Index. Notes. Amine oxides analysis in shampoos 180, 181 Amino acids analysis reactions

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1 Index Notes 1. 'Cosmetics' as a term is not used in this index except when absolutely necessary. The reader should normally consult more specific terms e.g. deodorants. 2. Individual compounds are only indexed when a particular property, use or effect is described. 3. Apparatus, Associations, Monographs or Legislation are only listed where a specific or novel approach or definition is used. Abrasives in nail preparations 248 in toothpaste 72-3 Acetylethyl tetramethyl tetralin 713 Acid value determination Acids, determination Acne 268, 350 Acnegens 351 Aerosol containers definition 157, 683 development dispenser definition 288 filling 296 formulation examples history ,683-5 operation propellants safety 291 sampling from see also Pressurized dispensers Alcohol, see Ethanol historical derivation 673 Alkanolamldes 33, 177 Alkyl aryl sulfonates 31 Allergies 609, 717, Alpha-olefin sulfonates 31 Alumina (hydrated) 72-3 Aluminium chloride 4,685 Aluminium chlorohydrate deodorant properties 25,518 determination enhanced efficiency 22-3 historical aspects 685 in shaving preparations 267 types 10 Aluminium determination Aluminium sulfate 4 Aluminium zirconium chlorohydrates as antiperspirants 4, 6 deodorant properties 25 nomenclature 11 Aluminium zirconium chlorohydrexglycine 10 Amine oxides analysis in shampoos 180, 181 Amino acids analysis reactions

2 Index 741 in silk powder see also Keratin p-aminobenzoic acid and derivatives Aminonitroanisoles 200 Aminonitrophenols 200 Ammonia 274 Ammonium thioglycollate analysis hair straightening 139 skin irritation 97 see also Permanent waving preparations Amodimethicones 184, 190 Amphoterics, see Surfactants Analytical methods 443 Anionics, see Surfactants Anthranilates 418 Anti-dandruff preparations, see Hair lotions; Hair shampoos Antiperspirants active ingredients aerosols 20-2 axillary odour 5, 517 definition 5 demographic choice 8, 9 effectiveness studies 6-7 evaluation and testing 460-5, forms 12, formulations 9, 12-23,303-4 fragrance 23 history 3-4, marketing 8-9 squeeze sprays and pumps 13, see also Aluminium chlorohydrate; Deodorants; Sweat glands Apocrine sweat glands 5,342,517,520 Arabia and cosmetics and perfumes Aromatherapy ARRID cream 4 ATP bioluminescence 604 Axillary odour, see Antiperspirants Bacteria in axillary odour 517 challenge tests colony count method 597, in cosmetics techniques 580 types and classification Baldness 273 Barrier creams Bases determination Bath cubes and powders 50,54-5 Bath essences 39 Bathochromic shift 423 Bath oils definition 39 dispersible 43-4 floating 41 formulations 40-5 hydrophilic 59 hydrophilic-lipophilic balance 41 preparation solube 44-5 see also Body shampoos; Bubble bath products; Shower products Bath salts formulations and ingredients 51-3 fragrance 53 preparation 53 see also Spa water Bay Rum Bay salt see Sodium chloride Behavioural conditioning 732 Bentonite 103 Benzalkonium chlorides 24,332 Benzophenones Betaines 32, 178 Bismuth oxychloride 229,253 Blushers see Rouge Body gels 61 Body lotions Body scrubs 106 Body shampoos 45-50,354 Body silks Borax see Sodium borate Boric acid 24 Brilliantines 279 Bromates determination Bromo acids see Eosin acids Bubble bath products analysis 471-7

