MEGHALAYA STATE ELECTRICITY BOARD TRAINING MATERIAL FOR LINE STAFF (IN KHASI) INDEX

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "MEGHALAYA STATE ELECTRICITY BOARD TRAINING MATERIAL FOR LINE STAFF (IN KHASI) INDEX"

Transcription

1

2 1

3 MEGHALAYA STATE ELECTRICITY BOARD TRAINING MATERIAL FOR LINE STAFF (IN KHASI) INDEX Lynnong. Subject 1. Introduction Ka jinglamphrang 2 Electricity Distribution Company (Ka Company Pynbiang Electricity-Ki jingtreikam) 3. Duties and Responsibility of linemen (Ki kamram bad ki jingkitkhlieh jong ki linemen) 4. Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana 5. Accelerated Power Development & Reforms Programme. 6. Line Construction (Ka jing shna ia ki Electric line kiba thymmai). 7. Commissioning of Lines (Ka jingsdang pyntrei kam ia ki Line) 8. Earthing 9. Earth Tester and Earth Resistance 10. Transformer 11. Service Connection. 12. Theft of Energy(Ka Jingtuh ne pyndonkam beain ia ka Bor Ding Electric) 13. Neccessity of Power Capacitor and its connection(ka jingdonkam ia ki Power capacitor) 14. Types of Cables. 15. Maintenance (Ka Jingsumar ia ki Cables) 16. Neccessity of Fuse Grading(Ka Jingdonkam ia ka jingbuh kyrdan ia ki fuse) 17. Vigillance And Safety. 18. Fire Fighting Equipment.(Ki Tiar ban pyndonkam haba Pluhding) 19. Annexure 20. Capacitor. 2

4 LYNNONG-1 KA JINGLAMPHRANG Introduction C&D Employees - Nongtrei group C&D Shibun bha ki nongtrei bym dei ki executive ha office sorkar, account wing, technical staff ha ki kam non executives bad ki class IV ha ki company ba ai bor ding la tip ia ki kum ki C&D nongtrei. Ki UDC, LDC, stock verifier, store clerks, typist etc ki dei ki Ministerial staff. Helper (Nongiarap) ki lineman, meter readers ki hap hapoh ki Technical staff, katba ki peon, chokidar, jamadar (Nongsar) ki dei ki class IV nongtrei. National Training Programme naka bynta ki nongtrei group C&D. Ka Plan kaba la tip kyrteng kum ka National training Programme na ka bynta ki nongtrei group C&D ka jingthmu ban pyntbit ia ka rukom trei kam ki nongtrei group C&D kiba trei ha ki company ba ai bor ding kiba la ithuh daka Ministry of Power jong ka sorkar India bad ka REC Ltd ki long kum ki agent ban pyntrei kam. Kane ka program kan neh/hap hapoh ka 11 th (khatwei) plan ba san snem. Kane ha program ka thmu ban ai jinghikai haduh kumba 75,000 kynhun ki nongtrei group C&D da ka jingiashim bynta lang bad kiwei kiwei ki company ba pynmih bor ding. Ka jingai training (hikai) kan iarap ban pynduna ia ka faculty bad ban iarap pisa sha ki Power company bad ban ai jinghikai ha kano kano ka bynta. Ki training (component of training) ban ai ki dei ban long kat kum kine ki kyndon harum. Objective Jingthmu Ithuh lai ne saw tylli ki rukom trei kam hapoh ka group C&D ki nongtrei ki hap hapoh ka company bas am bor ding design bad pynkhreh ki training naka bynta kine ki nongtrei. Dei ban pynkhreh lypa ki tiar ki tar badonkam shwa ban hikai ia ki trainee. Ithuh bad ai bor ia ki bor ding utilities bad ka training kaba biang. Shna ia ka MIS kum ka online portal bad ringdur ia ki report bad pynthymmai kat kum ka por mynta. This compendium is for line staff Kane ka jinglum ka dei naka bynta ki nongtrei line. Kane ka jinglum ka long kaba nyngkong haka rukom ai training hapoh ka National Training Programme na ka bynta ki nongtrei group C&D bad ka program ia ki lineman. Ki don bun ki jingtip kiba donkam haki bynta bapher bapher. Ka rukom trei kam u lineman, jingiada, Earthing (ka current ba lait sharud na ka heater bad kaba rung sha khyndew lymba u Earth wire) ba maramot ia ki lines (sainar iaid bor ding) pyllait naka jingshatuh. Ki tiar ki tar bala shna hapoh ka DRUM (Distribution reform, upgrades & Management Training Program) la shim kum ka nongialam khmat bad sdang ia ki program kham kloi. La add lang shuh shuh ia ka rukom treikam ka Distribution Company bad ka jingkit khlieh u lineman, RGGVY & APDRP etc. Kane ka jingai training dei ban iai bteng (continue) naka por shaka por hapoh ka jylla kiba iadei bad u lineman haka Electrical Distribution sector. 3

5 LYNNONG - 2 KA KOMPANI SAM BORDING - KA RUKOM TREIKAM (Electricity Distribution Company Functions) KA RUKOM SAM BORDING (Distribution System) Ha ka rukom sam bording, don bun ki line kiba pyniaid ia ka bording ha ki voltage bapher kum ki 66KV, 33KV bad pynrit ia ki sha ka 11KV bad 440 volts ban sam ia ka sha ki nongpyndonkam (Consumers). Ia ka rukom sam bording la pynphiah sha artylli ki tnat. 1. Jingsam bording ba ha khmat (Primary distribution): Kane ka dei ka shlem/shalyntem (network) ha ka 11KV ba mih na ki 33/11KV Substation ne 66/11KV Substation 2. Jingsam bording ba hadien (Secondary Distribution): Ka dei ka rukom sam bording ba pyndonkam da ka 440volt ne 220volt ban sam sha ki jaka jong kiba pyndonkam ia ka. Nongpyndonkam ia ka light (Consumer): U dei u ba ioh ia ka bording ba sam da ka Kompani light (Power Co) ha ka dor ba la buh katkum ka rukom bad jingpyndonkam (appropriate tariff). Ha ka voltage ba kumno lah ban sam ia ka bording: 33KV 22KV 11KV 440 Volts Ki Ktien ba pyndonkam man ka por ha ka rukom sam bording (General terms used in Distribution): 1. Current: Ia ka Current la thew/ai jingkhein ha ka Amps. Ka Ampere (Amps) ka dei kaba batai ia ka rukom jingdon ka bor electric ba par ha u sainar. Ka dei kata ka jingpar ka ding (current) haba iaid ka bor (force) hapdeng artylli ki wire ba iaid ryngkat lang khlem da tyngkhuh (parallel). 2. Voltage: Ka dei kaba thew ia ka bor ban pyniaid ia ka current (electric potential). Ka pynlong ia ka bor kynjat da shi Volt (1volt) haba pyniaid ia ka ding electric hapdeng ki sainar artylli bad haba kine ki sainar ki don ka bor pyrshah (resistance ba shi ohm (1 ohm) haba ka current ba shi amp (1 amp) ka par ha u wire ne sainar. Voltage 3. Resistance = Current Ia ka bor pyrshah ban iaid ka Current la thew/shim jingkhein ha ka Ohm (Ω). 4. Kilo Volt Ampere (KVA): Ka dei ka jingmultiply (product) ba ioh haba kheinlang ia ka Kilo Volt bad ka current (Amp) 4

6 5. Kilowatt (KW) Active Power: Ka dei ka bording ba thang biang beit katkum ka jingdonkam (real or active power) Volts x Amp x Power factor Na ka bynta shi phase = (For single phase Power KW) x Volts x Amp x Power factor Na ka bynta ka lai phase = (For three phase Power KW) 1000 Power factor: Ka dei ka ratio hapdeng KW bad KVA. KW Power factor = KVA 6. Kilowatt hour (Kwh): Ka dei ka bording haba thang 1000 watts ha ka shi on ka tiar ba bam bording 1KW ha ka shi kynta, ka mut ka jingbam ne jingthang ia ka kan long 1KW ha bynta ka bording (1unit) 7. Maximum demand: Ka dei ka bording bah eh tam (highest KVA average recorded) ha ka shi bnai. Ia kane la pyndonkam ha ban thew da u trivector meter/digital meter. 4. Transformer Bording (Power transformer): Ha ka 33KV U ioh bording ha ka voltage 33KV bad sa pynrit ia ka sha ka 11KV. Ka bor (Capacity) jong ki Power transformer: 10MVA, 8MVA, 5MVA, 3.15MVA, 1.6MVA 5. Transformer sam bording (Distribution transformer): U ioh bording ha ka voltage 11KV bad pynrit ia ka sha ka 433 Volts. Ka Kompani sam bording Electric (Electricity Distribution Company): 1. Kaei ka kompani sam bording electric: Ka dei ka Kompani ba la don license ban sam bording sha baroh ki jait rukom pyndonkam jong ki nonshim light (various category of consumers) ha ka jaka ba ka don katkum ki dor ba la buh (fixed tariff) da ka Electricity Regulatory Commission bad ka don ka kamram jong ka ban thied bad die ia ka bording (Energy purchased and sold). 2. U ei u ba khlieh (head) ia ka kompani sam bording. Ia kane ka kompani yn khlieh bad pyniaid da u Chairman-Managing Director ryngkat bad lai (3) ngut ne saw (4) ngut ki Directors. 3. Kaei ka bynta (role) jong ka kompani sam bording. Ka Kompani sam bording ka thied ia ka bording na ka Transco/National Grid bad die sha ki nongpyndonkam ia ka light (consumers), ka dei ban ai 5

7 ia ka bording ba biang bha (maintain quality) bad ka jingdon ka light khlem da pynduh ia ka supply (reliable supply) sha ki nongthang light (consumer). 4 Ka rukom pyniaid ia ka kompani sam bording (Administration of Distribution Co) a. Ia kane ka kompani la pynphiah ha ki Zones ban khlieh da ki Chief Engineer Zone. b. Man ka Zone, la pynphiah sha ki Circles ban khlieh da u Superintendent Engineer. c. Ia ki Circles la phiah sha ki Division ban khlieh da u Divisional Engineer/Executive Engineer. d. Hapoh ka Division, yn don ki Sub-Division ba khlieh da u Asst. Executive Engineer/Sub-divisional Engineer. e. Man ki Sub-division, la pynphiah sha ki sections ban peit da u Asst. Engineer/Junior Engineer. Kine ki Section kin don hapoh jong ki kumba ngut ki connections. Ki mat treikam jong ka kompani sam bording. (Functions of Electricity Distribution Company): Thied ia ka bording na Transco/National Grid. Sam ia ka bording sha ki nongpyndonkam/nongthang light (consumers). Buh jingkhein ia ka bording ba thied. Buh jingthoh ia ki jingdon jingem (assets) jong ka kompani. Ka jingdon jong ka 33/11KV substation, 33KV network length, Power transformer capacity, 11KV network, Distribution transformer, LT network, Consumer indexing. Ban plan ban pyniar ia ki substation ha ka jingheh, ki substation thymmai, line bad jingdonkam shuh ki transformer. Ka jingshakri ba biang ia ki nongring bad thang light. Ban jurip ha man kip or (periodical review) ia ki bynta baroh jong ka sam bording (distribution system). 1. Ka jingsepei ka bording ba iaid ha ki line (line loss). 2. Ka jingkitkhia ha ki transformer (Overloaded DT) 3. Ka jingkitkhia ha ki HT lines. 4. Ka jingkitkhia ha ki substations. 5. Ka jinglum ia ka jingmih pisa (Revenue Collection). 6. Ka jingbymbiang kyllem (System defects). 7. Ka jaka ba duna ha ka bor ka voltage (Low voltage pockets). 8. Ka jingthied ia ki tiar line bad kiwei ki tiar. 9. Ka jingshna ia ki substations bad ki lines thymmai. 10. Ban ai ki tiar, meters babha sha ki nongthang light. 11. Ban ai ia ka light ba don jingbiang bym don jingduh sha ki nongthang ia ka. 12. Ban ai training sha ki nongtrei ban kham pynbniah ha ki jingtip bad jingnang jong ki ia ka kam. 6

8 Ki Mat treikam ha ka tnat rit ban sam bording (Functions of Distribution Section): Ka Section ha ka rukom sam bording ka don ka jingbahkhlieh ia kumba ngut ki nongshim/thang light. 1. Mano ba khlieh ia ka: Asst. Engineer/Junior Engineer un khlieh ia ka. 2. Kiei ki mat treikam ha ka section: a. Ban buh jingthoh ia ki jingdon jingem (assets) ha ka section. Kum ki jingjrong jong ki 33KV lines, Ki jingdon jong ki poles, Power transformers, 11KV lines, distribution transformers bad LT lines, meters, kiwei de. b. Ban buh bad pynbiang bha ban don ki map jong ki line 33KV, 11KV, LT bad ki DTs. c. Ka rukom ban da ithuh ia ki nongshim light (consumer indexing). d. Ban buh jingthoh shaphang ki tiar, ki power transformer bad distribution transformer. e. Ka rukom pyniaid bad maramot (O&M) ia 33/11KV substation. f. Ban maramot ia ki lines ne kiwei ki tiar. g. Ki readings, billing bad collections jong man ki meters ha man u bnai. h. Ki reading jong ka bording baheh tam (Peak load average readings) ba tan na u DTRs. i. Ban don ki jaka complaint (fuse call centre). j. Ban don ka rukom pyniaid ia ka jingud ne jingdonkam ki nongshim/thang light (customer care). k. Ban pynlait ia ki connection thymmai. l. Ban leh bad pyndep ia ki kam ba mih thymmai. m. Ban bishar bniah ia ka jingduhnong bad wad bniah ban rad dyngkhong ia ka. Ki khubor lum jingtip (MIS) ban aia sha ki bahalor (higher ups). Ban teh lakam ia ka jingtuh ne jingpyndonkam bakla ia ka light (Arresting pilferage). Ban bynta ia ki kam katkum ka jingbiang sha ki nongtrei (O&M staff). Hikai bad ai jingtip sha ki nongtrei ia ki lad jingiada na ki jingmynsaw (safety precautions). Ban ai jingnang ia ki nongtrei ban tip ia ka jingduhnong (system losses). Ban ai jinghikai sha ki nongshim/thang light (consumers) halor kumno ban tyngkai ia ka rukom thang ia ka light (energy conservation). Ban hikai ia ki nongtrei shaphang ka rukom treikam kaba biang bad bha tam ha ka jingpyniaid bad maramot ia ki tiar baroh (Best practices in O&M of System). Translated by : Mr. Joseph L. Kharmih Area Manager I Shillong Distributuion, MeSEB. 7

9 LYNNONG 3 KI BYNTA BAD KI KAMRAM JONG KI NONTREI KAM LINE (Roles and Responsibility of Line Staff) Ki Nongtrei kam line (Lineman) ki don la ka jong ka bthah/bynta ha ka kam ba la pyn bynshet ha ki bad ai da ka jingthoh da u Enjiniar u ba peit ia ka kam. Hapoh jong u Lineman, kin don ki Jugali/Nongiarap. Nalor ki kam harum, u Lineman un hap ban kit khlieh ia kino kino ki kam ba la pyndep ne leh da u Jugali/Nongiarap: 1. U Lineman u dei ban tip bniah bad don ka jingtip kaba biang ia ki kam ba hapoh jong u, kum ia ki jingjrong jong ki line (HT/LT) bad ki jait Sainar (Conductors), ki jingpynphiah ia ki line, ki jingbun ki distribution transformer bad ki service line ryngkat bad ki connected load ba ia dei ha kum kine baroh. U dei ban khmih bniah ia ki line ha man ki por ba dei. U dei ban shna ia ki dorkhas (report) ha kiei kiei kiba u lap ha jingleit jurip jong u bad ban ai ia ka dorkhas ban tip ki bahalor jong u. 2. Ka dei ka ka kamram jong u Lineman ban peit ba yn ym don kino kino ki dieng kiba ia tyngkhuh ne wit ia ki line bad ba kin biang ka jingkynjang na ka khyndew (Ground clearance) ia baroh ki line ba hap ha ka jingpeit jong u. Lada lap ba don kano kano ka jingthuh ba dei bad ki line, u dei ban pyntip wut wut da ka jingthoh sha ki bahalor jong u. 3. Ha baroh ki bynta jong ki kam ba la bynshet ha u, un hap ban pyndep ia ki. La ki dei ha kaba peit ia ka jingbiang kat kum ki kyndon ba la buh (Technical standards), ne ban bishar bad pyniaid bniah ha ka kam maramot (O&M), wat ha ki kam ban shna/tei (Construction work) ruh. Baroh ki kam kat kum ka jingnang bad jingtip ba u dei ban don ha ka kam, la ha ka kam technical, commercial bad ha ki kam MRT baroh un hap ban pyndep ia ki da ka ba bud ruh ia ki kyndon bad jingbthah ba la aid a ki bahalor jong u. 4. Dei ha kino kino ki kam, la ha kaba Maramot ne ban tei/shna ruh, un hap ban khmih bniah ba kin long kat kum ka jingbiang ba la batai ha u bad ban pyniaid katkum ki kyndon ki ain (IE Rules) bad kiwei kiwei ki kyndon ba la the ia ka Board. 5. Lada la bynshet ha u ban leh kam shift hapoh ki Substation heh (33/11KV), u dei ban bah khlieh ha baroh ki kam, kum ban wanrah kloi ka supply jong ki line ba mih na ka Substation haki por ba don kano kano ka jingthut hadien ba ladep pynbiang bad bishar bniah ia ki. U dei ban peit bad bishar bniah ia ki tiar ne machine (Equipment) baroh bad ban shim ia ki jingthoh (readings) ha man ki por ba biang bad donkam buh jingthoh ha ki log book, ban pynkhreh ia ki dorkhas ba man ka sngi (Daily report), ban jubab ia ki telephone ba wan (Telephone call), ban sumar ia ki battery, bad ban buh jingthoh ia ki tripping jong ki circuit breakers. Baroh ki jingbthah ba dei ha ka jingpyniaid bad maramot (O&M) jong ka substation, bad ruh kumno ban leh lada don kano kano ka jingthut (Breakdown Operation) kat kum ka jingdonkam. Lada don kaei kaei ka jingthut ba kham pher, dei ban ai jingtip kham kloi sha ki bahalor. 6. U Lineman ba dei peit ia ki kam maramot ba man ka sngi (General Maintenance) un hap ban pynbha ia ki tiar ha substation kat kum ka jingdonkam ha ka por ba 8

10 biang (Scheduled time). U dei ban buh ha ka jingthoh (Maintenance register) bad ban ioh ia ka jingpynshisha ban pynskhem na ki bahalor ba dei peit. 7. U hap ban leit jurip ban peit bniah ia ki line kat kum ka por ba la buh bad jingdonkam. U dei ban pynbha ia ki line katkum ka jingbthah jong ki bahalor jong u. (Lada buh ia u lineman ban peit bad pyniaid ia ka kam distribution, ki bynta bad kamram jong u ki long kumne harum): 8. U hap ban bah khlieh ia ka kam maramot jong ki line (LT, HT, EHT) bad ki tiar (Equipments) hapoh ka jingpyniaid jong u kat kum ka jingpynbeit ba la buh. U dei ban phikir ba ka supply ka dei ban biang lynter (Continuity in supply). Lada don ka jingthut ka supply ha ki line palat ia ka shi kynta, u dei ban pyntip sha ki ba halor ba dei peit bad ban wan rah biang ia ka supply ha ka por ba biang. U dei ruh ban pynbha ia ki line bad donkam ban ioh ka jingbit na ki bahalor shwa ban leh ia ka kam. Ka dei ka kamram jong u Lineman ban peit bniah ia ki meter readings, ban leh ia ka bynta kat kum ka jingdonkam ha ka jingot (disconnection) ne jingai (connection) line sha ki service. U dei ban don ka jingtip ba tikna ia baroh ki service ba la shah ot (disconnect) ha ki jaka ba peit ma u, khnang ban ym don ka jingpyndonkam bein ain (unauthorized usage). U dei ban peitngor bad iada ban ym don ka jingtan lait da kaba shu ring tuh (Theft of energy). 9. U dei ban buh bad pynbiang ha ki kot buh jingthoh ia ka ba dei halor ka jingsam bor ding (Distribution). U hap ban peit thuh (review) ia ki meter reading bad phah ia ki sha ki ba halor ban ioh leh ia kaba donkam. Kumba 20 na ka 100 (20%) ki services un hap ban leit jurip (inspect) man u bnai bad ai ka jingthoh (report) halor ka jinglong jong ki seals bad cut out sha ki bahalor. Hapoh 6 bnai u hap ban pyndep ia ka kam hapoh ka bynta jong u. Lada la bynshet ha u ban long kum u kongsan ha ka jingpyniaid (Direct In-Charge), u dei ban pyndep ia kane ka kam hapoh man ki bnai. 10. Ka long ka kamram jong u ban ai jingtip halor ka rukom long jong ki seals ba pyndiat ha ki service katkum ka jingiohi bad jinglap jong u. 11. Hadien ka jingleit jurip ia man ki service baroh, un hap ban ai ka jingthoh halor ka rukom long jong ki connected load, tariff meters bad ki jingpyndait baroh ba dei hapoh ka jing pyniad ne jingpynpeit jong ka board. 12. U hap ban peit ba baroh ki fuse ha ki service ki dei ban long katkum ka jingdonkam ha ki jingheh ne jingrit (grading of fuse) jong ki. U dei ban buh jingthoh ban pynshisha ia baroh ki jingpynbiang ia ki fuse katkum ka jingdonkam ha man la ki service. 13. U dei ban buh bad ai ka kot jingthoh ka ban pynshisha ia ki load ha ka distribution. Ki load ki dei ban iaid ryntih bad long ryngkat ha baroh ki 3 phase (balanced) jong u distribution transfdormer bad ban pynbeit lada kim ryntih (unbalanced). 14. Ha ka ban leh ia ki kam ba kham rit (minor work) kum ban pyniar ia ki line (extension of line), u dei ban pynkhreh ia baroh ki jingjurip (data) ba donkam ban pynkhreh ia ka dorkhas ha ka ba khein ia ki tiar bad ka dor (estimate) katkum ka jingbthah ba la batai da ki bahalor. Lada u long u kongsan ban pyndep ia ka kam, 9

11 u hap ban peit ba ka kam kan iaid beit khlem kat kum ka estimate bad ba kan nym don ka jingtam ne jingduna (deviation) na ka ba la saindur ia ka. U dei ban sumar bha ia ki tiar ba la ai ha u. Hadien ba ladep ia ka kam un hap ban ai jingtip bad jingkhein kat kum ka jingpyndonkam hapoh site (utilization). Haba buh ia u Lineman ban pyniaid ia ki kam jingshna ne jingtei (Construction works), u dei ban leh ia kine ki kamram:- 15. U dei ban leit jurip (Survey) ia ki HT/LT line bad ai ka thup jingtip (Report) sha kiba halor bad ruh lada don kano kano ka jingkylla (variation) na kaba la ai bad dep khein (Original estimate). 16. U dei ban leh ia ki kam ha kaba pyndep ban shna ia ki line ne tei ia ki transformer katkum ki kyndon (Technical Standards). 17. Ka dei ka kamram jong u ban sumar bad buh bha ia ki tiar trei (Tools and Plants) ba la ai sha u ban pyndonkam ha kaba pyndep ia ka kam. 18. U dei ban buh ia ki attendance jong ki nongtrei ba kin tista bad biang ka por, ia kaba u hap ban shim khia bha ban peit ba kan biang man la ka sngi. 19. U dei ban buh ia ka kot jingthoh(register) ban pyni ia ki kam ba u ai man ka sngi (daily allocation of works) bad ruh ia ka jonglong jingman (progess) ha ka ba pyndep ia ka kam ba la ai bad bynshet sha ki nongtrei /Nongiarap jong U. 20. U dei ban pynkhreh ia ki jingdonkam bad jingdep ki kam bad ban ai jingtip sha ki ba halor. 21. Lada bynshet ha u ba peit ia ki kam baleh da ki kontraktor (Contract Works), U dei ban shim khia ban hajir ba ki kam kin iaid ryntih kat kum ka jing donkam (as per standards). U dei ban buh jingkhein (Accounts of materials) ban ai sha u Kontraktor. 22. U dei ban thoh bniah bha ha ka Diary ia ki Kam ba leh man ka sngi bad ban ioh ia ka sakhi (signature) jong ki ba halor. Lait noh lada dei ka kam ba peit hi da kiba halor. 23. Baroh ki kamram ba batai na ka bynta ki line-man, ki long ruh ia kiwei kiwei ki ba peit ia ka kam kum ia ki electrician ba in-charge ha sub-station. 24. ka dei ka kamram jong u ban pyntikna ia ki ain ban iada na ka jingmynsaw (code of Safety rules) jong ki nongtrei ba trei hapoh jong U. Ka kot jingtip jong ki ain dei ban ai sha U. Lada kino kino ki nongtrei ba pynkhein ban leh ia ka jingdonkam bad ban pyndonkam ia ki tiar ba iada na ki jingmynsaw (Use of safety appliances), U dei ban pyntip sha kiba halor, khnang ban lah ban pynbeit bad pynsngewthuh ia U da ka jingtyngeh (Disciplinary action). 25. U dei ban sumar bad buh bha ia ki tiar trei (Tools and Plants) bad ki tiar jingiada (Safety Appliances) ba la ai sha U, bad ban peit ba kin biang. Ki khmat jingbatai ba la ai haneng ki long tang ki symboh ban batai ia ki bynta bad kamram jong ki Line-man/Electrician. Hynrei, nalor kine haneng ruh, U dei ban leh ruh sa kiwei ki kam katkum ka jingdonkam ba dei ha kaba pyndep ia ki kam jong ka Distribution Company ba ki don. 10

