1 MODAPTS Modular Arrangement of Predetermined Time Standards International MODAPTS Association
2 ISBN Copyright 2000 International MODAPTS Association, Inc. Southern Shores, NC All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form without the written permission from the International MODAPTS Association, Inc. Fourth Edition, Printing Two February 2007
3 PREFACE MODAPTS is an acronym for Modular Arrangement of Predetermined Time Standards. The original data base was introduced in 1966 and was called Concise MODAPTS. A clerical data base was introduced in 1969 called Office MODAPTS. This was followed in 1974 by Transit MODAPTS, a data base for warehouse activities. Today a few of the data elements from these two systems have been integrated in to the original system. MODAPTS provides a fast, consistent method of determining a fair day s work in manufacturing plants, offices, distribution centers and rehabilitation centers. The system is both practical and to the point. It has been tested and thoroughly proved in over 40 countries worldwide. MODAPTS has many outstanding features. Two that distinguish it from other predetermined time systems are: 1. Time values are expressed in units called MODS. A MOD is equal to 129 milliseconds, or minutes. 2. Element data codes are alpha-numeric. The alpha letter is the first letter of the activity described. The numeric character is the time value required to complete the activity. MODAPTS may be used manually, or with the aid of a desktop computer. The advantages of using a computer are in data management. Previous studies can be called up for editing to correct simple changes to the method. Also, previous studies can be used as templates to construct new standards, requiring only a fraction of the time required to develop a completely new study. Mass updates, where used lists and reports are all available with a desktop computer. MODAPTS was developed by Mr. G. Chris Heyde, Heyde Dynamics, Pty. Ltd. 36 Moore Street, Lane Cove, and NSW 2066 Australia. The copyright for MODAPTS was assigned to the International MODAPTS association, in Permission to use the data is granted upon purchase of this official MODAPTS manual. Manuals may be obtained from the administrative offices of IMA: International MODAPTS Association th Avenue Southern Shores, NC /
4 TABLE OF CONTENTS MOVEMENTS 13 Movement vs. Terminal Activities 13 Classifying Movements 14 Light Objects vs. Large Heavy Objects 16 M1 Movement 17 M2 Movement 18 M3 Movement 20 M4 Movement 21 M5 Movement 23 M7 Movement 24 Movement Guides 25 Movement Without Terminal Activities 25
5 2. MOVEMENTS MOVEMENTS 13 Activities carried out by the finger-hand-arm-shoulder-trunk system involve two of the three classes of activities. They are: 1. Movement Class 2. Terminal Class You will find that movement and terminal activities do not occur as single activities. Rather, they take place in pairs. A movement activity is always followed by a terminal activity. For example, MG4G3 (Move to Get) or M4P2 (Move to Put). When writing MODAPTS codes, upper case letters are used. When writing a motion sequence such as shown above, do not use a space or comma between the Move activity and the Get or Put Activity. M3P0 MOVEMENT TERMINAL CLASS CLASS There are two methods an analyst may use to classify movement activities. These are: 1. By the distance moved. 2. By the body part required to perform the move. Earlier predetermined time systems required an analyst to measure the distance involved in each move. In contrast, MODAPTS prefers to classify by the body part required to perform a move. There is, of course, a relationship between the body part required to complete a move and the distance moved. MODAPTS does take distances into consideration. However, the primary focus is on the body part; secondary consideration is given to the distance moved. This approach improves the speed of constructing an analysis. MOVEMENT vs. TERMINAL ACTIVITIES To distinguish between movement and terminal activities, consider sitting at our desk and reaching out to pick up a stapler, carrying it to another location and then putting it down. The reaching out part is a movement activity which can be classified by the body part used (fingers, arm, etc.) The picking up is a terminal activity (operation at end of a movement).
6 MODAPTS MANUAL 14 The carrying is a movement activity which again can be classified by the body part required. The putting down is a terminal activity. This example illustrated how movement and terminal activities always occur in pairs! Depending on the layout, the activity might be coded M4G1 M4P2. Note the space between the Move to Get and the Move to Put. All activities are expressed in terms of a given number of MODs. As stated earlier, a MOD is a unit of work, and associated with it is a time value required for the 100% operator to complete the work. These time values may be used for evaluating the complexity of the work, the difficulty of the work and, in some cases, the stress related with the work. In the vast majority of situations the finger, hand, and arm are the body members used to complete work. Shoulder motions, trunk motions and those involving the leg are used less frequently. CLASSIFYING MOVEMENTS The element Move is an action of the finger, hand, arm, shoulder or body trunk. This action is usually to or from specific articles or locations. Three types of Moves are commonly found. These are: 1. Part of the overall action of getting and putting objects to destinations. This is by far the most common. 2. Rapid forward and backward, such as sawing, filing, polishing, erasing and so forth. A special category has been developed for this activity; it is called Use. 3. Circular, such as the use of lathe feed wheels, pencil sharpener handles, and so forth. Again, a special category has been developed for this activity; is it called Crank. Movements using the fingers, hand, arm, shoulder and body trunk may be classified according to the MODs required for the body part used. In an assembly operation, an operator might use his or her fingers hinged at the knuckle, the hand hinged at the wrist, the forearm hinged at the elbow, etc. to complete a specific activity. The number of MOD units involved is dependent on the body part used.
