifted should preferably be placed to Due side.ud \'ertically above that left in the lower chamber. If the combs arc arranged warm-way (821) the brood should be at the back. Pr,paring a Strong Stock for D(maruing (0) When a stock already occupies two bodies with brood of all ages, or is so arranged, the introduction of a queen excluder between the two bodies secures that in 10 days' time the queenless half will contain mature brood and the other half mainly young brood. The latter is to be put on the top of the pile and the queen, with the comb

385 MANIPULATIONS-P.'RT I she is on, transferred to the other body, in exchange for a comb of sealed brood. The older lot should of coursc be looked over before the queen is placed with them, and combs with honey, for example, removed, but pollen should not be taken away. Simplification with Prolific Stocks (D) To reduce labour in handling large numbers of hi,-es the rhorouf:!:h examination of combs is omitted. \Vith bees not much disposed to swarming:, the following method is eefecti\'e: \Vhen the brood (Kcupies two bodies a super of combs is added. The bees work upwards and J 0 days later the queen will be found in the upper brood bod.i" In looking for the queen examine for swarm cells (144-6), not verv likely to have been built, however. Transfer the queen to the lower body under an excluder and plae', the upper body with youn/! brood above the super. It is not necessary to examine the lower body for queen cells under these conditions, but the upper body should be examined 10 days later. Demareeing when r{'orking for Section Honey (D) For good section work a copious flow and strong gathering force is nec~ssary. If the stock is Demarced, well before the flow, proceed in the usual manner, but it is important to secure that when the flow really starts there should be no room for surplus in the top chamber and a minimum in the bottom. The top chamber should preferably be full of combs of egg;; and young brood. Combs unoccupied with maturing brood in the bottom chamber should be replaced with foundation Vacancies will occur in the top combs at a period depending lipon the age of the brood. If half the brood combs are in the top, brood will be emerging in 10 to I I days; if two-thirds, then in about a week. The top lot should be examined in a week to 10 days according to the above and to general convenience. After removal of all queen cells, bring the top lot to the bottom in place of the bottom lot, which is then taken away, the queen being transferred to the top lot in its new position The bottom lot removed will consist of young brood, probably of no value for that particular flow. It may be placed on top to advantage, provided all empty combs and unused foundation be removed and the space filled with combs of honey, or better still, brood of the same age from another colony If the plan is being worked with a number of stocks the simplest course is to collect all the removed brood over a few selected stocks, aile ch,amber on each stock, putting no upper chambers over the remainder. Usc the strongest stocks to receive brood and shake

386 SWARMS AND SWARM PREVENTION 357 the bees from the brood transferred into the hh c from which it is taken. There wilt then be no uniting n("(essary. Alternativdy, with a Row on, the bcl"'s on combs placej in the top chambt'r m~\y be united by alternating: after t~xp(>surl', il.s in It is undesirable t() give room much in advarhx' of rc-quircnlcnts, when working for s(:(;tion honl'~" and then: i':i mort' risk of swarming. It is desirable tn examine 1110r(' frequently) say, every.. dars l~his may bt a\'oidcd by combining re-qut"~.'ning, as in 1550:.: "rith a clover Row the stock, if ready, may he Dt'marc('u w~ll'n the first blossoms are seen, anu rt'~arrangcd as abovl' 10 days litter.

387 SECTION Xf/ /'v.u.\'!pulatjons-part!! Uniting Gf!uraJ Any bees may be united in one colonv if the conditione; are made f._'tvo~rable by t-'he bet keeper. In gener;l~ bees in a similar nmdition, such as two swarms or two established stocks, may be united without difficulty, but if the conditions are dissimilar J~on. care is needed to sccur~ success, e.g. in uniting driven bees to an established stock Bees having an established home ohject to the entry of other bees not having the same scent. This objection is withdrawn in the case of bees arriving loaded with nectar and in the case of very young bees Unless nectar is coming in, the bees should be fed before ullitmg. It is generally desirable to secure that the bees to be united shall have the same scent. It is also generally desirable to secure that the added bees will note their new location. It should be noted that late in the season, after drones are destroyed, bees arc particularly liable to ball their queen (48--50). Uniting should thus be conducted without disturbing the queen. The newspaper method (1582-4) is probably the best method to use. U11;ting Scented Bees For many years after movable frame hives were introduced, it was the practice to reduce two lots to be united, to the same scent, by separating the combs and shaking flour over the bees, or by spraying them with scent. It is probable that the effectiveness of the method was largely connected with the separation of the combs and exposure of the bees to the light. Flour and scent are now much less used. When flour or scent is used, the stocks must first be brought together (80l), if not already side by side. After uniting the one hive is best placed midway between the positions previous! y occupied by the two. 358

388 UNITING 359 U"it;ng aft" Exp"surr fa Ltghf Bct's in a uot too dissimilar condition m;t}' })(' T!;-;tdilv united if thoroughly subdued and au ('omhs ~cparatt,j So that all the bpes are frt.'t:iy ('xposcd to the lig.ht. 'rhe ("omhs of the two lots should then b(' altanatcd, arranging to kcl"p their gt'neral arr;ln~t' mmt otherwise undisturbed (1427). l"'his method nec<-"ssitates hril1t!ing: the two lot~ Hcar t(lf?;erhc"r, as ill the last plan ah<h'c. '... rouhle i~ met with if (:nmbs,ire liot straifht and fairly even in thilkness.. V"mpaprr Mdhad This method is the most widely applicahle. The two Jots to h(' united are placed, Olle 011 top of the or})t'r, with.1 1lt'w~pap{'r hctwcen, the paper being pierced at several pjac{'~ wieh a pointed instrument S(l a~ to start holl's which tht' ht't,"!, can ('Illar)!.l' b('ftlrt, passing through. Uniting: takl's ~omt hour;., to dfc(t ami tilt: bn's rneanwhllc acquire the same scent. At;1 later dare tl)l" two Jot!'> of combs may be rc:-arrangtd as may b(.' found Jesirahk The operation is m<)5t readily carried out tlfter tht bt-es have ~<.:ttll'd down at tht t:nd of tht, day. It i~ de... irab!t: to tah' steps to secure that the bt~('s in the uppe'r box shall note their lww location. 'rht'y will generally do so after 'SHch a disrurhanct', hut to avoid any loss of bc("s and undesirable drifting:, it i~ ~o{)d to It'ave it plate of glass over the entrance (796). Cniting i, completed in about 12 hours The following notes will assist in ~e1cniflg which hive should go on top, but the lower one should remain on its own stand, even if this involves two movements instead of om.': (I) When uniting a weaker to a strollgcr stock, put the weaker stock on top. (2) When uniting a queenless lot to a normal stock, put the normal stock on top and usc entrance guard. (3) When uniting two lots much alike, put the mo.. cd stock on top. USt of Super Clearer for Uniting If a ventilated super clearer (868), such as the Shepherd, is available, in which there is a double screen arranged so that the bees cannot reach each other, and provision, accessible from without, fin closing all exits, it may be used instead of newspaper, but the slide must remain closed for 2 or 3 days. The loss, however, due to this temporary imprisonment is generally greater than the loss of bee labour im'oh'ed in the destruction and removal of the newspaper.