12 Ki kamram bad bynta jong u Jugali 1. U Jugali u don la ki jong ki kam hapoh ban pyniaid ia ki kam ba la pynbeit bad ai da ka jingthoh na u Enjiniar. Un don ki nongiarap (helper) hapoh jong u. U dei ban kit khia ia ki kam baroh wat kiba la iarap da u nongiarap jong u. Um dei ban khein sting ia ka kam bad lada don jing khein sting, un hap ban ai jubab halor jong ka. 2. U Jugli u dei ban tip ia ka kam jong u, kum ia ka jingjrong jong ki line (HT/LT) bad ki jait Sainar (Conductors), ka jingpynphiah ia ki line, ki jingbun ki distribution transformer bad ki service line ryngkat bad ki connected load ba ia dei ha kum kine baroh. U dei ban khmih bniah ia ki line ha man ki por ba dei. 3. Ka dei ka ka kamram jong u ban peit ba yn ym don kino kino ki dieng kiba ia tyngkhuh ne wit ia ki line bad ba kin biang ka jingkynjang na ka khyndew (Ground clearance) ia baroh ki line ba hap ha ka jingpeit jong u. Lada lap ba don kano kano ka jingthuh ba dei bad ki line, u dei ban pyntip sha ki bahalor jong u. 4. Donkam ba un peit ba ki transformer kin long biang da ka ba maramot ha man ka por ba la buh bad ban buh jingthoh ia kaba u la dep pynbiang ha ka liang ka jingmaramot ia u transformer bad ban ioh ia ka jingpynshisha da kaba phah sakhi ha ki bahalor. Ki line bad kiwei ki tiar hap ban maramot kat kum ka por ba la buh. 5. U Jugali u dei ban kitkhlieh ia ka jingiaid beit ki line bad ban pynloi ban pynioh light haba don ka jingthut. 6. Ka dei ka kamram jong u Jugali ban shim ia ki meter reading, jingot light (disconnection) bad kiwei ki bynta ba ia dei bad ki meters kum ha ks jingdon ka connected load bad ka rukom khein ia ka bai light (Classification in tariff). U hap ban bah khlieh ia ki kam ba leh u nongiarap hapoh jong u. 7. U Jugali u dei ban ai ka thup jingtip halor ka rukom long jong ki seal katkum ka jingiohi jong u. 8. U dei ban buh bad pyndait da ki fuse ba biang bad ia hap katkum man ki service ba don hapoh ka jingpeit jong u. 9. U donkam ban ai da ki jingthoh halor ka jingleit jurip jong u ia ki service bad ban tip ia ka load ba don, ka tariff, ki meters bad kiwei ki tiar jong ka board ba kin ym don ha ka jingma. 10. U dei ban tip bha ia ka jaka ba peit kam ma u, ki lain ba ring sha ki iing bad jingdon ki load ha man ki service, khnang ba un lah ban lap ia ki jingtan light ba khlem da ioh jingbit (Unauthorised extension). 11. Baroh ki kam ba u shimti bad pyndep man la ka sngi, u hap ban thoh ha ka diary. Donkam ruh ban da ioh ia ka signature jong ki bahalor man ka ar taiew (every forth night). Khlem da ai ia ka diary sha ki bahalor, un ym lah ban ioh ia ka TA Bill. 12. Ia ki jinglap sha site, kum ia ki jingthut bad jingeh, u hap ban ai jingtip sha ki complaint booth khnang ban ioh pynrung ha ka thup jong ka kot thoh. Ym dei ban shu pyntip khlem dab uh ha ka jingthoh, wat lada la batai sha ki bahalor. 13. U Jugali u dei ban buh jingthoh ia ki thup jingtip kum ia ki service line, line, transformer bad kiwei ki tiar. U hap ban don ki map jong ki line, ka ban pyni lut kum ia ka jaka bad rukom long jong ki line. 11

13 14. U hap ban kitkhlieh halor ki meter reading, jingot bad jingai light biang (disconnection and reconnection). U dei ban pyntip sha ki bahalor kum ia ki bynta baym don reading ha consumption. Ki meter bym treikam dei ban dab uh jingthoh haduh ban da kylliang da kiwei. 15. U hap ban kitkhlieh ia ki tiar trei kam ba la ai sha u ha ki por trei kam. Kine ki kamram haneng ki long nalor kiwei de ki ba trei man la ka sngi bad ym lah ban khein sting ia ka kamram ba la bynshet ne kiwei ki kam ba khlem batai ha shwa. 12

14 LYNNONG-4 RAJIV GANDHI GRAMEEN VIDYUTKARAN YOJANA Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyuti Karan Yojana (RGGVY) la pyntreikam ha u bnai iaiong 5 tarik da kaba pyniasnohlang baroh ki schemes kina dang iaid shaphrang. Hapoh kane ka rukom treikam 90% grant (pisa) la ai daka sorkar kmie ka ri bad 10% pat kum ka ram na REC sha ka jylla sorkar REC ka dei ban pyntrei ka (REC Nodal agency) iaki programme. The RGGVY aims at: Ka jingthmu jong ka RGGVY Ban ai bor ding sha baroh ki nongkyndong bad ki nongshongshnong kat kum ki jingpruid line thymmai. Ban pynioh bor ding ha man ki longing ha nongkyndong. Ban pynioh bor ding ia kiba duk kiba hap haka kyrdan longiing BPL (Below Poverty Line) khlem da shim pisa naki. Infrastructure under RGGVY: Ka jingbit jingbiang hapoh RGGVY. U syngkai nongkyndong ban sam bor ding (REDB) da kaba pyndonkam ki 33/11 KV (or 66/11 KV) S/S kiba biang ka capacity in blocks ha kaba kine ki rukom pyndonkam ymdon. Village Electrification Infrastructure (VEI) kaba don ki Distribution Transformer kiba biang ha nongkyndong ne jaka shong. Pynphriang (Decentralised) Distributed Generation (DDG) system ba pyntreikam (based) daka rukom thang light ka juk mynta bad ka bym dei ka juk mynta haba ka grid supply kam don. Implementation Methodology and Conditions under RGGVY: Ka rukom ban pyntrei kam bad ki kyndon hapoh RGGVY. Ban pynkhreh kum ka District based DPR ban pyntrei kam haka Turnkey basis. Ban iashim bynta lang jong ka Central Public sector undertakings jong ka Power ministry. Ban pynshisha bala dep pynbiang iaki line bor ding sha nongkyndong ha bynta ka light ba biang ia ki nongthanglait ban pynduna ia ki jingduhnong (losses) Kan pyniaid ka sorkar ban sam bor ding man ka sngi kumba 6-8 kynta haki bynta ba don ka RGGVY network. Lah ban ai daka Bulk Supply Tariff (BST) na ki bynta ki agent ha kata ka rukom kaba lah ban iaid iew. Lai bynta ki quality khmih thuh naka bynta XI plan scheme. Da kaba pyndonkam da ka web based khmih thuh ban pyniaid ia ki kam shakhmat. Ban pyllait iaki pisa (Fund) bala ia snohktilang na bynta ka jingjop. Da kaba pyndonkam daka bor electronic ban pynpoi iaki pisa sha ki contractor. Jingai jingtip shaphang ka RE plans daka sorkar Meghalaya. RGGVY under XI Plan: RGGVY hapoh XI Plan. Ka jingiaid shakhmat jong ka Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyuti Karan Yojana-scheme jong ki nongkyndong Electricity infrasture bad ki iing ha nonkyndong la sanctioned haka plan ba khatwei XI plan ban poi sha ka thong ban iohlad bad pyndonkam ia ka bor ding sha baroh ki longiing. Ban sam bor ding sha kumba 1.15 lakh ki nongkyndong ki ban ioh bor ding bad ka light connection sha ki 2.34 crore BPL longiing hapoh La mynjur bad pdiang iaka jingmap kaba kot sha 28,000 cr. Hapoh ka XI plan. 13

15 90% ki iarap iaka pisa na bynta baroh kawei ka project bad 10% pat hap ban bei hi naka pla jong ka sorkar Meghalaya. Ka sorkar jylla kan pynshisha iaki REC plans da jaba iamir jingmut lang bad ka ministry of Power bad ban pyntip hapoh hynniew bnai. RE plan kan long kum ka lynti map naka bynta ka jingpynmih bor ding phah bor ding sam bor ding ha ka jylla ban pynjop iaki jingpyntreikam. Na bynta ki project ba kin ioh rung bad ban lait naka jingmap ei iaki scheme, nyngkong eh dei ban ioh ka jingaiti lut jong ka jylla shwa ban sanction project. I. Ka jingbah khlieh jong ka jylla ban ai bor ding 6-8 kynta haki RGGVY network. II. Ban buh daki agent ba kin pyniaid bad sam bor ding ha nongkyndong. Ki lad ki kabu jong ka scheme: Hapoh kane ka scheme ki project lah ban iarap pisa with Capital Subsidy kumne harum. 1. Rural electricity Distribution Backbone (REDB). Ban buh daki 33/11 KV Sub-station bad ki line ha ki blocks. 2. Thaw thymmai iaki line ha nongkyndong. I. Pynmih bor ding ai bor ding ha ki jaka nongkyndong ki bym pat ioh/don bor ding. II. Ai bor ding haki jaka bym pat don bor ding bad ka jaka shong ka dei ban long baka jingbunbriew ka dei ban palat spah (100) III. Pynbiang Distribution Transformer kat kum ka jingdon kam haki nongkyndong ba don bording. 3. Ka bor halor lade ha kaba sam ding, pynmih bor ding (DDG) bad sam. Ka rukom sam bor ding da kumwei naka ba julong mynta, kita ka mut baka bor ding lah ban ioh na ki biomass, biofuel, biogas, hydro kit or geo thermal and solar etc na bynta ki nongkyndong haka ba kin don haka grid. Ka rukom ai pisa kan long 90% naka sorkar jylla bad 10% pat na REC. 4. REDB, VEI and DDG kan pyni lynti iaka jingdonkam ka bor ding haka thung ka tep, lang bad ki irrigation pump set, ki industries kiba rit, khadi & village industries. 5. Rural house hold electrification of below poverty line house hold (nongkyndong kiba don light bad kiba hap hapoh ka longiing BPL) I. Ki longiing BPL yn ai bor ding ei. Ka dor ka ban reimburse (pynioh iaki pisa) ia ka jongai bor ding ia BPL longiing ka long kumba Rs.2200/longiing II. Ki longiing kiba hap shaneng ka BPL ki hap ban siew. III. Lada don ki SC/ST hapdeng ki BPL longiing bad lada ki rung yn sa ai bor ding ei bad laka jong ka register yn buh na bynta jongki. 6. Ka jingmap na bynta ki tiar ki tar na Paras 1,2,3 bad 5 (shaneng) shimlang, dei ban buh hapoh ka 90% jong baroh ka dor jong ka project. Three-Tier Quality Monitoring Mechanism (Lai bynta ka rukon peit ban pyntrei kam) Kine ki lai bynta Quality Control la thoh harum. (a) Ka bynta kaba nyngkong (First tier) Project implementing agency (PIA) kan shim khia na bynta kaba nynkong jong ka Quality Control structure. Nalor kane ka PIA kan pyndonkam daka party kaba lai inspection agency (peit thuh agency), ba baroh ki tiar ki tar yn pyndonkam bad ka rukom treikam kaba biang kat kum ka kyndon bala buh, kan ringdur ha kaba release iaki funds hapoh RGGVY. Kane ka jingpeit kan cover kumba 50% ki nongkyndong ba shu jied kumto bad 10% Pre dispatch inspection of Major materials. (b) Second Tier (ka bynta kaba ar) Rural Electrification corporation kan ioh iaka inspection (jingpeit) iaki kam bala dep daki nongtrei ki bym dei ha madan bad da kaba outsourcing (kum ba bujli nongniah taxi). REC ka lah ban out source sha ki nongtrei bala shongthait jong ka electricity board/state utility /CPSU. 14

16 Baroh ki jingtip kin long bala khmih bniah daka REC lyngba la project treikam. Ia kine shimet la tip kum ka REC quality Monitor. Ki nongkhmih bniah ki dei ban leit khmih bniah laki tiar ba kongsan bad 10% naki nonkyndong yn shim khlem khein iano iano. (c) Third Tier (Naka bynta ka kyndon ba lai) 1. Ka jingpeit ba laitluid yn pyntrei kam daka ministry of Power na bynta ban khein ban diah, ia kine ki briew la khot kum ka National quality monitors. Kine kin shim khia na bynta ka state bad ka roi ka par ha ki kam ki jam ia kine la ai haka liang ki kam ki jam, technical bad ka pisa ka tyngka. Kane ka jingkhein jindiah kan long 1% ha nongkyndong bad maki ruh kin ai ka jingtip shaphang ka quality control mechanism haka district. 2. Ki nongkhmih bniah ki dei ban ai ka jingtip sha ka ministry iaka jingtip jong ka NQMS kan phah da ka NEC sha ka RQM, katkum ka por bala buh. Haka por bala khmih bniah daka RQM lane NQM kam biang, ka agency kaba pyntreikam ka dei ban pyntikna baki contractor ki dei ban pynphai iaki tiar bala pyndonkam daki nongtrei haka por bala buh. Katkum ka jingtip naka NQM, ka REC quality coordinator ka dei ban ioh iaki jingtip iaki kam ba dang sah. Baroh ki kam ki bym biang dei ban peit biang daka RQM lane NQM hadien ba lah ioh iaka jingtip naka REC quality coordinator. Ka REC kan thung da u Executive Director uba dei khmih iaka monitoring system. 3. Ka report kaba sniew iaka rukom treikam haka jylla/district lah ban pynjlan iaka rukom treikam katkum bala buh. 4. Ka REC Quality Coordinator/Third party inspection unit kala aibor ban khmih bniah iaki jingujor, ia kine ki jingujor dei ban khmih bniah hapoh ka 30 sngi. Ka REC kan pynshisha kumne harum:- (i) Ka kyrteng, jaka sah bad kiwei kiwei ki jingdonkam jong ka REC Quality Coordinator/Third party unit, kan ai ka jingpyntip paidbah haka jylla lyngba ki tender notice, website etc. (ii) Baroh ki jingujor ki dei ban ioh jingtip da kaba ai iaki registration number bad ka tarik bala jubab dei ban pyntip. (iii) Iaki jingujor bala ioh lyngba ka Ministry of Power ka REC ka shait phah sha ka REC Quality Coordinator naka bynta ban wad jingtip bad shim action. Lada ka jingioh jingtip naka RQM ka long kaba biang kane yn jubab haka por ba biang. Lada ym ioh jingtip haka por kaba biang ka REC kan thung daka NQM ban iaid shakhmat katkum ka jingioh jingtip naka NQM. (iv) Ka RQC ka dei ban ai jingtip man la u bnai sha ka REC kakum ki format bala buh bad kine ki jingujor yn iakren haka district committee. (v) Ka REc kan buh iaka website naka bynta ka jingujor. 5. The Quality Control mechanism kan hap hapoh ka quality Control Manuel bala pynkhreh daka REC naka bynta ki skim. OTHER FEATURES (KIWEI KIWEI KI BYNTA) Monitoring Committee ka thung daka Ministry of Power hapoh ka jingialam jong u Secretary (Power) jong ka Sorkar India uba lah ban sanctioned iaki project, ban pynthymmai iaka dor jong ki estimate bad ban peit biang iaki scheme da kaba pynilynti naka por sha ka por kumno ban pyntreikam iaki scheme. 15

17 Cost Norms for village electrification are as below:- Ka rukom ai bor ding iaki nongkyndong ka long kumba 90% jong ka grant kamlong applicable naka bynta ka amount of State of local taxes ha kaba hap ban siew da ka trai jylla/state utility. Ia kane yn pynmih daka Monitoring Committee iaki jaka kiba lah khmih bniah kum ka border area bad ki jaka kiba jngai na sor. Cost Norms for village Electrification. 1. Electrification of un-electrified village Cost (Rs.in lakhs) a In normal terrain 13 b In hilly, tribal, desert areas Intensive electrification of already electrified village a In normal terrain 4 In hilly, tribal, desert areas 6 3. Cost of electricity connection to BPL household Franchisees (Agent) Ka rukom treikam haba sam bor ding ha nongkyndong ka dei ban long lyngba ka agent kym ki NGO, Users Association, Panchayat, Panchayat Institution, Co-operative lane ki party shimet. Ki rukom treikam ki agent ka dei ban long kiba paka kamtam haki feeders naki S/S lane Distribution Transformer. Kine ki agent ki dei ban pynduna iaki jingduhnong bad ban ioh shibun ki pisa naka bor ding. Translated by : A. Lyngdoh, AEE,HRDC Umiam, MeSEB. 16

18 LYNNONG-5 ACCELLERATED POWER DEVELOPMENT & REFORMS PROGRAMME Distribution Reforms. Ka bor ban pynkylla la ithuh kum u shabi jong ka jaka/thain ban wanrah iaka jingnangtreikam bad ban pynbha iaka ioh ka kot ka kam bor ding (Power sector). Ka Ministry of Power (Ka sorkar kaba iadei bad ka tnat bor ding) kala shim iaki lad ki lynti ha ki snem bala dep ban wanrah iaka roi ka par/jingpynbah haka lain sam bor ding. 29 tylli ki state kila dep soi iaka jingkular bad ka sorkar ban shim iaki lad ki lynti ban pynkylla iaka jingsam bor ding haka por kaba dei.nalor nangta 21 tylli ki jylla ki lah dep thaw iaka SERCs bad 18 tylli ki state kila dep buh iaka dor. Ki jylla mynta ki la shim khia ban map iaka dor bala buh. Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (APDRP) Ka sorkar India ka lah pynmih iaka scheme kaba ki khot APDRP ha u bnai March 2003, ka lah pynstet ban kylla haka jingsam iaka bor ding. Ki mat ba kongsan ki long kumne harum:- Ban pynduna iaka lut ka sep haka technical bad commercial. Ban wanrah iaka khaii ka pateng kaba kham bha haka liang ka bor ding. Ban pynduna iaka jinglip lait khah khah. Ban pynhun ia u nongthied nongpet. Re-structured APDRP (R-APDRP) Ban pynthymmai iaka APDRP (R-APDRP) ka sorkar India kala tyrwa ban bteng ia ka R-APDRP haka plan XI (Khatwei) ban pynthymmai iaki rukom treikam katkum ka Central Scheme. Ka jingthmu ba kongsan jong ka sorkar India ban pynduna iaka jingduhnong bad ban pyndonkam katkum ka jingstad saian shwa ban shimti ia kino kino ki project bad ban sam iaka bor ding. Programme Coverage:- Ka jingthmu jong ka sorkar India ban pynioh light ia ki jaka ha sor la kumno kumno ki nongshong shnong ki dei ban palat ia ka 30,000 hajar (10 hajar na ka bynta ki jaka ba kyrpang.nalor kine ki don ki jaka ba kham donkam khambun ka bording wat ha nongkyndong ruh,kiba lah ban leh kum ka Ariculture feeder na iing bad na ki karkhana bad kum ha kine ki jaka kiba ka bording ki donkam khambun ka bording 11 kv ne dei ban pyntreikam. Shuh shuh ki jaka kiba dei ha sor ia ki project bal ah dep sanctioned ha ka 10 th plan yn ailad na ka bynta ka 11 th plan hadien ba la pyndep ia project kaba 10 th. Scheme:- Ia kine ki project yn pynbynta haki ar bynta. Ka bynta kaba nyngkong ka kynthup iaki project kaba shna iaki base line data bad IT, Application for Energy Accounting and Auditing and IT base bad Consumer Service Centre. Ka bynta kaba ar ka kynthup iaka regular distribution straightening project. 17

19 Activities to be covered on the each part are as follows:- Ki kam ban pyndep ki long kumne harum:- A) Ka bynta kaba nyngkong ban pynkhreh iaki base line data naka bynta ki jaka kiba hap haki project. Ki nongthied ki dei ban indexing, GIS mapping, Metering of Dist. Transformer & feeders bad ki atomic data logging for all Dist.Transformer & feeder & SCADA/DMS system (Tang ki jaka ki hap haki project kiba ki nongshong shnong ki don palat 4 lakh.ka input ka dei ban long kumba 350 MU ka dei ban don hapoh ka asset mapping of the entire Dist.Network at and below the 11 KV Transformers & include the distribution Transformers & feeders.lt line, poles and Distribution Network Equipment it also include adoption of IT Application for Meter Reading, Billing and collection, energy Accounting and auditing and MIS. Base line data dei ban pynshisha daka agency ba laitluid bala thung na ka ministry of Power. The list of work in only indication. (B) Ka bynta ka ba ar ka jingpynthymmai iaki 11KV line, Transformer & Transformer Centre. Re-conductoring of lines at 11KV level and below. Ka jingphiah iaka load, feeders separation, load balancing,hvds (11KV Aerial Bunched Conductoring haki jaka khlaw. Ka jingpynthymmai iaki electro magnetic energy meter with tamper proof electronics meters, installation of capacitor banks and mobile service centres etc. Ki don ki bynta ha kaba ki sub-tansmission ki tlot dei ban pynkhlain iaka 33KV lane 66KV line. Eligibility Criteria for R-APDRP assistance Ki kyndon kiba dei ka bynta ka R-APDRP, state utility will be required to. 1. Dei ban thung iaka State Electricity Regulatory Commission. 2. Ban jop iaka thong jong ka AT & C loss. Ka jingai bor ding jong ka AT & & ka jingduhnong kam dei ban palat iaka 30%. Ka jingpynduna ka dei ban long 3% haka shi snem. Ka jingai bor dingka jingduhnong ka dei ban long hapoh ka 30% bad ka jingpynduna ka dei ban long 1.5 per year. 3. Ka por kaba biang for incuction of measure for better accountability for all level in the project area. 4. Dei ban ai iaki jingkhein jong ka snem ba lah dep iaka jingduhnong of identified project area as verified by an independent agency bala thung daka Ministry of Power haka 30 th June. Ka agency ba laitluid kan pynshisha ia kata. (a) All input points are identified and metered with downloadable meters for energy inflow accounting in scheme area. (b) Baroh ki feeders kiba leit shabar na S/S dei ban thew (metered) hapoh S/S da u downloadable meters. (c) Ki jaka hapoh ka scheme ki dei ban long kiba lah ker daki sainar pyllun kaba mut daki meters kiba phah shalan bad wallam na bar naka bynta ka jingkhein jingdiah iaka bor ding bad ban pyntikna nalor ba lah mang kyrpang iaka bor ding ba dei sha nongkyndong jong ka jaka ba hap hapoh ka scheme daki sati (ring) ker lada yn dei haka separate feeder. (d) Kitei haneng kin sa ai iaka bor ding kaba wan shapoh bad kumne ki pisa bala lum naka bynta ban khein AT & C jingduhnong. Haka juh ka rukom ban pyniaid shaphrang naka bynta ki lai tylli ki billing cycles bad pynshisha daka agency ba laitluid. Kane ka jingduhnong kan long ka mat ba kongsan naka bynta ban pynkylla ia ka ram ka shah ka grant naka bynta ka Part B Project. 5. Ka jingpynshlur iaki nongtrei ban jop iaka thong kaba long 15% AT & C jingduhnong ha kine ki project. 18

20 Funding Mechanism Pisa na bynta ki machine. 1. Ka sorkar India ka lah ban ai 100% ka ram naka bynta ka A of R-APDRP scheme kaban hap haki project ban shna iaka Base line data bad IT Application na bynta ka jingkhein jingdiah bad ka rukom sam bor ding iaki nongthang lait. 2. Ka sorkar India kan ai 25% (90% iaki jylla ba kyrpang). Ka ram naka bynta ka Part B jong ka R-APDRP scheme ka ban kynthup lang bad iaka Distribution strengthening projects. 3. Baroh ka ram kaba ai daka sorkar India dei ban iaid lyngba ka PFC/REC(FIS) naka bynta ki scheme bala ai ram daki. 4. Ki kam kiba ia bud lang iaka pisa tyngka la ai daka PFC/REC(FIS) katkum ki kyndon ba lah buh. 5. PFC/REC kin long kiba halor duh ban ai iaka pisa. Lada ka don kano kano ka jingpyndonkam kulmar iaka pisa ka commercial loan of PFC/REC kan khate shwa daka Primary Lender. Shwa jong kata kino kino ki nongairam ba ai pisa iaka scheme. Conversion of Gol Loan to Grant:-Ban pynkylla iaka ram jong ka sorkar India sha ka Grant 1. Baroh ka ram jong ka sorkar India (100%) naka bynta ka A jong ki project yn pynkylla sha ka Grant hadien balah shna iaka base line data system haka por ba lah buh bad balah pynshisha daka TPIEA. 2. Haduh 50% (90%) iaki jylla ba kyrpang kiba long ka ram naka bynta ka Part B project yn pynkylla sha ka Grant. Kato ka long naki 5 bynta 15% AT & C jingduhnong haki project balah pynshisha daka PTIEA bad khate khyndiat khyndiat hapoh ka 5 snem. 3. Lada ka jingpyntreikam kam long (failed) 15% AT & C jingduhnong ha kata ka snem bad iaka jingpynkylla iaka ram sha ka grant yn pynhiar lada duna ka jingtreikam 15% AT & C jingduhnong na kaba sdang ka AT & C jingduhnong haka jingkhein. Translated by : A. Lyngdoh, AEE,HRDC Umiam, MeSEB. 19

21 LYNNONG-6 CONSTRUCTION OF LINES (KA JINGSHNA IA KI ELECTRIC LINES) SURVEY Ban pyniaid beit ia ka rukom ring sainar electric kaba bha,baneh bad ba lait na ki jingmynsaw lane jingpynwit ia kiwei pat ki jingtei ne jaka ba dei iaid ki sainar,ki bor ba dei khmih bniah, Ka Rural Electrification Corporation(REC),ka la buh ia ki kyndon bad jingshisha kumne harum:- Ia ki Transformer dei ban pynshong(install) ha ki jaka pdeng (load centre)bad ha ki jaka ba suk ka rah ka rong khnang ba lah ban ioh ia kine ki jinmyntoi 1.Ban ioh ia ka votage ka ba biang 2.Ban ioh ia ki LT line kiba lyngkot 3.Ban suk ban wad ia ki jaka ba sniew haba don jingthut. 4.Ban pynduna ia ka por lip light (interruption period) Ka jingshna ia ki line ka dei ban pynioh ia ka voltage ka ba biang,bad ka jingiapher kan ym palat ia ka 6% tam ne duna na ka 230V ha ka single phase bad 440 V ha ka 3-phase. Ka jingshna ia ki linedei ban peit bniah khamtam haba dei ban iaid lyngba ki wah,lynti rel,telephone line. 1.Dei ban ialeh ban kiar na kaba pyniaid ia ki sainar electric shi lynter narud wah ban lait na ka jingpynjulor ha ka por ba shlei um.lada hap ban pyniaid na shiliang sha shiliang wah,dei ban thung ne pynieng da ki double pole structure(d.p) bad ban pynthikna ia ka jingskhem da ka ba pynbat ruh da ki stay set. 2.Dei ban ialeh ban kiar na kaba pyniaid ia ki line marsyndah bad shilynter ki telephone line ban lait na ka induction lane na ka jingjulor ki tiar ne kor telephone. 3 Lada ym don lad da kumwei pat,ka jingring ia ki sainar electric dei ban pyniaid ha kata ka rukom ba ka lynti electric line kin long ha ka angle ka ba 90 degree ia ka wah ne line telephone. 4.Dei ban kiar na ka ba pyniaid lynba ki lynti rel. 5.Haba survey ban shna ia ki electric line na kawei ka substation ka ba lah ban ia kynduh ruh ia ka line na ka wei pat ka substation,dei ban khein lang ruh ia ka load jong ka line jong katei ka substation kaba ar khnang ba lah ban ai load ia baroh ar tylli ki line haba donkam na ka daw ka jingsniew ne bymlah kit da kawei na ki transformer.ia kane dei ban khein bha ia kine harum;- (i).ka size ki Current Transformer,Breaker ha ki substation,d.o.switch,g.o Switch,LA lada dei 11KV,33 KV 66 KV,132 KV line bad shaneng. 20