7 MOVEMENTS 15 Movement involving someone s fingers requires fewer MODs than movement involving the hand. Movement involving the hand requires fewer MODs than movement involving the trunk. The following is a classification of finger, hand, arm, shoulder and trunk system. It is determined by the joints or where hinged. Movements from the knuckle are finger movements. Movements from the wrist are hand movements. (The hand or palm must move.) Movements from the elbow are forearm movements (The wrist must move). Movements from the shoulder directly forward, perhaps with body assistance, are full arm movements. (The elbow must move). Movements from the shoulder fully to the left, right or across the body, perhaps with body assistance, are extended arm movements. (The shoulder must move). Movements from the shoulder involving the body trunk are trunk movements. (The upper body must move). The number of MODs associated with the movement of each body part is easy to remember: Finger 1 MOD Hand 2 MODs Forearm 3 MODs Whole arm 4 MODs Extended arm 5 MODs Trunk 7 MODs There is a relationship between the body part required to complete a Move and the distance involved. These are shown below: Finger 1 MOD Avg. distance 1 (25 mm) Hand 2 MODs Avg. distance 2 (50 mm) Forearm 3 MODs Avg. distance 6 (150 mm) Whole arm 4 MODs Avg. distance 12 (300 mm) Extended arm 5 MODs Avg. distance 18 (450 mm) Trunk 7 MODs Avg. distance 30 (750 mm)
8 MODAPTS MANUAL 16 When constructing an analysis, the decision as to which Move value to use is determined by the natural use of the body part required, consistent with the approximate distance of the movement. LIGHT OBJECTS vs. LARGE/HEAVY OBJECTS The original MODAPTS data contained elements for typical manufacturing situations vs. warehouse type operations. In a real sense, the data for handling large/heavy objects will have limited use in most organizations. The data for large/heavy objects was developed for warehouse operations and should be confined to this type of activity. Here, the muscular development of the personnel involved is significantly greater than in other environments. Also, personnel handling large/heavy objects are expected to be standing, and using their hands as hooks or pressure pads. See the Warehouse MODAPTS supplement for this data.
9 MOVEMENTS 17 M1 MOVEMENT MOVES M1 MOVEMENT Finger Move; performed with any finger, a usual distance of 1 (25 mm). Rub your thumb and index finger together. These movements are finger movements, hinged at the knuckle. Place your index finger on your head and scratch it 5 times quickly, but lightly. This activity would call for 9, M1P0 movements, 5 forward, 4 backwards. To summarize, the first classification of movement is M1, Finger Move. The body part required for its performance is one or more fingers, hinged at the knuckle. EXAMPLES OF M1 MOVEMENTS DEPRESSING KEYS M1P0 SQUEEZING TRIGER M1P0 TURN DOWN NUT M1G1M1P0
10 MODAPTS MANUAL 18 M2 MOVEMENT Hand Move; performed with either hand, an average distance of 2 (5 cm). To award an M2 the hand must move. This motion is common when handling small articles. Figure M2 MOVEMENT 2 This movement involves more than just finger movement; it is movement of the hand and fingers hinged at the wrist. The forearm remains stationary. Place your pen on the desk before you. Now grasp it and move it approximately 2 (5 cm) from its original location. Moving the pen this distance requires a 2 MOD movement of the hand, hinged at the wrist. If someone is observed using 2 MOD movements when 1 MOD movement could have been used, then only 1 MOD movement are allowed. Analysts do not necessarily allow for the movement observed. Rather, they allow for the movements which could have been used to successfully complete the task. As a general rule a 2 MOD movement is always used in two unique situations: Following a body move such as Walk or Ben and Rise, when small, light objects are handled. To illustrate, an operator walks five paces to pick up a screwdriver. This activity is coded: 5 x W5, M2G1 Preceding the second terminal activity when two high conscious control activities are completed simultaneously. To illustrate, an operator positions two nuts simultaneously to wheel studs on an automobile, preparing to turn the three threads by hand. The positioning of the nuts is coded: M4P5 M2P5. (More will be presented concerning this later) The rule in both situations is that the arm will partially extend, during the last step if the operator is walking, and during the first high conscious control activity if the operator is performing two difficult positions simultaneously.
