Color Hours of Illinois Continuing Education for Cosmetologists

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1 Color Hours of Illinois Continuing Education for Cosmetologists By K.Samuel Educations In Hair LLC Illinois Sponsor # P.O Box 192 Mokena, Il

2 COLOR 101 GAINING THE KNOWLEDGE & UNDERSTANDING OF COLOR, IDENTIFYING EXISTING HAIRCOLOR & CHANGING THE EXISISTING HAIRCOLOR, WILL TRANSLATE TO A FINANCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL REWARD FOR YOU AND YOUR CLIENTS Cosmetologists use hair coloring, as an artist uses paints to express their artistic talents. Clients are your canvas, your most prized art piece. Color will define the lines and shapes of their hair style, will soften facial features, warm or cool their skin tones, and will bring out the clients character, personality, and lifestyle. WHAT IS COLOR EXACTLY? Color is a basic phenomenon of light, without light, there would be no color that could ever exist. This fact was discovered in 1676 by Isaac Newton, when he discovered white light passing through a prism and found that light could be broken into several continuous rays of colors, ranging from greens, blues, violets, to reds, oranges, and yellows. The law of color states that, out of all the colors in the entire universe, only three colors are pure. These three colors consist of red, yellow, and blue and are known as primary colors. This means that red, yellow, and blue cannot be created by mixing together any other colors that exist. Out of the three primary colors, blue is the darkest, red is medium, and yellow the lightest. When primary colors are mixed together in different ways, they create all the other colors on the spectrum. When you equally mix the primary colors together they will form what are known as secondary colors. The three secondary colors are orange, green, and violet. When red and yellow mix it creates orange. When yellow and blue mix it creates green. Finally when blue and red mix it creates violet. Mixing equal portions of a primary color with its neighboring secondary color will create your six tertiary colors. The six tertiary colors consist of: red-orange, red-violet, yellow- orange, yellow-green, blue-violet, and blue-green. When mixing primary, secondary, and tertiary colors together in either equal or unequal proportions, it will create colors such as browns or grays. Red Yellow Blue Primary colors Red Yellow Orange Blue Red Purple Blue Yellow Green 1

3 THE COLOR WHEEL As seen in the diagram to the right, the color wheel contains the twelve colors including: three primary colors, three secondary colors, and six tertiary colors. Colors that are found across, or opposite of each other on the color wheel are known as complimentary colors. These colors include: Yellow and violet, green and red, blue and orange. When you mix the complimentary colors together they neutralize the tone of the color. What is tone? Tone refers to how warm or cool the color is. Warm tones are classified as the reds, oranges, and yellows, where as cool tones are classified as the blues, greens, and violets. To remember what is warm or cool, think of a sunset verses a winter landscape. Scientific studies have confirmed that when warm colors strike the retina of your eye this effects the focus of the lens, causing the blood pressure to rise ever so slightly and a quickening of the pulse, producing an overall warmed feeling. The opposite occurs when cool colors are received through the retina, it has a calming and cooling down effect. It is important to understand the tonality of color, for all hair color is formulated with different tones. Next it is important to understand the level system in which hair color is referred to as. All colors have a degree of how light or how dark a color is, this is known as the level. The levels of lightness and darkness are recognized on a scale of 1 to 10, 1 is the darkest, and 10 is the lightest. See the chart below BLACK 6. DARK BLONDE 2. VERY DARK BROWN 7. MEDIUM BLONDE 3. DARK BROWN 8. LIGHT BLONDE 4. MEDIUM BROWN 9. VERY LIGHT BLONDE 5. LIGHT BROWN 10. LIGHTEST BLONDE Intensity is another common word used to describe hair color, it refers to how bright and vivid the color or how strong the tonality of the color is. When in doubt, ask yourself, does this color whisper, talk, or scream? Refer to the example below. Whisper Talk Scream 2

4 IDENTIFYING EXISTING/NATURAL HAIR COLOR Identifying the clients existing or natural hair color will be step one in hair color services. How do we do this? By understanding how hair gets its natural hair color. Remembering that plants get their green pigment from chlorophyll, and melanin gives skin and hair its pigments. The hair strand is made up of 3 main parts: the cuticle, the cortex, and the medulla. Melanin is found mainly in the cortex, the second layer in the hair strand. Melanin is produced by melanocytes, which are cells that exist among the dividing cells within the hair bulb itself. The genes within the human body will determine the number of melanocytes in the hair and the type of melanin in which they will produce. The melanocytes that rest close by the hair bulb s dermal papilla (the bulb s nourishment center) will gather together and form bundles of a pigment protein complex known as melanosomes. Melanosomes will determine the natural hair color by its size, type, and distribution. This all creates the pigment protein complex. Medulla - the central core of the hair strand. The medulla is also known as the marrow or pith. Cortex - second layer of the hair strand. The cortex gives hair its elasticity and contains most of its pigments. Cuticle - The other most covering of the hair strand. There are two types of melanin which creates the large variety of hair colors. They are known as Eumelanin and Pheomelanin. Eumelanin is brown and black in color where pheomelanin is red in color. If you have more Eumelanin you will have darker hair, and having a smaller population of Eumelanin will result in light hair such as blonde. 3