22 (ii).ka size ki mainswitch cutout ne jingheh ki fuse lada dei ki LT line. (iii).ka size ki sainar:- Ant,Gnat,Squirrel,Weasel,Rabbit,Racoon,Wolf,Panther bad kumta ter ter. (iv) Ka size ki feeder cables ha ki substation. Haba shna ia ki line kiba haduh 33 KV,kumba la ong sha khmat ka jingjngai na uwei u pole sha uwei pat ka dei ban long ka ba lyngkot ban lait na ka jinghiar palat ki sainar bad ba ka jinglip light ka long ka ba duna.kumba shu kren kyllum,kine harum ki long ki mat ba ngi dei ban khmih bniah. 1. Ban sam bor ding kaba kumno,lt ne 11KV ne 33 KV. 2. Ka load kaba katno KW,KVA dei ban sam. 3. Ki jait cross arm kiba kumno yn pyndait ha ki pole( straight,v,y ne inverted-v) 4. Ki jait pole kiba kumno yn pynieng.(psc,steel Pole) 5. Ki line single circuit ne bun circuit. 6. Ka rukom ban tan ia ki line- Horizontal(pynthiah) ne Vertical(pynieng) 7. Ban tip ruh ia ka bor jong ka lyer(wind pressure) 8. Ka jinghiar ki sainar hapdeng ki pole.(sagging) 9. Ka jingjngai ka lynti ki sainar na ka khyndew(groun to line clearance) 10.Ka jingjngai na uwei u pole sha uwei pat. 11.Ka jingkhein ia ka jinghap ior ha ki jaka khriat. 12.Jaka &Ka rukom ban tan ia ki sainar na pole sha pole.(tension point ne pinpoint) 13.Ki jait guarding kiba kumno yn pyndait. 14.Kumno ban ring sainar lyngba ki jaka rep. KI MAT BA DEI BAN BUD HA KA BA PYNTREI KAM HA BA LA SDANG BAN SHNA IA KI LINE Haba la dep ban shna ia ka Detail Project Report(DPR) ne ka Estimate,la ioh sanction,ka la dei ka por ban sdang noh ia ka kam.ki mat pyniaid kam ki long kumne harum:- A.Ka jingpynieng Pole (Pole Erection)- (i)ban kyntiew ia u/ki pole na madan halor truck:kyntiew bha ia u/ki pole na madan jong ka store halor truck ha kata ka rukom ka ba dei bad ban the skhem bha da u tyllai.bad nangta sa pynpoi sha ka jaka ban pynieng.pynhap suki suki ia u/ki pole najrong truck sha madan da kaba phikir ban ym pynhap kynsan.(khamtam ia ki PSC pole) (ii)buh dak bha ia ka jaka pynieng pole: Tih ia ka thliew ban pynieng kaba ka jingheh ka Long 2 x2 ha ka jing jylliew kaban ia ryngkat 1bynta na ka 6 bynta jong ka jingjrong u pole(u pole uba jrong 7.5 m,ka thliew ka dei ban long 1.25 m ka jing jylliew).ban lait na ka jing hap kynsan ne jing syntuid ha ka thliew ia ka bynta jong u pole ka ban rung ha ka thliew dei ban kyrshan da ki lyngka ba la bad sieh bad ba la pynap bha.ia ka tdong jong u pole dei ban da pyndait Base Plate.Ha ka por ba pynieng,ia ka bynta ba sha khlieh jong u pole dei ban teh 4 tylli ki tyllai(tyllai snepkor/plastic 1 ).dei ban pynieng skhem bad beit thik bad sa thep maw, sorki dewbilat ha baroh sawd 21

23 Ka rukom khleh sorki dewbilat na ka bynta ban pynskhem ia u/ki Pole Ki tiar Jingkhleh Jingkhleh Jingkhleh 1:3:6 1:2:4 1:4:8 1)1x ¼ mawria 100 Cft. 100 Cft. 100 Cft. 2) Shyiap um 50Cft 50Cft 50Cft 3) Dewbilat 13 Bags 20 Bags 10 Bags 4) Ka Um 484 Lit 484 Lit 484 Lit (iii) Haba teh ia ki cross arm ha u pole,dei ban the shkem bha ia ki nut bolt bad haba la thikna ba la skhem dei ban shain noh ia ka bynta jong ki ksai nut ban lait na kaba syntuid ne slip jong u nut (Punch). (iv) Ban lait na ka ba lut ksan nut bolt,dei ban thied da ki nut bolt kiba ka jingheh kin long kiba biang thik bad ka jingtam jong ki haba pyndait kin ym palat ia ka ar ksai na ka ba kut jong u nut. (v) Dei ban pyndonkam da ki spring washer. (vi) Ha ka ba iadei bad ka jingpynieng ia ki rail pole,ia ka bynta ba long madan jong Pole dei ban pynphai sha surok. (vii)ym dei ban pynieng da ki PSC pole kiba la orpait. (viii)ym dei ban lyngngeit palat ia ki pole haba pynieng khamtam ia u PSC pole. Haba connect ia ka line thymmai na ka line rim,ym dei ban connect beit na ki sainar hynrei dei ban shim beit na ki line na u pole. (i) Haba hap ban phiah ia ki line na u pole,dei ban pyniakhlad bha ia ki sainar da kaba pyndait da ki spike. (ii) Ki sainar ba la dkhoi strand ym dei ban pyndonkam. (iii) Dei ban niad rong bha ia ki pole.dei ban niad ha ka por ba rkhiang bad rang ka suinbneng. 22

24 23

25 STAY SET Don katto katne ki jait stay set katkum ki rukom pyndait bapher bapher. 1.Ordinary 5.Fly Stay 2. A Type 6.Strut 3. B Type(Self Stay) 7.Storm Guy 4. Y Stay 1.Ordinary Stay:- Jait stay ba la ju pyndonkam khambun sien bad paidbah. Kine ki jait Stay ki kynthup ia ki ne ki tiar harum:-. Kyrteng ki tiar LT Line HT Line Stay Rod (GI) 15 mm ne 5/6 dia 19 mm dia ne 3/4 Eye Bolt (GI) 12.5 mm (1/2 ) 20 mm (5/6 ) Stay Wire (GI) 7/10 SWG 7/8 SWG Guy Insulator LT HT 2. A Type bad 3. B -Type Ki jait stay ba ju pyndonkam ha ki jaka sor ba khapngiah bad bym don jaka ba kylluid ban Pynskhem ia u stay rod. 4. Y Stay:-Ki jait stay ba ju pynskhem ia ki guarding cross arm.(khamtam ha Single polestructure). 5.Flying Stay:-Ki jait stay ba ju pyndonkam na ka bynta ban pynskhem ia ki pole ba la Pynieng harud surok bad ba hap ban pynskhem da uwei pat u pole na shiliang surok. 6.Strut:-Ki jait stay ba ju kyrshan ia u pole badon harud surok bad, namar bymdon jaka ban buh ia ki fly stayla pyndonkam da u pole hi ba la pynskhem na shaphang surok. 7.Storm guys:-ki jait stay ba ju pyndonkam ha ki pole hapdeng ki line kiba jrong ka jingjngai Ia kine ki stay set dei banteh sha kamon bad sha kadiang u pole ha ka angle kaba 60 degree. STAY BINDING Ka dei ka rukom teh ia u stay wire ha u pole bad ban teh lang bad u pole earthing wire ha u pole bad ban teh lang ruh ia u neutral jong ka line. Donkam ruh ban kynmaw ia kine ki mat harum haba pyndonkam ia ki stay 1.Lada ym ioh insulator ban pyndonkam,dei ban kyllain da u GI wire 8 SWG ia u stay bad u neutral wire jong ka LT line.lada dei ka HT line,ia u stay wire dei ban kyllain lang bad u earthing jong u pole. 2.Ka jaka teh ia u insulator jong u stay wire um dei ban duna na ka 10ft jingjrong na madan 3.Ha ka por ba tan ia u stay wire,ym dei ban tan pyrkhing ne pynkhih ia u khlieh pole. 24

26 4.Lada ym don thimble ban teh,lah ruh ban teh ha ka bynta jong u eyebolt. A.Guarding ka mut ka jingiada GUARDING 1.La ju pyndonkam ia u guarding ban ia da na ka jinghap u sainar electric ha madan ha ka por ba dkut na ki ba bun kid aw. 2.Ia u guarding la shna ha kata ka rukom ba ki sainar guarding dei ban teh pyndait lang bad u earthing Wire khnang ba lada u sainar electric u dkut,un hap halor u guarding wire bad namar ba la pyndait lang bad u earthing,ka current kaba mih na u sainar electric kan par beit sha khyndew bad ki relay ha ki substation kin ai signal bad pyntrip noh ia ka line lane pyndkut noh ia ki fuse.kane ka iada na ki jingmynsaw namar kajinglip noh ka current. 3.Namar kata ka guarding ka long kaba donkam bha ban shna hapoh ki line. 25

27 B.Ki jait Guarding (1) PVC Guarding:-la ju pyndonkam ha ki LT line kiba iaid lyngba ki kper,lyngkha ne kino kino ki jaka rep.ia kine ki jait guarding la pyndait ha kata ka rukom ba ki sainar guarding ki iaid napoh ki line kiba la tan pynieng.ha beh lyer ne haba don jingiatyngkhuh ki kali ha ki pole,ki sainar electric ki padai shane shatai hynrei kin ym ia kynduh bad u sainar guarding.haba ki sainar electric ki dkut,kin hap ha ki GI earthing wire bad pynbam fuse na substation.ia u guarding wire narud la bsuh hapoh ki PVC pipe. (2) Lecing Guarding:- la ju pyndonkam ha ka ba pyndait hapoh ki electric line(lt haduh 33 KV. Don lai jait (a) Carpet Guarding (b) Cradle Guarding bad (c) Box type. (i) Carpet Guarding:-Ia kine ki jaid guarding la thain ha kata ka rukom kaba kynthup ia Ar,Lai,saw,ne san tylli ki sainar na uwei u pole sha uwei pat bad teh pyngkiang da ki sainar GI ha ki jingjngai ba mar iaryngkat kum ka jar. La ju pyndonkam ha ka ba ker ia ki line(haduh 33KV) kiba iaid khamtam na shiliang sha shiliang surok. (ii) Cradle guarding:- Kine ki jaid ki don hynriew tylli ki sainar na u wei u pole sha uwei pat,saw tylli ha ka bynta ba madan bad uwei uwei na ki rud jong ka jar.la khot ruh kum ka Tray guarding ne ka shang.ha kum kine ki jaid guarding lada don jingdkut ki line,u/ki sainar electric kim ju hap sha madan hynrei ki kynther beit hapoh kine ki guarding bad ki breaker ki trip noh tang mar ia kynduh bad u earthing. (iii) Box guarding:- La pynlong ia kine da kaba teh lang ia ki ar ne lai syrtap ki cradle guarding ba la shna Ha ki pole ba don ar ne lai tylli ki line kawei halor kawei pat(composite line,lt ne HT. 26

28 27

29 28

30 29

31 Shaphang ki road crossing guarding a.kat ba lah,dei ban shna ia ki guarding ki ban pynlong ka angle kaba 90 degree bad ki crossing kim dei ban duna na ka 60 degree. b.ka size jong ki GI wire ban thain guarding:- LT lines- 10 SWG, HT lines -8SWG c. Ka jingjngai ki lecing(sainar pyngkiang) : U lecing ba nyngkong jong ka guarding u long 750mm (2 6 ) na ki channel ne cross arm. Ha baroh shi lynter,ki lecing ki dei ban jngai kumba 3.0 m uwei na uwei pat. d. Ka jingjngai u sainar guarding na u sainar electric ka dei ban long kumne harum:- 610 mm (2 ) na ka bynta ki LT line, 1220 (4 ) na ka bynta ki HT line. e. Ka jingjngai jong u LT guarding cross arm na u sainar neutral kan long 610 mm (2 ) bad ka jingheh ka cross arm pat ka dei ban long 750 mm(2 6 ). f. Ka jingjngai jong ki guarding cross arm na ki HT line ki long:- 11 KV line= 650 mm(2 3 ), 22KV= 750 mm(2 6 ), 33 KV = 840 mm( 8 ) g.ym donkam guarding na ka bynta ki line kiba 66 KV bad kiba palat namar ha kine ki line,la connect da ki breaker kiba trip hi lada jia ba dkut sainar. Ki Jingbthah Kiba Kham Kyrpang:- h. Ia ki line electric donkam ban pyndait guarding kumba la batai haneng. i. Ka jingjngai ki sainar guarding bad ki telephone line ki dei ban long 920 mm(3 ). j. Ian ki guarding ha ki crossing naka bynta ki 66 KV line shaneng la ju pyntreikam da ka office telephone. Ka jingjngai ki guarding na kitei ki electric line ki long kumne harum: 66 KV & 132 KV =2750 mm (9 ), 220 KV & 400 KV =4575 mm (15 ) Ki tiar ki tar ba ju pyndonkam ha ki HT & LT lines. Hadien ba la dep pynieng ia ki pole donkam ban pyndait sa ia ki wei pat ki tiar ha ki line ne pole.kine ki jait tiar pyndait ki long ar jait kumne harum:- (a).ki tiar pyndait bad ki sainar (b).ki tiar pyndait ha ki pole. (a)1. Binding Tape:-Kine ki tape la ju kyllain sawdong u conductor bad ia ka bynta ba la dep kyllain la pyndait ha ki shackle ne pin insulator.la ju kyllain ia ki conductor ba la pynbat ha ki insulator bad ka rukom kyllain ka long ar syrtap-shisyrtap u tape la kyllain na kamon sha kadiang bad ka syrtap kaba halor pat la kyllain na kadiang sha kamon.ia ki sainar(conductor) la kyllain sawdong da u binding tape bad dei ban pyntam kumba 25 mm(1 ) ei ei na ka jingjngai kaba ia kynduh bad ki insulator.kine ki dei kiba long lyngkniap kum ki ribbon. (aluminium ne tama) (a)2. Binding Wire:-Kine kidei ki sainar aluminium ne tama ha kaba teh pynskhem ia ki conductor ha ki insulator. 30

32 (a).3. P.G.Clamp (Parallel Groove Clamp):-Kine ki dei ki tiar pynbat ia ki ar jait ki conductor.ka jingshna ia kine ka long da ka aluminium haba pyniadait lang ia ki ar tylli ki aluminium conductor.don pat ki jait ba la shna khleh da ka aluminium bad kiwei pat ki jait nar ha kaba pyniadait lang ia ki aluminium conductor bad ki sainar tama. (a) 4. T-Clamp;Kine ruh ki dei ki jait tiar ba pyniadait ia ki ar tylli ki conductor.ki rukom shna ki long kumjuh kumba shna ia ki PG clamp.la ju pyndonkam kham bunsien ha ki jumper jong ki busbar. (b)1.cross Arm:-La shna dur ia ki cross arm kat kum ka rukom ring ia ki line-pyngkiang,pynieng ne Laidong.Ia ka lynter ne pyngkiang bad ia ka dur la shna katkum ki jingkwah kumne harum (i). Ka jingjngai ki conductor na u pole,conductor na uwei pat u conductor katkum ka voltage. (ii).ka jingkhia u conductor. (iii).ka bor jingtan u conductor (tension). (iv).ka jinghiar u conductor(sag) (b) 2. Channels:- Kine ki dei ki nar kiba ju pyndonkam ha kaba pynshong ia ki transformer,lightening Arrester,D.O fuse units,gang cum D.O,Guarding,Mainswitch ha ki pole. Bunsien ki dei ki C channel. (b).3.stays:-kine ki long ki jait jingpynbat ia ki pole khnang ban iada ia kin a ka jing khun bad noh. (b) 4. Guarding:- Kine kidei kio jait tiar pynbat ha ki pole ban iada na ka jinghap ki line ha ki line ne ki line ha madan ha ba jia jingdkut sainar. (b) 5. Barbed Wire(Sainar shiah):-kine kidei ki tiar pyndait ha ki pole ban iada na ka jing kiew ki briew sha jrong pole.kine ki long kiba donkamban shna ha manla ki pole ha ka bynta ba ha kjat pole. Ka jingpyndonkam ia ki barbed wire ki long kumne harum:- Line Jingjngai na madan Ka jingjngai ka jingkyllain ha u pole Ka sien jingkyllai ha u pole m 305mm H.T.Line 2134 mm(7 ft) 1220 mm(4 ft) 12 L.T.Line 2134 mm(7 ft) 610 mm (2ft) 12 (b) 6.Kine ki dei ki tiar pyndait hamanla ki pole kaba thoh ia ki number jong ki pole.ki dei ki tin ba la niad rong.kane ka jingbuh ia ki plate ki pynsuk ha kaba wad bad tip ia ki jaka sniew ne kino kino ki jingdonkam. (b) 7.Phase Plate:-kine kidei ki jingbuh dak ia ki phase(r,y,b) ha ki jaka ba kut jong ki line na ha ki jaka ba ia kynduh jong kawei ka line na kawei pat. 31

33 (b) 8.Circuit Number:-kane ka rukom buh dak la ju pyndonkam ha kaba buh dak ia ki feeder number ki ba don ar ne lai tylli ki line ha juh u pole.kane ka long kaba donkam eh ban tip thikna ha kano ka feeder dei donkam ban treikam. (b) 9.Danger Board;-Kine ki dei ki jingbuhdak ha ki pole jong ki HT line kumne harum Ki danger board dei ban teh Ha manla ki pole bad ki dei ban pynphai ia ki shs ka liang surok. Ian Ki danger board dei ban pyndait habaroh arliang jongki pole kiba la shna ha ki road crossing, Na shiliang sha shiliang wah,jaka iaid rel,ki HT line bad ba iaid lyngba ki telephone line. Ki jait sainar electric(conductor) bad ki rukom pyndonkam ia ki Ki generation substation ki ju don jngai na ki sor ne nongkyndon kiba long ki ja ka pyndonkam ia ka bor ding.namar kata ia ka bor ding ba la pynmih na ki substation la kit da ki line heh(transmission lines) sha ki ja ka sam bor ding katkum ki voltage bapher bapher.hangne donkam ban shna da ki conductor kiba ia biang bad ka load(jingdonkam bor ding) khnang ban lait na ka jingduh jong ka bor electric(line loss).haba shna ia ki line,kine harum ki long ki kyndon ba dei ban bud:- 1.Ka jingkhlain(capacity) ki conductor ban kit ia ka bor ding(current):-ban jied ia ki jait conductor (Aluminium ne Tama) 2.Ka jingkhlain u conductor(ka bor ba la ban kit ha kaba tan na u pole sha u pole:-haba tan ia u conductor na u pole sha u pole,u dei ban lah ban kit ia ka bor jong ka jingtan(tension),ban ym dkut.namar kata,ka rukom tan sainar ka dei ban long kaba da antad bha khnang ba u conductor ka line ka lah ban neh wat haba jur lyer ruh.ki jait conductor bapher bapher ki long kumne harum:- a. Copper (tama), b. Ki Aluminium, c. Ki All Aluminium bala khleh lang ki jait aluminium(al.alloy). d. Ki Aluminium ba la bsuh da u sainar steel ha pdeng. e. ki steel conductor ne Galvanised Iron(GI) f. Cables- (1) Control Cables, (2) Service Cables (3) Power Cables. Na ki jait conductor baroh,u copper conductor u long uba bha eh namar u long uba khlain ban kit ia kano kano ka bor tan neb or ban ki ia ka current.hynrei,ia une ym lah ban pyndonkam paitbah namar u long uba remdor palat. Ia ki conductor bala shna tang da ki aluminium(stranded) suda la pyndonkam tang ha ki line kiba rit bad ba duna ka load bad ki jingjngai kiba lyngkot(lt line).la khot ia kine,ant ne Rose (Size No.8 ne 6. ACSR conductor:- Ian kine ki jait conductor la pynlong da kaba khum lang ia katto katne ki sainar aluminium kiba rit bad ki sainar steel. Kine ki sainar aluminium ki kit ia ka bor electric(current) bad ki sainar steel pat ki kit ia ka jinhkhia jong u conductor hi baroh shilynter na u pole sha uwei pat u pole.ia kine ki jait conductor la pyndonkam ha kaba pyniaid ia ki electric line kiba ki voltage kiba heh(ehv,ht).ki size jong kine ki long kumne harum: Squirrel, 0.03 Weasel, 0.06 Mint, 0.1 Dog, Wolf Panther, Goat, 0.35 Sheep, Deer, Moose Haba khein ia ka jingsop ia ki sainar,la pyniabynta ha ki ar jait:- 32

34 1.Ki conductor ba khlem sop da ki insulation la khot bare conductor. 2.Ki conductor ba la sop da ka insulation la khot ki cables:-ian kine la phiah shuh shuh ha ki ar jait:- (1) Solid-ba tang uwei u sainar(1-strand) (2) Ba la pynsyndait lang ia bun ki sainar(stranded). La thew ia ka size jongkine ki wire da ka tiar thew ba la khot Standard Wire Gauge (SWG) Ka jingthew ia kine ki conductor:- La rhew ia ki conductor da kaba buh ia ki numbar ha ki ar bynta.ia u number ba ha khmat la buh ban pyni ia ka jingdon jong ki strands(sainar rit) bad u number uba ar pat ban pyni ia ka size kine ki sainar rit..-kum ka nuksa, (A), 7/8 SWG ka mut une u conductor u don 7 tylli ki strands bad ka size jong uwei u strand ka long 8 SWG. (B) 3/0.36 inch wire ka mut ba u conductor u don 3 tylli ki sainar rit(strand) bad ka size jong uwei u sainar ka long 0.36 inch ka diameter. CONDUCTOR JOINTING (Ka rukom pyniadait ne bteng lang ia ki ar tylli ki conductor) Ka jingdonkam.:-1) Ha ka jingshna ia ki line,lada shem ba tang uwei u sainar u lyngkot bad um kot shuh ba tan na uwei u pole sha uwei pat,donkam ban bteng da uwei pat u lungkhot sainar ban pynlong ia ka line. 2) Haba jia ka jingdkut sainar ha ki line,donkam ban bteng da uwei pat uba thymmai ban pynlong biang ia uwei u line. Ki jait rukom bteng:-(1)britania,(2)telephone,(3)merid Joint (4) T Joint,(5)Steel Joint.,(6)Compression Jnt (1) Britania joint:-ia kine ki jait rukom jingbteng la ju pyndonkam ha kaba bteng ia ki solid conductor. Shuwa ban bteng ia ki ar conductor,dei ban pynkhuid bha ia ki bynta ban pyniadait baroh ar tylli da kaba kyrshut da ka siris,sait da ka umkhuid bad um soda. Ka jingjngai I bynta ban pyniadait lang ka long 6. (2) Western Union Joint(Telephone joint):-ia kine ki rukom jingbteng la ju pyndonkam ha ka ba bteng ia ki solid conduvtor kiba kham heh,kata 8 SWG shaneng. Hangne ruh dei ban pynkhuid shuwa ia kit duh jong ki conductor ban bteng bangta sa pyndait lang kumba 100 ne 125 mm.nangta sa khyrwait lang da uwei pat u sainar baroh shilynter.ia ki sainar telephone ruh la pyndonkam da kane kajuh ka rukom. (3) Meried Joint:- ha kane ka rukom bteng la ju pyndonkam ha kaba bteng ia ki stranded conductor tama kiba don sainar GI na pdeng. Kumba 175 mm ka lynter ki tduh jong ki ar tylli ki conductor ba la pynpra ia ki strand,la pynkhuid ia ki strand baroh.nangta ot noh ia u sainar GI 175 mm.bsuh pyrshah ia ki strand jong ki ar tylli ki conductor haduh ba kin iathain bha ha kata ka rukom ba ki strand jong uwei u conductor 33

35 yn kyllain uwei halor jong uwei pat.ia ka bynta ba la bteng baroh shilynter la pyndait da ka soldering.kane ka rukom la pyndonkam ha ki jingjngai kiba lyngkot. (4) T Joint:-Ian kane ka rukom bteng la ju pyndonkam ha kaba bteng ia ki stranded conductor.ymdei ban pyndonkam ha ki line tension hynrei ha kaba the ia ki jumper ha ki substation ne busbar.ia ka lynter kaba 100 mm jong ki steel ba na pdeng la dkhat noh shuwa ban bteng (5) Sleeve Joint:-Ha kane ka rukom bteng ia ki conductor la ju pyndonkam ha kaba bteng ia ki aluminium conductor.ia ki ar tylli ki conductor la pynkhuid bha da ka um caustic soda bad pynrkhiang bha,nangta kyllan da ka graphite grease.bsuh ia ki conductor ha kine ki sleeve (Tyndong lynkniap) bad sa khyrwait lang kumba la pyni ha ka dur. (6) Compression Joint:-Ian kine ki rukom bteng la ju pyndonkam ha ki conductoe heh kiba ka size ki long 0.6 shaneng.hangne la pyndonkam ar tylli ki tyndong (Sleeve),kawei ka aluminium sleeve ban kyllain ia ka bynta u aluminium conductor bad kawei pat ka steel sleeve na ka bynta ka bynta jong u steel Nyngkong eh ia baroh ar tylli ki sleeve la pynkhuid bha bad nangta la buhia u aluminium sleeve haka miej ne madan,ka jingjrong la thew.la shim ia ka buhdak ia ka shiteng jong u al.sleeve. 34