389 MANIPULATIONS-PART II Uniting Swarms Swarms may be readily united when hiying by shaking them together, or part of a strong swarm may be thus united to a weaker one. If it be desired to choose which queen should he kept, it is well to hive the two lots side by side and search for the queen to be destroyed when they have s(.:ttled down, afterwards uniting, but a sharp-eyed beekeeper will catch the undesirable queen as she goes in, shaking the swarm containing her rather further from the entrance than the other lot, first waiting until the other lot have started running in. Uniting Driven Bees to an Established Stock It is unwise to shake even well-fed driven bees ie.to, or before, an established stock; they will probably flv up and be losr. They should be hiyed on combs first. The stock to receive them can probably spare a few combs for the purpose. Take the combs one at a time from the established lot, shaking back the bees. Choose some outside ones with some stores and at least one with eggs. Transfer the driven bees to these combs ( ), and feed if necessary. Stand this lot next the established stock and unite 3 or more days later. Before uniting, examine the combs which contained eggs. If queen cells are being raised, destroy them. These show that there is no queen. If no cciis are raised there is almost certainly a queen present, which should be destroyed before uniting, unless required. If she is black and not ea.,y to find, see 53. Adding Yotlng BNS to IJ Stotk or Sud,us Unless there is nectar coming in, the stock to be supplied and the stocks furnishing tile supply, should be gil'en feeders a day in advance. The manipulation can be carried out at any time, but the middle of the day is best. The bees in both lots are subdued in the usual manner (1028-9). Combs carrying young bees are then shaken over the combs in the hive to receive them. Most of the old bees will fly back, some at once and others on making a flight from the entrance. Bees under about a fortnight old will remain where put. If the alighting board is wide enough, the bees may be shaken on to it This manipulation is particularly useful in adding bees to a nucleus which may be unable to cover a comb of emerging bees. When nights are not cold, however, combs of bees ready or nearly ready to emerge, may be brushed free of adhering bees and inserted in stocks requiring them. Such combs may he shaken, but it is well not to thump them.

390 Addi"g Flyi"g Bur ta d Stack UNITING '1'his is an important maniplll.j.rion in se~~ring, a ~ta.~vt't'ot and in Chl cking ~warming. From timr t~) tirm: ~p('dafllj\.'('$ havf' ~en Jesigf((.'J w facilitatl' thi~ ('IX' ration, hut thev limit the u~'r ill his cho\((' of sft)\:ks for tilt' purpnsl', and as thc m:lnipulation may h(~ done with -:.t.llidard hivt's thefe j" no ~trotl~ l'asc {('f sp..~(.i;ll hi\'~. A sfol.'k LH:kint! in flying ht,{ s is not likely ttl swarm. A stork havil1;; a larf:!:c proportion of ~ying bl.:'c" a.t tht' he~inllillf!. of a ho!l<.'v Row din."tt:, ib ani... iti{'s to hll!ln'~gathning, bee:> pf a nursing ag~' {'cill1_.!. utilized as. receiver:' and di~tributor:; of incoming stof('s, and hrecdim! is checked. It i:-. ~tocks intt'fnh'tliafe in character th.at arc most d(ilil.':ult to divert to honcy-t!<\thcrillt, and that arc n"l.()~t likdy to swarm. f urdu'r,.,0 long a"i rhere is a normal condition ill the brond chamber and a fenill..' queen there, the mort: har\'l'stcr~ tht' better, and it i~ frequelltly the ca.~c, (._~p( cia.llr \\'hnc Rows arc of 'fihort duration, dut more surplus may b(" got hy u\>ing only a f(,w of the hiv(:s, ea<.:it supplied with Hying bees from several ot!h.:rs, than if a majority of the hi\'('~ art.'. used for baf\'c~ting, Ampll: sup('f"ij. must, of course, be gireo to those used for hart'cstillf!' Th" manipulation depend; upon the fatt that if a hive be more-a so that its cntr.hl('e j~ several fett from its origina.l position, the flying bct.s will have great difficulty in findint! it, and if returning with honey will be rcadily accepted by, and readily emer, a.ny hive having an entra.nce near the original position. ' 'ht.: mairtpu1atioll IS ~ D(..st carried out ahout the time a flow i", t'xpl"cted. Swarming i~ further checked by removing combs of eml.:rging bce~ from the hive to rco::iv(; flying btcs and giving them to the hive or hives which arc to lose oces. 'fhcse combs may be exchanged if desired for combs of eggs or young brood l~hc hive to rcccil'c fliers need not be the suongest. It is convenient that it should have a sing!<: body of brood arranged at the start with the youngest brood at the outside ( ). See that the entrance of the harvesting colony is ample for the large number of flyers and that \'entilation is adequate generally, and above all, see that supers are added in advance of requirements (aj Let there be a hi"e J (Fig. 35) ready to receive flying bees and a hive or hives, Band C, already brought near to it, to give bees, and furthermore remote hives D and E to be used also. Band C are removed to new locations and 2 days later D and E are moved a little nearer. D and E are moved progressively (802) until close up and the next day removed to new locations. In this way, if desired, A may receive the Bying bees of live hives (b) A pair of hives are worked thus. Hive B (Fig. 36) is lirst moved backwards 2 or 3 feet. A day or two later il is moved