3 742 Index definition 28 foam stabilizers 32-3, 34-5 foaming agents 28-9 formulations 35-8,354 fragrance 34 legislation 34 pearly 33-4 powdered 37-8 product testing 38-9 surfactants 29-32, 34 thickeners 32-4 see also Bath oils; Body shampoos; Shower products Calamine 1-3 Calcium carbonate 58, 73, 112 Calcium pyrophosphate 73 Calcium sulfide 96 Camphor derivatives 418 Candelilla wax 221 Cantharides 274 Capsicum 274 Carbomers 33 Carnauba wax 220 Carrageenan 75 Castor oil in lipstick in nail enamel Cationics, see Surfactants Caustic lye hair straighteners Caustic potash, see Potassium hydroxide Cellulose ethers 33 Ceresine 219 Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide 150 Chemistry, historical aspects 667, 671, China, early cosmetic use Chlorhexidine 83 Chloride determination Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 293 Cinnamates 418, 610 Coal tar colours 590 Cocamide MEA 33 Cocodiethanolamide 33 Cohesograph 503 Comedogenicity Conditioners, see Hair conditioners Consumer Protection Regulations Corn starch 192 Cosmetic pencils 318 Cosmetic products acceleration tests 625 adverse experience reports 559, 621 analytical methods 633 carcinogenicity 611 consumer complaints definition 64, 639 historical medical aspects 654-6, industrial history 672-4, 678, 680 laboratory control legislation 64, 114,562,557-61, ,689 microbial limits 583, 585 microbial stability neurotoxicity 611 prehistoric use preservative efficacy 587, 602-3, 633 preservatives safety evaluation shelf life systemic effects test conditions theatrical 661 see also countries; specific cosmetics Cosmetic Products (Safety) Regulations , 230, 620 Cuticle, see Nails Cyclomethicone 423 Dandruff definition 512 and microorganisms and sebum 513 see also Hair lotions; Hair shampoos Dean and Stark distillation Defoaming 31, 39 Dentifrice see Toothpastes Deodorants bacteriocidal agents 518 definition 4,.24 evaluation

4 Index 743 formulations 24, 25, history 3-4, 24-5, legislation 567 odour suppressors 518 screening products testing 24-5 Deofragrances 24 Deoperspirants 25 Deosprays 24, 303 Depilation creams 92, 96-9 mechanism 97 progressive 100 shaving 92-3 sugaring waxing 92, 93-6 see also Depilatories; Epilation Depilatories chemical composition and requirements 96-9 skin reactions 97, 99 soothing lotions 99 wax composition 93 Dermatitis, see Skin Dermatologists 619 Detergents 2,172-3,352,403 Dibenzoylmethanes 419 Dibutylphthalate 251 Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate 72 Dihydroacetic acid as fungicide 586 Dihydroxyacetone 425 Dimethicone 423 Dimethyl silicone 217 Disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate 81 Disodium Lauroamphodipropionate 31 Disodium phosphate 53 Dueting powder, see Talcum powder Dyes (soluble dyes) ,209-10, 221 Eccrine sweat glands 5,342,524 Egyptians and cosmetics Embalming Emollients 39 Emulsifiers 536,544,547-8 Emulsions definition 534 dye uptake 555 formulations 535-7,673 hydrophilic-lipophilic balance instability London - van der Waals forces manufacture 550 micro- 552 properties 551 rheology sedimentation 538 stabilization , 549 types 535, 554 Eosin acids in lipsticks skin sensitization 225 Epilation 92,93, 100 see also Depilation Erythemogenic wavelength 408 Essential oils, history 663, 670, 676 Ester value determination Ethanol in analytical methods 453,466 in men's fragrances in mouth rinses 86 in range binder 313 in shaving preparations 268 in skin lotions, tonics 359, 366 Eumelanin 196 European Community relevant Legislation cosmetic definition 562 draft 6th Amendment 564, 565 EC Cosmetics Directive 64, 114,562 environmental rules 566 labelling pre-market approval 562 restrictions safety substantiation 565 trade secrecy rules 564 European cosmetics, historical aspects ,658-63,674-5 Evaporimeter 504 Eye fix creams 333 Eye irritation 609, 716

5 744 Index Eyeliners Eye make-up 317,318-19,323-4,327 Eye makeup removers Eye paints Eye pencils 318 Eye shadow formulations powder form types Eye tonics Face masks and packs Face powders colour compact covering power 111 historical aspects 679 ingredients and formulation 110, 111, legislation manufacturing process 125 pearlescent pigments , 126 perfume purpose and function quality control sterilization 113 Facial cleansers Facial scrubs 106 Fatty acids determination Fluoride and fluoridation determination evaluation 529 in toothpaste 72, 79, 87 Foaming agents, see Surfactants Foam stabilizers 32 Formaldehyde 84,251,255 Fragrances abuse 659 early European history early London history Egyptian history environmental modern history 687-8,735,737 psychology of Fragrances, men's formulations market 260 psychology of types Fuller's earth 103 Fungi and fungicides 578,586 Gantrez 81, 83 Gas-bearing electrodynamometer Gelling agents 75 Glycerol determination as humectant 74,86 Glycol distearate 33 Glycol stearate 33 Gram's stain 577 Greeks and cosmetics and perfumes Gum disease 68 Hair bleaching 102 blow drying 156 characteristics chemistry cleaning factors colour restorers 284 effects of water on 142 'flyaway' 148, 180 greasiness evaluation growth 133-4, 262 historical aspects 662, 665, men's preparations natural pigmentation 196-7, 210 permanent set 145-6, physiology 130 properties regreasing 171, removal static electrification 155 straightening 139, structure 130-3, 197 superfluous 91-2 wigs 668-9,675 see also Depilation; Epilation; Hair conditioners; Hair colourants; Hair shampoos; Hair sprays; Keratin; Oxidation dyeing; Permanent waving; Setting lotions Hair colourants