36 Jumpering 1.Ia ki jumper ym dei ban pyndonkam ha kaba teh beit ha u conductoe,hynrei la ju pyndonkam ban bteng para jumper da ki P.G.Clamp. 2.Lada ki jumper ki don hajan ki kynja nar,dei ban sop noh iakine ki jumper da ki alkathine pipe. 3.Ia ki conductor,lada hap ban bteng, dei ban leh sharud shuwa ban tan(string) ia ka line. 4.Dei ban peit bha ba ka jingbteng ka jingjngai hapdeng ka line kan ym palat 40ft na u pole. 5.Dei ban kham peit bniah Ia ki bynta ba don ka jingbteng.(joint) 6.Ha ki jaka ba don ka jingdkhoi ki sainar (Strand) dei ban bteng bha da ki sleeve. 7.Ka jingkhlain jong ki conductor ba la bteng ka dei ban long 95 %.khnang ban ioh ia ka jinglah ban kit ia ka current kum jong u conductor thymmai. KA RUKOM PHRIANG BAD KA RUKOM TAN IA KI CONDUCTOR (Pauing and Stringing of Conductor) Ka jingphriang ia ki sainar ha madan shuwa ban tan na u pole sha u pole ka long kaba donkam shibun. KineKi tiar harum ki long kiba ju pyndonkam ha kaba tan ia ki conductor. 1).Revolving Platform (ki shalyntem) 2).Roller(Ki tiar pyntyllun). 3)Twisting wrench(jingkhyrwait) 4).Hacksaw (Kurat ot nar) 5).Pliers (Ki Plas) 6).Screw driver. 7).Wire wrench. 8).Crowbars(Lyngka) 9).Rope(U Tyllai) 10)Chain Pulley 11).Hammer(u Tyrnem) 12) Sag Board 13).Zola. Ha ka por ba phriang ia ki conductor,dei ban phikir bha ba u conductor un ym synrud hamadan. La ju pyndonkam ia ka revolving platform bad ki roller bad iada na ka jingmong ki conductor bad ba u conductor un iaid beit khlem jingkdor kyllain bad ba pynitynnad ia ki line. Dei ban pyndonkam Ia ka sag board haba tan bad pynbat ia ki conductor na uwei u pole sha wei pat. Dei ban tan ia ki conductor da kaba shim jingkhein ruh ia ka bor jong ka jingbeh ka lyer,jinghap ior bad kumta ter ter.dei ban kyllain da ki binding tape ha ki jaka pynbat ha ka por ba tan.kane kan iada ia u conductor na ka jingshon ki tiar pynbat.ka rukom kyllain ka dei ban long kaba paka bha bad bym don jingsynjor hapdeng u conductor bad u binding tape khnang ban lait na ka sparking. 35

37 1).Ia u neutral jong u LT conductor,la ju teh beit ha u pole.lada dei ia u copper conductor,la ju pyndait lyngba ki C.I bobbin(shaka).lada dei ia u aluminium conductor la pyndait lyngba ki aluminium bobbin. 2).Ia ki tension clamp,dei ban teh katkum bala pyni ha kine ki dur harum. 3).Shuwa ban pyndonkam ia ki disc insulator,dei ban pynthikna bha ba ki bol jong ki hardware kin shong beit bad ba ia ki nar klip la pynshong thik khnang ban lait na kano kano ka jingmynsaw.ki jingmynsaw ki kham jia bha ha kum kine ki jait hardware. 4). Haba tan ia ki conductor,dei ban pyndonkam da ki roller(shalyntem)ban lait na ka jing ia kyrshut ki conductor bad ki insulator. 5). Haba la dep lut ka kam phriang,ia ka bynta u conductor ka bymdonkam shuh,dei ban kyllain bha ha ka drum. 6). Donkam ban pyllait jaka (Clearance) na ki conductor bad u pole katkum ki I.E Rules. 7). Hadien ba la dep tan line nadong shading,donkam ban pynmih sainar ha ki jumper khnang ba lah ban teh ia ki service wire. 8). Donkam ban teh arsyrtap ki binding tape ha ki conductor kiba hajan ki shakle insulator. 9). Dei ban pyndonkam husiar bha ia ki tiar trei kaba teh ia ki conductor ban lait na ka jingpynmong. 10) Dei ban pynkhuid bha ia kit duh jong ki conductor ba dei ban bteng lang. 11).Ia ki PG Clamp dei ban pyndonkam katkum ki size bad ka bor kit current(capacity) 12).Haba teh lang ia ki aluminium bad copper conductor,da ki P.G.clamp,dei ban pyndonkam ryngkat bad ki lyngkniap sisa bala khem hapdeng ki PG clamp ban lait na ka jingiabam jong u aluminium bad u tama. Ki jingthew ia Ka jingjngai ki electric line na ki dieng Line Jingjngai Pyngkiang Jingjngai Pynieng Baroh Arliang Ha ki lyngkha ne Kper Ha ki lynti shnong Feet Metres Feet Metres Feet Metres LT line KV Rural &22 KV Trunk(Exp) KV Rural KV Trunk (Exp) KV & above

38 Ka jingpyniajngai ki Line & Guarding;- Kine harum ki long ki jingpyniajngai ia ki line na kiwei pat ki jingshna. 1).Jingjngai hapdeng ki ar tylli ki pole ha substation 11/0.4 KV(Pole mounted)=1440 mm U conductor na u pole=460 mm, U conductor na u conductor=760 mm 2). Ka jingkynjang ki HT Bushing na madan ha ki Transformer ba pynshong ha madan=4572 mm. 3).Jingkynjang na madan ha ki distribution box ha jrong pole=915 mm. 4).Jingjngai ki artylli ki phase jong ki 11 KV line=1220 mm 5). Ia ka cross arm dei ban pyndait ha u pole ha ka jingjngai kaba 1220 mm na u khlieh pole. 6).U sainar pyngkiang (Lecing) jong ka guarding dei ban jngai 750 mm na ka cross arm/pole.kumjuh ruh,ka jingjngai uwei u sainar pyngkiang na uwei pat kan long 3 metre. 7). Jingjngai u phase conductor jong ka 11 KV line na u guarding hapdeng ka line dei ban long 1220 mm 8).Lada ka lynti u telephone line bad ki electric line ki ia cross uwei na uwei,ka jingjngai kaba lyngkot eh Jong u sainar telephone uba hajrong eh na u guarding kan long 915 mm ha ka angle kaba 90 degree. 9). Ia ki channel jong ka guarding dei ban pyndait halor pole ha ki jingjngai kumne harum:- 11 KV Phase na ka guarding channel.685 mm 22 KV - kumjuh-.750 mm 33 KV - kumjuh-.840 mm LT line - Kumjuh- 610 mm 10).Jingjngai hapdeng ar tylli ki phase jong ki LT line:- Horizontal (Ba la tan shna da pynthiah) = 300 mm, Vertical(pynieng) = 260 mm Ian ki guarding ba la pyndait da pynieng dei ban pyndait ha ka jingjnai ba 450 mm na u pole.ka jingjngai ki phase na u guarding lecing dei ban pynneh ha 50 mm. Ka jingsumar (maintenance) ia ki AB switch,d.o.fuse & Distribution box:- ka mut ka jingsumar ia ki tiar hadien ki jingjulor ne shuwa kata khnang ban iada na ki jingjulor. Translated by : Shri Plato Singh Lyngdoh Assistant Executive Engineer Service Connection Sub-Division 37

39 LYNNONG-7 COMMISSIONING OF NEW LINE (Ka jingsdang pyniaid kam ia ki ha dien ba la dep shna nadong shading) Ia ka electric line ba dang dep shna thymmai,dei ban peit bniah ha ki liang baroh shuwa ban sdang pyniaidkam.naduh ka rukom pynieng ia ki pole,jingtan ia ki conductor,jingpynskhem ia ki stay set.ka jing tep ia ki earthing,jingpyndait ia ki cross arm,jingbuh ia ki phase plate,danger plate,ka jingpyndait ia ki L.A,DO switch bad kumta ter ter. Hadien ba la peit bniah,ia ki report baiadei bad ka jingkhlain ki sainar,insulator ba la pynbiang kat kum ka I.E.Rule dei ban pyntip sha u Senior Electrical Inspector jong ka sorkar jylla uban wan ba shim jingthew ne peit bniah na ka liang ka office jong u.ynda la ioh ia ka jingbit na ka office jong u Senior Electrical Inspector,yn sa lah ban pyniaid power supply lyngba ki line sha ki consumer. NECCESSITY OF FUSE RATING (Ka ban buh jingkhein ia ka bor jong ki Fuse) Lada don ka jingthut ne jingsniew ka kino kino ki bynta jong ki line, kan ktah ia ka supply ha baroh shilynter jong ka line. Namar kata,ki consumer kiba ioh supply na ka line kaba don jingthut ki mad ia ka jingduh kaba khraw. Dei na kane ka daw donkam ban pyndait ia ki fuse kiba rit ha ki jaka bajan kut ka line bad pynheh manla ki jaka katba nang jan ki substation. Ki jingbuh ia ki fuse ha man la ki jaka (Drawing) 10 HP 5HP HP 5HP 11/0.4KV T/F 120A 15 A A 65A 5HP 12 HP 20A 5HP 15HP 3HP 5HP 5HP 3HP Figure 1 38

40 Ha katei ka dur haneng,lada ka jingsniew john ka line ka long ha ka bynta ba khatduh lane ki breaker section,u fuse uba rit duh un ing bad ka jingduh supply ka long ha ki consumer kiba don hadien ka tei ka breaker.hynrei ka power supply ha ki bynta ba sha khmat kan ym thut. Ka jingmyntoi ban buh ai ki fuse kiba la buh jingkhein. 1).Ka supply na kaba sdang jong ka substation haduh ka bynta jong ka line ba ing fuse kan ym thut. 2).Tang katto katne eh ki consumer kin duh supply. 3).Ka por ha kaba wad ia ki jingthut ruh kan long kaba duna. Ka jingot ia ki dieng ne tnat dieng kiba don hajan ki line ka long kaba donkam bha ban lait na ka jingsniew khah khah jong ki line khamtam ha ka por lyer. Ian ki dieng kiba hapoh 10 ft. ka jingjrong kiban lah ban san palat ymdei ban pom,hynrei ia kito ki dieng kiba ka jingjrong palat na ka 10ft kiba lah ban kot sha ki line bad kiba lah ban long ki jingthut ia ka supply,dei ban ot. Translated by : Shri Plato Singh Lyngdoh Assistant Executive Engineer Service Connection Sub-Division 39

41 LYNNONG 8 EARTHING Ka rukom earthing bad ki jait. Ka long kaba donkam bha ban earth iaki line bad ki tiar light. Ka long kaba ma khlem da don u earthing. Ka jingpyndait ia ki light post lana kino kino ki tiar light bad u earth, la khot u Earthing. 1) Ki post light bad ki tiar light: Lada don kano kano ba short light ka current kan iaid lyngba ka resistance ka bar it eh kata sha ka earth bad da kane u fuse un ing lane u breaker un trip khnang ba kan ym bthei ne jot ki tiar. 2) Transformer neutral earthing: a. Ka leakage lane ka rukom bym ryngkat ban sam ding (Unbalance), kacurrent kan ialeh ban leit sha ka resistance kaba rit eh. b. Ki tiar jing iada kan trei kam bha. c. Kan iarap iaki lain na ka jingjot haba tied u pyrthat. d. Da kaba pyndait earthing ha u neutral, ia ka fault current lah ban iada. e. Kan iarap ban pynlong ia ka voltage jong u neutral zero. 3) Naka bynta u lightning arrestor: Haba tied u pyrthat ka current kan iaid sha poh khyndew ha kaba ka khyndew ka dei ban don ka restance kaba duna bha khnang ba ki tiar light kin ym jot ne ing. Ka earth resiatance ka shong ha kine harum:- 1) Jait khyndew, 2) Ka jing khluid ne pjah jong ka khyndew, 3) Ka jingsngem jong ka khyndew, 4) Ki mar poh khyndew ba don haka, 5) Ka jingheh jongka nar bala tep shapoh kyndew (Electrode), 6) Ka jingiar jong u electrode, 7) Ka jingjylliew jong u electrode, 8) Ka jingjngai ha pdeng jong ki electrode. U earth tester u thew ia ka resistance jong ka khyndew ha ka ohm (Ω). LINE BAD U POLE EARTHING. 1) Man la u pole nar uba san jongka LT line dei ban earth. 2) U cross arrm, insulator pin etc ruh dei ban earth. 3) Ia ki cradle guard, railway crossing, telephone crossing, road crossing dei ban earth. Lada ym don earthing dei ban leh da u 8 SWG GI wire uba jrong kumba 120 haduh 150mm dei ban tep hapoh khyndew haka jingjngai kaba 90cm bad haka jingjylliew kaba 150cm. 4) Naka bynta u LA, laka jong u earthing dei ban pyndonkam. Ka rukom leh earthing: 1. Plate earthing- (A) Haki power station bad ki sub-station baheh lajuh pyndonkam daki plate nar iong (Cast iron) kaba 12mm jingrrben, 1200mm linter bad 1200mm pynkiang ban leh earthing. 40

42 (B) Haki substation rit pat lajuh pyndonkam da u nar GI ub 18mm jingiar, 50x50cm. Kine ki nar plate latep pynieng shapoh khyndew ryngkat bad u dewiong, u shiap, bad ka mluh haka ba ka jingrben kaba 150mm shi shi jait. Ka thliew kadei ban jylliew bha khnang ba kan sngem bha.ia ka nar plate la tep haka jing jngai kaba 1200cm iwei na iwei. 2. Pipe Erathing: (A) Haki power station bad ki Substation baheh, la juh pyndonkam da u GI pipe uba 12mm jingrben, 150mm jingheh bad 300cm jingjrong.ka jingjngai kaba ym duna 1200cm uwei na uwei u pipe(electrode) haki Station heh bad 180cm jingjngai haki Station rit. La kumno kumna dei ban pyndonkam u wei u electrode man la ka kyndong ka station bad kiei kiei ki ba dei ki nar ban leh earthing.ia kine ki nar bala tep poh khyndew (Electrode) lajuh pyndonkam haki pole mounted transformer. Ia u neutreal bad ka body jong u transformer dei ban earth double da u GI wire 8SWG. Laka jong u earthing dei ban leh naka bynta ki synduk ban sam ding (Distribution Box). Dei ban pyndonkam da u 7/10 SWG GI wire naka bynta u tower bad ia ki Substation rynsan (Gantries). Dei ban pyndonkam da ki plate nar 3mm jingrben, 50x50 pynkiang. U GI pipe uba 25mm jingrben, 1910mm jingjrong dei ban pyndonkam haki line baheh (HT line) bad 20mm jingrben, 1720mm jingjrong haki line rit (LT line). Ka jingmut jong u dewiong bad ka mluh ka long ban pynsngem iaka khyndew. Ka mluh bad u dewiong ki iarap ban pynsngem iaka khyndew. Dei ban phikir bha ban ialeh ban ai um haka thliew earthing haka por tlang khnang ba ka jaka kan sngem. U dewiong / rnga u don carbon hakaba ka current ka lah ban iaid lyngba bad u pynduna ia ka resistance. Ban leh earthing dei ban bud thik kat kum ka ain I.S.I, kaba 3040 (1966), section 1, 2, & 3. Ka jingbteng Joints): Ban bteng ia u earthing la juh pyndonkam da u rivet. Lahr uh ban pyndonkam da ki nut bolt lane da kaba welding, ka shong haka jinglong jong ka mariang jongka jaka. Ki join jongki earth conductor haki switch gear lane cablr armour dei ban long laka jong barabor. Kumta la pyndonkam da ki nut bolt. Lada ki dei ki steel dei ban welding iaki. Tang haki jaka ban thew earth dei ban leh da ki nut bolt. Baroh ki joint dei ban ai rong khnong ba kin ym sarang. Ki jaka ban buh ia ki synduk ne panel lajuh pyndonkam kum ki electrode. Kane ka lah ban long tang lada iaki la pyndait bad ka earth. Baroh sawdong. Translated by : Shri Roland Majaw Dy. General Manager (East) MeSEB, Shillong. 41

43 LYNNONG-9 Ka jingthew iaka earth bad earth resistance: Ka jingpyndonkam ia u earth tester:- Ia u earth tester la pyndonkam ban thew ia ka earth resistance. Lada ka resistance ka heh dei ban leh bha ia u earthing khnang ba kan duna. Ka rukom trei kam jong u earth tester:- U dei u tier uba lah ban khyrwait da ka kti khnang ba kan pynmih ding D.C. Haka por ba pynmih iaka current, la pynkylla ia ka DC current sha ka AC current da u converter bad iaka AC current ba la ioh ha ki terminal pat la pynkylla sha ka DC lyngba ka rectifier.la test da ka AC current khnang ba kan ym don ka electrolytic effect. Ka jing thew ia ka earth resistance b alai point (Three point method): Ha kane ka rukom test, ia u terminal jong u tester C1 & P1 la short lang bad sa pyndait ha u electrode uban test. Ki terminal C2 & P2 pat la pyndait la ka jong ia ki ar tylli ki nar ba la pynngam shapoh khyndew. Ia kine ki nar la pynngam ha u juh u lain haka jingjngai kaba 25m bad 50m. Lada khyrwait ia u tester da kaba stet ngin sa ioh iaka reading jong ka earth restance. Note:- Ka jingjrong jong u nar ban pynngam shapoh khyndew (Spike) dei ban long 1/20 jongka jong ka jingjngai hapdeng jongki. Ka rukom test ba saw point (Four point method):- Ha kane ka rukom test pat, saw tylli ki nar spike la pynngam shapoh khyndew ha u juh u lain ha ka jingjngai kaba ia ryngkat. Ia ki ar tylli la pyndait lang ha u terminal C1 & C2 jong u earth tester bad ia ki wei ar tylli pat ha u terminal P1 & P2. Nangta sa khyrwait pat ia u tester bad ngin sa ioh ia ka reading jong ka earth jong ka jaka. Maximum earth resistance bala shah:- Ki resistance bala shah ki long kumne harum:- Ki power station baheh = 0.5 Ω, (Ohm, ka jingthew ia ka resistance). Ki Sub-Station baheh = 1.0 Ω. Ki substation rit = 2.0 Ω. Neutral bushing = 2.0 Ω. Service connection = 4.0 Ω. LT lightning arrestor = 4.0 Ω. LT pole = 5.0 Ω. HT pole = 10.0 Ω. Tower = Ω. Lada ka resistance jongka khyndew ka heh palat ban ia kaba la kdew haneng, dei ban leh ia kine harum: 1) Ka jingsarang (Oxidation) ha ki jaka ba bteng dei ban pynkhuid, lane dei ban pynshkem bha. 2) Dei ban theh um bha ha ki nar electrode. 3) Dei ban pyndon kam da ki electrode kiba kham heh. 4) Ia ki electrode dei ban pyniaid lang khlem da tyngkhuh (Parallel). Translated by : Shri Roland Majaw Dy. General Manager (East) MeSEB, Shillong. 42

44 LYNNONG-10 TRANSFORMER. U Transformer: (Ka jing pyndonkam, ki jait bad rukom pyndonkam) Jingdonkam (Need) :- Haki station pynmih ding (Power Generating Station) iaka light la pynmih kumba 15KV lana duna.kan long kaba eh ban sam ha kane ka voltage rit namar kan bun bha ka current, kan don ruh ka jinghiar jong ka voltage (Voltage drrop) bad ia u sainar ruh hap ban pynheh bha. Namar kata ia ka voltage la hap ban pynheh da u power transformer. Hadien bala sam (Transmit) pat dei ban pynrit pat shuwa ban ai sha ki nongthang, namar baroh ki tiar ba pyndonkam da ka light kan trei kam haka voltage kaba 440V & 130V kat kum ka I.E rules. Kumta hangne ruh la pyndonkam da u transformer. Ka jingmyntoi:- (1) U transformer uba dei u tiar ban eh shi jaka, um juh don ka jingjot ne pra. (2) Lah ban iada naka high voltage haka winding. (3) Ka jinglut ban sumar ka long kaba duna (Low maintenance cost). Ka bor ne jingheh (Capacity):- Ia ka capacity jong u power transformer la khein haka MVA bad iaki transformer sam ding (Distribution) pat haka KVA. Ki jait:- Ia ki transformer la pynbynta haki arjait ba kongsan: 1. Power transformer 2) Instrument transformer. Ia u power transformer la pynbynta shuh shuh kumne harum (a) Kat kum ka jinglong ba shapoh jong u (Core) 1. Core type. 2. Shell type. (b) Kat kum ki phase:- (1) Single phase (2) Three phase. (c) Kat kum ka winding:- Single winding (2) Two winding (d) (d) Kat kum ka voltage:- (1) Ba pynheh 9Step up) (2) Ba pynrit (Step down) (e) Kat kum ka jingdonkam (Application):- (1) Power transformer (2) Distribution transformer. Note:- Haki power transformer (1 MVA sha jrong) iaka voltage la pynkylla bad sa sam pat. Ki don arjait ki instrument transformer ba kongsan:- (1) Current transformer (2) Potential transformer. Ka rukom pundonkam iaki instrument transformer:- 1. Ban pyniakhlad iaki tiar metering, relays bad ki wiring 2. Ban pynkylla iaka voltage kat kum ka jingdon kam jongki tiar light. 3. Ban pynneh ia ka voltage bad current kat kum ka jingdonkam jong ki tiar light bad relays. Note:- Ia u current transformer la pyndait haka series bad ia u potential transformer pat parallel. 43

45 Auto transformer:- U Auto transformer u dei u power transformer uba don tang u wei ka winding. U auto transformer u long uba myntoi tang lada ka ratio jingpynkylla (Transformation ratio) ka long 1:3. Ki bynta jong u transformer:- Jingbatai: Ia u tiar bala buh shi jaka ban pynkylla ia ka voltage baheh sha kaba rit lane barit sha kaba heh lyngba ka bor jongka kynja magnet (Magnetizing effect) khlem da pynkylla ia ka bor (Power) ne frequency, la khot u Transformer. Ka rukom trei kam:- U trei kam da kaba ki khot mutual induction. Mutual Induction:- Haba ai ding iaki winding jong u transformer ka pynmih iaka voltage daka juh ka lynti iaid magnet sha ka secondary winding. Ia kane ka rukom pynmih bor ding la khot Mutual Induction. Ia u transformer la pynbynta kumne: (1) Power transformer (2) Instrumental transformer. Bynta jong u transformer:- (1) Ka tangki (Main Tank):- Ia kane la shna da u steel sheet. Hapoh jongka la don ki core, winding bad umphniang transformer. (2) Core:- Ka dei ki steel sheet kiba rben 0.35mm. Ha baroh arliang jong kine ki sheet la tap daki varnish ban iada i wei na i wei na ka bor ding. Ka dur jong ki la shna sawdong lane kyrdan kyrdan. (3) Winding:- U dei u sainar bala kynnain halor jong ki core. Nyngkong la leh winding ha ka LV bad sa leh ka HV winding halor jongka. Ia ki sainar ba kyllain la tah varnish shuwa. Bun sien hi ia ka winding ba nyngkong (primary) la pyndait haka Delta bad iaka ba ar (Secondary) pat haka star. Namar ba ka resistance jong ki winding ki long kiba rit kimta ym lah ban ai ding DC. Ki bynta jong u Transformer:- 1. Bushing:- Iaki tduh jong ki winding hap ban pynmih sha bar na ka bynta ban ai connection. Ban iada ia kine ki sainar ban pynmih shabar khnang ba kin ym tyngkhuh bad ka body la pyniaid lyngba ka sbai (Porcelain). La shna iaka ha kata ka rukom khnang ba ka um kan ym rung. 2. Explosion Vent:- Ha jrong jong u transformer don u pipe uba mih uba la set ha baroh ar tduh daka nar kaba stang bha. Lada don kana kana ka jingthud ne ing hapoh jong u transformer, ki mih ki kynja tdem (Gas) bad kan ialeh ban kynshoit sha bar. Kumta kine ki jingtap kiba stang ha u pipe kin pait bad ka tdem, ka umphniang ki mih noh shabar, kumta kan iada naka jing bthei jong u transformer. 3. Ka tangki buh umphniang (Conservator Tank):- Ia kane ka tangki la buh khnang ban ai jaka ia ka umphniang kaba don hapoh u transformer ba kan kiew kan hiar haba ka khluid. Ia ka umphniang la pyndap shiteng jong kane ka tangki bad la buh ruh ka jaka ban peit ia ka umphniang. Lada ym don kane ka jaka ba ka umphniang ba kan kiew kan hiar u transformer u lah ban bthei. 44

46 4. Equalizer Pipe:- Ia u pipe uba pyniasoh ia ka conservator tank bad u explosion vent la khot u equalizer pipe. Lada ka don tang malu mala ka gas, kane ka gas kan leit sha baroh ar jong ka explosive vent bad ka conservator tank lyngba u equalizer pipe. 5. Breather:- Namar ba ka load ha u transformer ka kiew ka hiar kumta ka umphniang ruh ka kiew ka hiar. Haba ka umphniang ka kiew ka lyer kaba don haka tangki ka dei ban mih shabar bad ynda ka hiar ka lyer dei ban rung shapoh. Na ka bynta kane la pyndait ia u breather ha trai jong ka tangki da u pipe. Ha tduh jong une u pipe la buh lang da u silica gel bad ka umphniang khyndiat ha trai. Ki don ruh ki thliew ba ka lyer kan ioh rung ioh mih lyngba jongki. U silica gel u kjit ia ia ka jingsngem ne umjer ba don haka lyer khnang ba ka lyer ba rung shapoh kan long kaba rkhiang. Ka umphniang pat ka bat iaki phngit ne pump um ba don haka lyer. Haba ka u silica gel ula kjit jingsngem (Moisture) ka rong jong u ka kylla naka rong blue sha ka rong pink. Haba ula long kumne, ia u dei ban khuid noh da kaba pynkhluid net had haka sngi bad un sa kylla blue biang. Ynda ula kylla balieh, kamut ula duh bad hap kylliang noh da kaba thymmai. Ka umphniang ruh dai ban kylliang noh lada kala jaboh palat. 6. Tap Changer:- Ka dei ka bynta kaba donkam ban control ia ka voltage na ka bynta ar tylli kid aw ba kongsan. i) Ban control iaka jingiaid jang ka KW & KVAR haki line jaka pynmih bor ding. ii) Ban pynbian iaka voltage haki nong thang light kat kum ka ain jong ka I.R (+6%). Iaka voltage lah ban pynbiang na ki winding jong u transformer lyngba ka top changer bala pyndait ha u transfoemer shabar. Ki don ar jait ki tap changer. (a) Off load tap changer:- Ia u off load tap changer la pyndait haka HV winding jong u transformer. Ka dei ka tap bala buh bad ka umphniang. La shna iaka bay n ym lah ban pyntrai kam haka por ba thang iaka light. Kumta ban pyntrei ia u hap ban pynlip shuwa ia u transformer. (b) On Load Tap Changer (O.L.T.C):- Ha kane ka rukom pat lah ban pyntrei ia u tap changer wat haka por ba dang ai ding ia u transformer. Ym donkam ban pynlip ia u transformer. Ia une u jait tap changer lah ban pyntrei kam na jan (Locally) ne na jngai lyngba ki control wire (Remote), kat kum ka jingdon kam. Don bun jait ki O.L.T.C. kat kum ka jingshna ia u. 1) Ha kane ka rukom, ia ka winding la leh haka circuit kumta lah ban pyndon kam khlem da pynlip ia u transformer. 2) Preventip Reactor Type Changer:- Ha kane ka rukom ia u reactor uba ha pdeng jong u tap changer la pyndonkam manla ka por ba kylliang iaka tapping. Ha ka por bal eh tapping, ka sawa bha. Ka Jing maramot (Maintanance):- Ia u fix contact bala duh dei ban bujli ia u da kaba disconnect iaki terminal. Iaka umphniang badon hapoh u tap changer dei ban bujli ne filter hadin bala pyndonkam 30,000 sien. Haka por ba maramot ia u dei ban peit bha ia u switch, ki gear bad kiwei ki wei ki bynta sa pynkhuid da ka petrol bad sa ai grease ia ki lada don kam. 45