391 MANIPULATIONS-PART II ~~b4j~~ ffil W t14j mwffi ~ FIG. 3S.-ADDINC FLYING BEES TO A STOCK-MULTtPLE HIVES. across to position B' on the other side of, and still behind,,1. This ensures the transfer of all flying bees to /I. Ten days or a fortnight later, the hive at B'is returned to B on the back line. It may be moved this way repeatedly while there is any flow, keeping A charged Positions B & B' are $omewluu belwuia Fro. 36.-ADDING FLYING BEES TO A STOC -PAIR all' HIVES. with a large majority of flying bees, but see that B does not become short of food by giving an occasional comb, of a SUpef to it from A,

392 MANIPULATIONS GIVING INCREASE 363 as may be convenient. Tht bees in B will also requirl~ water, or thin svrup, if brood production is not to be chc'ckcd. ""hen required Manipulations giving Inrrwur A moderate increasl' is required: (a) 'ro make up for occasional winter los... "es; (b) 'f'o rnake up fix losses through di.. cas( ; (c) If with growing experience., rhe owner feels.thlc to halldk- a few more hi\ cs. Rapid increase is required: (d) vvhen, ~tartinf!: with a few stocb, tht' bt.'ekecpcr is fi:ad}' to launch out on a much lart!cr scale; (e) \Vhm, the apiary being as large ;l> the' Jistric t wilj support, it is desired to start an (Jut apiary- (f),\vhcn bel.'s are bred fi)f ::.alc. }\'afuraj v. Artijitiallncreasr Increase by uncontrolled swarming frequelltly prevents the taking of large crops even if alj swarms arc t.:aught anj hin:d (1175-6). The modern beekeeper has swarming and increasc' uncler control to serve his ends. Increase hy natural swarming hinders the development of a (so-gllled) non-swarming strain (St'C also ). Giving Queens v. Queen Cells Whichever course is pursued,,, fc,, nce should be made to the section on Queen raising, panicujarly to "'l'arcntagc" (169-76), "Re-qucening" (68-73) and "Queen Introduction" (74--92) Increase always involv(s establi,hment of a new colony by the provision of both bees and a queen. If a fertile queen can be given, the bees are engaged at once in tending her and raising brood. If a ripe queen cell is given, there must be an inter\'al of probably 10 days or more before eggs are laid, whereas if the bec.,; arc left to raise a queen from the egg or young larva:, the delay will amount to 18 days or more Such a delay or check on brood raising is a serious matter if it extends to within 5 or 6 weeks of a good flow, as it then represents a serious loss of harvesters during the harvest f, however, tbe check operates to hinder the production of harvesters during a dull period (1175--{,), it can prove a source of positive economy. The check may also be utilized to hinder swarming if suitably timed (1505-7).

393 MANIPULATIONS-PART " Any manipulation that involves the ralslog of queens in any but very strong and prosperous colonies is bad. Fading for Increase In securing the rapid development of a small colony, indeed, in some instances, to secure any dc\tlopment at all, it is necessary to feed liberally and especially so if there is not an abunoanc(" of harvesters present and a honey flow on Now a colony we]] supplied with incoming stores, and having a fertile queen is one well fitted for the economical production of comb. Do not give foundation, however, to a queenlcss colony Sugar syrup alone is not a good diet for raising vigorous bees. It should be supplemented with honey if there is no honey Row, and with pol/en a5 well if there are but few harvestas availaoie. Sugar is good for comb-building, however If drawn combs are available, they may be used, but foundation is gencrall.v preferable for the unoccupied frames. A rapidly expanding small colony is not likely to build drone comb. A small colony must be kept warm. A frame feeder is useful to this end, all food being warmed before use (1051-4). Avoidillg Lass of Harvest Either slow or rapid increase may be required. 'Vith either, there must be some loss of harvest. This is practically eliminated with slow increase by choosing a time (1175-6) when brood and a queen or queen cell can be spared. Indeed, increase can be worked in to advantage with methods of hindering swarming (I510-II and 1639) For rapid increase, by choosing the right time, a few stocks may be made to give the entire increase ( ). Methods other than the most economical from the standpoint ofloss of harvest are described, as they may be convenient on oc.casion. Stosonal Differences For success in obtaining increase in the spring, it is necessary to bring stocks to full strength at an early date. Drones must be raised in good time, drone eggs being laid at least 37 day. before the new queens arc to be fertilized. Warm days are required for successful fertilization. Any stock robbed of bees for increase must not be so handled that it cannot reach full strength before the main harvest In localities where there is a long gap between a spring flow and the main flow, increase may be made early, even in the spring.