6 Index 745 categories 197 dye classes 199, 200, and hair structure history 197, 199,200,682 legislation 567 men's 285 oxidative/auto-oxidative 210 permanent semi-permanent temporary Hair conditioners analysis evaluation ingredients , 184, men's mousse 152-3,286 rinse Hairdressings, types and formulations 161-3, Hair dyes, see Hair colourants Hair lotions and tonics (men's) anti-dandruff 275-7, conditioning constituents 274 dressings 160-3, emulsions history 273-5, Hair shampoos acid-balanced 180, 191 additives analysis anti-dandruff 184-7, 277, 477, 509, antimicrobial additives 180 classification 171 evaluation foaming 174-5, 180 formulations and ingredients 175-6, history 170 hydrotopes 179 pearlescent effects 179, 190 post-shampoo products 146-7,149 powder 191 requirements soil removal viscosity see also Body shampoo; Hair lotions; Sebum Hair sprays formulations ,301-2 types 156-8, Hair styling mousse 155, 301 Hand lotions Henna 642 Hexachlorophane 24,584-5 Highlighters, see Rouge Hirsutism 91 Human volunteer panels 490-1, 493-6, Humectants 74, 86 Hydrogen peroxide determination Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance 41, 164-5,545-7 Hydroxyapatite 584 Hydroxybenzoates Hydroxyethyl cellulose 75-6 Hydroxypropyl methyicellulose 33 Hypertrichosis, see Hirsutism Hypoallergenic preparations 225,242, 251 Hypsochromic shift 423 Imidazoline derivatives 178 India and cosmetics 647, 652 International Fragrance Association, IFRA 616, , 724 Isopropyllanolate 246 Isopropyl myristate 40, 218 Japanese cosmetic legislation coal tar colours list 570 cosmetic definition eco-logo 571 ingredients 568, labelling 567 manufacturers 568 quasi-drugs 567 safety 569, 570 Jews and cosmetics Kaolin 103, 112 Karl Fischer titration Keratin amino acid analysis 137-8

7 746 Index amino acid types electrical properties peptide linkage physical properties 141-5, 156 Keratinization Kjeldahl distillation 459 Kohl 641,653,673 Lactic acid and derivatives in cuticle remover 247 in shaving products 268 in skin care 377, 610 Lanolin and derivatives 40,221-2,246 Legislation, see European Community; Japan; US; individual items Linear Regression Method Liposomes in skin care Lipsalves, historic 645 Lipstick additives colours and pigments ,238 fragrance 230 historical aspects 679 hypo allergenic 225, 242 ingredients and formulations ,231-6 legislation manufacture 238, microbial contamination 230 pack disintegration 218 peariescent effects 229 quality assurance requirements testing 227-8,236-8 ultraviolet filters 231 waxes Magnesium carbonate 58, 103, 112 Magnesium Laureth Sulfate 46 Magnesium silicate (hydrous) 58, 113 Magnesium stearate 111 Magnesium trisilicate 113 Malodour axillary 5, 342 compounds 5 control 517 see also Deodorants Manicure preparations see Nails Mascara Melanin melanogenesis 408 and ultraviolet radiation see also Skin Men's toiletries see Fragrances; Shaving products Mercaptan reduction Methyl coumarin Methyl-2-hexenoic acid 5 Microbial control, see Bacteria; Moulds; Viruses; Yeasts Microbial Quality Management 574, 583 Microbiological Accelerated Electrical Methods 603 Microbiological challenge tests ,603 Microbiological monitoring Microbiological Rapid Screening Methods Microbiological techniques Mirapol 184 Moisturizers evaluation formulation function 351 and sunscreens 424 Moulds 578,588,589,590 Mousse products 151, 152-3,285-6, 301,431 Mouth rinses anti-cavity 87-8 anti-tartar 88 ingredients and formulations 86-8 legislation 567 requirements 85-6 Mouthwash definition 64 see also Mouth rinses Mucous membrane irritation 609, MUM 4 Myelenisis Nails bleaches 247