47 7. Buchholtz Relay:- Ia u Buchholtz relay la pyndonkam haki transformer kiba 500KVA shajrong. Ka dei kaba iaid da ki gas bad la pyndon kam haki ban sam ding haki lain heh. Haba don kano kano ka jingthud hapoh u transformer kadon ka jingmih tdem (Gas). Kane ka gas ka iaid sha u conservator tank lyngba u pipe bala pyndait. Ha pdeng une u pipe u don u Buchholtz relay. Ki gas ba mih ka lang hangne bad u mercury badon hangne u trei kam nangta ka alarm kan pah. Ia ki gas pat hap ban pyllait naka jaka bala buh. 8. Radiator:- Ia u radiator la pyndonkam ban pynpjah ia u transformer. Ki don ki thapbniang bala shna khnang baka umphniang kan pjah daka jingbeh ka lyer. Ka umphniang khluid na u transformer ka iaid ka iaid lyngba u radiator ynda la pjah pat kan sa leit pat sha u transformer. Note:- Haka por ba filter, iaki radiator hap ban khang shuwa bad sa plied pat ba ki umphniang ba don kan filter lang. 1. Dry cool breather:- Kane ka rukom ka treikam lyngba ka electronic circuit bad ka pynrkhiang iaka lyer ba don hapoh u transformer. Ia kane ka rukom la juh pyndonkam haki transformer uba 50MVA shajrong. 2. Thermosyphon filter:- Kine ki jait la pyndait haki transformer kiba heh. Hangne kadon ka filter ba iaid da u aluminia ball bad la pyndait series lang bad u transformer. Ka umphniang na u transformer ka iaid lyngba u aluminia ban pynduna ia ka acidity jang ka umphniang nagta sa sha ka filter shuwa bakan lait biang sha u transformer. 3. Presure relief valve:- Ka dei ka jingiada ba thymmai haka jaka jong u explosive vent. Lada ka don kano kano ka jingthud hapoh jong u transformer ka gas lane ka umphniang ka lah ban mih shabar da kaba bthei bad lah ruh ban kem ding. Kumta iaka gas ba mih kan leit shane bad kan sap ah ka alarm ban ai dak badon jingthud. 4. Filter Machine:- Ia ka umphniang jong u transformer la filter daka filter machine da kaba pynkhluid iaka umphniang haduh 75 o C. Ynda ka umphniang kala khluid, ki umjer badon ki rkhiang lut bad ka bor (Dielectric strength) jong ka umphniang kan wan biang. Ka jing sumar ia u Transformer (Maintanance) :- U transformer u ai ka jing shakri kaba jlan bha lada lah ban sumar ia u. Kine harum ki dei ki lad ban bud dien:- 1. Umphniang:- (a) Ka umphniang transformer haka jinglong tynrai hi ka long kaba khuid. Ban pynneh iaka jingkhuid la buh daka ain IS 355:1989. Iaka Umphniang ba thymmai dei ban long ba duna eh 50KV haka shi minit. 2. Iaka jingpeit ngor jong ka umphniang dei ban bud ia kine harum:- Ka rong umphniang (colour) Ka jing bun umphniang (Quantity) Ba stem / phyrnai 1) Ba bha tam Bastem / khlem phyrnai (Dull) 2) Ba bha Lam bthuh (Brownish) 3) Basniew Baiong / Bthuh 4) Jaboh (Contaminated) Baiong 5) Bala kyntaid 46

48 (b) Jingkhluid jong ka umphniang (Oil temperature):- Ka umphniang transformer ka khluid naki daw kiba bun. Ka jing overload ka dei ka daw ba kongsan. Ia u transformer dei ban sumar bha. Lada don ki jing pynpjah (Fan) dei ban pyndonkam ia ka. (c) Ka jingbun umphniang (Oil level):- Iaka oil level dei ban peit ngor bha. Lada ka umphniang ka duna dei ban pyndap daka umphniang ba bha. (d) Ka jingjaw umphniang (Oil leakage):- Lada don hangno hangno ka jingjaw umphniang dei ban maramot noh kloi. Ki daw jongka jing jaboh jong ka umphniang:- 1) Ka jing overload jong u transformer:- Lada u transformer u overload ka mih jingkhluid ha kaba ka umphniang ka ing bad sarang noh bad ka pynduna noh iaka dielectric strength. 2) Abortion of moinsturte:- Naka daw jong ka jing overload jong u transformer, ka umphniang ka kiew ka hiar. Ha kane kapor ka kjit lyer shapoh. Lada kane ka lyer ka don umjer kan pynduna jongka bor jongka umphniang (BDV / resistivity). 3) Gases:- Lada ka don kano kano ka jingthud shapoh jong u transformer kan don ki kynja gas bamih. Bunsien lada kane ka gas lada ki long tang khyndiat ki ngam bad jah noh hapoh umphniang. 4) Sludge:- Namar jongka jingkhluid jong u transformer, kan don ka jingum noh ki insulation kum ki varnish, ki kot kaba ki khot ka sludge. Kane kan pynjaboh ia ka umphniang kumta kan don ka jingkhluid jong ka OT / WT. 5) Acid:- Namar jongka jing umnoh jongki varnish bad kiwei kiwei, kane kan khleh bad ka umphniang ban pynlong acid iaka. Ka umphniang badon acid ka long kaba ma ia u transformer. 6) Jingtest ia ka umphniang (Oil Testing):- Ka umphniang transformer dei ban iaid lyngba bun jait ki jingtest. Lada ka bor dielectric ka duna nakakv dei ban filter ban ioh iaka BDV haduh KV. Lah ban filter daka oil filter machine. Lada ka acid ka palat iaka Mg.KOH/gm, u core bad ka winding dei ban peit bha. Kine ki kyndon harum dei ban bud dien ban peit iaka umphniang:- 1) Ia u bilor ban rah umphniang ban test dei ban sait bha bad sat had rkhiang, nangta sa sait daka juh hi ka umphniang ka ban test. 2) Pynkhuid iaka jaka ban sei ka umphniang na u transformer, namar kane kan iada naka jingbit tngit iaka umphniang. 3) Lada donkam u pipe dei ban pyndonkam da u pipe PVC ym da u pipe jri. 4) Ka umphniang kam dei ban dei bad ki jain mih ksai ne bad ka met briew, 5) Ia ka jingse jong u bilor dei ban pynkhuid bad sa set noh mar mar ia u bilor tang shuh dep pyndap. 6) Barabor sei iaka umphniang ban test na sha trai jong u transformer, namar ka umphniang ba jaboh ka shong sha trai. 7) Wat juh wieh ki kti hapoh ka umphniang ka ban test. 47

49 8) Barabor test ia ka umphniang haka jingkhluid jong ka mariang (Ambian temperature). Ka jingkhluid ka mariang ka ktah ia ka umphnianh kat kum bala kdew harum: Jingkhluid (Temperature): 30 0 C 40 0 C 50 0 C 60 0 C 70 0 C 80 0 C. BDV.KV : ) Wat juh sei iaka umphniang ban test haka por baslap ne dum lyoh. Ka tiar test umphniang (Oil testing Kit):- Kane ka dei ka tiar ba don daka it haka jinghe kaba 80x55x100mm badon lang ar tylli ka chrome plate electrode kat kum ka ain IS haka jingjngai kaba 40mm. Lahr ban adjust iaka jingjngai haduh 2.5mm naka bynta ka spark. Iaka tiat test la shna ba kan kit haduh 60KV. Udon u wei u single phase auto transformer uba don 230V AC kawei ka liang bad 60KV kawei pat. Ka don ruh ka voltmeter ban peit iaka voltage kaba ka umphniang ka lah ban kit. Ynda haba ai voltage suki suki naba rit sha baheh, u breaker un trip ynda la poi ka voltage ba ka umphniang kam lah shuh ban kit. 1) Ka rukom test :- Pyndap haka jaka test daka umphniang bantest, nangta sa ai ding pat haka machine test. Sa pynheh suki suki iaka voltage haka jingstet kaba 2KV/Sec. Leh ia kane kumba hynriew sien bad sa shim iabaroh hynriew ki reading. 2) Transformer Body:- Dei ban check bha ia ka body jong u transformer. Lada laphangno hangno ba sarang dei ban ai rong noh. Dei ruh ban ai rong ia u transformer manla ka por. 3) Core & winding:- Ia ki core bad winding dei ban check manla ka san snem ioh don ki nuts bolt ba lait lane ki sludge ba lang haki. 4) Ka jingtap iaki tduh jongki cable (Cable sealing end):- Dei ban check iaki cable box manla kapor. Iaki gasket dei ban pynskem. 5) External Connection:- Baroh ki external connection dei ban peit, ladon bala ing dei ban bujli noh. 6) Conservator tank:- Peit bha iaka level jongka umphniang haka tangki conservator manla kapor. 7) Breather:- Ia u silica gel bad ka umphniang jong u breather dei ban check manla kapor bad sa kylliang lada donkam. 8) Bucholz Relay:- Dei ban check manla kapor bad test manla ka hynriew bnai. 9) Explosion vent:- Dei ban check manla kapor, lada ka jingtap bastang (Diaphragm) ka pait dei ban bujli bad sa it iaka daw. 10) Gasket:- Ia ki nut bolt dei ban pynskhem bha bad sa kylliang iaka gasket lada donkam. 11) Cooler and cooling Fan:- Iaki radiator dei ban pynkhuid bha bad lada donkam dei ban ai rong. 12) Earthing:- Ia u neutral earthing dei ban check manla kapor bad check ruh iaka resistance jongka khyndew. 13) Tap changer:- (a) U Diverter switch contact u dei ban trei kam. Dei ban pait bha iaka umphniang ba don haka. (b) Driving Mechanism- notch controller bad u contact ring dei ban peit bha ba kan yn ym don pump um, wat num ai grease iaki. Iaki heater, copper contact dei ban peitbha. (c) Ia u selector switch dei ban check bha da kaba pyrshang. 48

50 Kynmaw:- 1) Ki oil testing kit, megger bad ki gas testing kit dei ban don manla ki substation. 2 Ia u silica gel dei ban pynkhluid haka jingshit kaba C haduh C ban ioh biang iaka jingtrei kam ba thikna.haka por ba kylliang ia u silica gel, iaka umphniang ba don ha tduh pela ka breather ruh dei ban kylliang. 3. Haka por ba treikam ia u transformer dei ban pynlait na baroh ar kit duh bad sa earth pat iaki. 4. Haba maramot ia u tap changer, dei ban bud kat kum ka jingbthah jongka compani. Lada lap kano kano ka jingthud dei ban pyntip shaka compani. Ka rukom sumar haka por ba charge ia u transformer:- Ha dien bala pyndep pyndait lut iaki tiar ki tar jong u transformer bad ynda la dep pynrkhiang ia u bad filter dei ban bud din ia ki jingbthah kune harum:- 1) Dei ban plie ia u radiatoe velve. 2) Ka umphniang haka conservator dei ban dap kat kum ka jingthew bala buh. 3) Ha u breather dei ban don u silica gej rong blue. 4) Ia baroh ar liang ki jumper jongki HT & LT dei ban the skhem bha. 5) Lada don u LT cable, dei ban test ia u. 6) Ia u neutral connection dei ban long kat kum ka rule. 7) Naka bynta u Distribution Transformer :- (a) Dei ban don la la ka jong u earthing naka bynta ka distribution box, main switch bad ka body. (b) Ia u neutral jong u incoming bad out going cable dei ban pyndait lang. (A) Ynda la dep pynbiang iaki tei baroh haneng. 1) Buh ia u D.O fuse ba biang bor (Capacity), sa pynlip shuwa ia ka main switch nangta sa ai ding (Charge) ia u transformer. Sngap iaka jingsawa jong u transformer bakan long normal. 2) Ha main switch sa test iaka voltage hapdeng u phase bad u phase, bad u phase bad u neutral da u voltmeter. (A) Kine ki test harum dei ban bud shuwa ban charge ia u transformer thymmai: (1) I.R value (2) Continuity Test (3) Insulation Test (4) Ratio Test (5) Short circuir Test (6) Polarity Test (7) Phase sequence (8) Phasing Out. 1) Megger test :- Haba test ia u Megger, iaki tnaw (Leads) jong u dei ban tap bha. Lah ban pyndonkam da u wire copper 7/20swg PVC. Note:- Ha ka por slap ne dum ka bneng lah ban ym ioh iaka result kaba biang. 2) Continuity Test:- Ki result magger naka bynta u transfoemer ba bha ki dei ban long kumne harum:- HT to phase, i.e. R-Y; Y-B; B-R = 0 LT - do - i.e. r-y; y-b; b-r = 0 LT phase to neutral i.e. r-n; y-n; b-n = 0 Neutral to body (Lada earth) = 0 49

51 3) Insulation Test:- Ki IR valu ki dei ban long kumne harum:: HT phase to earth } LT phase to earth } Dei ban longpalat 500 M. Ohm HT phase to LT phase } Neutral to body (Lada khlem earth) } Kynmaw:- Ha manla ka jingkiew jongka jingkhluid da 10 0 C shaka 15 0 C, ka IR value ka long mar shiteng. Ki daw jongka jingduh jong ki transformer:- (a) Ki transformer ki sniew lehse tang jingbym phikir ban sumar iaki. (b) Ka jingduh jong ki insulation:- Lah ban dei naka jing bym biang ki insulation haka por ba shna. (c) Bushing:- Ka lah ban orpait lane tlot noh ka insulation. (d) Switching surge or lightning surge:- Kane ka dei naka jingbym biang jongki earthing. (e) Unbalance or overloading:- Kane kadei naka jingbym biang haba ngi sam ding shaki paidbah haki phase, lane naka jingbymbiang ki size jongki conductor. (f) Ka jingkhluid palat:- Ka lah ban dei na ka jingbym biang ka jingiada neki fuse bala teh lane jingduna ka umphniang ne loose connection. Kine ki point harum dei ban bud ba maramot:- 1) Oil Temperature:- Lada ka don ka jing overloading jong u transformer, kan sa khluid bha. Ha kum kane ka por dei ban pynlip shuwanangta sa pynpjah daka pyngkha. 2) Ka jingjaw umphniang (Oil leakage) :- Lada don leakage hangno hangno dei ban pynjah noh da kaba pynskhem iaki nut bolt lane welding lada donkam. 3) Ia u bushing dei ban pynkhuid bha bad polish. Lada don ba orpait dei ban set da kaba tah M-seal. 4) Breather:- Ia u silica gel dei ban long haka rong blue. Ban ithuh ia u neutral bushing haki transformer barim ba ym don dak. Ai ding haka primary jong u transformer da kaba pynlait ha u secondary. Test da ki ar tylli ki buld bala pyndait haka series kiba don kajuh ka bor naki bushing jong ka LT. Lada. Lada ki meh phyrnai kamut ki bushing ki dei ki phase bad lada ki meh dum, kamut uwei naki bushing u dei u neutral. Ha kane ka rukom ia u neutral lah ban ithuh haba la test baroh ki bushing. 1) Lada ka long unbalance current ha u transformer ka long kaba ma, kumta dei ban leh bha ia u neutral earthing. 2) Ia u transformer earthing bad body earthing dei ban leh laka jong da u wire rong blue. 3) Don katto katne ki distribution transformer bala buh explosion vent. Bunsien haki jaka ba don load bha, ka umphniang khluid ka kynshoit sha bar bad 50

52 pynmynsaw iaki paidbah. Kumta barabor dei ban bud daka MCB sha ka LT side bad ym dei ban by-pass iaka. 4) Bun sien nakano ma kano ka daw, u phase jongka AB switch, u fuse jong ka dist. Box la ai diredt. Kum kine da lei lei ruh ym bit ban le bad lada leh haka pot emergency ruh dei ban weng noh kloi lane buh daka danger plate. 5) Bun sien haka por kyrkieh, ym juh discharge ne earth iaki tiar shuwa ban trei. Kane ka lah ban wanrah jingmynsaw. Kynmaw:- ki discharge rod bad ki jingsop kti (handglove), ki iada ia u briew na ka jingmynsaw kiba lah ban jia na ka daw jong ka jingtrei bakla da kiwei vpat lane na ki jingsniew ki bym lah ban tip. Tap changers: Bunsien, la ju ioh ia ka jingujor na ki paidbah halor ka jingduna ka voltage, kata na kito kiba sah kham jngai na ki sub-station.kane ka jia na ka daw jong ka jingduna ka voltage bad ka jingjrong jong ki distribution line. Ha kum kine ki jingjia, dei ban pyntreikam ia ka tap changer jong u transforme. Ban pyntreikam ia ka tap changer, kam dei ka kam jong ki nongiarap ki bym pat tbit. Tang ki lineman lane ki nongtrei kiba la kham rangbah, kiba lah ban pyntreikam ia kane. Ha shuwa ban pyntreikam ia ka tap changer, dei ban law noh ia u D.O fuse, pyntip ia u transformer, nangta sa pyntreikam ia ka tap changer. Dei ban khmih thuh mar mar ia ka jingjaw umphniang. Haba charge ia u transformer uba thymmai, dei ban thew ia ka load jong u. Translated by : Shri Roland Majaw Dy. General Manager (East) MeSEB, Shillong. 51

53 LYNNONG-11 KA JINGTIP KYLLUM: Ia Ka bor ding electric la pynmih na ki power station ha ka voltage kaba 11KV ne 15 KV. Ki jaka sam paidbah ia ka bor ding ki don barabor jngai bah na ki power station.khnang ban lait na ka jinghiar jong ka bor,la pyniaid ia ka bor ding sha ki bynta ban sam lyngba ki line kiba heh.hadien ba la pynmih ia ka bording na ka power station,la pynheh ia ka voltage na ka 11/15 KV sha ka 132/220/400 KV lyngba ki power transformer ia kiba la pynshong harud jong ki power station.ia ki bor ding kum kine la pynpoi sha ki jaka sam bor ding kiba khamduna voltage,kata sha ki 33/66 KV lyngba ki Power Substation 132/33 KV ne 132/66 KV step down transformer bad na kine ki substation,la pyniaid sha ki 33/11 KV substation kiba don shajan ki jaka sam bordinglyngba ki 33 KV line.hangne ha ka jylla jong ngi,la pyniaid tang da ki 33 KV line.nangta,ha kine ki 33 KV substation,la pynkylla sha ki 11 KV power lyngba ki 33/11 KV transformer.na kine ki substation la pynmih bun ki 11 KV line kiba rah ia ka bording sha ki distribution transformers-11/0.44 KV substations.dei nangne baia ka power supply,440v bad 230 V la sam sha ki nong shim ne nongpyndonkam supply kiba don hapdeng sor ne nongkyndong. HT bad LT Consumer Don katto katne ki consumer kiba shim power supply lyngba ki line heh namar ka jingdonkam jongki ia ka voltage kaba heh bad ba donkam shibun ka bor ding.don kiba shim da ki voltage kiba 132 KV,33 KV.Ia kine la tip kum ki H.T. consumer.hynrei kiba bun hi ki pyndonkam ia ka voltage kaba rit kiba mih na ki LT lines.dei na kine ki line ba la tan sha ki iing jong ki consumer lyngba ki service connection. Ia ka rukom shna Bill ia kine ki consumer la pyiabynta ha ki tariff kiba pher bapher-ht Billing &LT Billing. Ka jingdonkam ia ki nongtrei kiba la pyntbit ha kum kine ki jait kam kiba kyrpang. 1).Ki rukom trei ha kaba pynieng pole,pyndait cross arm bad kiwei de katkum ka jingbthah jong ka REC. bad IE Rule ).Ka jing sumar sukher(maintenance) bad ki jingshna ha ki porba don ki jingsniew (Repair) kiba dei ban bud kakum ka jingbthah ki bor pyniaid na kapor sha ka por 3).Ki jingbthah ia ki rukom trei ba phikir khnang ban lait na ki jingmynsaw ne jing sniew ki tiar ki tar. Ki rukom ai service connection sha ki nongpyndonkam bor ding kia don ar jaitkatkum ki Load. i) Single Phase-kata ia ka jingdonkam bor ding kaba tang haduh 7.5 KV ha ka 230 V. ii) Lai Phase(3-Phase),kata palat na ka 7.5 KV bad hapoh 200 HP ha ka 440V( Phase tophase) iii) Lada ka jingdonkam ka palat na ka 200 HP(150KW).ia ka service connection dei ban ai lyngba ka HT lyngba ka 11 KV line bad transformer.bad ia ki consumer dei ban Bill ha ka kyrdan HT consumer. 52

54 SURVEY:-Mar ia iohpdiang ia ka/ki application,ka office kaba dei ban peit ia ka service connection,hadien ba la biang ki kot ki sla,kum ki NOC,ki Pata,load clearance na ki office ba dei peit ia ka maintenance,bad kiwei kiwei ki jingdonkam ba ki trai nongpyndonkam,ka office kan phah ban peit ia ka jaka ban ai supply lyngba ki inspector ban ai ia ka jingtip kumne harum:- 1).La ka LT line ka ladon lypa hajan ka jaka ba donkam ban tan service ne em.lada donkam ban pynieng pole ne em.lada ka jingdonkam ka long ha ka 3-phase,ka line pat ka la don lypa 3-phase ne em. 2) la ka lynti pyniaid ia ka service line na u pole ka lait na kino kino ki jingwit.ne ki iaid lyngba bad najrong iing ki briew ne ki lyngkha ne kino kino ki jingtei kiba dei jong kiwei pat ki para marjan. 3).Ka jaka buh ia ki meter.ia ki meter dei banbuh hapoh ki meter boxesbad ka jaka ka dei ban ai ia kine ki mat harum:- [A]. Dei ban pynshong ha ka jaka ba lah ban iohi bad ba suk ban peit reading ne teh fuse bad kiwei. [B]. Ian ka mainswitch ha ka iing jong ki consumer ym dei ban pynshong jngai palat ia ka 3 ft na ka meter. [C]. Hadien ba la ioh ia ka application bad test report,ia ka wiring ha ki iing dei ban pynthikna da kaba test Biang da ka megger kaba 500 V. [D]. Lada ka jingjngai jong ka iing ban ai service connection ka long palat na ka 35 metres,donkam ban pynieng uwei u pole hapdeng u pole bala don lypa bad kano kano ka ja ka ba biang hajan ka iing.ia ka jinglut ban shna ia ka LT line ka service connection dei ban siew da ki applicant ne consumer. [E]. Ka jingkynjang jong ki line na madan ki dei ban long kumne harum: i) 17 phut lada dei iaid lyngba ki lynti shnong, ii). 20 phut lada dei ban iaid lyngba ki National Highway. [F]. Ka jingtan ia ka supply na ka meter jong kawei ka iing sha kawei pat ka iing ha ka juh ka compound kam dei ban palat na ka 25 phut. [G]. Ka rukom buh ia ka meter box ka dei ban long kaba skhem bad kaba ishngain khnang ban lait na kino kino ki jingmynsaw. KI RUKOM BAN RING IA KI SERVICE CONNECTION LINE 1.Ia u line jong ka service connection dei ban shim supply beit na ka u pole,ym napdeng ki line. 2.La da dei ban ring da ki sainar(bare conductor),dei ban teh ha ki shackle insulator ba la pyndait ha ki cross arm ha u pole bad kumjuh ruh ha u service pipe. 3.Kumba la ong sha khmat,ka lynter jong u service line um dei ban palat na ka 35 metres. 4.Ka jinghiar (Sag) u sainar kam dei ban palat ia ka 1% jong ka jingjngai u service line. 5.Lada hap ban pynbat stay ia u pole,ia u stay wire dei ban teh lang ha u neutral conductor. 6.U sainar pynbat(bearer wire) ia u PVC service cable u dei ban don 10 SWG ka jingsngaid bad dei ban teh lang bad u neutral ha ka liang u pole bad ha u GI pipe ha kawei pat ka liang. 7.Ka size jong u service cable dei ban long katkum ka jingdonkam(load) ba la apply.ym dei ban don ka jingbteng ia u service cable. 8.Ka jingteh ia u service cable bad GI bearer wire kam dei ban iasyndait hynrei dei ban pyllait jaka 75 mm hapdeng jongki. 9. Ka jingjngai uwei u insulator na uwei pat ka dei ban long 620 mm. 53

55 10.Ia u service pipe dei ban pynieng beit hajrong tnum iing da kaba pynbat da u stay GI ha kano kano ka bynta jong ka tnum iing. 11.Ia ki GI bend bad socket ha u service pipe dei ban teh skhem bha khnang ba nym don ka jingnoh shi liang jong u pipe ne ka jing hiar u service wire. 12. Ia u earthing wire dei ban kyllain bha sawdong u service pipe bad ban teh lang bad u bearer wire. 13.Ia ka meter box dei ban pynshong katba lah sha ka bynta ba sha khmat jong ka iing. 14.Ka size jong ka meter box ki long kumne harum (i)tang na ka bynta uwei u meter=250mmx 310 mm. (ii) Na ka bynta uwei u 3-Phase meter=450 mmx450 mm. 15.Ka rukom teh ia u earthing wire a.u earthing bolt uba heh 7mm haduh 10 mm diameter bad jrong 75 mm b. 6 tylli ki washer (brass ne GI) badei ban bsuh ha ki bolt & nuts. c. ia u earthing wire dei ban teh- uwei ha u cutout(box),uwei ha u earthing jong ka iing bad uwei ha ka earthing point jong u meter. Ia kine baroh lai dei ban ban ia pyndait lang. 16.Ha khmat ka meter box dei ban pyndait ia ka Danger plate kaba ka jingheh kabakumba 50mmx 30mm ha kaba la thoh ia ka size jong ki fuse da ki dak lieh ha ka plate bala ai rong iong. 17.Ban lait na ka jingshim supply beain na ka meterbox,ia u phase terminal na u pole dei ban pyndait beit ha u incoming terminal jong u meter bad na u outgoing terminal jong u meter sha u cutout bad na u cutout sha ka supply main switch jong u consumer. 18.Ia ka lyntang kaba rben ½ dei ban pyndait ha jrong pole da ka clamp khnang ba lah ban buh ia ki arial fuse.ia ki arial fuse wire dei ban pyndait bha da ki klip khnang ban lait na ka jingsynjor. 19.U looping wire ba wan ha u fuse board u dei ban tam kumba 300mm eiei ka jingjrong. 20.U looping wire ba wan na u pole sha ka fuse board ruh dei ban pyntam kumba 300 mm ei ei. 21.Ki connector terminals dei ban long kiba beit bad kim dei ban don jingiatyngkhuh bad kano kano ka kynja nar. 54