11 MOVEMENTS 19 EXAMPLES OF M2 MOVEMENTS Turn Doorknob - M2P0 Turn object over - M2P0 Following a walk - M2G1
12 MODAPTS MANUAL 20 M3 MOVEMENT M3 MOVEMENT Forearm Move; performed with the forearm, an average distance of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). To award an M3, the wrist must travel. This move is very common in compact areas. It is a movement of the fingers, hand and forearm hinged at the elbow. There is no movement, or displacement of the elbow. Rest your right hand on the right hand bottom corner of this page. Now take hold of the right side of this page and turn it over. The movement involved was a 3 MOD movement with the forearm. In turning over the page you may have used a movement which involved movement of the Whole arm, including the elbow. However, if you move this manual about 12 inches (30 centimeters) away from you and rest your elbow on the desk, the page could have been turned over without displacing the elbow. Since the movement could have been accomplished with the forearm, it is a 3 MOD movement. In turning over the page you have used a movement which involved movement of the Whole arm, including the elbow. However, if you move this manual about 12 inches (30 centimeters) away from you and rest your elbow on the desk, the page could have been turned over without displacing the elbow. Since the movement could have been accomplished with the forearm, it is a 3 MOD movement. Take a sheet of paper and place your pencil on it. Draw a freehand line approximately 6 inches (15 centimeters) long. The movement involved in drawing the line was a 3 MOD movement since it involved movement of the forearm. Repeat the previous example, making a line about half an inch (a centimeter) long. This movement is 2 MODs since it required movement of the hand. Repeat again for a line 2 to 3 inches (5 centimeters) long. This is also a 2 MOD movement requiring movement of the hand hinged from the wrist. All the lines could have been drawn using the Whole arm. However, when classifying the movements, the correct class is always the lowest class of movement which could have been used.
13 MOVEMENTS 21 EXAMPLES OF M3 MOVEMENTS Move pencil 6 (25CM) Move dividers 6 (25CM) M4 MOVEMENT Whole arm Move; performed with full arm forward, an average distance of 12 (30 cm). By definition, forward means that the move is inside an imaginary 45 degree cone, the point of which is at the shoulder. M4 ARM MOVEMENT To award an M4, the elbow must be displaced. This is a very common motion. Whole arm, or 4 MOD movements, are commonly found in open or non-compact work areas. It is not difficult to distinguish 4 MOD movements from others, but an understanding is required in two situations: At your seat, elbows at either side, reach directly forward 2 (5 cm) with your right hand. You will observe that your Whole arm moved, hinged at the shoulder. However, since this only a 2 (5 cm) move, the correct code would be M2 a 2 MOD movement. You see, in a typical work situation an operator would find a position allowing this to become a 2 MOD movement. At your seat, elbows at either side, reach directly forward 18 (45 cm) with your right hand. In this situation you will observe that your body leaned forward slightly. This is a 4 MOD movement, not a 5 MOD movement, because body movement occurs at the same time as the arm movement. Said another way, the body movement was internal to the arm movement. Thus, only the Whole arm movement is paid for.
14 MODAPTS MANUAL 22 EXAMPLES OF M4 MOVEMENTS With body assistance - M4P0 Without body assistance M4P0
15 MOVEMENTS 23 M5 MOVEMENT Extended arm Move; performed with the full arm outward, an average distance of 18 (45 cm). By definition, outward means that the move is outside an imaginary 45 degree cone. That is, the motion is fully up, fully down or fully across the body. M5 ARM MOVEMENT To award an M5, the shoulder must move. This move is found in situations where the workplace is poorly laid out. Examples of 5 MOD movements include: Reaching up to an object from a high shelf. Moving an object to a destination across the body. Reaching to control buttons located outside the 45 degree cone. EXAMPLES OF M5 MOVEMENTS TO RIGHT M5P0 TO LEFT M5P0 UPWARD M5P0
16 MODAPTS MANUAL 24 M7 MOVEMENT M7 TRUNK MOVEMENT Trunk Move; performed with the arms and body trunk, an average distance of 30 (75 cm). This move is similar to an M5, except that the distance requires the body trunk to be moved. Again, the motion is fully up, fully down or fully across the body. The M7 Movement is uncommon and awkward; it is expensive in terms of both time and energy. In many situations the 7 MOD movement is stressful to the arms, shoulders and back. Because the body trunk must be moved, the M2 following a walk rule is waived. This is because the body trunk has weight. No operator will begin to lean as he or she walks to a pallet to pick up an object. In this situation a typical motion pattern (for a carton, for instance) would be coded: W5 x 5, M7P0 M2G0 M2P0 M7P0 (In this operation, the hands are used as hooks and fingers must be inserted under the carton before it can be lifted.) Using Warehouse MODAPTS for this operation, the coding would be W5 x5, M7G4 M7P0. (See warehouse supplement) The operator must be allowed time to lean down to the pallet (M7P0 M2G0 M2P0) and time to return to standing (M7P0) Examples include picking objects from a pallet or basket located on the floor. EXAMPLES OF M7 MOVEMENTS M7 MOVEMENT M7 MOVEMENT