8 Index 747 calcium content cuticle removers damage 246 extenders 258 historical aspects 641,677-8 nicotine stain remover 248 protein conditioner 246 structure see also Nail enamel Nail enamel (and polish and laquer) constituents and ingredients 249, evaluation 529 hypoallergenic 251 pearle scent effects plasticizers removers rheology 253 solvents Newcastle Friction Meter Nitrocellulose (nail enamels) 249,251 Nitrogen determination Nitro-p-phenylenediamines 200 Non-volatile matter determination Oatmeal ODO-RO-NO 4 Odour classification Oleyl a1chol Oral health and hygiene 64,67-9 see also Mouth rinses; Teeth; Toothpaste Oxidation dyeing of hair chemistry and processes m-couplers primary intermediates 205 Ozokerite wax 219 Ozone layer Paraffin wax 221 Pearl effects see Eye make-up; Face Powders; Hair shampoo; Lipstick; Nail enamel Pearl from fishscale 229, 253 Perfume consumer acceptance cost evaluation 701-5, inhalation toxicity tests 715 orientation 695 preparation time purchasing safety-in-use suppliers see also Fragrances Perfumery 676, Permanent waving preparations analysis composition 96, 139, history 683 legislation 567 relaxing cream 164 Persia and cosmetics 648 p-phenylene diamine 202-4, 204, 205, 208 Pheomelanins 196 ph measurement Photo-irritants 610, 719 Pigments, preparation see also Face powders; Lipsticks; Rouges Pilocarpine 274 Plaque, see Teeth Polyethylene glycols 74 Polyquaterniums 180-2, 190 Polysorbates 32 Polyvinylpyrrolidones 423 Pomades , 675 Potassium hydroxide cuticle removers 247 Pressurized dispensers airspray system 305 Exxel sysem Pump driven hair-spray 159 see also Aerosols, Mousse products Propellants, see Aerosols Propylene glycol and derivatives 74, 217 1,3-Propylene glycol stearate 179 Propylhydroxybenzoate 230 Pseudofolliculties 262, 268 Pyroctone olamine 185 Pyrophosphates determination 483-4

9 748 Index Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) 613 Quinine 274 Radiation, see Solar radiation; UV radiation Research Institute for Fragrance Materials Inc ,716,724 Resins, see Depilation Risk assessment ( cosmetics) 607-8, Rock salt, see Sodium chloride Romans and cosmetics and perfumes Ross-Miles foaming apparatus 38-9, 174 Rouge cream historical aspects 661,664, 667 liquid binders for compact compact peariescent 312, 315 pigments 308,310-11,313 powder stick testing 315 water-repellent Salicylates 418 Salicylic acid 274 Sampling techniques Saponification value determination Sarcosinates 31 Scanning electron microsopy 499 Sebaceous glands 342,349,350 see also Seborrhoea; Sebum Seborrhoea 186, 277 see also Sebum Sebum and acne 350 and balding 273 composition and properties 171-2, 174,186,349,506-7 and dandruff 513 function healthy and seborrhoeic 186 and shampoo treatments 507 Setting (styling) lotions aerosol mousses formulations and properties testing 144, 156 Shampoo, see Body shampoo; Hair shampoo Shaving products (men's) aerosol 263,265-6,305 after-shave products astringent 268 brushless dry effective shaving historical aspects 641,681 humectants 263 lather creams 263-5,400 post-foaming gel 266, 299 skin irritation 262, 266 soaps 400 see also Fragrances, men's Shower products foaming agents 29, 46 gels 354 ingredients and formulations shampoos 45-50,354 Silicas in face powder 113, 114 Silicones in lipsticks 218 in shampoos 180-1, 184 Silk powder 113 Skin biology body temperature control 343 cohesography 503 dermatitis 346 dermis elasticity measurement 499, epidermis function 336 friction measurement hypodermis 344 irr keratinization Langerhans' cells 341 mechanical properties 496-7,