56 22.Ka rukom kyllain ia ki jumper dei ban long 3 ne 4 syrtap khnang ban pynioh ia ka jingskhem bad ban lait na ka jingkylluid da ka jingbeh ka lyer ne jingkynther na kano ma ka daw.ia ki jaka bteng lah ban tap biang da kano kano ka jingsop ne insulator. 23.Haba bteng ia u service wire ba dei da u tama bad ia u aluminium line conductor dei ban pyndonkam da ki bi-metallic PG clamp. 24.Ia ki cutout,ki synduk meter bad meter terminals dei ban seal. 25.Dei ban buh ia ka meter card hapoh ka meter box khnang ba lah ban buh jingkhein ia ka metrer Reading. Ka dur jong ka wiring ba shapoh jong u meter Ka jingpyniapher ia ka jingheh ia ki size jong ki fuse: U fuse uban pyndait ka ka mainswitch jong u consumer u dei ban long uba kham rit hynrei uba lah ban kit ia ka load jong ka wiring.u pole fuse udei ban long uba kham heh ia u fuse mainswitch.dei ban test ia ka wiring jong ka iing u consumer shuwa ban ai service connection supply.kane harum ka long ka rukom ban test: Insulation Test : [A] Hapdeng u phase bad neutral wire (1) Baroh ki switch jong ka iing dei ban on bad ki bulb,fan bad kwei dei ban off(weng noh) (2) Ka neutral connection dei ban weng. (3) Pyndait ia ki terminal jong ka megger(500v) ha ki phase bad neutral.pynshad suki ia u handle. [B] Hapdeng u phase bad u earthing: Pyndait baoh ki load kiba la weng haneng.on baroh ki main Switch.Pyndait lang (short) ia u neutral terminal bad u phase link jong ka main switch.pyndait ia ka megger hapdeng une u phase bad u earthing.pynshad suki ia u handle jong ka megger. Megger Reading = (50/number ki point) ohms Hadien bala dep ai connection,dei ban peit bha ba u/ki meter ki iaid beit.ka jingtyllun ki meter ka long kaba biang.nangta,kine harum ki long ki jingdonkam ba dei ban pynbiang. 55

57 1].Meter No 2].Company shna meter 3].Ka size u meter 4].Initial reading. 5].Rukom jingpyndonkam (DLT/CLT/ILT). 6].Tarik ba ai connection 7].Ka Number ki connection. Kitei ki jingshim jingkhein haneng dei ban thoh ha ki meter cards ba ju buh harud ka meter.seal ne khangtala ia ka synduk meter terminals bad cutout.shim ia ka jingsoi na u consumer ban pynshisha ia ka jingiaidbeit ka kam. Ki tiar kiba ju pyndonkam ha ka ba ai service connection.: [1]. Arial fuse (kitkat),15a /30A [2] Ka lyntang ban pyndait kitkat [3]. Clamp and nuts&blots ban pyndait lyntang hajrong pole [4]. G.I wire 10/8 SWG naka bynta ka service & earthing [5]. G.I pipe ne PVC pipe,12mm,20mm ne 25 mm [6]. G.I Bend [7]. G.I coupling lada ymdon bend, [8]. Shilyngkhot ka nar angle ban kyrshan ia u pipe lada donkam. [9]. Reel insulation (Bobbin) [10].Binding wire(ban pyndait ia ki reel ha u GI bearer wire. [11].PVC bushing (ban phrung ia u PVC ha khmut u khlieh bad tdong jong u pipe [12].U service wire [13].G.I Saddle na ka bynta ban pynskhem ia u service pipe ha kynroh ne lyntang. [14].Ki prek 2 ne 2 ½ [15].Meter Board (250 mmx310 mm ne 450 mm X450 mm) na ka bynta Single phase ne 3-phase meter. [16].G.I earthing nuts &bolts.(70mm jingjrong,8/10mm dia-3 tylli bad washer-6 tylli. [17].I.C.Cutout 15 A ne 5 A. [18] Earthing wire 16 lane 14 SWG (Copper) [19].Ki screw na ka bynta ban pynskhem meter board.,meter,cutout. [20].Energy Meter,Single phase / 3-phase. [21].Flexible pipe,g.i ne PVC. [22].Insulation tape. [23].Kerolite compound. [24].Seal wire. [25].Seal bits Ha ka por ban ai connection sha ki consumer,kitei ki tiar bala kdew haneng,ryngkat bad ki tiar trei tiar ktah bad kiwei de ki tiar ban lait na ki jingma ne jingmynsaw.shuwa ban tan sainar na u pole sha u pole,ia ka supply line na substation dei ban pynlip bad da kaba off ia ki mainswitch, weng ia ki fuse ne D.O. bad ban weng ia ka current da kaba pyndait ia I sainar sha ka earthing.lada dei ki jaka badon street lighting,ia ka supply jong ki ruh dei ban pynlip kumjuh. Ka jingkhmih manla ka por bad ka jingsumar ia ki service connection ba la dep ai sha ki consumer. Hadien bala dep ai supply sha ki consumer,donkam ruh ban sumar bha ia ka jinglong jingman jongki na ka pore sha ka por khnang ban lait na ka jinging ki sainar,service wire bad kiwei de na kino ma ki daw.kum ka nuksa,la ju phikir bha ia ki service line bad ruh ki main line ha ki aiom April-May.kine ki dei ki aiom shuwa ka lyiur bad eriong ha ka ba ia ki sainar ne connection la pynkhih bad lah ban don kino 56

58 kino ki jingsynjor ha ki jaka bteng. Ha ki bnai October-November ruh donkam ban phikir bha namar dei ha kine ki aiom ba ka rukom pyndonkam power ruh ka kham bun bad la ban ktah ia kajingkhlain ki service conductor. Ka rukom jurip bad sumar ia ki service connection ki long kumne harum:- [1]. Inspection ia ki service Wire :-haba peit najrong,ki PVC insulation ki I kumba bha eh hynrei,ym lah ban tip ia kaba shapoh jong ki sainar.donkam namar kata ban peit bha bad ban bujli ne bteng lada donkam. [2]. Lada ia u service wire la shem ba ula sniew bad ka por ba la pyndait ia u ka duna na ka lai snem,ia ka dor ban bujli dei ban pan na ki consumer.hynrei,lada u wire u sniew hadien lai snem bala pyndait,ia ka dor dei ban pynlut na ka Department ne company. [3]. Ka jingtan ia u service wire kam dei ban palat na ka 1% jong ka jingjngai na u pole. [4]. Ka jingot ia ki dieng :-Ia ki tnat dieng ba iatyngkhuh bad ba la I kumban ia tyngkhuh dei ban ot ha kata ka rukom ban ioh ia ka jingjngai(clearance) ka long 1 metre.ki service line kim dei ban ia tyngkhuh ne iaid lyngba ki tin kiba nep. [5]. PVC Bushes :-Kine ki dei ki tiar kiba long kum ki kushon ia u pvc wire ba la pyndait ha baroh ar tylli kit duh jong u service pipe ha kaba la bsuh ia u service wire sha u service pipe lyngba kine ki PVC bush.ki iada ia u wire na ka jingot kit duh nep jong u service pipe. [6]. Earthing :- Kane ka rukom ka mut ba ia u neutral wire bad u G.I bearer wire dei ban teh lang bad ka earthing lyngba ki bolt & nuts jong u earthing point. [7]. U earth jong ka meter bad cutout dei ban teh lang ha ki bolt bad nuts point jong u earthing,ymdei ban don jingsynjor. [8]. Ka rukom teh wire :-Ia ki wire jong ka service line dei ban teh ha ki looping jong ki jumper bala pynbiang lypa bad ban teh ha ka bynta jong u arial fuse kitkat.ia ka tduh jong u service line phase ba dei ban teh ha u kitkat bad kumjuh ruh ha ka meter dei ban teh skhem.saw syrtap dei ban kyllain ia ki binding wire ha ki looping bad ki jumper. [9]. Kitkat bad Cut Out :-Ki jaka iakynduh ka pole fuse bad ki incoming Cut Out dei ban peit bha ioh don ka jing synjor ne jingkylluid. Ia ki pole kitkat dei ban teh pynskhem bha ha ka lyntang ba pyndait ha jrong pole. [10]. Ka jingbuh ia ki Fuse :- Dei ban khein bha ia ki size jong u arial fuse bad u meter box fuse Lada u mainswitch fuse u long 5 A,u meter fuse u dei ban long 7.5 A bad u arial fuse u dei ban long 10 A. [11]. Meter Seal :- Shuwa ban seal ia u meter dei ban pynthikna bha ba ia u meter la pyndait ha ka rukom kaba dei,ka capacity kaba biang.haba jurip ia ka jinglong ki connection,dei ruh ban peit bha ba ia ki meter reading card la pyndonkam bad ia ki reading la shim bad lada shem ba ym don,dei ban buh biang da ka wei. 57

59 Ka jingkhmih bha ia ki service connection ban lait na ki thang beain ia ka bor ding electric bad jingpyndonkam bakla da ki consumer ka long ka jingduh kaba khraw ia ka Board ne Company. Manla uwei pa uwei u nongtrei (Lineman ne Jugali) udei ban pyrman bha ha kane ka liang hapoh u pud u sam ka jingtrei jong u. Ka rukom pyndonkam beain ia ka bor ding electruc ki long:- [1].Ka jingshim bording palat nalor ba ki dei ban shim khlem ioh jingbit na ki office.kum ka nuksa-kiba pyndonkam 15 HP ha ka jaka 10HP katkum kaba ki ai jingkhein. [2].Ka jingpyndonkam ha ka Commercial load ia ka bor ding bala buh na ka bynta ka domestic. [3] Kaba pyndonkam ia ka Industrial load na ka bynta ka jingdonkam ha iing. [4].Kaba pyndonkam ia ki domestic load na ka bynta ki jinglehniam. [5].Kaba shim supply hi hadien ba la disconnect. Kajing buh beit ia ki size bad jingkit current (ki copper wire) Ki strands SWG No. Diameter Current Rating Jinghiar ka voltage Haman la ka 50 ft WEATHER PROOF WIRES (WP) Ki jaid service connection Load service Connection Ka Size Meter Size Aluminium Wire Rated Voltage Amp Amp Phase Neutral Volt Single Phase 5 Amp 5 Amp,250 V 1/1.42 1/ Single Phase 10 Amp 10Amp,250 V 1/1.83 1/ Three Phase 20 Amp 20 Amp,250 V 1/3.25 1/ Three Phase 3 HP 10Amp,440 V 1/1.83 1/ Three Phase 5 HP 10 Amp,440 V ½.34 ½ Three Phase 15HP 25 Amp,440 V 1/3.25 1/ Three Phase 35HP 50 Amp,440 V 19/2.03 7/

60 Service connection table Sl. No Service Connectn. Maxm Load Kitkat size Fuse on Pole Fuse on I.C.Cutout Pipe Fuse Wire Kitkat Fuse wire size Size for Service Connec tion Size in Rated Fusing Size Rated Fusing SWG Curren curren SWGCurrent Current Amp Amp Amp Amp 1 Single Ph 5 A 15 A A mm 2 -Do- 10A 30 A A mm 3 -Do- 20A 60 A A mm 4 Three Pha3 HP 15 A A mm 5 -Do- 5 HP 30 A A mm 6 -Do- 10 HP 60 A A mm 7 -Do- 15 HP 75 A A mm NB:-1} For single phase connection 100V=0.5 Amp, 2} for Three Phase, 1HP=1.5 Amp 3} distance in two insulator Ril 620 mm (2ft), 4} Distance of pole fuse from Phase wire 620(2ft) 59

61 KA RUKOM TREIKAM JONG KA SERVICE CONNECTION SUBDIVISION HA SHILLONG Translated by : Shri Plato Singh Lyngdoh Assistant Executive Engineer Service Connection Sub-Division 60

62 LYNNONG 12 KA JINGTUH LIGHT (THEFT OF ENERGY) Bun sien ngi juh lap ba ki nongthang light ki shait tuh light. Kadei ka kamram jongki ba kongsan jongki nongtrei ba kin peit bniah. Kine harum ba shait ki shait leh barabor:- [1] Ba tan direct Direct connection:- Ki shait tan direct pyllait naki tiar thew bala ai naki company ba dei sam light. [2] Ki pynduh ia u meter. [3] Shait pynsangeh ia u meter lane pyniaid ia u meter da khongpong da kaba pynpait iaka it. [4] Shait pynsangeh ia u meter da kaba bsuh ia I dieng rit ne u pin lyngba I thliew bar it ba pynpei. [5] Shait pynsangeh ia u meter da kaba pynduh ia ki tiar kiba shapoh. [6] Pynsuki ia umeter da kaba pynpait iaka it lane plie ia u. [7] Shait pynpait ia u meter lane ka seal nangta sa ai connection da khongpong. Ka jingthu light ka dei ka kam bymman (Criminal offence). Lada lap ia kino kino bat uh light, ia u ym dei ban ot noh shi siendon. Dei ban iathuh ia iaki bor ba halor. Ym dei ban shim iaka ain ha kti ne sngap jar, dei ban iathuh sha lor./ Ki bor ba halor ba dei peit kin saleh iaka ba donkam. Ka daw ba ot iaka light bad sa ai pat hadien Ka nongai light (Company) ka don ka bor ban ot iaka light halor kine ki kyndon harum:- i. Lada ym siew iaka bill haka por bala buh. ii. Ladas am ne ai light sha kiwei nala ka ing. iii. Ba tuh iaka light. iv. Bat hang tam iaka light khlem da pyntip. Ki bor ba dei peit ka shait ai notice manla kapor shaphang ban ot light. Kumta ki nongsam notice ki dei ban pynpoi thikna iaki. Ha dien baki la ioh notice ynsa leh pat ia kaba donkam. Ka rukom ban leit shaki nongthang light (consumer) complain. Ki consumer kin hap ban ujor ia ki complain ka jongki sah ka office bala buh ban register iaki. Ki register ki dei ban don kine ki column haka ktien shnong (Local language). i. U Sl. No. ii. Ka tarik bad ka por iii. Ka kyrteng bad ka jakasah ba pura (Address). iv. U pole no. bad u consumer no. v. Ka jait complain. vi. Ka singn jongki lane haka kyrteng ka jongki (Representative). vii. Ka tarik bad ka por ba phah ia ki nongtrei ban maramot. 61

63 viii. ix. Ka kyrteng bad ka kyrdan jongki nongtrei. Batai bniah iaki kam baki la pyndep. 1. U pole fuse 2. Cutout fuse 3. Loose connection 4. Long carbon. 5. La ka seal la plied ne maramot. x. Ka sign jongki nong complain badon haka jaka trei (Site). xi. Ka sign jongki nong complain ha dien bala dep. Ha dien bala ioh iaki complain, ki nongtrei ki dei ban leit ryngkat bad ki tiar iada kumne harum:- 1. Ka jingkieng. 2. U plas bala sop bha. 3. U screw driver bala sop bha 4. Zoola (Ka jingwoh) 5. U tyllai 6. Ka jingsop kti (Hand glove) 7. U sainar fuse ba bun jait 8. U test lamp bad line tester. 9. Ka tari bad kiwei kiwei. i. Haba leit complain, peit bha ia u main fuse jongki consumer, lada lap bala ing sa bujli ia u bad sa shim ia ka sign jongki consumer hadien bala dep pynbha. ii. Lada u consumer fuse u khlem ing, sa peit ia u fuse jong u main switch, bujli lada lap bala ing. Nalor kitei ki bala batai lah ban don sa kine harum ka daw jong ka jing ing u fuse:- 1) Ka loose connection ha u pole ne u neutral lane hajan u meter. 2) Ba long carbon ha u pole. 3) Ka jingduh jong u sainar PVC ba tan sha iing (Service wire). Lada don ki jingjia kimba la kdew haneng, dei ban pynlip shuwa iaka light nangta sqa trei. Lada hap ban trei halor u post, sa pynthikna ha lade ba ka long kaba lah ne ym don jingma na kano kano ka jingmynsaw shuwa ban trei Translated by : Shri Roland Majaw Dy. General Manager (East) MeSEB, Shillong. 62

64 LYNNONG 13 U POWER CAPACITOR; KI JINGDONKAM BAD KA RUKOM AI CONNECTION Katkum ki kundon ka Kompani, ki nongpyndonkam bording (Karkhana & Nongrep) ki dei ban maintain ia ka power factor ym duna ia ka Kumta ka Kompani ka banjur ba dei ban pyndait ia u Capacitor. U power factor jongki 3 ph induction motor bunsien u long hapdeng 0.5 bad 0.6. Kumta ka jingpyndonkam ia u Capacitor ka iarap ia ka bor trei kam ki motor. Power factor ka mut- Power factor = Watt/Volt x Ampere lane = Kilowatt/KVA Ka full load current jongu motor ka long kumba 1.5 sien ia ka capacity u motor. Kata, u motor ba 10.0 HP, un tan ka full load current ba 15 Amp. Hynrei lada la pyndait ua u Capacitor, ba iadei ka full load current kan ym palat ia ka 12 Amp, duna 3 Amp ia ka 15 Amp.Kumjuh u motor ba HP, un tan ka full load current ba 120 Amp ha ka jaka ka 159 Amp. Kane ka jingduna ka long na ka daw ba pyndonkam ia u Capacitor ba iahap. Ka jingpyndonkam ia u Capacitor ka pynduna ia ka jingduhei ka bording (power loss), kumta ruh ka iarap ban pynduna ia ka pla pisa. Ngi ju iohmad ka jinghiar ha ka line voltage na ka jingkiew ka line current na ka daw ka jingkiew ka voltage drop. Ka jingpyndonkam ia u Capacitor ka iarap ban pynduna ia ka current na ka bynta kajuh ka load. Kane ka pynkiew ia ka voltage. Kane ka pynkiew ia ka voltage sha ki nongpyndonkambording. Don ar jait ki Capacitors; (i) LT Capacitor & (ii) HT Capacitor Ki LT Capacitor ki trei kam hapoh ka voltage ba 440 volts. Ju connect ia ki parallel (shunt) bad ka motive load. Ia ki HT Capacitor la ju pyndonkam ha ki 33/11KV S/S, ki trei kam ha ka voltage ba 11,000 volt bad ju ai connection lyngba u Circuit Breaker.Lada jia ba phi ktah ia u Capacitor, wat hadien ba la weng na ka supply, phin ioh shok. Ka daw ka long ba ka don ka static charge ha u hadien ba la charge. Namarkata, la kyntu jur ba dei ban discharge shwa ia u Capacitor hadien ba la weng na ka supply. Dei ban kynmaw bha kyndiang ia kane! 63

65 Kumno ba pyndait ia ki Capacitor ha ki size bapher bapher ki Motor la kdew ha kane ka table harum Sl.No Motor (HP) Ka Capacity u Capacitor (KVAR) 1500 RPM 1000 RPM 1 2½ 1 1½ ½ 3 7½ 3 3½ ½ 5 12½ 4½ 5½ ½ ½ ½ Ia ka rukom ai connection ia ki LT capacitor bad ki Electric motor la kdew ha kine ki dur harum: KHUBLEI SHIBUN La pynkylla sha ka Khasi language bad edit da u NB: He may be contacted at Frederick E. Kharshiiïng Executive Engineer State Load Despatch Centre MeSEB, Shillong. 64

66 LYNNONG 14 U CABLE La ai kyrteng ia ki Cable katkum ka rukom shna, ka Voltage bad ki tiar ba pyndonkam ha kaba shna ia ki. La ai kyrteng ia ki Cable katkum ka ka rukom ba pyndonkam, kata Low Tension, High Tension bad ruh kum ki Single core, Two core, Three core, 3½ core bad kumta ter-ter. Ka long ruh kumta, katkum u jait conductor ba thep hapoh, ka jingsop (armour), bymdon jingsop (un-armoured) nangta ka jingshna hapoh, kata kum ka Gas, ka Umphniang (Oil-filled), PLCC, XLPE, PILC bad kumta ter-ter. Haba kren kyllum, ia ki PLCC bad XLPE cable la ju pyndonkam ha ki HT network katba ia kito ba thep da ka umphniang ne ka Gas ha ki EHV circuit. Dei ban pyndonkam da ki cable kiba bha bad ban da pynbiang ia ki joint box ba paka bha.lada jia ba ia u cable ym lah ban pyntreikam, ia ki joint-box dei ban da seal bha. Ha ki LT network la ju pyndonkam da ki PVC armoured cable. Ia ka jingsop (armour) jong u cable dei ban da khum lang triang ba kita kiba ki ong ki Gland. Kane ka iarap ban earth ia u cable. Ka iarap ruh ban pynskhem ia u cable bad ban pynlong ia ki tduhjingsop kiba skhem. Dei rus ban tah M-seal ha ki tduh jingsop ba iada na ka jingrung um. Ha kit duh cable dei pat ban pyndait (crimp) skhem da ki Lug. Ia ki lug pat dei ban connect shkem triang da ki nut boltu bad ki washer ba biang size.lada jia ba ki connection kim shkem, kan don ka jinkhluit ha u cable kumjuh ha kit duh. Kane kan khate ia ka porjingpynkam ia u cable. Ka capacity u cable ka dei ban long 1.5 sien ia ka jingdonkam. Haba kren kyllum, don artylli ki jait jingduh (faults) ha ki cable; kita ki long:- 1. Open Circuit & 2. Short Circuit. Lada dei ba don ka jingdkut u sainar hapoh u cable ka kadei ka Open Circuit fault. Haba jia kumne ka don ka jingdkut ha ka jingsupply ding ha u cable.ka Short Circuit fault pat ka kdew ia ka jingiatyngkhuh ka supply u phase bad u neutral, ne u phase bad u phase ha u cable.haba jia kumne u fuse u bthei noh ne u Circuit breaker u trip shisyndon. Ka jakhom bha ban tip ia ka jingduh ha jia kumne. Hap ban pyndonkam da ki tiarwad (instrument) ba la tip kum u Megger bad u Fault locator. Lada donkam ban bteng (join) ia u cable lah ban leh kumta da kaba khoh snep bad pynkhuid bha ia u cable. Kawei na kiba kum kine ki joint la tip kum ka Straight Joint. 65

67 U underground cable bad Jingai connection: Ha kane ka juk mynta, ia ka rukom supply bording ha ki jaka sor la pyndonkam da kaba pyniaid ia cable napoh khyndew. Ka daw ka long ba ha kum kine ki jaka ka long kaba eh ban ioh jingbit/lynti ban pyniaid ia ki sainar na jrong. Ki surok ki khapngiah, ki ing ki ia khah, ki kali ruh wut shi wut. Te kumta la shem ba ha ki jaka sor hi, bas am bording la hap beit ban pyndonkam da ki underground cable (UG Cable). Ki jingmyntoi ha kane ka jingpyniaid da u UG cable ki long kumne harum: 1. Namar ba ia u cable la thep shapoh khyndew, te kumta ia ka jingitynnat ki Ing ne ki jaka ym shym la ktah. 2. Ka jingsam bording ka kham bha namar u cable u lait na ki bor ka mariang kum ka lyer u slap. 3. Ka lait ruh na ka jingshah tynrah ha ki kali. 4. Ka jingmaramot (maintenance) ruh ka kham aram. 5. Ka jinsambording ruh ka kham bha. 6. Ka jingktah ia ki line telephone ruh ka duna shibun. Ki jingduhjingmyntoi pat ruh ki don bad kita ki long kumne harum: 1. Ban pyndonkam da u cble ka long kaba rem dor shibun, malu mala kumba 3 (lai) sha ka 5 (san) shah ka jinglut. 2. Lada jia ba don ka jingduh (fault) ka long kaba jakhom ban maramot. Tangba haba kren kyllum, khamtam ha ki jaka sor, ka jingpynkam da u UG cable ka long kaba myntoi shibun. Ka jingsam bording ilektrik da u UG cable: Dei ban da duriap bha ha shwa ban sam bording da u Cable. Haba la rai ban leh ia kane dei ban da peit bha ba ki lynti iaid kin biang bad ba ki jingeh kim don ne duna.katba lah dei ban kiar na ki jaka ki riewshimet (pivate) bad lada jia bym lah kiar dei ban ioh jingbit ba shai bha shwa ban sdang ia ka kam. Dei ban buh jingmut kliaw, ba ki kyndon treikam ha kaba iadei bad ka lynti iaid u cable kin ym pynthut ia ki pipe um, line sur-kren (telephone line), ki nala shnong ne sor. Hadien bala ia mynjur ia ka lynti-iaid (route), ia ka nur cable (cable trench) donkam ban tih jylliew la kumno kumno shi mitar (40 inshi) bad ka pyniar kam dei ban duna ia ka shiteng mitar (20 inshi). Nangta donkam ban siang khyndew/shyiap ni kumba 66

68 150 mm (6 inshi). U shyiap u iarap ban pynthanda ia ka jingkhluit u cable. Ynda dep pynthiah/pyniaid ia u cable dei ban tep sa da u mawit halor u cable da kaba pynlait lyer shi inshi ne ar inshi. Nangta sa ban lynter lynti da ki mawit. Haba baroh kine la dep sa pyndap bha sa da ka u khyndew. Khnang ban tip ia kata ka lynti-iaid (route) u cable dei ban da sieh/buh dak ha ki bun jaka. Lada jia ba dei ban jam na shiliang sha shilliang ka surok, ia u cable dei ban pyniaid lyngba u CI/GI/Cement pipe. Ia ki tduh cable dei ban pynmih shalor khyndew ha kum ki paia ne ki sem cable. Nangta ia ki tduh dei ban pyndait (crimp) skhem da li lug. Ia u cable ba tan na ka liang LT u transformer la khot u Feeder Cable. Ia u tduh dei ban connect ha ka Fuse (Kit-kat) box, nangta sha ka Distribution box. Kynmaw ba ka size u Fuse wire ka dei ban long katkum ka jingkhein. Ia ki tduh cable na u main cable dei ban connect ha ka Main Busbar ba don ha ki sem-cable (Mini piller). Nangne lah ban phiah ha ki ar ne lai circuit katkum ka jingdonkam. Donkam ban pyndait (crimp) skhem da li lug ia man kit duh bad ban peit ba earthing kan biang. Shuwa ban khang ia ka sem cable, ia ki thliew ki syar baroh dei ban ker bha da ki jarnar ban iada ni ki khnai, ki sim ni kiwei ki mrad ki mreng. Haba donkam pat ban maramot ia u cable dei ban husiar bha ha ka por ba tih ban ym pynmong ia u cable. Ka jingpyndonkam ia u Cable: Ia u cable la ju pyndonkam ha jingsam bording poh khyndew, katkum ka kyndon ka Indian Standard No.IS-692 (1965), IS 1554 Part II. Ka ding ilektrik ka iaid lynba u conductor ba la sop baroh sawdong da kiwei pat ki kynja tiar bym bat current ba la tip kum ka Insulation. Ban pynkhlain ia u cable la sop shuh shuh nabar da kaba thain sainar. Katkum ka jingthmu ban pyndonkam (LT or HT) ia u cable la shna biang thik pa thik kumta. KHUBLEI SHIBUN La pynkylla sha ka Khasi language bad edit da u NB: He may be contacted at Frederick E. Kharshiiïng Executive Engineer State Load Despatch Centre MeSEB, Shillong. 67