394 MANIPULATIONS GIVING INCREASE III cold localities where it is impractiqlble to Jividc stocks in the spring, spring increase may be made hy til(' purcha.."it' ofpacbge bet s from a warmer re~i()11 ( ). Ifboug.ht early (i.(. jf ordered early) suth pa(kag(' N t's may secure ~urplus from a latt' spring flow, and may develop without difficulty for all l. arly ~umn).( r flow, or e\'en for early summer divisi()il for a btl" flow, thus giving furthlt incf( <lst. ] 612. Early S'Narms may hc purchased and will give :t goo!} accihhlt of thcl11~dn~, hut will n('cd re-qllt'('l!iug later in the year 'rile summer i:-, thl' m\)st fi\v()ura~lt' timt" ftlr making incrl'a:--t'. Notl' particularly the {)In-;crratiulls in , Yr ('orf(. (t times for hindering Of ~timulatillt! br\)ou rearillt!-. \\rith tilt" ahove ill mind, jncre~bl' fll;l-y be madl' jn summtr wjth kasr 10...,.and tyoubk, especia.lly in the matter of queen raising, and indeed, with the beginner the difficulty is to avoid makiuf; increase If, however, spare qul'cn~ arc raised in the iak summer thev wdl then be available for autumn increase which m.w then h<. made after the business of ~ummcr time of :,ccuring. the tnaximum harvl..:st 15. completed. Autumn increase, however, rcquire~ skilj, good judgnlt'nt and dr:~>t'r att<:l1tion ""umerous manipulations are descrihed helow. Til""" for autumn usc are given last and those for sprint! u~e art' pla.ced first, but strict order cannot be followed. Increase by Robbing Stocli; "'hen a queen or ripe queen cell is a, ailablt, moderate increase may be made by robbing a comb of ad\'ancej brood coh'red with bees from each of severa! hivc's and giving them the ripe queen cell or the queen (74-89). The bees must be well,.ubdued before removal and the combs spaced apart in the new hive (1581) until, say, four or five combs are in, then add if necl"s~ry a cumb of stores, cj()5c up, add spare combs or frames of foundatjon at one :,-ide, guard entrance so that bees note their location (796), pack up warm and feed as required. This procedure secures that there shall be enough bec's to cover all brood in all the hi\'es and there i~ no appreciable extension of the space to be kept warm at night. If there is a strong stock available, well advanced in brood rearing, the new lot may be installed in its place to receive its Hying bees, and the strong stock be removed to a. new location, with its entrance reduced and ample packing at top. This plan has the advantage of tending to equalize stocks When robbing stocks of a frame of bees each, insert a

395 MANIPULATIONS-PART II frame of t()undatioll 011 the outside of the brood nest, thu::. makinf!. good the gap. Spring Di'lriJion Thi~ manipulation is used where the main harvest is late in the year, brood production being forced on the early flow. 'rh<: manipulation is commenced, say 8 weeks before the main Row is due, and it is usual to unite stocks. again after the flow, as there is liot much time left then for them to build up again for wintering. The queell should be prolific. Procedures are given in 1619 and As soon as one body /I (Fig. 3i) is fully filled with brood, FIG. J7.-SPRING DZVISION. it is stood to one side, say on its cover, and a spare body B, filled with sp.<re combs or frames with foundation, is placed on the Roor board. One comb or frame is exchanged for the comb in /I containing the queen. An excluder is placed on B and /I is placed on top after searching for queen cells. Five days later /I is again examined for queen cells which are destroyed, or alternatively, one may be retained.

396 MA"IPULATIONS GIVING INCREASE 367 Fin' Jay~ Jater a:;;lin t11l' bt>jjt-'s.h(:.!i{,()aratt (_l, A lx-jilt; removt'j If1 the t'\'l'lllllg to a flew sta.nd so that H gt. (S the flying bn.-s. A queen or queen cdl i~ cin:n to.. f unl('56 (HIe had bet'1j retained ill it. '- SW".J.rming is dw<.:kcd as A i~ wl'ak in bro()(i ami H ill living; bt"('s. Both stocks arc then allowed to build up for tht, harn."st, and fl'u if ncct.-"ssary to maintain brct.."dil1g. IflcrfdU' with Artificial S'warming Prep.,, a spare hive B (Fig. 38) with frail,,";; of foundation, or somt.' empty combs and some franw~ (for wax building) ;-I,JlO phi..:<.' next to a strong stock A. Insert in the middle of E tht' comb FIG. 38-INo.EASE BY ARTIFICIAL SWAllMI"NC. from A, carrying the queen, exchanging it for an empty comb or frame of foundation. Remon- A to a. new site A' and pbce II where A stood. If done in good flying weather practically all the flying bees in.d will join the old quecn in B. If.d has no 'II/cm ce]js it must be given a queen cell or queen (74--87). Stock A will benefit by a supply of weak syrup as there will be a lack of water-gatherers for a day or two. Making Three Stocks from Two A and C (Fig. 39) are two strong stocks. B is a spare hive of empty combs or framl",; of foundation. Remove say six frames from B and lay aside. Remove then five combs of brood from A, shaking back the bees into A, and place the combs in B. Insert in the empty space in B one of the frames laid aside, and the remaining five to one side of the combs left in.,1. The empty combs or frames should be placed on one or both sides of the brood in both.d or B but not in the middle of it (148). Now remove C to a new location C', and place B where C stood. C then gives

397 MAXIPl:LATIONS-PAR'f II flying becs to H ano A gi\'cs brood, queen cdl or qun:fl. A4ultip/c jltcrfase A or B will require a ri~ \\'hen queens, or ripe queen cells, are a\'ailable, a stock may be broken up into 2-comb nuclei each in a separate hive, each ~uj;plil'j with combs or frames of foundation and well ti:d until able to support itself. 'Take thl: most mature brood first and 10 Jays later take the f(.'maimln, except two combs. 1'hc excess of bel's left in the parent stock will make up for the Jclay in maturing of the youngest brood which is left behind. Flc. 39,-MAKING THREE STOCKS flrom Two. Continued Increase from One Stock If the nuclei above described are assisted hi' the heat of a strong lot, they develop el'en more rapidly, This I~ds to a modiiic.1.tion, now to be described, which embodies a form of artificial swarming, and which may be put into operation in late spring as soon as a stock has brood and bees well filling at least one body Prepare a spare body with frame's of foundation." Exchange two frames of foundation for two frames from the stock containing emerging bees. Place the's<: combs in the middle of the spare body between the frames of foundation and place it upon the stock without any excluder. Co\'er up warmly, feed if necessary and leave for 3 weeks. If then the queen is not already in the up?"r body, place her there and. remove the lower body to a new stand So that the upper body re.:eives alj the il ring bees. The lower body removed will require a queen or queen cell and if the latter giron there will, of course, be considerable delay in building up again. U nk"ss there is a flow on at the time, give weak syrup tl) the removed lot. As soon as the old upper!>ody is full of bees and brood the operation may be repeated, and so on.