10 Index melanin 341, 408 morphology permeability photography sensory receptors softness evaluation 502 stratum corneum 338-9,345,503 structure sweat glands and sweating 5,342, types 336, see also Hair; Keratin; Skin care preparations; Skin sensitization; UV radiation Skin care preparations additives cleansing products consumer needs 347 evaluation oily skin cleansers plant extract use 375 soap use 346, toners Skin sensitization and damage and bacteria 574 and cosmetics and depilatories 97, 99 dry skin development 348, 498 and eosin acids 225 lipsticks 225 nail preparations 246 oily skin development 349 and perfume use 712,717 shaving 262,266 solar keratoses 409 stinging 610 surface effects 499 surfactants 345,348 transepiderrnal water loss 347, 504 and ultraviolet radiation 610 Soap analysis definition 393 historical aspects 393-4,653,664-5, 672,677 ingredients and formulations 262, 395, 399, production superfatted 399 testing translucent and transparent see also Shaving products; Skin care Soap/detergent bars Sodium aluminium chlorohydroxy lactate complex 4 Sodium bicarbonate 24,53,518 Sodium borate 53, 673 Sodium carbonate 51-2 Sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose 75 Sodium chloride 52 Sodium cocoamphoacetate 31 Sodium Cocoyl Isethionate 46 Sodium fluoride see Fluoride Sodium Laureth-13 Carboxylate 32 Sodium Laureth Sulfate 29-30,33,35, 46,585 Sodium lauryl sulfate 30, 74 Sodium metaphosphate 73 Sodium perborate 53 Solar radiation 407 see also Sunburn Sorbic acid as fungicide 586 Sorbitan laurate 32 Sorbitol determination in toothpaste and mouth rinses 74, 86 Spa water as bath salts 56-7 Spermaceti Squalene Stannic oxide 249 Stearalkonium bentonite 253 Stearalkonium hectorite 253 Stearic monoethanolamide 179 Strontium acetate 84 Strontium chloride 84 Strontium sulfide 96 Sulfobetaines see Sultaines Sulfosuccinates 30-1, 176 Sulfur 103, 274, 276 Sultaines 32 Sumerians and cosmetics Sunburn after-burn treatment 425-6

11 750 Index causes and measurements Sunburn and sunscreen preparations choice emollients 423 evaluation ,610 history 405-6,686 ingredients and formulations , markets minimum erythemal dose sun protection factors ,416, 530 see also Melanin; Skin sensitization; UV radiation Surfactants amphoteric 31,178-9,348 analysis 471-7, anionic 29-32,175,348 for bath oils 41 cationic 29,31,179,348 and emulsions 536 foaming agents 29 for lipsticks 221 for mouth rinses 87 nonionic 32 for shampoos 176-9, for shaving products 263,265 for toothpaste 73-4 see also Skin sensitization Sweat glands, see Skin Syndet bars Talcum powder in face powder 111, 112, 113 formulations 58-9, ingredients 57-8,113 legislation 567 purity standards 58,113,584 in shampoos 192 Tanning agents 425 Tartar, see Teeth Teeth caries 67-8 gum disease 68 pellicle 68-9 plaque 69 structure 65-6 tartar 69 see also Fluoride; Mouth rinses; Toothpastes Tetrapotassium pyrophosphate 81 Tetrasodium pyrophosphate 81 Thickeners 32 Thioglycollates as hair straighteners Thioglycollic acid determination salts 96 see also individual salts; Permanent waving Thracians and cosmetics 646 Thran Spray Gun 519 Titanium dioxide 111,228-9,420-2 Toning lotions 60-1 Toothpastes analysis anticaries antiplaque 82-4, 529 antitartar 81-2,483 definitions 64, 71 evaluation 529 flavours 76-7 formulations history 69, 678 ingredients 70, 72-7 legislation 567 manufacture 78-9 requirements sensitivity 84-5 sweeteners 76 therapeutic benefits 71 see also Fluoride; individual constituents; Teeth Triclosan 24,83,302 Tripolite 192 Trisodium phosphate 52, 247 Ultraviolet filters see Lipstick Ultraviolet radiation absorbers 699 EC legislation 562 effect on chemicals 610, 722, 723 erythemogenic wavelength 408 measurement

12 Index 751 skin ageing and cancers 530, 712 types (UVA, UVB, UVC) 406-8, Unsaponifiable matter determination Urticarial response 610 US legislation adverse experience reporting 559 cosmetic definition 557 Cosmetic Ingredient Review Program 560 cosmetic labelling manufactures 559 restrictions safety substantiation 560 Viruses 576 Vitamins in skin care Volatile matter determination Volatile organic compound emissions 7 Volumetric analysis Water content determination testing 595 Waxes beeswax 219 hard microcrystalline see also Depilatories; individual waxes; Lipsticks Wigs, see Hair Wool industry 145 Xanthan 75 Yeasts 578,588,589,590 Zinc citrate 83 Zinc oxide 24, 58, 111,420 Zinc phenosulfate 268 Zinc pyridine thiol-n-oxide 277 Zinc pyrithione analysis properties 514 in shampoo 184-6, 509 Zinc ricineolate 518 Zinc stearate 58,111