69 Ka jindonkam: LYNNONG 15 KA JINGMARAMOT (MAINTENANCE) Ban pynduna ia ka jingduh ka jingsam bording ka Jingpeit-jingjngoh bad jingmaramot ia ki tiar ki tar na ka por sha ka por ka long kaba donkam bha. Don arjait ha kane ka bynta: 1. Ka jingmaramot shwa ban duh (Preventive Maintenance). 2. Ka jingmaramot hadien ba la duh (Breakdown Maintenance). 1. Preventive Maintenance Ia kane la ju leh shwa ka por slap, por lyer ne shwa ban don ki lat (festival) ha shnong ha thaw. Kane ka kynthup ia ka jing pomdieng pom siej, kylliang fuse, pynkhuid S/S, check ia connection ha ki S/S, ki line ne ki ïing-briew. Kymaw pat ba ym dei ban pom pathar ia ki dieng ki siej ki shnong ki thaw. Ka jingthew babiang ia jingjngai ki dieng na ki line Jingjngai da pyngkiang (Horizonal distance) Jingjngai da pynieng (Vertical distance) Line Baroh arliang (Either side) Kper soh (Fruit farm) Surok shnong (Cross Country) Phut Mitar Phut Mitar Phut Mitar LT line Kv rural line &22 kv trunk (Exp.) Kv rural line kv trunk (Exp.) kv & above Breakdown Maintenance - Ia kane la ju leh ynda la duh ki tiar. KHUBLEI SHIBUN La pynkylla sha ka Khasi language bad edit da u NB: He may be contacted at Frederick E. Kharshiiïng Executive Engineer State Load Despatch Centre MeSEB, Shillong. 68

70 LYNNONG 16 KA JINGDONKAM HA KA JINGPYNIAPHER IA KI FUSE Lada jia ba don ka jingthut ha kano kano ka bynta jongka line, ka ktah lang ia ka jingsam bording baroh kawei na u transformer. Kane ka ktah ia baroh ki nongpyndonkambording (consumers) ba don ha kata ka dong/kyntoit. Dei na kane ka daw ba donkam ban teh ki fuse ki iahap katkum ka jingkhia ka bording ba mih na ka mainswitch. Ka jingheh jongki fuse wire ba pyndait ha ki tnat (feeder) kam dei ban palat ia kito ba pyndait ha ka mainswicth u transformer. A. Ka jingmyntoi ka jingpyniapher ia ki fuse: 1. Lait na ka jinduhlight baroh kawei ka dong. 2. Ka por ban wad ia ka jingduh (fault) ka kloi. Kymaw, ka long kumjuh ia ka 33kv ne 11kv line, namar lada ba biang ka jingpyndait fuse, ka jingduhlight ka ktah tang ia katto katne ki shnong, hynrei ym ia baroh ha kajuh ka por. B. Ka jingthew babiang ia jingjngai ki line & guarding: Katkum ka rul sorkar, ka jingjngai hapdeng ki tiar ki tar ba jus am bording ki dei ban long kumne harum:- 1. Ka jingjngai hapdeng artylli ki post ilektrik jongu 11/0.4KV transformer 2440mm (8 phut). (a) Phase na u post 460 mm (1.5 phut). (b) Phase na u phase 760 mm (2.5 phut). 2. Ka jingjngai u HT bushing na u 11/ 0.4KV transformer ba pynshong ha madan 4572 mm (15 phut). 3. Ka jingjngai na khyndew sha ka DB ha u post 915 mm (3 phut). 4. Ka jingjngai hapdeng artylli ki phase ha ka 11kv 1220 mm (4 phut). 5. Ka jingjngai ka top bracket na ka kliar u post ha ka 11kv mm (4 phut). 6. Ka jingjngai u phase ka 11kv line hamar pdeng ka cradle guard mm (4 phut). 7. Haba jia ba ia mait ba 90º (degree) ka power line bad u telephone line ka jingjngai ka kliar u post telephone na ka power line mm (3 phut). 69

71 8. Ka guarding channel haba donkam ba pyndait ha u post ka dei ban jngai kumne harum:- i. 11kv 685 mm (2.3 phut). ii. 22 kv 750 mm (2.5 phut). iii. 33 kv 840 mm (2.8 phut). iv. LT line 610 mm (2.0 phut). 9. Ka jingjngai hapdeng artylli ki phase ha ka LT line (i) Pyngkiang (horizontal) 300 mm (1 phut). (ii) Pynieng (Vertical) 260 mm ( 11 inshi). 10. Ka jingjngai ka vertical guarding na u post 450 mm (1½ phut). C. Ka jingmaramot ia ki AB switch: Haba kren kyllum, la ju ngeit da kiba bun ba ka jingmaramot ia ki tiar ki tar dei ban leh hadien ba la duh. Kane ka long ka jingpyrkhat kaba bakla shibun. Markhongpong ia kata, barabor, dei ban kynmaw ba ka jingleitpeit leit jngoh ia ki line, s/s etc bad ka jingmaarmot ia ki shwa ban duh ka long kaba myntoi shikatdei eh. Haba leit ban maramot ia ki AB Switch (Air Break Switch), peit ban leh bniah ha kine ki bynta: i. U lock ka main switch u dei ban don bad trei kam. ii. Baroh laitylli ki phase ki dei ban plie/khang ha kajuh ka por. iii. U AB switch u dei ban khih suk bha haba donkam ban leh kumta. iv. Ki jaka ba ia kynduh (contact points) ki dei ban long kiba khuid bad baskhem bha.lada shem ba kim trei kam shuh, bujli noh mardor khlem buhteng. v. Thew ia ka jingjngai ki blade ha ka por ba don ha ka OFF position. vi. Check bha ia baroh ki nut boltu u switch. vii. Peit ba ka earthing u switch ka biang. viii. Peit ruh ba ha ka por ba phi ON ia u switch ym don jingsied-ding (spark) ei ei. D. Ka jingmaramot ia ki DO Fuse: Haba leit pat ban maramot ia ki AB Switch (Air Break Switch), peit ban leh bniah ha kine ki bynta: i. Ka tension ki spring ha ki female contact ki khlain. 70

72 ii. Kylliang ia u DO fibre lada la duh. iii. Kylliang ia u DO fuse fibre lada la duh. iv. Peit ia rating u fuse ba u dei ban dei uba biang. v. Peit ba ka earthing u DO switch ka biang. vi. Peit ba ka rukom treikam (operation) u DO switch ka biang. E. Ka jingmaramot ia ki Distribution Box: Nangta shuh shuh haba leit pat ban maramot ia ki AB Switch (Air Break Switch), peit ban leh bniah ha kine ki bynta: i. Pyntikna ba u lock ka Box u don bad trei kam bha. ii. Pyntikna ba k jingkhang kan plie/khang shkembha. iii. Peit ba ki kit-kat ki khluit neem. Lada phi shem ba ki la kdiah/bam fuse kylliang noh da kiwei shisyndon. iv. Peit ba ka rating ki fuse ki dei kiba biang. v. Check ia ki cable lugs/nut boltu ba ki long kiba skhem. vi. Lada phi lap ki jinduh ba malu mala pyndonkam da ka insulation tape ban spaiñ iaki. vii. Kylliang ia ki wire cable ba la ing. viii. Kylliang noh ia ki insulation tape lada phi lap ba ki contact plates ki la ing. ix. Tah kynja jelly/vaseline ha ki male contacts. x. Sumar ban peit ba phin set ia baroh ki thliew ka box. xi. Peit ba ka earthing ka box switch ka biang. xii. Peit ba ka rukom treikam (operation) u main switch ka biang. xiii. Peit ba ka box switch ka khuid. xiv. Peit ba baroh ki connection ki shkem namr lada ym long kumta ka don ka jingma ia ka jingkemding. KA JINLEIT PATROL IA KI LINE & JINGMARAMOT SHWA KA LYIUR Ia bhah kam para nongtrei shwa ban adang leit patrol. Ia bhah ruh ia ki bynta ki line bad pynkhamti ha uta uba don ka sap ban long nongialam. Tang uwei u briew (kata na ka kyrdan ofiicer) ba dei ba shim shutdown/charge ia ka/ki line. 71

73 Hashwa ban sdang bad haba la dep ia ki kam dei ban pyntip da ka met/phone sha u/ka juh u/ka incharge ka ophis trei kam. Lah ban shim nuksa na kane ka format harum: Section/Sub-division: Name of line: Sl. No Date Pole/ Tower No Format for Line Patrolling Report Name of Circuit/ Circuit No Month: Observation/Finding Remarks Name of person who patrolled: Date: Signature Ha ka por ba leit patrol/check line kine ki mat harum dei ban buh Service line: i. Peit ba u service wire u biang ha ka jingheh (size)/jingbha (quality) bad ka jingpyrkhing na u post sha u service pipe. ii. Peit ba ka contact u Cut-out (Kit-kat) hapoh ka synduka biang. iii. Peit bha ba u fuse u dei ban long katkum ka jingpynkam bording. iv. Check ruh ia ka jinglong (condition) u service pipe. v. Peit ba yn ym don tnat dieng ne khlaw ba phnieng ia u service wire. #. Street light: a. Ym bit ban don ka jingbretding ha ki point ba connect ia ki light surok bad ym dei ban ka jingkhoi-khoi ha u phase ha kaba la connect ia kine ki light point. b. Ka frame ha ka la pynsdien ia ka Street fitting ka dei ban long ka skhem. c. Ka iit plastic ba sop ia ki Street light frame ki dei ban long kiba khuid. d. Ym bit ban don skum sim ne rew ngap ha kine ki fitting. e. Ka earthing ia ki stree light ka dei ban long kaba biang. 72

74 $ Ki LT line: i. Peit ba ki post ilektrik ha shilynter ka surok ki dei ban long kiba shkem ba ieng ryntih. ii. Ki Nar-phna (cross-arm) ki long kiba la pyndait skhem ha u post. iii. Ki ball-pleit (insulator) kim dei ban long kiba pait. La da don bun kum kita, kylliang ne pyntip marmar sha u In-charge. iv. Ki jumper/bimding waiar kin long kiba la the bha. v. Peit bniah ba ki borkit (capacity) jong ki Kit-kat/HRC fuse ki dei ban iahap katkum ka load. vi. Kan bha shibun lada ki waiar pynbat (stay) kin long pyrkhing ba iada na kano kana ka jingma ia u post. vii. Ka jar jingiada (cradle guard) ia ki sainar don ding ka dei ban shong bha ha la ka jaka bad badei ban connect bha sha khyndew (earthed). viii. Ki sainar kit bording kin khlain bad ba yn ym jingpra ha ki kyrwat (strands). ix. Dei ban pynlong ka jingpynkhuid ba man la ka por ia ki dieng ki siej ba san ba heh hapoh ki line. x. Peit bha man la ka por ba iohlad ia ki trai post namar ki bam Ki line heh (HT lines): Nalor ki mat trei kam kumba la kdew ha jingpahara ia ki LT line, hap ruh ban kitkhia ki line heh kumne harum: a. AB/Gang Switch: Kumba la kdew haneng donkam ban peit ba dei ban lah ban plie ban khang ha kano kano ka por badonkam; donkam ban ai grease ha ki contact na ka por sha ka por. b. Ki jumper ki dei ban shkem. c. Ym dei ban ki bynta ba tlot ha ki jumper/fibre/metal part jongki DO switch. d. Ki Barrel ba la teh fuse (u ba biang jingkhein) ki dei ban shong bnoh bha ha la ki jaka. #. Tong Tester & Megger: 1. Tong Tester: 73

75 Une u long u thiar thew (instrument) ba ju pyndonkam ban shim jingthew ia ka jingiaid ka bording (current) bad ka voltage. U long syriem malu mala kum ka nap ne kum ka halai u mistri ing/napit. Ban tip ia ka jingiaid ka current ngi khem bad khnap ia u sainar/cable. Katba ban thew pat ia ka voltage ngi connect ia ki phase ha ki jaka ba la buh ha une u meter. U long uba myntoi shibun ia ki Engineer/lineman ha ki jaka trei. 3. Megger: Une pat u long u thiar thew (instrument) ba ju pyndonkam ban shim jingthew ia ka jingkhlain bor (insulation) jongki line, cable, transformer, ki tiar-pleit (insulator) ba kiba kumta kiwei de. Don arjait ki Megger: 1. U megger ba shu khyrwait da ka kti bad 2. U megger ba pyniaid da u motor. Lada long kaba lah dei ban pyndonkam da u megger ba pyniaid da u motor ban thew ia ka jinglong jingman ki lain heh (HT & EHV lines). Kynmaw ba shwa ban pyndonkam ia u Megger dei ban pynbiang ba ka jingkdew u khnam (pointer) ka dei ban long nod (zero). Ia kane dei ban leh da kaba pyntyngkhuhlang (short) ia ki waiar jingthew (terminals). Nangta connect ia kine ki tduh (terminals) ia ki tiar ba dei ba shim jingthew. Lada dei uba hap ban khyrwait da ka kti, te sdang ba khyrwait la kumno kumno ha kajuh ka speed. Haba la leh kumne, phin sa ioh ka jingthew kaban pyni da u khnam (pointer) hapoh ka iit ba don ha une u megger. Haba pyndonkam ia u megger, ka jingthmu ka long ban tip ia ka bor (insulation) ki tiar ba pyndonkam. Te kumta dei ban tip ia ki rukom pyndonkam; kita ki long kumne:- A. Transformer: Pyndait ia ki terminal ha ki HT-HT point (bushing rod) shim reading. Pyndait ia ki terminal ha ki LT-LT point (bushing rod) shim reading. Pyndait ia ki terminal ha ki HT-LT point (bushing rod) shim reading. Pyndait ia ki terminal ha ki HT-Neutral point (bushing rod) shim reading. Pyndait ia ki terminal ha ki HT-Earth point (bushing rod) shim reading. Pyndait ia ki terminal ha ki LT-Earth point (bushing rod) shim reading. B. HT line: 74

76 Pyndait ia ki terminal ha ki phase-phase shim reading. Pyndait ia ki terminal ha ki phase-earth shim reading. C. Ki tiar pleit (Insulators): Pyndait ia ki terminal ha ki metal-pleit shim reading. Pyndait ia ki terminal ha ki pleit-pleit (body-body) shim reading. Jingai jingmut: 1. Baroh kitei ki jingtrei/jingthew ki dei ban long ha ka scale (range) ba 1000 Mega-ohm shaneng khnang ba lah ban ong ba ki tiar/machine ki long kiba biang ba bit dor ban pyndonkam. 2. Kiar ban leh ia kitei ka test la ka suin bneng ka dum ne slap. 3. Kan bha shibun lada ia kitei ka test la ka jingsyaid ka suin bneng ka long malu mala hadeng degree Celcius. 4. Ha ka por ba shim jingthew, lada ka reading ka kiew nangta ka neh kumjuh, kane ka pyni ba ki tiar ki biang ban pyndonkam. Ka wiring diagram u MEGGER harum: KHUBLEI SHIBUN La pynkylla sha ka Khasi language bad edit da u Frederick E. Kharshiiïng Executive Engineer State Load Despatch Centre MeSEB, Shillong. NB: He may be contacted at END 75

77 LYNNONG 17 JINGIADA JINGMYNSAW JINGKIAR (Safety-Accidents-Prevention) Ki lad iada kyllum ban lait na ki jingma bad ki ain ha ka jingiada (General safety precaution and safety rules): Ka jingsumar bad jingiada ialade bad ki para nongtrei ka long kaba donkam bha haba trei ha ki kam electric ban lait na ka jingma kiba lah ban pynmynsaw. Ka jingma bad jingjia ba sngewsih kin ym don lada ngi sumar ban iada ialade. Baroh ki dei ban tip bad bud ia kine ki mat-phang: A. Ka jingiada ialade. B. Ka jingiada ia u para nongtrei. C. Ka jingiada ia ki paitbah. D. Ka jingiada ia ki jingdon-jingem ka kompani. Shwa ban sdang ia ki kam, lada don kano kano ka bynta ha ka kam kaba i don jingma ne jingartatien, dei ban da ioh jingpynshai shwa bad sa leh ia kaba donkam ha la ka bynta lajong. La kyntu ban shim kine ki jingsumar iada shwa ban sdang ia ka kam: 1. Wat dih kyiad ha ka por trei ne shwa ban sdang ia ka kam. 2. Ha ka por ba dang iatrei, dei ban kiar ban ia kren thamula ne ban ia lehkam kai. 3. Khmih bad bishar bniah ba ki tiar iada kum ki jingkieng, ki glove phong kti, Zola, ki tyllai/belt ban teh ialade ba kin biang haba pyndonkam ia ki. 4. Ban pyntikna ha ka jingphikir ban iada (Safety precautions), kum ka nuksa la ka line ka dang don bording ne em bad ruh ban leh earthing ia ka line shwa ban treikam. Ki mat kongsan halor ki phang jong ka jingiada (Basic element about safety fundamentals): 1. Ka jingiasynrop lang para nongtrei (Cooperation of all Co-workers) ka long kaba donkam bha ban lait na ki jingmynsaw. 2. Ki nongtreikam ba thurmur (unsafe workers) ki long ki jingshitom ia ka kompani, namar ki lah ban wanarah ia ka jingmynsaw ialade bad ia kiwei ruh. 3. Ka jingtip ba duna ia ka kam (little knowledge), ka long kaba ma bad ka wanrah ia ki jingmynsaw (accident). 4. Ka jingmynsaw ka jia haba ngim bud ia ki lad jingiada ha ka kam bad haba ngi trei ia ki kam ba don ka jingma (unsafe working condition and unsafe work). Ki daw kyllum ha ka jingjia ki jingmynsaw (General causes of accidents): 76

78 a. Ban trei khlem da ioh bor bor/jingbit na ki bahalor. b. Ban treikam ha ka rukom ba thurmur da kaba shu bret lymwir ia ki tiar khlem da khmih bha bad trei kyrkieh ia ka kam. c. Ka jingpyndait ia ki fuse kiba heh palat ban ia kaba donkam bad ruh ban pyndonkam da kiwei ki tiar ha jaka ba dei ban buh da ki fuse. d. Ka jingpyndonkam bakla ia ki tiar treikam (Improper T&P) kum ha kaba pyndonkam da ki plas (plier) ha jaka ban pyndonkam da ki piskot (screw driver) ne ki plas ha ka jaka u spanner, ne khlem da pyndonkam da ki plas ne piskot ba don insulation. e. Ban treikam ha ki tiar ba lah ban pynmynsaw kum ba pynkhuid/ai grease ne pynbiang (adjust) ia ka machine ba dang iaid. f. Ban pynwit ia kiba dang treikam sha ki kam kai bad iathuh khana thamula. g. Ka jingbympyndonkam ia ki tiar iada bad ki tiar ba biang, kum ki jingkieng, zola, ki belt/tyllai deng, ki glove phong kti, ki earthing rod bad kiwei de. h. Ban treikam ha ki jaka ba duna ka jingshai. Jingiada ba dei ban shim haba trei ha ki line/tiar ba don bording. 1. Baroh ki tiar ne circuit ba don ha ka line ki don jingma. Kumta, ym dei ban trei khlem da bud ia kine ki jingbthah harum; a. Ka circuit ka dei ban long off b. Hap ban don ka permit ban trei ha ka line/tiar. c. Ia ka line/tiar ban trei, hap ban da earth ia ka. 2. Ha shwa ban treikam ha ka line/tiar dei ban da off bad ioh jingbit (permit). 3. Donkam ban da ioh jingbit ba paka (authorized permit) ia ki line ba 11KV bad shaneng. Lada hap ha ka jingpeit lajong (own authority), donkam ban shim ka permit na lade hi (self permit). 4. Da pyntikna ba ki feeder/tiar la dep pyllip (off) bad la earthed ia ki kum ba la thoh ha ka kot ai jingbit (line clear permit). 5. Ki A.B.Switch/Jaka ba ot ia ki line ban weng na ka connection, dei ban da plie/open/off bha bad khang tala. Lada lah, ka bha ba buh da uwei u ban khmih ha kane ka jaka kat ba dang ia treikam. 6. Ia ka line ba hap ban trei, donkam ha baroh arliang jong ka jaka trei, ban da discharged bad buh ia ki earth rod ha jrong ki pole. 7. Pyntikna ba baroh ki briew ki la hiar bad ba ki tiar treikam la dep pynhap sha madan ha ki jaka ba ym don ka jingma hadien ba ladep ka kam. Shuh shuh ruh ia kiwei de ki tiar (T&P) bad ki earth rod bay n weng na ka line. 8. Haba operate ia ki AB switch ne kiwei ki tiar dei ban da pyndonkam da ka hand-glove. 77

79 9. Pyndonkam ia ki safety belt/zola bad ki waistbelt/rope haba treikam ha line. Baroh ki jingmynsaw/jingma lah ban kiar, lada bud ia kitei ki jingbthah haneng haba treikam ha ki line/tiar. Lada long kiba phikir bha, ka jingma ia u nongtrei hi bad baroh ki para nongtrei lah ban kiar na ki jingmynsaw kiba ym tip lano, kumno bad hangno kin jia. Ki tiar iada bad ka jingiada/sumar ia ki tiar (Safety equipments & Safety of equipments): Ngi la dep batai halor ka phang iada ba shim kyllum ha ka ban phikir ialade na ki jingma. Mynta, ngin pule shaphang ki tiar iada bad kumno ne hangno ban pyndonkam ia ki.kiei ki jingsumar ban shim haba pyndonkam ia ki bad ban pynbiang ia kine ki tiar iada. Kine ki tiar la tip kum ki tiar iada (safety equipments) bad ki nongtrei ba pyndonkam ia ki, ki dei ban sumar bha ia ki. Ki tiar iada/ ki tiar treikam (safety equipments/t&p): i. Rubber handgloves: Ki Rubber handgloves ki don ar jait ha kaba dei bad ka HT bad LT lines. Ia ka handgloves hap ban pyndonkam barabor ha kine ki kam: 1. Ban khang bad plie (open/closed) ia ki A.B.Switch bad Isolators. 2. Ban pynpar ia ka ding ba dang sah ha ka line/tiar sha khyndew (discharging) da kaba pyndonkam da ki discharge rod bad ha kaba leh ia ka earthing ia ki line ne tiar ban hap ia trei. 3. Ban the/thep bad sei ia ki fuse ha distribution box bad ha u pole. 4. Ban pyndait ne weng ia ki transformer D.O bad Horn gap fuse. 5. Ban ON/Off ia ki OCB. Ki jingiada ban phikir haba buh bad pyndonkam ia ki handgloves: 1. Pyndonkam ia ki handgloves tang ha ki bynta ba donkam. 2. Ym dei ban khylliap bad buh lang ia ki handgloves bad kiwei ki tiar. 3. Ym dei ban thep ia kino kino ki tiar hapoh handgloves. 4. Sumar ba kin khuid bad ban ym jhieh (clean & dry). Lah ban pyndonkam da u Boric Acid powder ban ber hapoh ne shabar. 5. Pyndonkam da u Gamaxin powder ban iada na ka bam khniang (Vermin proofing). 6. Da peit thuh bha ia ka, ban ym don ka dak mong ne jingpei shwa ban pyndonkam ia ka. ii. Jingkieng siej (Bamboo Ladder): 1. Pyndonkam da ka jingkieng siej ban kiew sha jrong pole. 78

80 2. Ka dei ban jrong 6 meters. 3. Hap ban da ai varnished ne umphniang ban iada na ka um/slap. Ym dei ban aid a ki rong metallic. 4. Ym dei ban pyndonkam da ki jingkieng nar (metal ladder) khlem da ioh jingbit. 5. Ha ka juh ka por, tang uwei u briew un kiew bad trei kam hajrong jingkieng. 6. Bret noh ia ka jingkieng lada ka la jot. iii. Discharge rod: La pyndonkam ia u discharge rod ban bret (discharge) ia ka ding ba dang sah ha ka line ne lah ban don haba ia khah bad kiwei ki line (static and induction charge) hadien ba la pynlip bad ot ia ka line. Une u discharge rod u long u tiar iada uba donkam bha haduh katta, bad bal ah ban iada na kino kino ki jingma kiba ngim tip (unforeseen dangers) bad lah ban poi shaduh ka jingiap (fatal accident). 1. U discharge rod u lah ban iada tang ia ka line ba la dep pynlip. Ym lah ban batai Nga khlem tip ne Ngam tip kumno ka leit jia, tang u discharge rod u lah ban iada na kino kino ki jingma. 2. Ka jingpyndonkam ia u discharge rod, kan iada na bun jait ki jingma kum lada don ka jingwan na kawei ka jaka ba don ka bor ding (backfeed) kum ha ki line: a. U nongpyndonkam bording haba u pyniaid ia ka D. G. Set jong u. b. Ia ka line lah ban ai ding (charged) biang da ki briew phyla ba shu leh thamula (mischievous unknown person) kiba khlem da tip bha ia kaei kaba ki leh. c. Ia ka jaka ba don shutdown, haba don jingthuh (fault), lah ban ai ding (charged) na kawei pat ka jaka (source). d. Ka jingkhih ki line (power swing) ba long charge, lada ym don ka jingiada (guarding) ha ki jaka ba ia iaid lymba ki line (line crossing). e. Ia ka line clear permit ban treikam ladep ai, hynrei la klet ban ot ia ka line. f. U operator ua lah ban klet ne bakla ba ka line ka don ha ka permit bad u lah ban shu ai ding (charge0 tang ban shu test ia ka bad kiwei de. g. Ka rukom long ki line ban pyniaid ia ka ding ki lah ban kylla bad u operator um tip ia ka jingkylla, khamtam hadien ba u wan na ka shuti. h. Ka jingpyndonkam ia u discharge rod ka pynlait bad iada na bun ki jingma. Ia ka line, dei ban pynlong ba ka don ding beit (treated charge) haduh tad ban da la discharge sha ka khyndew da u earth wire. Namar ruh lah ban don ka jinglong charge na ki static charge, induction ne fault current. Dei hangne ba donkam ban da discharge shwa ia ka line da kaba pyndonkam da u discharge rod. Ka jingsumar ia u discharge rod (maintenance of discharge rod): 1. Ym dei ban buh ha ka jingjhieh. 2. Pyntikna ba baroh ki wire ba pyndait ha u kin skhem bha. 3. Dei ban pynkhuid ia ki jakhlia ba don ha ki hook ne khlieh nar jong ki rod. 4. Ia ka jinglong lynter (continuity) jong ki wire, dei ban da test man ka por. 79