398 \!A"IPl'l..\TIO'" GIVI"C INCRF.ASE Alrl'rn;Hin'ly, jf rhe Wf,;lthl'T h.1s turncd W,lm] :l1id qun'n u:lb atl' <lvailahlc, the contents of the lnwcr hod\' may he divid('(.\ intfl lluclt,j and huih up r.:lpidj." a~ in Suc/ri from Stock ~)'uptrseding A :,troll~ ~tol:k ~llpt'rsl'ding irs qu('t'fj may be colw("tliently di\"idcd info sen.'r.d llurlei, (,_';Kh ha\'ilj~ Ollt' {luren I,.'ell anj huilt up ", ill Continuous Produtliotl of Sudei A 5tron_2 stock may he made to gin.' a 2-l'omh llud('us ch'ry 5 da\'~, if fed hetween P.{\W~l thl' comb... n'rno, td heill!! rt plal. ( d b~ foundation. ()11(.',,:omh should hare l'llwr,cing lwl'" and tht' orher brood, less ad\';ukl'l!, so that tht:!:>tock i... Hot too depicted of prospective llur::'l:~ l'he nucleus must rccci\'(: a queen or qu~t'fj ('(,II allli must be fed, preferahly by a frame f(."(,dcr, so that the top 111;l)' lx packed warmly. Add frames of foundation a little in adv;lnct of Tl'<luircrncnb It is better in the la.te :-'UT11Illl'f to u~(' thrct' combs instead of two, thus giving a quicker start and ellablin~ tht.: bees to ljnd their own winter ~t()re'" if there is all autumn flow It is de~irabk to do~(.' the cntran('t' with perforated zinc for 24 hours after forming the )lucku!:>, ~o that it shall not lost: too many flying bees, shading tll(' nucl(.'u~ while c!(*,cd. Coml,ining Increase 'It:ith Quem RaiJ;llg Some incn:a!>c is generally rcquirt,j to make good <lny losses. A few nuclei may be used for queen raisin!!, and when all queens required ha,'c been raised these nuclei may be rapidly built up into stocks If these nuclei have been formed in the first in!->tanc(:' as a check on swarming by removal of brood combs (1508-9) they will be ready in time for dealing with a numh<'r of cells from a qucenraising stock and will still be ready for rapid building up into new stocks, an economical arrangement. Any insufficiently built up may be united with each other or with other stocks weak from any cause. Rapid Autumn Increau A stock may be built up for winter from e,'en one comb in the 6 or 7 weeks preceding the first killing frost if a young queen commencing to lay is available, but it is more usual to commence with two combs of mature brood well covered with bees. These may be on M.B.

399 370!\1AKIPULATIONS-PART 11 hived with two combs of food and a set of empty combs and well fed. 1~hcrc must, of course, bt: pollen available and any late autumn flow is helpful. Stores for winter must be added later To forn' increase from a single comb conservation of ht:at i~ ('ss('ntial) aiid as most of the bees will be required in the hive, a contilluous supply offood must be maintained without fall. Increase can he made, however, with a single comb commencing with an empty comb on either side of the brood comb, a dummy fceder, a di\oision board, warm packing at top and a vcry small entrance, 'l'hl' entrance should be closed with perforat<.,d zinc for 24 hours after making up the nucleus so that Bying: bees will note their new location. jn 3 weeks insert between the combs a frame fijjcd only half-way down with foundation so that the cluster is not broken. Insl rt a'nother similar frame every 5 or 6 days and tlnally two empty comhs, one on either side. The frame feedcr must be kept going all the time preferably with honey and sugar, and stores will be required fof the winter and early spring. Using old Ba, for Autumn increase (a) A week before the end of the main honer!low in late summ(,'f, proceed to make an artificial swarm as in 1620, except that a new queen in a cage must he gi\'cn to thc flying bees, the prerjous queen being removed with the brood, and combs given, not foundatioll. ~rhe old bel's put in sc\'cral days' work at the main harvest and if there is an autumn flow, will build up stores without assistancc (Ii) A plan having the same effect is to prepare a 4-- or 5-comb nucleus of mature brood, place it above an excluder for the rt'~t of the day so that it is well covered with nurse bees and remove it to a new site in the evening, gl,-ing a young queen in cage. This lot will require to be well fed. For this plan the bees left with the original stock will be mostly old bees, and they will need stimulation to raise brood. Nuclei in Cool IVeathff Nuclei must be kept Warm to make rapid progress. There may be considerable loss of hot air under the lugs of division boards. There must be no place which the bees cannot readily seal. Felt can be used under the lugs, but if British metal frame ends are used and the division board is properly made, the frame ends should make a close fit with the top o(the division board and the top surfuces should be Hush allover to receive the quilt The nucleus may be hived over the parent or other

400 \1A]'I;JPetATJO!\:'S FOR. DEALING WITH AC.. \RJNI DISEASE 37 J ~trong stock, }\t'ing plan d over a vt,ntii.at'd supl'r dl'an.'r (871) with ib thwugh ways clos('d, or over ::.ome othn hoard having a douhle ~cr('en anj a special ci1(nlm:t: (842-3), ~rhis allows WArm air to rise from the st()(.:k below, but the top entran(c mu.. t he very small or there will be much los~ of heat. i\ton'o\'('r, (.'Vl'l1 with a Jouhk screen thnc may be antagonism }wtw('('n tht~ qut"t')js. A floor of thill thrt.'l'_ply w(xld, framed, with entrance, would kt throup,h a lot of heat to the.; nucleus withuut l('(tinp: our WMm air :1.t night. \Vht'n the Ilm:lcus has huilt up, ph'cantinn must h( takell on movilll! it, to ;lyoid loss of Ryi11f! h{"t~, unk!)~ it he dt'rilil:d to IN the ojj stocks have them. Tht:}' wid ~OOJ] join the old sto~:k jf not hindered (see 796). Inert'lilt' v.:hm Dcmaruing \Vhen re-queening aftt... r dem'1h.'cinf!, a~ ill H;56-S, ach'r the queell js fcrrjjjz.cd, the bi.'~ and romh~ in the top super nm)' h,," removed to make increase. In this case, ullll~s precautioll is raken (796), the 6ying bees wijl join the sto('k below. Thefe i", 110 nhjt'l: tion to such addition, howe\'{>r, unless the honey How i:. O\'(:f, :::l'nt'ral Manipulations for Dealing with Acarine Distau 1640, I\Iethods of dealing with ac.1.rinc by manipulation, hoth to hinder and tfl cure the disease, require further ~tudy. ~rh('y ~hould be capable of improvement as knowk dgc of the di!'tt';].!.1'[' improres, It is necessary to recognize that worker~, drones alld qut:ell!o> are all liable to attack and can transmit the di~asc. ~rhis is important, because the drone has free entry in strange hi\'c~ and the queen Olt account of her longer life has contact with many young bees. It is important to recognize ajso that the greatest risk of infection occurs at the time the bee emerges and decreas(.'s rapidly from day to day so that only a small percentage arc ever infe(.~tcd evcn after the sixth day, Infestation is almost wholly through contact between a young bee and an older one at the dangerou, period (1716) Any manipulation, therefore, which tends to separate voung bees from old must minimize the risk of a serious attack and may ;ender the disease unimportant, although it will not eradicate it. The Demaree system and its modifications, described in 1648 to 1676, are outsra{,ding examples. Preferred Manipulations The manipulations described below have been modified for, or devised primarily for, dealing with acarine. If ten bees