17 MOVEMENTS 25 MOVEMENT GUIDES 1. An M1, M2, etc. is not in itself a description of an activity. The M1, M2, etc. must be joined either to a Get or a Put. For example, M1G3, or M2P5. The motion combination is recorded without a comma or a space between the Move and the activity which follows. 2. Long moves forward or outward may require the body to bend slightly. This is called body assistance; it increases the distance of the Move, but not the time awarded to make the Move. This is because the slight body bend is simultaneous with the Move. Thus, an M4 may be awarded for Moves in excess of 12 (30 cm) inside the 45 degree cone because of body assistance. An M5 may be awarded for Moves in excess of 18 (45 cm) outside the 45 degree cone because of body assistance. 3. Always award the lowest possible class of motion. For example, striking a match may be accomplished with a ¼ (6 mm) motion by moving only the fingers. Or, it may be accomplished by moving the hand, keeping the fingers steady. Still again, some people may move the entire forearm, keeping both the fingers and hand steady. Because it can be accomplished using only the fingers, the activity is properly classified as an M1. 4. Another example is a 6 (15 cm) Move straight forward. Here the elbow may be observed to move and the beginning analyst may want to code this as an M4. However, the majority of employees can position themselves such that a 6 (15 cm) Move can be accomplished without moving the elbow. Therefore an M3 is awarded. Only when the elbow must be moved is an M4 awarded. MOVEMENTS WITHOUT TERMINAL ACTIVITIES Sometimes highly repetitive backwards and forwards movements occur in filing, hammering, sawing, rubbing, erasing, wiping, etc. These activities are recognized as movements without a terminal activity. For these repetitive movements, the body part becomes integrated with the tool being used and the normal rules do not apply. In these situations a time value less than the normal value is appropriate. These unusual cases are explained in detail in the category Use. Likewise, the category Crank is a movement without a terminal activity. Crank is also highly repetitive. A full explanation is presented in the next section.
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LAB 5 Blood Collection Purpose The Purpose of this lab is to learn how to collect a sample of blood properly. From this blood sample disease such as anemia, viral infections, iron deficiency, spherocytosis,
SEQUENCE PLAN International Nail Championship 8.30 9.00 a.m. REGISTERATION OF PARTICIPANTS Required documents for registration: Passport and/or identification card Model Attention: Those who are not in
Experiment 11 Identification of Food Colors in Candies Pre-lab Assignment Before coming to lab: Read the lab thoroughly. Answer the pre-lab questions that appear at the end of this lab exercise. Purpose
Stumble-Bot Created by Dano Wall Last updated on 2018-09-06 05:04:06 AM UTC Guide Contents Guide Contents Overview Simply Stumbling We Have the Technology Other Supplies Leg Assembly Front Legs Back Legs
The Wallet By Andrew McCuaig When Elaine arrived at work the first thing she noticed was that Troy had left his wallet on the small shelf next to a half-finished cup of Coke. Troy left his food regularly,
LEARNER S GUIDE SIZING & SETTING TIME Overview Have you ever wondered how to make a watch bracelette smaller? Or how to change the date and time on your watch? This module will deepen your understanding
Application of Avery Dennison Translucent Pressure Sensitive Films to Avery Dennison Approved, Flexible-Faced Signage Material #4.01 (Revision 10) Dated: 12/31/14 1.0 Scope This bulletin gives specific
IJESRT INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES & RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY EFFECTIVE WAY TO ESTIMATE THE STANDARD MINUTE VALUE (SMV) OF A U3 SHIRT BY USING TIME STUDY TECHNIQUE Hanan O.A 1, Seedahmed A.I.
Medical Forensics Notes The Biology of Hair Hair is composed of the protein keratin, which is also the primary component of finger and toe nails. The Biology of Hair Hair is produced from a structure called
ReNu Diamond Microdermabrasion Facial Tool User Manual Table of Contents Read all the instructions outlined in this manual before using Pulsaderm Re-Nu. Table of Contents...3 What is Pulsaderm ReNu?...4