81 Ka rukom pyndonkam ia u discharge-rod: (Method of using discharge-rod) a. Pynbiang bha ia ka jingkhuid jong ki khmut wire/jingpyndait ha u wire shwa ban pyndonkam. Pynskhem ia ka jingpyndait ia u wire bad ka earth point da u nut/bolt. Lada ym long pyndait da u nut/bolt, hadien ba la pynkhuid ia u wire, kyllain skhem bha ha u earthing. Hap ban peit bha ban yn ym don jingdkut bad biang lynter ka jinglong jong ka earthing ba kan bha. b. Dei ban pyndonkam ia ka handglove, haba discharge ia ka line da u discharge rod. c. Haba treikam ha LT line dei ban discharge shwa ia u neutral, nangta pat sa ia ki phase/bynta ki sainar ba don ding. Khnang ba ia u wire jong u discharge rod yn ioh pyndait shwa sha u earthing nangta pat ban discharge ia ki phase uwei hadien uwei pat. d. Donkam ban discharge ha baroh arliang ka bynta ka line ba treikam, kata ha uwei u pole ha shilliang bad ha uwei pat u pole ha kawei pat ka liang. e. Ki rod ki dei ban don ha ka line haduh ban da dep ia ka kam. f. Hadien ba la dep ia ka kam bad la hiar shapoh u pole, dei ban law shwa ia ki discharge rod na ki line uwei hadien uwei da ka handglove. Hadien ba la weng ia ki rod, sa weng pat ia ka connection ba ha u earthing. g. Hadien ba la dep ia ka kam ruh, lah ban don ki tiar treikam ba la klet sha jrong pole, ym dei ban kiew khlem da discharge biang ia ka line. Ki jingma ki lah ban wan wat ha ka shi sekhon ruh. Hap ban long jai jai, khlem da kyrkieh, ym don shuh da kawei ka lad, lait noh da ka jingpyndonkam ia u discharge-rod. iv. Insulated T&P: Ki insulated T&P kum ki plas, piskot bad tester, etc dei ban pyndonkam katkum ka rukom ba dei (as per correct procedures). Hap ban peit bha ba ka insulation kine ki tiar, ka dei ban biang shwa ban pyndonkam ia ki. v. Zoola: Barabor pyndonkam ia ki zoola haba trei ha ki pole. Peit bha ba ki tyllai, ki jingpyndait bad jingwoh (thimble & hook) bad kiwei de, kin long biang shwa ban trei. vi. Safety rope: Ki zoola ki lah ban dkut bad u nongtrei un hap sha madan. Haba treikam, u nongtrei u dei ban pyndonkam ia u safety rope ha syngkai. Pyntikna ba u jingteh u la skhem bad shiliang u tduh, dei ban teh bha ha u pole ban lait na ka jinghap.u tyllai u dei ban biang bad u babha. vii. Crash Helmet: Ha ka por ba dang treikam ha jrong u pole ne ha ka line, lah ban hap ki tiar kum ki plas, spanner, tyrnem, ki nut/bolt bad kiwei de. Kine ki lah ban pynmynsaw ia kiba don sha madan da ka jinghap ha khlieh ne ha met jong ki ba don shapoh madan. Kumta donkam ban da deng da ka crash helmet kum ka jingiada. 80

82 viii. Welding Google: Dei ban deng ia ki haba treikam welding ban iada na ki jingmynsaw ki khmat ba mih na ka jingthaba bad jingsiat ki symboh ding. ix. Tiar iakhun pynlip ding (Fire-fighting equipments): Dei ban buh ia ki borti ba dap da u shyiap, ki cylinder carbon dioxide, bad kiwei ha ki substation, ophis bad jaka pynmih bording, khnang ban pyndonkam ia ki lada pluh ding. x. Gumboots: Dei ban pyndonkam da ki juti rubber haba leit iaid jurip ia ki line, khamtam ha ka por miet bad ba slap, ban iada na ka jingpuh bsein/niangbashiah kiwei de. Bad ruh ha kip or ba khang/ot ia ki D.O Switch/A.B. Switch ryngkat bad ki handglove. Jingiada/sumar ia ki tiar (Safety of Equipments): Ka jingsumar bad jingmaramot biang por ia ki tiar ba dei ha substation ne ha ki line kum ia ki Transformer, ki Circuit Breaker, Battery, Earthing, ka long ka kamram ba kongsan tam jong u nongtrei. Transformers: Ha ka bynta ki transformer (Power & distribution transformer), dei ban shim phikir bha bay m dei ban tam ia ka jingkit (Overloaded), namar kam lah ban kit ia ka bording (load/current) palat ia ka bor ba dei (rated capacity) ba la thoh ha ka plate. Dei ban da peit bha ia ka level umphniang (oil level) ba kan ym don kano kano ka jingjaw umphniang shabar (leakage). Ia ki jingpyndait ha u bushing dei ban da pei bha ba kin long biang bad skhem bha ha ka por ba shim shutdown. Circuit Breakers: Ha ka bynta ka jingida ia ki lines bad transformer, la pyndonkam da bun jait ki Circuit Breaker. Dei ban peit bniah ba kin treikam bha bad ban maramot ha ka por ba biang lada lap ba don jingthut. Substation Panels: Dei ban maramot man ka por ia ki relay bad ki control panels. Dei ban peit bay n ym don ka jinglong synjor ha ki tiar ba pyndait. Dei ban thew ia ka Earth resistance man ka lai bnai. Ka dei ban biang katkum ba la buh ha ka IE rules. 81

83 LYNNONG-18 FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT (KI TIAR PYNLIP BA PYNDONKAM HA BA PLUH DING) Katkum ka lynnong kaba IV jong ka I.E.Rule,la batai kyllum ia ka rukom leh husiar da ki bor pynmih ne sam bor ding.ki lad bad ki lynti ban pyndonkam ia ki tiar pynlip ding haba don ka jingpluh ki iing ki sem,power house,substation bad kiwei,ki synduk dawai bad tiarsop ne spain ia kiba mynsaw,bad ki rukom ai jingsumar ia kito kiba ioh electric shock ki long kumne harum:- Rule No.43:Ki lad ban pyndonkam ia ki tiar jingiada. 1).Fire Bucket- Ki borti ba la pyndap da u shyiap ba khuid bad rkhiang ba la buh ban pyndonkam mar mar ha kano kano ka por ba jia jingpluh ding.nalor kine donkam ruh ban buh ia ki tiar pynlip ia ka jingpluh ba mih na ka jingshort electric.ka long kaba donkam eh ban buh ia kumkine ha ki substation ne power station bad ban buh ha ki jaka ba lah ban kot ne pyndonkam mar mar. 2).Synduk First Aid ne Almari bala buh dak bad ba don ki dawai,jingsop bad kiwei de ki tiar pyndonkam haba sumar ia ki ba mynsaw.ia kine ki jingdonkam dei ban buh ha ki kynja iing khamtam ha ki substation bad power station bad banhikai ruh ha baroh kito ki nongtrei ne incharge khnang ba ki lah ban pyndonkam ha ki por donkam(24 kynta). Rule No.44 :Ki jingbthah ban iada ne pyllait im ia kito ki briew ba hap ha kum kine ki jinglanot (Kiba ioh electric shock). 1).Dei ban buh jingbthah ia ki rukom ai jingsumar ia kiba ioh electric shock da ki ktien Hindi,English,ne ki ktien bala ban sngewthuh da ki nongshong shnong jong kato ka jaka khnang ba ki ruh kin ioh jingtip bad jinghikai.ia kine ki jingthoh dei ban wah ha ki ja Karkhana,Power station ba substation ha ki jaka ba suk ban shim bad pyndonkam. Clause(tn) jong ka section 2,Factory Act ).Ki jingbthah da ka jongthoh ia ki rukom pyndonkam ia kine ki tiar na ka bynta kane,dei ban ioh na u officer jong ka State Government sha ki trai jong ki karkhana,iing bun mala,ne ki power station bad substation. 3).Ki trai jong kino kino ki subatation ne power station ne karkhana kidei ban phikir bad pynthikna ba ki nongtrei baroh hapoh jong ki.kin nang ban pyndonkam ha ka rukom katkum ka ain. Ki jingtip shaphang ki tiar pynlip ding kiba pher bapher bad ki rukom pynshong iaki ki ki long kumne harum: Ha ki 33 KV,66 KV substation bad shaneng,central Store,la buh ryntih katkum ka DOR Circular No.DR/FF/ dt Carbon Dioxide(CO2) Extinguisher 15 Lit ne C.T.C. haka juh ka borba ia ryngkat 2 lit (1) 66 KV substation shaneng: (i) Transformers - Uwei na ka bynta ki artylli ki transformers ba shakhmat. Uwei na ka bynta ki wei pat ki artylli ki transformer ba hadien. (ii) OCBs- Uwei na ka bynta ki ar tylli EHV BOCB. kiba sha khmat. 82

84 Uwei manla ki artylli kiba hadien. (iii) ACB/MOCB. Uwei na ka bynta ki lai tylli ki EHV,ABCB ne MOCB Uwei na ka bynta ki lai tylli ki EHV.ABCB ba hadien. (2) 33 KV line Bus-Uwei na ka bynta uwei u OCB ne ABCB (lada pyndonkam baoh ar) (3)11 KV line Bus- Uwei na ka bynta uwei u OCB ne ABCB (lada pyndonkam baoh ar) (4).Control Panel - Uwei na ka bynta kawei ka panel. Nalor kitei,uwei /ar tylli ki 50 lbs cylinder CO2 ba la buh ha ki trolley lah ban buh ha kitei ki power ne substation. SAND & WATER BUCKETS : manla ka wei pa kawei ka power station ne substation dei ban buh mar 6 tylli ki borti bala pyndap da ka um bad da u shyiap rkhiang.ia kine lah ban wah habar hajan lynti na control room sha switch yard.ia kine ki borti la aid a ka rong saw bad kit dong jong ki ki long kiba pyllun. La pynshong ia ki kumne: (I) Kawei ka borti na ka bynta ki artylli ki transformer bas ha khmat. Kawei ka borti na ka bynta kiwei pat ki ar tylli kiba shadien. (II) Kawei ka borti na ka bynta uwei u OCB jong ka Incoming side Kawei ka borti na ka bynta uwei pat u OCB jong ka outgoing side. (III) Ha ka control room ba buh ia ki indoor breaker,donkam ban buh ar tylli. FIRST AID BOXES: - Ia kine ki synduk dei ban buh ha manla ki substation bad hapoh jong ki donkam ban pynbiang lut ia ki tiar ki tar ryngkat bad ki dawai dashin ban ai jingsumar ia kino kiba lah ban shem ka jingjia mynsaw.dei ruh ban aiti ia kine ha ki nongtrei kiba la ioh jinghikai ha kane ka phang. Ki jingbthah shaphang (i)ki tiar pynlip ding,(ii) ka rukom jingpyndonkam,(iii)kumno ban test Ia ka jinglong bad (iv)kumno ban sumar iaki donkam ban ai jinghikai ia baroh ki nongtrei. KI JAID TIAR PYNLIP DING BAD KUMNO BAN PYNDONKAM 1.Na ka bynta ki Transformers: 83

85 84

86 a. Foam Extinguisher: Ban pyndonkam ha kaba pynlip ia ka ding ba mih na ka jing short ka electric current ne ki kynja umphniang,varnish,rong ba suk ban kem ding. b. Soda Acid Extinguisher: Ym dei ban pyndonkam ha kum ka jingpluh ba la kdew haneng. c. CTC bad Carbon Dioxide:Ia kine ki jaid dei ban pyndonkam tang ha kaba pynlip ia ka jingpluh ba mih na ka electric short.ia kine ki tiar dei ban buh hajan ki jaka iaid ki cables bad panels jong ka contol room. Dei ban synreit ia ki jaka pluh hadien bala pynlip shuwa ia ka power supply baroh. d. Fire hydrants:kine ki jait jingpynlip ki long ban pyndokam tang ha ki bynta bymdon current shuh. e. Baroh ki tiar pynlip ding ki dei ban don ki jingthoh kumne: i).serial Number ii) Tarik bala pyndap jingkhleh iii) Ka tarik ba dep test. A history sheet(ki jingkynthoh) ia ki rukom sumar ia ki dei ban buh hajan jong ki: a) Ka jaka ba thied ne ioh b) Ka tarik ba ioh c) Ka tarik ba pyndap jingkhleh d) Ka tarik bala pyndap jingkhleh hadien kane e) Ka tarik ba test ia ka. f) ka tarik ba la ai rong thymmai g) Ka tarik ba repair,bujli jingkhleh,bad ban peit ba ka jinglong ka long kaba iaid kam. KI JINGBTHAH SHAPHANG BAN PYNDONKAM IA KI JAID TIAR BAPHER BAPHER. Ki borti um bad shyiap. (i) Kumba 2/3 rd bynta jong ka borti dei ban pyndap da ka um (ii) Kumba 2/3 rd bynta jong ka borti dei ban pyndapda u shyiap uba rew bad rkhiang.lada u shyiap u la sngem dei ban bujli da uwei pat. (iii) Ia ki borti bala pynkhreh bad pyndap da u shyiap ne um ym dei ban weng na ka jaka 85

87 buh,hynrei tang haba pyndonkam ne bujli um ne shyiap. Foam Extinguisher: (i)ban pyndonkam: Ia kane ka jaid tiar dei ban pyndonkam tang da uwei u briew.:-hangne ia u jingtap ba don halor eh jong u cylinder dei ban plied a kawei ka kti katba kwei pat dei ban bat ia u jingbat jong ka cylinder bad ban bat pynkylla khongpong bad sa synreit pyrshah sha ka jaka ba meh ding. (ii)ban pyndap jingkhleh:-ka jingpyndap ka kynthup ia ar tylli ki powdar.hangne dei ban pynkhuid bha ia u cylinder-na shapoh bad na shabar.peit ba ki jingtap bad jingset kin long kiba skhem bad ba ki nozzle bad ki ventkin kin ymdon jingsahkut ha pdeng. Khleh ia kine ki powdar bad ka um katkum ka jingbthah.thep ia ka cylinder ba shapoh ha ka cylinder ba ha jrongpyndait skhem ia ki jingset. SODA ACID EXTINGUISHER : 1).Ia kane ka jait ruh lah ban pyndonkam tang da uwei u briew. Weng ia u jingtap ban iada naka ba plie hi.bat ia ka handle jung u cylinder.pynkylla da khongpong ia ka cylinder.pynhap ha madan khnang ba u jingset un plie bad ha kane ka rukom,ka jingkhleh kan mih na ka jingtap bad nangta sa synreit ia ka jaka ba don jing ing ne pluh. 2).Ban pyndap jingkhleh :-Ka rukom pyndap ka kynthup ia katto katne u powdar bad uwei u bitor bala pyndap da ka acid.nynglong eh sait bha ia u bitor bad peit bha ba ka lynti ban mih ka jingkhleh kan lait na kaba don jing wit. Theh ia u powdar ha ka shiphew litre ka um.buh bha ia u bitor ba don acid.tap bha ia ia ka jingtap. PORTABLE FOAM EXTINGUISHER(Wheeled): Kane ka jaid ruh ka dei hi ka FOAM EXTINGUISHER tang ba la buh ia ka ha katrolley ne jingtan ba don shaka ba lah ban ring shane shatai katbamon.hangne,ha ka por ba kynshait,ia u cylinder dei ban pynthiah ha ka trolley. KI RUKOM SUMAR IA KI FIRE EXTINGUISHER : Donkam ban phah check bha ia ki tiar ha ki nong supply ne company khnang ban pynthikna ia ka jing bha,jingkhlain ka bor synreit.ki mat jingsumar ki long: Ki jaid Tiar kiba kumno, Foam Gas Pressure Fire Bucket (Borti um Bad Shyiap) Portable Foam Ki jingkynthoh. Ban check manla ka ar snem. Ban check manla ka sngi ia ka jingpyndap Um ne shyiap. Check ia ki Hand pump manla ka snem. Ia ki Foam extinguisher dei ban pynkhih manla u bnai bad ban bujli ia ki acid bad ki powdar manla ka 6 bnai. 86

88 FIRST AID KA JINGAI JINGSUMAR IA KIBA MYNSAW NA KAJINGHAP NAJRONG POLE BAD NA KI JING ING NA KA ELECTRIC Don bun rukom ne ki daw ha kaba ki briew ki iakynduh jingmynsaw. Hynrei hangne ngin iakren tang ia ki ar tylli ki daw :- A. Ba ioh electric shock B.Ba hap na jrong ki pole ne kino kino ki jaka jrong. A..Jingsumar ia ki briew ba ioh electric shock:- i).tah da ka Burnol ne kano kano ka kynja dawai khluid ding halor ka bynta ba don jing ing jong ka sniehdoh.ia ka bynta jong ka sniehdoh ba don jingmynsaw, ym dei ban pynshahlyer.namar kata donkam ban sop suki bha jai ia ka jingmong ba la tah burnol ii).pynsyaid bha ia u nongpang da kaba tap da ka blangket ne kano kano ka jain syaid. iii).lada don lad buh ia ki kjat jong u nongpang ha ka dabor bala buh um syaid. iv).lada u nongpang u don ha kajingbymtipbriew,ymdei ban ai iakino kino ki kynja jingdih ne um. v).ymdei ban ai ia ki kynja dawai um lymda bthah da ki Doctor. vi).pyrshang katba lah ban ai jingsumar haka ba pynioh ha u nongpang ia ka jingring ne pynhiar mynsiem kaban pyn aram. vii).haba la shem ba u nongpang u la kyndit briew,kine harum ki long ki mat ban kynmaw: a. Donkam ban ai shibun ka um ba la khleh bad u soda bi carbonate. b. Ai ba un ring mynsiem ia ka um mluh. c. Lada u ud ba don jingpang ha u ryndang,ymdei ban ai kynja jingdih eiei lymda bthah da ki Doctor d. Lada u nongpang u leit pynjhieh,khyndiat ka um pyn jhieh dei ban buh ha I bitor rit khnang ba ioh pathological test. e. Katba dang bteng ia ka jingiarap ban ringmynsiem,dei ban khot kloi ia u Doctor. f. Wat pyrshang ban leh ei ei ia u nongpang ka ban lah ban pyn bakla ia ka jingmut jingpyrkhat jong u,lymda don jingtip ia ka kam sumar ba kum kine. g. Lada u nongpang u la tip briew,ailad ia u ba un shong pynjahthait.lah ban ai sha ba un dih. Jingai jingiarap ring bad pynhiar mynsiem(artificial Respiratory system). 1).Lada don hajan u briew ba shah bat electric current,nyngkong eh dei ban wad ia ki switch bad pynlip ia ka power supply. 2).Ialeh katba lah ban rah ia u nongpang sharud ka jaka ba u don bad pynthiah ha ki jaka ba rkhiang,kum ha ka lyntang,linoleum ne jingsiang jri. Shuwa ban ai ia ka jingiarap kumne,dei ban husiar bha ruh ialade 87

89 ban pynthikna ba ka ja ka ka long kaba la lait na ka jingpar current.donkam ruh ban iada ia lade da kaba phong da ki rubber hand glove,tyllai rkhiang ne jain rkhiang ban rah ia u nongpang. Katba u nongpang um pat lah ban ring bad pynhiar mynsiem,dei ban bteng ia ka jingpyrshang katba lah ban ai jingiarap. Kine harum ki long ki katto katne ki rukom ai artificial respiration. 1].Na shyntur ha shyntur (Mouth to mouth):- Ha kane ka rukom,nyngkong eh,ieng hajan ka khlieh jong u nongpang ne shong ha ki khohsiew jong u.ia kawei ka kti,buh ha ka ingdong jong u nongpang bad pyndem ia ka khlieh jong u bad ia kawei pat ka kti,bat ia ka tmoh bad rah pynphai sha jrong,plied ia ka shyntur jong u bad sa ring bad pyrsad mynsiem ha u.katba dang leh kumne,ia ki thliew khmuh jong u dei ban set.katba dang bteng kumne,peit ba ka shadem jong u ka kyntiew nee m.weng ia ka shyntur na u bad iai bteng biang 10 ne 12 sien katba ym pat wan mynsiem.lada ymlah ban iarap kum ha kane ka rukom,weng biang ia ka shyntur jong phi bad peit ia ka shyntur u nongpang.lada shem ba ki bniat jong u ki syndait skhem khlem khih,pyrshang da kaba pyrsad mynsiem na ka khmut jong u. Drawing artificial respiration 2].Ka jingai lyer Na Shyntur ha khmut :-Ha ka juh ka rukom pynthiah ia u nongpang,hynrei da kaba set ia ka shyntur jong u, pyrsad da ka shyntur jong phi ia ki thliewkhmut jong u,iai bteng haduh 10 ne 12 sien lada ym don jingiarap bad peit thuh la ka shadem jong u ka kyntiew ne em. Ynda u nongpang u la wan sha ka jingtip briew,dei ban ai shong aram bad pynsyaid ia ka met jong u da kaba pynkup blanket ne kumbor. Ka jinglong bymtipbriew jong uba ioh electric shock,ka pynlong ia u klong snam ban ym treikam shuh bad ialam sha ka ban iap syndon. Jingkynthoh : (1).Ka artificial respiration ha ki thliew khmut ka long kaba kham long shngain ia u briew namar ka lyer kaba rung lyngba ka khmut ka rung suki sha ki tor.hynrei lada ki thliewkhmut u nongpang ki long kiba khapngiah bad rit,ka lyer kan long jem palat bad hap ban leh da ka rukom na shyntue ha shyntur. (2).la ju shem ba ka ki thliew khmut ki briew ki long khambunsien kiba rit bad ba ju don jingwit, kumta dei ban pynkhuid shuwa da ki shympriah kti. (3).Haba don rumal bad phi,pyndonkam ban pyrsad lyer ha ka shyntur lyngba ka rumal. 88

90 (4).Lada kiba ioh iakane ka jingshem ki dei ki khynnah ne khyllung,dei ban pyrsad beit na ka shyntur ha ka jingpyrsad kaba 20 sien shi minit. (5).Shu buh lada dei ban ai jingsumar ia u nongtrei ha u pole,dei ban sumar bha ban pynthikna ba ia ka supply la dep pynlip bad ha ka por ba ai jingsumar hajrong pole,dei ban ieng ha kata ka rukom ban ymiasyndait eh bad u nongpang. KYNMAW BHA BA (1) Sangeh ia ka jingpyrsad lyer haba ka shadem jong u nongpang ka la sdang kyntiew. (2). Lah ban jia ba, haba ka lyer ka leit sha kpoh u nongpang,na ka jingduna ka jingiaid ka snam sha u klongsnam,u briew u la ban I kumba un prie. syrpud suki ia ka kpoh ban pynmih noh ia ka lyer shabar. Kiwei pat ki rukom ai jingiarap ban pynioh ia jingringmynsiem Lai rukom ki jaid (1).HOLGER NELSON SYSTEM:-Kane ka rukom ka long ban pyndempyllup ia u nongpangda kaba pynbuh ia baroh ar tylli kti jongu shadien ha kata ka rukom ba kin ia thain kawei ia kawei pat.nangta pynphai ia ka ryndang jong u sha kawei ka liang bad sa khem suki jai na ki tyrpeng jong u.buh ia ka khohsiew kamon jongphi hajan ka khlieh jong u bad ia ki kjat jongphi ha ki khohsiew jong ubuh ia ki kti jong phi ha ka met jongu ha kata ka rukom ba baroh ar tylli ki shympriah kmie jong phi kin don ha pdeng met jong u bad kiwei pat ki shympriah kin tap ia ka bynta jong ka met ne krung.sa khem suki ia ki sla kti ha ka met jong u.buh kumne ia ki kti kumba 2.5 second bad pyllait noh suki.bteng ia kane ka jingleh haduh 10 ne 12 haduh ban da wan ka jingring bad pynhiar mynsiem. (2).SHEFFER SYSTEM (Ka jingpynhiar mynsiem shabar):-ha kane ka rukom au jingiada,pynthiah pyllup ia u nongpang-syngkhong ia u ryndang jongu da ka syngkhlieh,pynphai ia u ryndang sha kamon ne ka diang.buh ia ki khohsiew jong phi halor ka syngkai,shon ia ki kti jong phi nalor ka met ha ka ta ka rukom ba ki kti kmie jong phikin shong hapdeng bad kiwei pat ki shympriah kti kin ban halor ki kti bala pynthain shadien u nongpang.katba phi dang bat kumne,nion suki ia ka met jongphi halor ka met u nongpang 89

91 Ka jing ring mynsiem(inhaling the breath):-kane ka rukom ai jingiarap ka iasyriem ia katei haneng.buh ia ki kti jong phi kumba la pyni haneng,tangba ia ka khlieh dei ban rah kham khyndiat.hangne,u nongai jingiarap un dem ha ka juh ka rukom bad un ring bad pynhiar mynsiem ialade ha ki 15 sien shi minit..da kane ka rukom,u pynkhih ruh ia ka met jong u nongpang.un iai bteng kumne haduh ba u nongpang un ioh pat ia ka jingtipbriew. (3)Sylvester s System:-Hangne,shim ia u nongpang, pynsynjor ia baroh ki jain phong jong u,pynthiah lyndang ia u ha ka ja ka sharing ha ka ta ka rukom ba ka khlieh jongu kandon ha ka jab a kham noh bad ki kjat pat kin don ha ka ja ka ba kham kynjang.shim ia ki kti jongu bad pynneh beit halor ki lbong jong u.shong halor ki khohsiew jong u,shim ia u thylliej jong u,tan kham sha khmat ban pynmih katto katne shabar.bat na ki kti.shong halor jong u kumne kumba 3 sekhon.nangta wanrah ia ki kti jong u sha khmat bad buh harum ka shadem.ha kane ka rukom,bat ia ki kti jong u,shon ia ka met jong phi suki halor jong u kumba 2 sekhon eiei.bteng ia kine ki jingpyrshang jong phi 10 haduh 12 sien eiei haduh ba un tipbriew. FIRST AID Ka jingai jingiarap ia kiba shem jinglanot ha ki bun rukom ki jingjia mynsaw ka long ka ba don kam haduh katta kattana kata ka daw uwei pa uwei u briew u donkam ban tip ia kirukom jingsumar bapher bapher. (I).Rah ia u briew sha ka jaka pyngngad bad rkhiang.lada bun paidbah hajan,ialeh ban pynkynriah ia u paidbah ban pynkylluid ia ka jaka. 90