401 MA-r.;IPULATIONS-PART II ill a random sample of thirty flyll1g bees show infection, destructioll i~ n-,commended, but it should b(: noted that destruction does not imolvc total los~" ~lorc0v('r, flo colony need be allowed to reach this stage if precautions arc taken in time. Destruction of Affected Bees A case for d(.'struction is most lih'ly to occur in the spring. \\'ait until the bees han: practically ceased flying: foj the day so that the di.,casej bet's arc less likely to stray to other hives. Have a flow empty spare combs atht a ~pare b(;dy. '"rransfcr all combs containing:. brood and stor('s to the spare body, first ~haking off all the bcl'~ in the old body, When scn~ral combs have been removed, rcplact: by empty comb~ So as to harbour the bees. \\~h('n all combs an: in the spare body, place quilts over both bodies and immcdiatd) remove the spare body with its contents and place it over a strong: stock. Then close down the old body and allow the bees to settle. A feeder of warm syrup should be placed on the spa.re body so as to create cxcitcmeilt and warmtll in the hive over which it is placed, and plenty of packing should he placeu on top. If there is much brood, half of it might be f!"in'tl to a strong stock midday and the operation finished in the {:Tcning, another strong stock being chosen to reccin: the remainder H'llen tile bees in the old body have settled down, they must be killed by the use of burning sulphur, or as in 325, the entrance being closed. Next morning burn all the dead bodies and let the combs be well aired for 2 days before further use If the hive is not d'ose to others the operation of removing brood and stores may be carried out at midday and the bees destroyed in the evening Such destruction invoh"es immediate loss of nurse bees, but in a badl\, infested stock man\' of the nurses will be infested and a source of iater infestation. T'he queen also is at least suspect. Sahiation by Division This method is applicable in good weather, say, in late spring or early summer where the disease is not so far advanced. An extra queen is required. It involves destruction of the bees after the harvest. There is increased risk of the disease spreading by deferring destruction of the diseased bees and the method is, therefore, more suitable for use with a few hil'es, all treated at once. The biggest risk lies in the drones and it might be worth experimenting with drone excluder at the entrances of the salved portions, the excluder being made with wires running horizontal so as not to impede the pollen bearers. The Boor board at the entrance should

402 :\IANIPlTLATIOSS FOR DEALING \\'11'1-1 ACARINt: PlSEASt: 373 iw leyel and no wire- at the bottom, th(>" floor taking its plan', so that house cleaning will not be impt'dt'j Place a fresh hive beside tl1t' attt'ctl'u colon" and transfer to it all!-.c'alcd brood with the adhenl1l! bel's and shak"e fill' bet's {\ff one more comb, leaving: the qu(ti1 ;uhf young: hrt)oj in tite old hive, which should be tllied up with spaf(~ l'ombs or ttmmiation. Giv(' a new qu('en, O[ at least a ripe quecn <.'(.,11, tn the new (, olony. 'This colony could raise a. good quet.'n if well fcd, from a nlmb p ('g~s, gin-'ll as soon as then' were pk'lt_\' of bc('..;, hut ('(ln~iu{,(j.hl<' Jday would H'sult. ~rhc older and, tht.'rcfon:, (hng('rous bt'l"'i wlll r('turh to the parent hi\'e and tho,,{' in dw TH'W rojolh'.1[(:.,de I~lr, say, 12 lbvs. Anv ~upl'rs ~h()llij remain on the pa~cnt (, Oltlll::. ' In l C til 12 days' time: t[l«!lew nll()li~!.,hould be pllt.,(_ J to tlw othe[ side of anu :--omewh;tt hchind rhe parent ('ninny sn that it~ thine: hel's arl' tran~fi.:rr('d therd(', and at tlh',>.lint.' time all,waled hrood f;om the parent hive, hut without a ~ill~k 1't'l', i':\ c\(liallt!,t'd for empty comhs from the n(~w c:ol(l!l~. 'rhi:- opnatiofl j", rept.':ttl.'d until the end of the: hollcy fluw ui1k~~ serioll" "ympt,j!1l:-, appear in f"w parent cololl~ III either casc, the last.'!u'p i... to tralhfa al} brood and hmw\', clear ()f ail bel:';, to tile new colonr. Tlli", i~ f10t an t'aw ioh and is bcs! carril'd out by tlr:-t trafl~fi:rr'il1t! 'he (_'()mb~ to a ~lh:d under cover. The parent lot i<;. thell d(~troy('d, The dq;ree of infestation in the parent (.olony wifl flot mat(:rially change. The svmptom~ in ifldi\"ioual be~s will ot.'\'dop but may not n:ach the s~rious stage as the bees are hard worked) which sllortens life, Exchallge with Healthy Colony In all infectej apiary the term "healthy" is liable to be a relative one. If there ate twn colonies,. one nominally frec and the other to be treated, they may be dealt with as follows in the spnng:: TrJ.llsfu combs of emerging bet:s from tht bad lnt ill exchange for combs of young brood 'from the good Jot, taking, say, one.. third of the brood from the former and replacing hy a ~maller number of combs with eggs and brood The good colony i, built up strongly and will need watching for queen colis. It may require artificial swarming ( or 1620). The bees in the bad colony arc to be worked out and finally destroyed, transferring all combs to the other lot. Treatment!~v Su.:arming 1654.!VIany young bees leave with a swarm so that infection of both parent stock and swarm may continue, but if an artificial