5 TYPES OF HAIRCOLOR NONOXIDATIVE COLORS Temporary aka: color mousses, rinses, mascaras, chalks, spray on's ect. Creates temporary color changes that only last from shampoo to shampoo. Non-reactive, direct dyes (No chemicals needed to develop or activate the color) A physical not chemical change. Large molecules that only coat the cuticle. Cannot lighten the hair, deposit only. Used to neutralize unwanted tones or used to add tones to dull pigmented hair. Does not require a patch test. Semi-permanent aka: glosses, or color enhancers Direct dye process. Deposit only, cannot lighten hair. Contains small and large color molecules, allowing for some of the smaller molecules to penetrate the cuticle layer of the hair and enter the cortex. When fading, it doesnt leave a line of demarcation. Adds tones, refreshes faded hair colors, nuetralize unwanted tones, covers small percentage of gray Patch test required. OXIDATIVE HAIR COLORS Mixed with developers to create chemical change for a longer lasting effect. Can lift and deposit color Demipermanent Uses low volume of peroxide Contains smaller molecules. Contains very little to no ammomia to deposit color and add tone to the hair. Lasts 4-6 weeks Patch test required Permanent Mixed with hydrogen peroxide. Lift and deposit Contains small molecules. Long-lasting. In some cases may have to be stripped from the hair to create a new color. Patch test required. 4

6 Toners Light in pastel colors Used to tone prelighted hair, deposit, or neutralize unwanted pigments. Consult the color wheel when selecting the toner formula. Consider the complimentary colors and how to best to tone and nuetralize. Patch test required Fillers Provides an even base color by filling in the porous, stressed, or damaged hair strands with protiens and polymers. Equalizes the porosity of the hair. Deposits a base color in one appilication. Used to replace the missing primary color. Patch test required. Concentrates, Intensifiers, Pure Pigments, Additives, & Drabbers Increases the vibrancy and intensity of a color formula. Can be used to neutralize tones. Can be mixed into a color formula Can be applied directly to prelightened bleached hair. LIGHTENERS Also known as bleach, is used to remove melanin. Two types of lighteners, On the scalp and off the scalp On the scalp Can be applied to the scalp directly. Oil & Cream lighteners available. ph of 9 Patch test required Off the scalp Powder form mixed with peroxide/ developer Patch test required 5

7 DEVELOPERS Oxidizing agents used for demi-permanent, permanent, lighteners, and toner colors. Also known as a catalyst or a conductor. The most common developer is made of Hydrogen Peroxide has a ph of Hydrogen Peroxide needs to be mixed with an alkaline compound or with ammonia to be activated. Measured by Volume in the United States, measured by Percentage in Europe. 3% = 10 Vol (1 level of lift) 6% = 20 Vol (2 levels of lift) 9% = 30 Vol ( 3 levels of lift) 12% = 40 Vol (4 levels of lift) Strength of the peroxide will depend on the amount of lift or deposit you finished desired look. Lower the volume, the less lift. Higher the volume, higher the lift. Always remember to read the manufacturer directions and formulate as directed. V EGETABLE, METALLIC & COMPOUND DYES Least common types of hair coloring products used today, though may be used in salons around the world, they are discouraged from being used due to the unreliable, unpredictable, and in some cases, unsafe. * Also known as Henna. * In purest form, produces reddish highlights in the hair strands. * Derived from Eygptian Privet Plant. * Molecules can become anchored into the cortex. * Can react violently when other chemicals are applied. *Chamomile another vegetable product found in shampoos and rinses and produces a yellow stain/goldish highlights. Vegetable Dyes * Also known as progressive dyes due to the hair turning progressively darker with each application. * Does not mix well with other chemicals, can cause breakage and damage. * Some silver dyes may appear to have a green shade, * Lead dyes may appear a purple shade. * Copper dyes may appear to have red shade. * Gives a dry feeling and look Metallic Dyes *Combination betwen metallic and vegetable dyes. * Metallic salts are added to the vegetable dyes to create a larger range of colors along with longer lasting colors. * Unpredictable and are not compatible with other chemical services. Compound Dyes 6

8 PREDISPOSITION TEST /SKIN PATCH TEST ALL PERMANENT, ANILINE DERIVATIVE TINTS ALL REQUIRE A PREDISPOSITION TEST (PATCH TEST) HOURS BEFORE THE HAIR COLOR SERVICE, this is according to the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. This test ensures your client is not sensitive or allergic to the chemicals used during a color service. A Patch test can be performed to the inside of the elbow or the back of the ear by applying the formula chosen to those areas. Leave the test area undisturbed for hours. If there is no reaction, the test was negative. If there is redness, swelling, blisters, itching, tenderness, burning or if there are signs of respiratory distress the test is positive. Do not proceed if there was any of the above reactions listed in a positive result. REMEMBER! Always follow your manufacturer directions and read the MSDS (Material Saftey and Data Sheets) 7

9 8 NOTES:

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