403 374 MANIPULATIONS-PART II swarm i, made as in 1620 the parent colonv is greatly helped, but the swarm :.-hould he allowed to work itself out, being: destroyed later, the brood and honey being saved as in Experimental Trratmtllf The following, proposed by the author, has yet to be tried out. It is applied to an individual stock suitable for treatment b.\r manipulation and without making increase: Rcrnm'{' half the brood combs, b{. jng. thl' oldc'st seak'u brood and with flo unscakd hrood or cf!f..'s, togl"ther \-\'ith some polk'ri and store!>;, and place ahort' a board, having- a large hole covered with wirt' gauze. First shah' off {'vcry sinf!lc bc(', then place on top of the stock with co"er and packing ovcr to keep warm. 111 J 0 da,\'s' time hees will hare emerged but will not haxe reql1irej to Av and wih han' had acct'ss to food. l~hc:>c will fill he free from in[e;tation. During the perjod no beef> will have emerged in the hrood chamber ~() that no bel' under 10 dars old in the hin' will beinfested and the queen will have been lay{ng flormally maintainirlg the prospectin; ~upply Now set aside the top body with the screen and coycr in a remote situation and place a spare bod" behind the orig.inal stock. Remon' into this hody all brood combs an~i the queen, shaking off all bcl':-> (the queen being temporarily caged). Leave, howc\'er, one comb with eggs only, dt'stroj'ing an"v brood in it, and filling up with spare combs or foundation. Cover the brood, remon' and place on a new stano at the remote ~P()t, then smoke the imprisoned bers kft on the wire SCree!l and lift the body containing them, placing it quickly on top of the becless combs of brood, leaving them to release queen. 'fheir exit will be by the main entrance and they should have been p:ivcn no pn.'violls exit. Drone excluder should be tried as in 1647 abo\-'e, and drones generally should be destroyed as in The old stock will now have no bees under 10 days old, alld many nurse bees deprived of their duty, and no brood. The bees will raise a queen from the eggs left and all cells but one should be destroyed in, say, a week Twenty days-later get the flying and therefore immune bees from the remote stock into a separate body by placing a body of frames and/or foundation with a comb of eggs (eggs only) from that stock on the stand, removing the old body, etc., to yet a third place. Unite this lot of flying bees to the original stock in the evening by the newspaper method, thus maintaining the supply of bees Twenty days later unite the removed lot finally to the original stock under either a new or the old queens as desired,

404 TRANSFERRiNG 375 but dl.'stroy the queen raised in the diseased lot as she may be inf,'ctcd, At this r;mc thert' (.:01n be no infected h< c in thl" old stock ulh.lcr 50 days old or inferr(,d for Jt_" than 40 days as ht'cs from tht' H('W <]Ul'l.:n will be only juo;;r duc' to ctn<~rgt:. It is ronsidl'rcd that ('x('('pt with the lotlg.-lin J. ran's, s,u(h as vif:!(lwu~ old British, flo infl'ctnl bee infcct(.'d for 40 day:. will h<. found alive at 7 wl~t"k~, I ha\'(~ had healthy Italian het."s dit' out defini[ch' and without t'xtt"ptioll at hetwt'en the sc\'cnth and eighth Wt'{'K, in tht: hei~ht ofdw s('a!.on, after thl" /oj.:;t Italian t'g~s wnt' laid in tlh' hive, ~howing ~ weeks' maximum life, bur the abovt' mdhoj all(lw~ fr.l( i weeks. If ncr' colild be sure of the 5 weck:, I limit one could Hot Jispcn~{' with tllt, prt'puatory 1 C' day~' rrt'atmcnt, a~ this is fn!>i.:cuf(' immune llur.. t~ for the Jlext :'.tage Ttl(' weak ~pot lil"~ in illfc.ttinn of thl' n'mnwd bt'{'s by robbers, hut if practi.. ed during a Row, rohhing i" unlikely. The method could be commenced 10 dav~ hefore a main short holley flow and would chtck swarming with;)ljt materially rhecking: the' ~upply of harn",>stcrs. Tranifrrring Genu'al \Vith modern hives with interchangeahle framc.~, stoch of bees are l'asilv moved from hiv(' to hive, but whefe b('(.~ afe ('stab Ii shed on fixed ~ombs, as in ~h:ps and box hi"'l"~, Of in old tr(~es and the r()of~ of buildings, spt:cial steps have to be taken to tran~ft_'r them to modern hive's. Have all preparation.. madc.~ and plans thought out before commencing work, A sharp!ook-out mll,t be kept fot disease. Bees Transferring ThemselwJ from Skep or Box Hive I b62. The simplest method is to let the bees build downwards into the hive body, and is best applied in the spring when the brood nest is expanding Place a hive body, fitted with empty combs, or framc", of foundation, where the skcp or box hive stood, the entrance occupying: as near as may be the position previously occupied by the skep or box. Place a piece of American doth, ot failing this, a piece of thin board, over the top, with a 3-inch ho!e in the middle. Place the skep or box hive on this, dosing up with rag any space at the edges, where the fit may not be good, Cover ovcr with an empty body and a cover, or with some weather-proof materia), and leave alone until the brood nest is extended so that the queen is working

405 MANIPULATIONS-PART II in the combs below. When she is found so occupied, place a piece of excluder over the hole. Three weeks later all the brood in the old skcp or box will have emerged and an cscape board Of super clearer may be substituted for the excluder so as to get all the bees dpwfl bdow. 'l'ltt ~kep or box may then be removed and the comb!:> utilized as dcscrihni in the next section In the case of a box hive it is sometimes practicable to tc'a.t off the top and let the bees transfer themse!vcs upwards. '[hey afc apt to try and build upwards, however. Tran.iferring from Sk,p or Box ':v Driving 'This is the most satisfactory and expeditious method. It is best carric d out in the sprint!, on a warm day, \vhcj] there is not much honey coming in. 'rhl' shade tempc~aturc should be about 60':- F. or more_ FirST subdue the bees with smoke., and thcn invert the hox Of sk('p 011 a secufe foundation. A bucket affords a convcnient support for an inverted skcp. An empty skep or box is now placed oyer this., secured to it on the side remote from the operator and tilted and fixed so as to give an opening of not more thall 8 incher at the front Dri,-ing irofls and staples arc used) the irons being about 9 inches loilf! in the straight part with ends bent at rit!ht angles for l! X 2 inches and sharpened to a point. Skeps are r{'adily secured with thcsc. Boxes take more romrivjng, as they must be secure to withstand what follows. It is useful to tie a cloth round so as to close up and cover the joint at the back so that bees do not climb outside The comes in the inverted hive should run from front to back so that the bees may readily leave and climb where the upper receptacle touches at the back Kow drum steadily on the lower hive with both hands, or with two sticks, one each side, so as to jar the bees, but not too hard. The becs become alarmed for the security of the combs and soon begin to climb upwards, forming a cluster in the upper receptacle. Watch for the queen rising. The operation generally takes I C to 20 minutes Vt'hen all the bees have risen, detach the upper receptacle and place it where the hive js to stand permanently. To ensure that the queen is present a piece of black paper or American cloth may be placed under the hive and examined 10 minutes later for eggs, which the queen will drop. To see the queen go up, watch the dividing line between the hives. She may be caught if desired. If missed, the bees may be driven yet again into a third box, or she may be caught when or after placing in permanent hive.

406 TRANSfl:RRl:':C ~ow procc('d to cut out all the I,_'omh~ and tit them ill lpt~ framt.'~ pro\'ided the\' arc frcc frntn diseast.:. For removal (If combs, kilivcs arc If!>( O. '1 '11(' JTlost useful is one "in! a shorr blade a.t ri/!ht angles to the handle. Tht h.wdle.ss.t's bctw( t>11 the (omb:"; and the short blade cuts tlwjn off rio!oc tr) l' wan of the skep or hox. 'T'he blade:,> may he maj~ of strip iron inch(~ >< 2 inch '< '11:- inch, fixed to a long hanjj(', 1 ~ to 2 itlrllt's of It' end being bent at right anglcs ami the (lobe ~h~r[x'l1t'j To tit the combs in tht fr;tm('~, Ja.y the rmpty frame l)j)'1- at surt~l(;(' on three tapes. Cut the comb with sufficient stra.ight ngth at the top to fit ab:<l.inst the- cross-bar, then tic thl' taiws :<'0 har the\' pass around the frame and comb [rpm top to bottom, 1f hl' 1. 0mb docs not n.':l.ch the hottom the middle tape may ht, 0 pa~:';'l..:d Lh(l\'c the top bar and round the hot tom of p)mh, nmitfillj! tilt' hot~ om bar. Cotton tape is frequently u!-;('tl) hut the f.!.ummcd strip );lpcr u.sed for 5-ccuring parcel..,. j:, mort' com chie1l!. The ht't'~ will ~Of)n SCC\HC tht: combs in the fra-iw.'s and (ut awa:' til(' tapes. or paper. Drone hrood and drone comb should he cut out T'he comh" should be arr:l.ljg(>d in a hiv(, body in dwir l1()rm:ll position, brood at centre, pollen l1e.,:r an,] honey out')idt', ~rhe bc(.>s may PC shaken at the entrallce a~ when hivin,?:' a. 5-warm 'I'he bees may bi.: given an:(:ss within the hive to old picc(:~ {If comb containing holley, dl(' cappinp }winj! hruised. They may be placed in an empty super above a ~\!per dearer with the frce-w:w open, and removed fi1r melting when dearcd of honey. If tllcre is a honey Row, postpone drivin)!, as the bet's may bedrowned in the nectar.shaken out, r nder the:,!": circumstances transfer the flying bees (1590) to a I,iv" rlln for honey and drive when the heavy flow has ceased. Comhination Joffethod The abo"e methods may be combined, the hces being driven and hived on foundation, preferably with one frame with a little brood added from another hi".. The perforated board or cloth is put on with a queen excluder above, and the skcp or box hive placed on top and well packed to keep it warm. Work is commenced at once in the hive and the emergin" bee's will leave the hi,'e abo'" and finally bring down the honey So that the beekeeper has only empty combs to deal with. To secure that the honey is finally removed, there should be a space between the combs above and the board below, and only a small hole, sav I inch or kss, in the board or cloth. Do not attempt to keep the skep or box <-specially warm. Drones above the excluder should be releasee, say, every seven days.

407 MANIPULATIONS-PART II Last of all, the empty combs may be cut out and the best of them secured in frames, but not given at a time drone comb is likely to be built (276--8). " :. Transferring Bees from Roofs, Old Trw, eit If at all possible, first drive out the bees and then get access to and remove the combs, dealing with them as above. To dril'e, it will be necessary to secure an exit at the top as driven bees always go upwards. They may be smoked up from below and vibration employed 8$ well Where driving is not possible it will be necessary to subdue the bees well, then open up the nest and cut out as in a box hive. The difficulties may be considerable and the bees bad-tempered. This is hardly a job for a novice. Receptacles for honey and com" are required and a damp towel for sticky hands A less expeditious but safer method may be used, and must be used in case it is not practicable to obtain access to the combs. Contrive a hive fixed over the entrance so that the bees must pass through the bottom of it, but not so arranged that access cannot be got fairly readily to the original entrance. To get the queen, the bees must be allowed to swarm into this hive, after which the original entrance is covered with excluder so that bees can travel through but queens cannot. Queens hatched within will never leave. The brood will hatch and the bees join the swasm and finally fetch out all honey. Provide ample storage room. '", A modification consists in covering the entrance with a cone escape so that the bees can get out but not in, then place the colltrived hive over the entrance and insert a frame of brood and eggs, and preferably a young queen as well. The colony within will die out, all /lying bees joining the new colony. After all signs of life have ceased within, substitute excluder for the cone escape and let the bees rob the old combs. Provide ample storage room.


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